Keywords Abstract
Kobayashi, Yoshihiro. 3D City Modeler with Fuzzy Multiple Layers Perceptron: Application of soft computing in computer aided architectural design systems . Los Angeles, California - USA, 2001. A computer aided design (CAD) system that can store the design knowledge of users is proposed. Specifically, a computer system for generating 3D city models from satellite images is formulated, implemented and tested. Techniques from neural networks, fuzzy systems, image processing, pattern recognition, and machine learning constitute the methodological foundation of the system. The flexibility and usability of system are evaluated.    
Vaizidou, Martha. 4D Building Model - a Conceptual System of the Time Dimension in the Building s Life. Vienna, Austria, 2007. The research topic “4D Building model: a conceptual system of the dimension of time in buildingis life” is the concept of a web-based interface of a databank that stores and visualizes information of the buildingis life process. It is an organization data model that brings together the serial steps of the lifetime of a building, following the design, construction and its operation time. Observing the aforementioned process as an entity, the model aims at approaching the passage of time during it, depicting the temporal relations between past, present and future steps. Visualized stored information depict the becoming of the building in time. It attempts to approach the idea of 4D architecture and explore how the dimension of time is incorporated into the model. It studies the role of information in architecture and building process observing it changing in time. The aim of this research project is to define the frame of a conceptual information system, that could develop in a plug-in by an existing design software. The model will support the design and building procedure operating as the building memory, and reporting its behaviour during its life time. In its data base, there will be reported the serial and parallel actions during the design and construction phase and additionally the reports of the monitoring evaluating system during its operational time.  The final model should provide several possibilities of decision making, regarding the energy consumption, the materials life span, the costs, the participation of different firms and components.
Pereira, A.T.. A CAAD Expert Help System. Sheffield, United Kingdom, 1992.
Jo, J.H.. A Computational Design Process Model Using a Genetic Evolution Approach. Sydney, Australia, 1993.
van Leusen, M.. A Computational Representation of the Spatial Organization of Residential Buildings. Delft, the Netherlands, 1994.
Ismail, Ashraf. A Computer Based Management System for Co-operative Decision Making Control Using the Contrast Model. Sheffield, United Kingdom, 1996.
Sheu, Chreng-Rong. A Computer-Aided Window Shading Designtool: SOLAR-2 PC. Los Angeles, California - USA, 1986. Describes the first version of the SOLAR-2 window-sunshade design tool
Dave, Bharat. A Computer-Assisted Diagramming System. ETH Zürich, Switzerland, 1993. This research investigates characteristics and generation of graphic diagrams used in support of analysis, presentation and synthesis of information in various domains. The research is aimed at the development of a software system which can be used to specify, generate and manipulate diagrams similar to the way they are represented and operated upon in traditional media.Diagrams are graphic representations of symbolic propositions that allow tentative reasoning and inferencing, and enable a person to focus on selected aspects of a situation that are deemed of interest. The economy and directness of expression found in diagrams seem to be the prime reasons why they are so ubiquitous in many domains. Despite these advantages, studies into supporting diagrammatic representations using computers are rather sparse. This research is an attempt at developing a comprehensive framework of thought in this direction.In the context of design disciplines like architecture, this research forms a part of the continuum of studies in computer aided design techniques and tools. While a large number of tools and techniques in CAD have emerged so far, usage of such tools, due to their underlying representations, expects and demands commitment of too many details too early in the design process. This research is aimed at characterizing and developing a computer based diagramming system to support tentative reasoning using diagrams, and thus hopes to extend the scope of CAD environments in design. The thesis first articulates motivations for this topic in detail. Next, a discussion on the role played by diagrams as conceptual tools in various domains is presented. It is followed by a detailed look at characteristics and components of diagrams viewed as a graphic communication system. Next, a comprehensive set of requirements for an ideal software environment for diagramming tasks is developed. A prototype system called CDT was implemented and is used to demonstrate ideas developed in this research. The study concludes with some observations on contributions of this research effort and possible future extensions.
Liou, Shuenn-Ren. A computer-based framework for analyzing and deriving the morphological structure of architectural designs. Michigan, USA, 1992. An approach to the acquisition and utilization of knowledge about the morphological structure of notable orthogonal building plans and other two-dimensional compositions is formulated and tested. This approach consists of two levels of abstraction within which the analysis and comparison of existing designs and the derivation of new designs can be undertaken systematically and efficiently. Specifically, the morphological structure of orthogonal building plans and other two-dimensional compositions is conceived as a language defined by shape grammar and architectural grammar corresponding to the geometric and spatial structures of the compositions. Lines constitute the shape grammar and walls and columns the architectural grammar. A computer program named ANADER is designed and implemented using the C++ object-oriented language to describe feasible compositions. It is argued that the gap between morphological analysis and synthesis is bridged partially because the proposed framework facilitates systematic comparisons of the morphological structures of two-dimensional orthogonal compositions and provides insight into the form-making process used to derive them. As an analytical system, the framework contributes to the generation of new and the assessment of existing morphological knowledge. Specifically, it is demonstrated that it is feasible to specify an existing architectural design by a set of universal rule schemata and the sequence of their application. As a generative system, the framework allows many of the tasks involved in the derivation of two-dimensional orthogonal compositions to be carried out. As well, it promotes the use of analytical results. In conclusion, it is argued that the proposed computer-based framework will provide the research and the educator with increasing opportunities for addressing persistent architectural questions in new ways. Of particular interest to this author are questions concerning the decision-making activities involved in form- and space-making as well as the description, classification, and derivation of architecutural form and space. It is suggested that, at least in reference to the cases examined, but probably also in reference to many other morphological classes, these and other related questions can be addressed systematically, efficiently, and fruitfully by using the proposed framework.    
Haider, Jawaid. A Conceptual Framework for Communication -Instruction in Architectural Design., 1986. Existing design models, it is generally acknowledged, are inadequate to deal with the complexity of contemporary situations, and an assessment of self-conscious design manifests a slow development in the power and scope of conceptualizing. The quality of knowledge and conceptual tools available to the designer largely determine his ability to conceive and accomplish, conversely, the limitations of method are reflected in design solutions. Some emerging social problem-solving paradigms, which seek to construct a cognitive psychology of problem solving, have a direct relevance to architectural design. Notwithstanding the traditional criticism and scepticism, problem solving is predicated by task environment and problem space as these have a significant impact on design synthesis. Despite a rigorous search for theoretical perspectives and methods, the concern for the quality of the physical environment persists unabated. Historically, architecture has depended on other disciplines for its theoretical insight, but the application of borrowed theories without a viable framework for translation has often resulted in misinterpretation. Aggravating the problem is the art-science controversy which has consequences for architectural practice and education. What is required is a unified approach encompassing the scientific and artistic modes of inquiry. But a unified perspective, involving vast and disparate areas of human knowledge, demands a conceptual framework for integrative learning. The proposed model of this study provides such a framework and calls for a re-examination of the conventional boundaries of design disciplines. It advocates an interdisciplinary approach and recognizes the design process as inherently a learning process, this shifts the emphasis from product to process and allows students to plan and assess their own design/learning experience. While the study focuses on substantive issues, it identifies a strategy for integrative learning applicable within the existing context of design education. Despite its untested nature, the proposed model can become a vehicle for stimulating coordination of all facets of human knowledge and experience toward creative design synthesis. It inculcates a sense of critical assessment of generative ideas by presenting a conceptually clearer picture of the design process to elicit a response to and a better understanding of the task environment of architecture.
Kalisperis, L.N.. A Conceptual Framework for Computing in Architectural Design., 1988. A brief historical overview of architectural design reveals that there has been a slow development in the conceptualization of the scope of architectural design. Advancing our understanding of the architectural design process reveals new directions for computing in architectural design. This study proposes a conceptual framework for an integrated computing environment. Design disciplines have embarked on a rigorous search for theoretical perspectives and methods that encompass a comprehensive view of architecture. Architectural design has been seen as a sequential process similar to that of industrial design. Attempts to formalize this process based on industrial design methods solved only a fraction of the overall integration problem. The resultant models are inadequate to deal with the complexity of architectural design. Emerging social problem-solving paradigms seek to construct a cognitive psychology of problem solving and have a direct relevance to architectural design. These problem-solving activities include structured, semi-structured, and ill-defined problems, which are included to varying degrees in each problem situation across a continuum of difficulty. Problem solving in architectural design involves the determination of certain objectives and also whether or not it is possible to accomplish them. Developments in computing in architecture have paralleled developments in architectural methodologies. The application of computing in architectural design has predominantly focused only on sequential process, optimum solutions, and quantifiable tasks of the design process. Qualitative, generative, tasks of architectural design were dealt with through the introduction of paradigms from linguistics and knowledge-based systems borrowed from engineering applications. Although the application of such paradigms resulted in some success, this reductionist approach to computing in architecture fragmented its integration into the design process. What is required, therefore, is a unified approach to computing in architecture based on a holistic view of the architectural design process. The model proposed in this study provides such a conceptual framework. This model shifts the focus from product to process and views the design problem as a goal-oriented problem-solving activity that allows a design team to identify strategies and methodologies in the quest for design solutions.    
Yaski, Y.. A Consistent Database for an Integrated CAAD System . Pittsburg. Pennsylvania - USA, 1981.
Bruton, Dean. A contingent sense of grammar. Adelaide, Australia, 1997. Investigates the contingent senses in which concepts of grammars and grammatical design apply in the practice of form making in art and design. Using the strategies of a literature review, an examination through a perspective of grammatical design of some selected bodies of art work, including interviews with artists, theorists and some designers, and the reflective practice of image making with computer media in the author's own work as an artists. 
Hendricx, A.. A Core Object Model for Architectural Design. Leuven, Belgium, 2000. A core object model apt to describe architectural objects and their functionality is one of the keystones to an integrated digital design environment for architecture. The object model presented in this thesis is based on a conceptual framework for computer aided architectural design (CAAD) and aims to assist the architect designer right from the early stages in the design process. For its development the object-oriented analysis method MERODE (Model-based Existence-dependency Relationship Object-oriented Development) is used. After a survey on the role of computers in the architectural design process and on particular Product Modelling initiatives, the model is elaborated in two phases: the enterprise-modelling phase and the higher functionality-modelling phase. Actual design cases and test implementations help to establish the conceptual model and illustrate its concepts. The appendices provide a detailed description of both the object model and one of the case studies. The architectis point of view and the specific nature of the architectural design process are the basic considerations, thus leading to a unique model that hopes to make a valuable contribution to the research area of integrated design environments. 
Gerzso, John. A Descriptive Theory of Architectural Built Form and its Applications. Berkeley, California - USA, 1979.
Jeng, Hoang-Ell. A Dialogical Model for Participatory Design, a Computational Approach to Group Planning. Delft, the Netherlands, 1995. In participatory design, design concepts are generated collectively through discussion, dialogical interactions, in which the interchange of normative and supporting factual descriptions builds a collective design discourse. The goal of this research is to develop a method for participatory design to support this collective, face-to-face design problem-solving, in order to increase the acceptability of the design product. Since the mid-1960s, there has been an important movement towards increasing the participation of citizens in determining their built environment. At first, the movement was associated with social-political ideologies and rhetoric. By the end of the 1970s, participatory design had become an accepted component of professional practice. The objectives of the movement became more pragmatically and more modestly focused on exchanging practical information, resolving conflicts, and supplementing design. Today, participatory design is in a new phase. Traditional participatory design methods are seen as insufficient to fulfill an increasing demand for dialogue. The point of departure of the study is the assumption that new information technologies can satisfy this demand. The method includes: (1) a group-reasoning model, (2) a dialogical system and (3) a framework for participation-based design guidelines. The group-reasoning model formulates the process of knowledge acquisition, the learning and sharing of belief systems, the generation of design alternatives and design evaluations--by which reasoning takes place dialogically. The dialogical system provides a clear description of how the information should be processed, what aspects should be paid attention to, what results can be anticipated, and when and how to control the process. The framework for participation-based design guidelines guides and structures the design process. It facilitates a reconstruction of the implicit cognitive structure which underlines dialogue and is generated through the discussion of a group. 
Jabi, Wassim. A framework for computer-supported collaboration in architectural design. Michigan, USA, 2004. The development of appropriate research frameworks and guidelines for the construction of software aids in the area of architectural design can lead to a better understanding of designing and computer support for designing (Gero and Maher 1997). The field of research and development in computer-supported collaborative architectural design reflects that of the early period in the development of the field of computersupported cooperative work (CSCW). In the early 1990s, the field of CSCW relied on unsystematic attempts to generate software that increases the productivity of people working together (Robinson 1992). Furthermore, a shift is taking place by which researchers in the field of architecture are increasingly becoming consumers of rather than innovators of technology (Gero and Maher. In particular, the field of architecture is rapidly becoming dependent on commercial software implementations that are slow to respond to new research or to user demands. Additionally, these commercial systems force a particular view of the domain they serve and as such might hinder rather than help its development. The aim of this dissertation is to provide information to architects and others to help them build their own tools or, at a minimum, be critical of commercial solutions.  
Van Wyk, Skip. A Geometrybased Insolation model for Computer-aided Building Design. Michigan, USA, 1989. Insolation modelling is a unique aspect of building energy-use modelling that determines the energy incident on building surfaces due to the interaction of the sun, the clouds and atmosphere, and reflection from the ground and adjacent surfaces. Though its established roots lie in the fields of meteorology and mechanical engineering, insolation modelling can be used in architectural applications as an analysis tool on which to base design decisions. This dissertation described one application of insolation modelling for use in the early stages of building design, and presented an overview of the methods and techniques used to implement such a geometry-based insolation model. The model was evaluated for real world conditions using a scaled physical model, configured to represent an architectural facade typical of energy-responsive design, and instrumented under a range of sky conditions (clear, partly cloudy, and overcast) over a two-week period. The emittances of the surfaces representing the sky were measured using a computer-controlled, multipurpose automatic scanning photometer (MASP) developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories. 
Zhang, Dong. A hybrid design process model using case-based reasoning. Sydney, Australia, 1994.
Cicognani, Anna. A linguistic characterisation of design in text-based virtual worlds. Sydney, Australia, 1998. In this research, it is suggested that design in text-based virtual worlds can be identified as a series of interactions between users and the virtual environment, and that these interactions for design can be approached using a linguistic perspective. The main assumption of this research is that a parallel can be drawn between the performance of design commands, and the one of speech acts in the physical world. Design in text-based virtual environments can then be articulated using a restricted set of speech acts, as design commands. Virtual worlds, represented as spaces, can be constructed following an architectural design metaphor. This metaphor provides a framework for the organisation of virtual entity relationships, and for the choice of words used to design. A linguistic characterisation is presented, by means of design activities, prototypes and scenarios, which derive from the architectural design metaphor. The characterisation of design is then validated by the analysis of an existing text-based virtual world. 
Tham, K.W.. A Model of Routine Design Using Design Prototypes., 1991.
Kwok, Wai. A model of routine design using design prototypes. Sydney, Australia, 1992.
Kepczynska-Walczak, Anetta. A model proposal for digitisation and recording data on architectural heritage in Poland based on European guidelines and best practices.. Glasgow, Scotland - United Kingdom, 2004. The aim of the research is an adoption of digital technology in the recording and management of architectural heritage of Poland. The current documentation practice does not fit to the present needs. The existing system of built heritage recording and protection in Poland was developed during the 1960s and the 1970s. It is based on a database of paper fiches. Although the documenting template allows the collection of comprehensive information on historic buildings, the whole system of heritage protection remains petrified. The database verification and upgrade is usually delayed, and moreover, the records do not include some information crucial for successful protection and regeneration of historical buildings. The lack of computer aided documentation system causes, furthermore, inadequate management of the heritage. Central to the research methodology is the belief that a computer aided documentation system for built heritage in Poland should be compatible and harmonised with similar European projects as a response to the needs of the emerging Information Society. To achieve that standards and best practices in Europe were identified, analysed and compared with the current Polish system of heritage protection and management. Activities of Scottish organisations from the cultural heritage sector, being in the forefront of European achievements, were studied in detail. It was observed that Scottish advancements might be a source of valuable lessons and guidelines for similar activities in Poland. The issues crucial to designing a framework model for digitisation and recording data on architectural heritage in Poland were given particular attention. These included aspects related to content, technology, legislation, and project organisation. As a result a number of recommendations were formulated and supported with necessary tables and diagrams. This specification is intended as a starting point for implementation of digital technology in recording and management of architectural heritage of Poland. It is believed that the research outcomes may become useful not only for the architectural heritage documentation and management, but also in the wider cultural heritage sector in Poland. The thesis concludes with a statement that the validity of any guidelines related to the digital technology has a limited lifespan, and therefore the proposed model for digitisation and recording data on architectural heritage in Poland, to be successful, requires constant, diligent review of the technology development.
Howe, Alan. A new paradigm for life-cycle management of kit-of-parts building systems . Michigan, USA, 1988. The research described in this dissertation brings together various technologies in manufacturing and information management and suggests a new paradigm for the design, manufacture, and lifetime use of artifacts using kit-of-parts systems and rule-based assembly. The questions are asked: If architects, designers, and users were given direct online connection to real-time design information sources and fabrication processes, and have the ability to monitor and control the current state of designed objects throughout the objects'lifetime, how would the entire life-cycle of a product be affected, and how would design processes change? During the course of the research described in this dissertation, a series of simulations and experiments were conducted which produced a computer-based simulated design, manufacture, and use environment wherein these questions could begin to be answered. A kit-of-parts model building system was devised which could be used to design model buildings in virtual form by downloading virtual representations of the components from the Internet and assembling them into a desired form. The virtual model building could then be used to order the manufacture of real components online, and remotely controlled robots used to assemble the actual building on the site. Through the use of special hardware manufactured into the components, real-time remote monitoring and control of the current state of the finished model building was affected during the building's lifetime. The research establishes the feasibility of an online life-cycle environment where a virtual representation of an artifact is created and used to both manufacture a real-world counterpart and also monitor and control the current state of the real-world object. The state-of-the-art of pertinent technologies were explored through literature searches and experiments. Data representation, rule-based design techniques, robotics, and digital control were studied, and a series of design principles established which lend themselves toward a life-cycle management paradigm. Several case studies are cited which show how the design principles and life-cycle management environment can be applied to real buildings and other artifacts such as vehicles and marine structures. Ideas for expanded research on the life-cycle management paradigm are cited.    
Chan, Dean. A Palladian View: an attempt at understanding his methodology. Waterloo, USA, 2000.
Anders, Peter. A Procedural Model for Integrating Physical and Cyberspaces in Architecture. Plymouth, United Kingdom, 2003. This dissertation articulates opportunities offered by architectural computation, in particular the digital simulation of space known as virtual reality (VR) and its networked, social variant cyberspace.  Research suggests that environments that hybridize technologies call for a conception of space as information, i.e. space is both a product of and tool for cognition.  The thesis proposes a model whereby architecture can employ this concept of space in creating hybrids that integrate physical and cyberspaces.The dissertation presents important developments in architectural computation that disclose concepts and values that contrast with orthodox practice. Virtual reality and cyberspace, the foci of this inquiry, are seen to embody the more problematic aspects of these developments. They also raise a question of redundancy: If a simulation is good enough, do we still need to build?  This question, raised early in the 1990's, is explored through a thought experiment - the Library Paradox - which is assessed and critiqued for its idealistic premises. Still, as technology matures and simulations become more realistic the challenge posed by VR/cyberspace to architecture only becomes more pressing. If the case for virtual idealism seems only to be strengthened by technological and cultural trends, it would seem that a virtual architecture should have been well established in the decade since its introduction.Yet a history of the virtual idealist argument discloses the many difficulties faced by virtual architects. These include differences between idealist and professional practitioners, the failure of technology to achieve its proponents'claims, and confusion over the meaning of virtual architecture among both architects and clients. However, the dissertation also cites the success of virtual architecture in other fields - Human Computer Interface design, digital games, and Computer Supported Collaborative Work  - and notes that their adoption of space derives from practice within each discipline. It then proposes that the matter of VR/cyberspace be addressed from within the practice of architecture, a strategy meant to balance the theoretical/academic inclination of previous efforts in this field.The dissertation pursues an assessment that reveals latent, accepted virtualities in design methodologies, instrumentation, and the notations of architectural practices. Of special importance is a spatial database that now pervades the design and construction processes. The unity of this database, effectively a project's cyberspace, and its material counterpart is the subject of the remainder of the dissertation. Such compositions of physical and cyberspaces are herein called cybrids.  The dissertation examines current technologies that cybridize architecture and information technology, and proposes their integration within cybrid wholes.  The concept of cybrids is articulated in seven principles that are applied in a case study for the design for the Planetary Collegium.  The project is presented and critiqued on the basis of these seven principles. The dissertation concludes with a discussion of possible effects of cybrids upon architecture and contemporary culture.
Pang, King. A Process planning and Optimization System for Laminated Object Manufacturing Application In Espoo. Hong Kong, China, 2001. Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies have emerged as a powerful set of manufacturing technologies in recent years. While these technologies invariably provide tremendous time-savings over traditional methods of manufacture of design prototypes, many are still quite inefficient. This thesis examines two ideas, first, that these processes can be optimized greatly by using better process planning, second, that several of these RP technologies use similar core planning technologies for optimization. The first hypothesis is verified in this thesis by presenting an improved process planning system for one RP technology, Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM). The framework proposes the use of computational geometry and optimization tools at two levels to reduce process time and material wastage. Geometric techniques are used for process planning at the 3D part level. A genetic algorithm (GA) based path optimization technique is used for path planning optimization at the layer level. The second observation led to the development of an open architecture planning system for a host of RP technologies. A test-bed software system is described in this thesis. Evaluation on the performance of the new methodology is also provided. The methodologies developed can work equally well with the current industry standard STL format for storing object CAD data as well as direct slice data computed from the exact solid model of a part. 
Li, Andrew I. - Kang. A shape grammar for teaching the architectural style of the Yingzao Fashi. Cambridge, Massachussetes - USA, 2001. The Yingzaofashi [Building standards] is a Chinese building manual written by Li Jie (d. 1110) and published in 1103. I present a shape grammar for teaching the architectural style - the language of designs - described in this manual. This grammar is distinguished by two objectives, and the technical means used to accomplish them. First, the grammar is for teaching. Usually, the author of a grammar of a style aims to generate all and only the designs in the language. To do this, he not only writes the grammar, but also judges whether the designs it generates are members of the language. In the Yingzaofashi grammar, on the other hand, I want to generate all and more than the designs in the language. It is then the student who evaluates the designs - does this design belong to the language? - and adjusts the grammar accordingly. Thus the student participates actively in defining the language of designs, and learns that style is a human construct. Second, the grammar is designerly. As already observed, most authors of style grammars focus on the language of designs, they do not consider how to structure the user's interaction with the grammar. By contrast, I consider explicitly what the user decides and when he decides it, and organize the grammar accordingly. In other words, I consider process as well as products. The grammar exploits several technical devices for the first time: the design as an n-tuple of drawings, descriptions, and other elements, the generation of descriptions in the n-tuple, and techniques that are made possible by these devices.
Kiliccote, Han. A standards processing framework . Pittsburg. Pennsylvania - USA, 1997. Civil engineers create and employ a very large number of design standards, especially in the United States. Designing using such a large number of design standards is a tedious, laborious, and difficult task. One major research task in Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) is the development of software tools that assist in the usage of design standards during the design process. This dissertation, a standards processing framework is presented. It is an agent-based approach to providing computer-aided support for using design standards. In this framework, modules, such as standards processing servers, are treated as agents communicating using a defined communication language. One immediate advantage of this architecture is that it allows the incorporation of a broad, powerful set of representation for use in modelling design standards. 
Lee, Eunjoo. A Study on the Application of Computer Graphics Technology to Landscape Design of Coastal Areas. Osaka, Japan, 1999.
Islami, Agron. A Systematic Approach to Thermal Adaptation of Detached Single Family Buildings in Kosovo. Vienna, Austria, 2007. The research focuses on thermal behaviour of non-insulated single detached family units in the region of Kosovo. The region has experienced a massive construction of illegal housing especially after the conflict of 1999. Such construction resulted in poor thermal behaviour of the houses due to the lack of insulation. The poor thermal behaviour resulted in degradation of thermal comfort for the inhabitants of the houses. This phenomenon occurs due to energy savings to heat the house or more accurately, a specific part of the house. The simulation is based on parametric studies in an hourly basis to compute the thermal behaviour of three specific houses. The first simulation is performed on a non-insulated house whereas the other simulations are performed with improved thermal insulation in order to understand the importance of a thermal envelope and its impact in this type of houses. The generated results emphasize the energy savings if thermal envelope is improved in existing houses. Simulation program “TASi was used to extract figures and numbers related to the cases.The research aims to inform the local population on possibilities for increasing the thermal performances of their houses by improvement of the thermal envelope. It raises the quality of living in their dwellings as well as the quality of the environment, subject to a considerable degradation caused by pollution, generated by the outworn power thermal power plants in Kosovo. 
Wong, Wai. A Virtual Reality Modeling Tool for Students of Architecture . Hong Kong, China, 2000. During a collaborative design session with other universities, several shortcomings, namely long communication response time, lack of common data format for design and ineffective discussion using static image of design, were observed. A solution was proposed by providing a design interface, a. viewing area of the design and a database to store designs and discussion dialogs. This thesis described a VR (virtual reality) modelling tool, the “VR Composer”. With the “VR Composer”, models are created directly in 3D. This is the design interface of the solution. The “VR Composer” is based on a commercially available VR software. With a head-mounted display, the “VR Composer” immerses the user into a VR environment. This provides a feeling of presence inside the VR environment. New functionality was added to allow user to create and modify objects in VR. There is no common definition for VR.. I have defined VR as Virtual reality is a human-computer interfiwe which allows a user to visualize and interact with the computer-generated three-dimensional environment intuitively. The students of Department of Architecture are requested to test the VR Composer. Although the VR Composer provided basic functionality as a modelling tool, it has to be improvement in many aspects to become an effective tool for modelling.
McGill, Miranda. A Visual Approach for Exploring Computational Design., 2001. This thesis concerns the use of computers for learning about computational design and shape grammars. It discusses how software can be developed to create “microworlds” for designing, and how to take into account the needs of designers whilst retaining a transparency of process in computational design. The broader context pertains to the learning and practice of design. Through analysis of computation in a workshop setting, consideration is given to the role of the computer as a facilitator for designing with shape grammars. Prototype software for facilitating the learning of shape grammars, called Shaper2D, was created as a focus for this study. It is written in the Java programming language for cross-platform compatibility, and is available both as an applet and stand-alone application.  
Jung, Jae. Algorithmic Forest - a Study to Generate 'Light-Revealing' Structure by Algorithm In ETH postgraduate studies final thesis. Zürich, Switzerland, 2004. The research to be presented will demonstrate the potential benefitsofalgorithmsbyusing them to design and generate a structure, specificallyalight-revealingstructure. Light is one of the many considerations in architecture, it reveals the building, its place, form, space, and meaning. Light reveals architecture and, in the best instances, architecture also reveals light. Moreover, light and structure are intertwined. Louis I. Kahn said, “Structure is the maker of light. When you decide on the structure, you are deciding on light.” Particularly, this presentation will focus on a structure, which creates variable lighting effects similar to those created by natural light shining through trees in a forest.
Mohamed, Mohamed. An Approach to design formulation: shape grammars as a tool for architecture analysis and synthesis. Alexandria, Egypt, 2005.
Walters, Roger. An evaluation of user experience of CAAD with particular reference to health buildings . Glasgow, Scotland - United Kingdom, 1983.
Ding, Lan. An Evolutionary Model for Style Representation Emergence in Design. Sydney, Australia, 1999. This thesis is concerned with the development of an evolutionary process model for style representation emergence in design. It explores issues involved in the interpretation of style, the concept and process of style representation emergence, an evolutionary approach based on genetic engineering, and its computational implementation. Style is a complex phenomenon in design. Interpreting and formulating design style is a difficult task. This thesis proposes a language model which interprets style space utilising hierarchical levels that map onto syntax and semantics. The style space is then formulated using a genetic description. Current studies have discussed shape semantics emergence in design, but none has been proposed for the emergence of style representation. This thesis provides the concept of style representation emergence with the emphasis on the interpretative aspect of style as well as the emergence process. It explores the emergence process of style representation through an evolutionary approach.  Simulation of biological evolution appears to be very useful for design problems. This thesis develops style representation emergence through evolutionary simulation based on genetic engineering. A hierarchical evolutionary process encompassing competition as well as discovery and an evolutionary combination is proposed and developed. A computational representation of style can then be derived by the computer system through the use of this evolutionary process.  This model of style representation emergence is applied to traditional Chinese architecture. An evolutionary system is implemented and presented with some examples of traditional Chinese architectural facades. The results from the implementation of the system are analysed and the utility of this model is investigated. The implementation is developed in a Unix environment using the C language. The AutoCAD package is used for the graphic representation. 
Hu, Xiaochun. An Information-based Framework for Composites Design., 2002. The heterogeneity of composites determines that composite materials can be engineered to better satisfy a specific design requirement. The main problems that have hindered the application of composites are the need for the material and manufacturing design to be conducted simultaneously, the involvement of a large number of design factors, the difficulty in the characterization of composites, and the inherent repetition of the design process. Considering these problems, this thesis presents an information-based framework for composites design. This research consists of four main aspects: (1) The development of a heterogeneous CAD modelling algorithm and an integrated CAD/CAE method, and their application in a unit cell-based characterization of composite materials with a complex fiber form, (2)The development of a unit cell database for improving the material and manufacturing process design, which covers the design of its database model and the access strategies based on the logic architecture of unit cells and the relationships among elements of unit cells and with the environments, (3)The design of an Information-Based Design Support System (IBDSS) to support the composites design by using the unit cell database, in which the blackboard framework is adopted for the system to organize various computer techniques for different design stages, and to support the design iterating to satisfactory ones incrementally and efficiently, and the data structure of the blackboard, the algorithm to control design iterations, and design procedures for every stage are studied, and (4) The introduction of a ranking-based unit cell evaluation methodology and effective ranking factors for facilitating and improving the composite design process. The approach improves the efficiency of composites design by automating design iterations, supporting composite characterization, alleviating the cost of composite material and manufacturing method design, and assisting in tailored material selection. Case studies are presented to show how the IBDSS is applied to support composites design. 
Rutherford, James. An intelligent design support environment: the application of intelligent knowledge-based systems and advanced HCI techniques to building design. Glasgow, Scotland - United Kingdom, 1990.
Francisco, Gene. An occupational survey to determine the entry level CAD skills and competencies required by employers of civil engineering technicians in the Northeast Wisconsin Technical College district. Wisconsin, USA, 2000.
Berberidou-Kallivoka, Liana. An Open Daylighting Simulation Environment. Pittsburg, Pennsylvania - USA, 1994. Various studies have shown that performance simulation tools have not been integrated effec- tively in the architectural design process. The conventional lighting simulation tools have been characterized as decision verification tools rather than design support tools. Particularly in the early design stage, when crucial and often irreversible decisions are made, this evident lack of appropriate lighting simulation environments represents a serious drawback. The “mono-directionality” of the conventional simulation tools can be identified as one of the factors responsi- ble for insufficient integration of computational lighting modelling tools in the design process. In response to this circumstance, this thesis presents the conceptual background and the proto-, typical realization of an “open” daylighting simulation environment (GESTALT) to support architectural lighting design and education. Open simulation environments aim at extension (and inversion) of the design-to-performance mapping mechanisms of the conventional build- ing performance simulation tools. Toward this end, two fully operational versions of GESTALT have been implemented. GESTALT-01 is an explicit implementation based on invertible “fast-response” computational modules. GESTALT-02 is an implicit version that uses a comprehensive computational daylight simulator and investigative projection technique for performance-driven design exploration. Concepts, implementations, case studies, contributions and future directions are presented.
Chen, Chen-Cheng. Analogical and inductive reasoning in architectural design computation. ETH Zürich, Switzerland, 1991. Computer-aided architectural design technology is now a crucial tool of modern architecture, from the viewpoint of higher productivity and better products. As technologies advance, the amount of information and knowledge that designers can apply to a project is constantly increasing. This requires development of more advanced knowledge acquisition technology to achieve higher functionality, flexibility, and efficient performance of the knowledge-based design systems in architecture. Human designers do not solve design problems from scratch, they utilize previous problem solving episodes for similar design problems as a basis for developmental decision making. This observation leads to the starting point of this research: First, we can utilize past experience to solve a new problem by detecting the similarities between the past problem and the new problem. Second, we can identify constraints and general rules implied by those similarities and the similar parts of similar situations. That is, by applying analogical and inductive reasoning we can advance the problem solving process. The main objective of this research is to establish the theory that (1) design process can be viewed as a learning process, (2) design innovation involves analogical and inductive reasoning, and (3) learning from a designer's previous design cases is necessary for the development of the next generation in a knowledge-based design system. This thesis draws upon results from several disciplines, including knowledge representation and machine learning in artificial intelligence, and knowledge acquisition in knowledge engineering, to investigate a potential design environment for future developments in computer-aided architectural design. This thesis contains three parts which correspond to the different steps of this research. Part I, discusses three different ways - problem solving, learning and creativity - of generating new thoughts based on old ones. In Part II, the problem statement of the thesis is made and a conceptual model of analogical and inductive reasoning in design is proposed. In Part III, three different methods of building design systems for solving an architectural design problem are compared rule-based, example-based, and case-based. Finally, conclusions are made based on the current implementation of the work, and possible future extensions of this research are described. It reveals new approaches for knowledge acquisition, machine learning, and knowledge-based design systems in architecture.
Fotiadou, Angeliki. Analysis of Design Support for Kinetic Structures. Vienna, Austria, 2007. This thesis attempts the formation and systemization of a basis of knowledge and information, which is indispensable to turn a design support for kinetic structures into representation by means of a 3d animating program. Representation of kinetic structures by means of the existing ordinary software sources is possible, Nevertheless, such representation lacks of different important features and functions and results eventually in the total absence of a real model of the construction, which is valuable to the user of the program especially in the field of the kinetics, where everything depends on the movement: design not only requires, but demands for visualisation. A personal interest in kinetic architecture and therefore in the physical movement of structural elements in a building, as well as an attempt to “fathom” the possibility of changing this concept to visualization and modern reality by the use of a software are the main incentives of this master thesis. First, a general research will be performed in order to check the existence of similar or semisimilar proposals. The area in which the research will be held is the Bibliography in kinetic architecture and parametric design. A comparison of animation and 3D prototype software in well-known programs will focus on whether virtual weather conditions are considered as a parameter to the animation of the structure of the programs and case studies of several existing kinetic structures will be performed, in order to point out flaws and/or helpful commands in the programs in connection with the presentation of kinetic architecture. Criteria for the choice of the software: ability to customise and to produce geometric modelling, animation in relation to time (video animation) and the simulation after taking into consideration weather factors. Finally, using the computer and the scripting language, based probably on the theory of parametric design and primitive instancing, a realistic simulation of different elements will be performed in relation to variable measurements of luminance, ventilation and temperature so as to render feasible the construction of a whole structure. The results of the thesis will be used in the future as the basic knowledge in the creation of software for simulation of kinetic architecture. This program will be used as a tool for the architect to present a building, where kinetic architecture will be applied and to create simulation of the kinetic movement through a library of the existing prefabricated elements which will be created with the help of this thesis.
Ebrahim, Mostafa. Application and evaluation of digital image techniques in close range photogrammetry. Innsbruck, Austria, 1997. Most of the orthomapping techniques that are used in the present are restricted to surfaces that arise from a function of'ground co- ordinates'z = f (x, y), so-called 2.5D objects. Some techniques are also restricted to surfaces with kind of smooth shape or even to regular surfaces, but all of them are established to rectify images (although increasingly digitally). A new approach has been established for digital restitution and orthomapping of close range objects of almost any shape and size and with almost no restriction to images or objects. The idea of this approach is an inversion of the photographic technique and is (on the contrary to the'rectification approach') strictly object oriented. All of the objects are regarded to be describable in their geometrical shape by a number of particular faces that can be regular or irregular but can anyway be created in a CAD environment. The data needed to get this surface can come from any photogrammetric, tachometric or other source with any particular one wants to have for the results. All the details that lie on that surface don't have to be restituted by analog or analytical point measurement but can after that be projected onto this surface from any photo, from any side and with any camera they have been taken. A'Digital Projector'does the projection of the photos from the same positions and with the same inner orientation as of photographic camera. Using this approach any measurements of any details on the facades can be done easily. No details of the object can be neglected, none can be forgotten, no prior filtering of details has preceded this using. The full information of the original photos is available in the results. The results of the restitution can be presented in many ways. One of them is create orthoimages in any scale. Other results are any perspective or parallel view of the object. Other use of the strict 3D map-covered object for visualization (e.g. in architecture and archaeology application) is possible   
Kwon, Doo. ARCHIDNA: a genreative system for shape configurations. Washington, USA, 2003. His thesis concerns a new generation process for shape configurations using a set of operations. The approach derives from analyzing a particular design style and programming them into a computer. It discusses how generative CAD software can be developed that embodies a style and how this software can serve in the architectural design process as a computational design tool. The thesis proposes a prototype software system, ArchiDNA, to demonstrate the use of operations to generate drawings in a specific design style. ArchiDNA employs a set of operations to produce design drawings of shape configuration in Peter Eisenman's style for the Biocentrum building plan in Frankfurt, Germany. The principles of form generation are defined as a set of operations. ArchiDNA generates 2D and 3D drawings similar to Eisenmans plan and model for the Biocentrum building. The extension system of ArchiDNA, called ArchiDNA++, supports designers in defining operations and generating shape configurations. Designers can enter and edit their own shapes for the generation process and also control the parameters and attributes for shape operations. Thus, designers can manage the generation process and explore using ArchiDNA++, to generate shape configurations that are consistent with their own drawing style.
Schnabel, Marc Aurel. Architectural design in virtual environments: exploring cognition and communication in immersive virtual environments. Hong Kong, China, 2004. There is a distance between the idea in the imagination of a design and its representation, communication and realisation. Architects use a variety of tools to bridge this gap. Each tool places different demands on the designer and each, through inherent characteristics and affordances, introduces reinterpretations of the design idea, thus imposing a divergence between the idea and the expression of the idea. Design is an activity that is greatly complex, influenced by numerous factors. The process may follow rules or established proceedings and traditions. Alternatively, the designer may choose to explore freely with no need to conventions. In all instances, the medium in which the exploration takes place will affect the act of designing to some degree. Tools are chosen, in part, to facilitate the chosen design process. Most researches on Virtual Environments (VE) have focused on their use as presentation or simulation environments. There has been inadequate research in the use of VE for designing. It has been suggested that this tool can empower designers to express, explore and convey their imagination more easily. For these reasons the very different nature of VE may allow architects to create designs that make use of the properties of VE that other tools do not offer in that way. As yet, barely any basic research has examined the use of VE to support the acts of designing. This thesis examines the implications of architectural design within VE. Perception and comprehension of spatial volumes within VE is examined by the comparison of representations using conventional architectural design method. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the relative effectiveness of both immersive and non-immersive VE by looking at the creation, interpretation and communication of architectural design. The findings suggest why form comprehension and finding may be enhanced within VE activity. The thesis draws conclusions by comparing the results with conventional methods of two-dimensional depictions as they appear on paper or three-dimensional representations such as physical models.
Cha, Myung. Architectural shape pattern representation and its applications for design computation. Sydney, Australia, 1998.
Stok, Leon. Architectural synthesis and optimization of digital systems . Eindhoven, the Netherlands, 1991. High level synthesis means going from an functional specification of a digits-system at the algorithmic level to a register transfer level structure. Different appli-cations will ask for different design styles. Despite this diversity in design styles many tasks in the synthesis will be similar. There is no need to write a new synthesis system for each design style. The best way to go seems a decomposition of the high level synthesis problems in several well defined subproblems. How the problem is decomposed depends heavily on a) the type of network architecture chosen, b) the constraints applied to the design and c) on the functional description itself. From this architecture style, the constraints and the functional description a synthesis scheme can be derived. Once this scheme is fixed, algorithms can be chosen which fit into this scheme and solve the subproblems in a fast and, when possible, optimal way. To support such a synthesis philosophy, a framework is needed in which all design information can be stored in a unique way during the various phases of the design process. This asks for a design data base capable of handling all design information with a formally defined interface to all design tools. This thesis gives a formal way to describe both the functional representation, the register transfer level structure and the controller and the relations between all three of them. Special attention has been paid to the efficient representation of mutual exclusive operations and array accesses. The scheduling and allocation problems are defined as mappings between these formal representations. Both the existing synthesis algorithms and the new algorithms described in this thesis fit into this framework. Three new allocation algorithms are presented in this thesis: an algorithm for optimal register allocation in cyclic data flow graphs, an exact polynomial algorithm to do the module allocation and a new scheme to minimize the number of interconnections during all stages of the data path allocation. Cyclic data flow graphs result from high level behavioural descriptions that contain loops. Algorithms for register allocation in high level synthesis published up till now, only considered loop free data flow graphs, When these algorithms are applied to data flow graphs with loops, unnecessary register transfer operations are introduced. A new algorithm is presented that performs a minimal register allocation and eliminates all superfluous register transfer operations. The problem is reformulated as a multicommodity network flow problem for which very efficient solutions exist. Experiments on a benchmark set have shown that in all test cases all register transfers could be eliminated at no increase in register cost. Only heuristic algorithms appeared in literature to solve the module allocation problem. The module allocation problem is usually defined as a clique cover problem on a so-called module allocation graph. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the module allocation graph belongs to the special class of comparability graphs. A polynomial time algorithm can optimally find a clique cover of such a graph. Even when interconnect weights are taken into account, this can be solved exactly. This problem can be transformed into a maximal cost network flow problem, which can be solved exactly in polynomial time. An algorithm is described which solves the module allocation problem with interconnect weights exactly, with a complexity O(kn2), where n is the number of operations In previous research, interconnection was optimized when the module allocation for the operations and the register allocation for the variables already had been done. However, the amount of multiplexing and interconnect are crucial factors to both the delay and the area of a circuit. A new scheme is presented to minimize the number of interconnections during the data path allocation. This scheme first groups all values based on their read and write times. Values belonging to the same group can share a register file. This minimizes the number of data transfers with different sources and destinations. Secondly, registers are allocated for each group separately. Finally the interconnect allocation is done. During the interconnect allocation, the module allocation is determined. The value grouping is based on edge coloring algorithms providing a sharp upper bound on the number of colors needed two techniques: splitting read and write phases of values and introducing serial (re-)write operations for the same value, make that even more efficient exact edge coloring algorithms can be used. It is shown that when variables are grouped into register files and operations are assigned to modules during the interconnection minimization, significant savings (20%) can be obtained in the number of local interconnections and the amount of global interconnect, at the expense of only slightly more register area.
Chitchian, D.. Artificial Intelligence for Automated Floor Plan Generation. Delft, the Netherlands, 1996.
Ducla-Soares, G.. Audio-Visual Frameworks for Design Process Representation In SMArchS Thesis. MIT, 2004.
Celani, Maria. Beyond analysis and representation in CAD: a new computational approach to design education In Submitted to the Department of Architecture in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in thefield of Architec., 2002. This thesis aims at changing students'attitude towards the use of computer-aided design (CAD) in architecture. It starts from the premise that CAD is used mostly for analysis and representation, and not as a real design aide, and that architecture students have a bias against learning computer programming. For this purpose, a prototypical instruction system that mixes computer-aided design and computational design theory was developed, based on a series of fundamental concepts that are common to both fields. This system was influenced by Mitchell's (1987) The Art of Computer Graphics Programming and Stiny's (1976) shape grammars. Despite being based on solid theoretical foundations, CAD has progressively become an exclusively practical tool, since its origins in the 50's and 60's, while computational design theories have been mostly restricted to the academic circles. This thesis proposes an inversion in the present situation: the study of CAD theory, and the application of computational design into practice. The system proposed provides a conceptual framework that can be adapted to different circumstances, including course formats and resources, as well as students'background and technical training. It is based on seven fundamental concepts from computational design theories that are also important to the study of shape grammars: symmetry, recursion, rule-based compositions, parameterization of shapes, generative systems, algorithmization of design procedures, and shape emergence. These concepts are introduced within a CAD context, where their practical implementation and experimentation are possible, focusing the understanding of the computational nature of design. During this research, the proposed system was tested in two case studies with students from schools that had contrary orientations in terms of the importance of CAD in the architectural curriculum. In these experimental courses, students'activities evolved from using a commercial CAD tool in an innovative way, to the use of programming techniques for creating meaningful tools. Despite not having a statistical reach, the fieldwork allowed drawing preliminary conclusions about the proposed system's efficacy, since virtually all the students reported changing their understanding of the role of CAD in architecture, while some also acknowledged a conceptual influence in other subjects and in the way they see architecture.  
Veness, R.. Bridge Builder: an Expert System for the Design of Non-Equipment Military Bridging. Sydney, Australia, 1988. This thesis describes an expert system for the selection, design and documentation of non-equipment military bridges. The expert system uses the expert system shell BUILD. Extensive use has been made of interfacing between BUILD and Prolog and then by using Prolog's foreign language interface with Pascal procedures and the graphics interface. The expert system, which consists of rules, Pascal procedures and a graphics package, aims at: (a) the determination of the suitable bridging structure, (b) designing a bridge using material constraints, (c) producing a consistent and sound structural design for the bridge and the necessary support structures, (d) producing the necessary working drawings and a bill of materials for the solution. The graphics interface is used to display and manipulate a three dimensional model of the solution and the hardcopy output.  [Unpublished. -- CADLINE has abstract only.]
Yeh, Li-Hsuen. Bubble - Trouble In ETH postgraduate studies final thesis. Zürich, Switzerland, 2004. In this thesis I would like to explore the bubble structure, seek a possibility to use computer programming to reinterpret soap bubble structure. Architecture today is not only built by concrete, steel and glasses anymore. Our power of the new tools will help us to discover the variety of prototypes. Beside a data-driven structure can change shape and define itself by the users. Wherefore structures will be able to adapt themselves physically to changing circumstances, instead of collecting sudden circumstances to enhance the architecture itself.
Jalkanen, Janne. Building a spatially immersive display - HUTCAVE . Helsinki, Finland, 2000. A spatially immersive display is a display that surrounds the user, thus removing or alleviating many disadvantages the common virtual reality systems, such as head-mounted displays have. The most common example of these spatially immersive displays is the CAVE, “CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment”, first built at University of Illinois, in 1993. It combines a large field-of-view with high-resolution images and a high frame refresh rate. In this work, the current Virtual Reality (VR) and Virtual Environment (VE) systems are examined, and then the CAVE construction is presented. Principles of stereo vision are explained and current methods of obtaining both autostereoscopic and stereopsis-based vision are reviewed. Aspects of different projection methods, screens, mirrors, projectors, tracking equipment, and computing systems are examined. Also, recent work in CAVE audio, so far neglected in research, is presented. Some of the mathematics is also explained, since in most CAVE-systems some sort of optical folding is necessary. Two cases of CAVE construction are presented, both at the Helsinki University of Technology. The first is a single-wall installation built as a temporary system, and the second is a four-sided CAVE at a new location, superseding the temporary installation. Finally the conclusions are presented, both from the process management point of view, and from the technical point of view, examining the good and bad points of the chosen solutions.
He, Jie. CAD Study in Visual Analysis of the Visual Sustainability for China Urban Natural Landscape Planning. Hong Kong, China, 2001. In this thesis a GIS-based CAD system prototype of evaluating visual quality of urban natural landscape environment is presented. This prototype is an indispensable component of the integrative Visual Sustainability research, and offers a calculable and visualizable technique to urban visual natural landscape assessment. This scientific method provides precise data to estimate the visibility of natural landscape in urban construction actuality. Furthermore, it can also work out supporting information for maintaining and protecting valuable visual landscape resources in further planning. Introduction of this methodology intends to improve the natural landscape cooperation in China urban planning through visual protection. Combining with popular CAD software such as AutoCAD and Microstation, the research team uses ArcView GIS software and its 3D Analyst extension to accomplish a set of research procedure, which includes data modification, model making, viewshed and view sensibility analysis. In addition, this system can create simultaneous 3D scenes or hire other information media as reference tools for professional analysis, design consultation and intercommunication. The core technologies of this proposed system are viewshed calculation and overlay analysis. In viewshed analysis, human visual characteristics are simulated by a series of ergonomics parameters of viewpoints. Viewshed of each viewpoint can be calculated into vector data and mapped by polygons identifying which region is visible and which is not. Overlay function of the proposed system is used in visual sensibility analysis to achieve the division of higher visual sensible area which indicates the common visible area from different viewpoints. Additionally, viewshed maps and visual sensibility results can add more information to mark out the areas that can satisfy certain visual parameters such as appropriate visual angle or visual distance. These overlaying results can visualized the visible areas into hierarchical visual perception quality categories in order to define the visual landscape significance of particular planning regions. A case study was operated to evaluate this system. The case is in Zhongshan city, Guangdong Province of China. Jinzishan hill region is the study site that picked by collaborating discussion of research team and the local government. It is located on the edge of urban built-up area. Jinzishan massif is the prominent landscape element of the surrounding environment. There are three topics in Jinzishan visual perception in this paper. The first topic is the visual quality evaluation of the intersections of its surrounding road system. The second is the integrated visual perception of two main roads called Qiwandao and Bošiailu. Finally is the analysis of the hill skyline visual quality in surrounding area. The analysis results in GIS vector data can be converted into popular data format and combined with other spatial information for practical application. And comments for future urban planning are collected and analyzed by professional responses to the computer-generated information investigation.
Tsiopoulou, Chamaidi. Calibrated Sky Luminance Maps for Daylight Simulation. Vienna, Austria, 2006. Building design and control applications can benefit from daylight simulation. Sky models help to model the sky conditions and predict the availability of daylight in indoor environments. Sky luminance is changing according to the weather, the season of the year and the time of the day, therefore it is difficult to create an accurate sky model. The simplified models that are currently used for computational simulation do not take into account these constant changes. It is important to test if there is the possibility of creating a sky model that approaches the characteristics of real sky and provides the architects with more precise daylight predictions. As past research has demonstrated, relatively low-cost sky luminance mapping via digital imaging can provide an alternative to highly sophisticated sky scanners and support the provision of information on sky luminance distribution patterns on a more pervasive basis. The aim of this research is first to explore the potential of deriving sky luminance distribution maps based on digital imaging and then to test their efficiency for the prediction of indoor daylight. A comparison is made between the predictions based on existing sky models (CIE Standard Skies and Perez All-weather sky) and the camera-based sky model. Thus, the effects of the selection of the sky model on indoor daylighting prediction are explored. A set of measurements were performed at the roof of the TU Vienna in order to obtain the necessary data. The horizontal illuminance levels due to 12 sky sectors were measured with the help of a sky monitoring device. A scale (1:5) model of an architectural space was used to measure the indoor illuminance values with the help of three sensors. At the same time, images of the sky were obtained with the help of a digital camera with a fish-eye converter. Luminance values were derived from the images and four calibration methods were used to generate accurate sky luminance distribution maps. These variously calibrated luminance values were then compared with the corresponding photometric measurements. Finally, the application of a digitally derived sky model based on the best calibration method was compared with the other two sky models toward the prediction of indoor illuminance levels using the case of the scale model. The results demonstrated that the camera-based sky model was more reliable than the other two sky models. It was concluded that digital imaging combined with parallel photometric calibration can provide a valuable means for a real-time generation of sky luminance maps. Detailed sky luminance models can be generated and their application can increase the predictive accuracy of the computational daylight prediction tools. Moreover, the reliability of daylight simulation can be increased toward supporting the design process and the operation of daylighting systems in buildings.
Dzeng, R.J.. Caseplan: a Case-based Planer and Scheduler for Construction Using Product Modeling . Michigan, USA, 1995. Construction planning and scheduling are important to contractors for estimating the cost and duration of a project they are to bid on and construct. Many projects specify incentive and disincentive clauses for completing projects early and late. The timely completion and success of a project rely on good planning and scheduling.  Contractors who repeatedly build the same kind of facilities acquire experience in scheduling the needed construction work. When parts of a facility's design are copied from one project to the next, the previously developed schedules could possibly be reused to schedule future work. This dissertation presents a construction planner and scheduler, named CasePlan, that automates the planning and scheduling process through the use of experience encoded in cases. CasePlan enables a contractor to specify a facility design using a product model, describe the relationships between product components and parts of a schedule (e.g., activity subnetworks, construction crews), and store this information as a case. As a decision support tool, CasePlan enables the contractor to search for cases whose facility designs are similar to that of a new project. The similarity assessment is based on the relative importance values that the contractor assigns to the components and their attributes in the product model. As an automation tool, CasePlan creates the schedule of a new project by reusing parts of the schedules whose associated designs are most similar to that project's design. The result is a schedule in which construction alternatives are chosen from those used in previous cases based on the new project scheduling constraints. The contractor / system-user can interact with CasePlan during its operation or modify the resulting schedule to add detail needed for executing the schedule in the field. Two types of construction projects have been studied for the development of CasePlan. One is the Kit-of-Parts post offices, in which designs are made by reusing design modules defined as Parts. The other is the boiler erection for fossil-fueled power plants, in which the design process is standardized and component configurations are similar across designs. These projects were chosen because their schedules are similar within each project type, which suggested that practitioners had a high incentive and were likely to reuse schedules. CasePlan's similarity assessment for boiler erection projects was validated using a survey. CasePlan's schedules and usability was subjectively evaluated also by the interviewed professionals. 
Issa, Rajaa. Cellular Texture Generator for Architectural Models. Arlington, Texas USA, 2003. Cellular materials are used extensively in architectural settings. These materials usually have well defined geometry such as brick, stone and tiles. Patterns created with cellular materials are mostly the product of an intuitive design process that goes through cycles of synthesis and reflection until reaching final solution. Therefore interactivity is critical to intuitive designs. This paper presents a system that enables interactive creation of 3D cellular textures. It recognizes critical design areas that can have special design consideration such as edges. The system makes use of existing graphic engines and provides an intuitive interface to create patterns interactively. Rendering time is also considered through defining multiple levels of details for cells so it looks convincing in different scales. The paper presents results with an implementation of cellular texture generation system. It also shows some examples of brick walls generated with this implementation.
Bay, Joo-Hwa. Cognitive Biases - the case of tropical architecture. Delft, the Netherlands, 2001. This dissertation investigates, i) How cognitive biases (or illusions) may lead to errors in design thinking, ii) Why architects use architectural precedents as heuristics despite such possible errors, and iii) Develops a design tool that can overcome this type of errors through the introduction of a rebuttal mechanism. The mechanism controls biases and improves accuracy in architectural thinking. // The research method applied is interdisciplinary. It employs knowledge from cognitive science, environmental engineering, and architectural theory. The case study approach is also used. The investigation is made in the case of tropical architecture. The investigation of architectural biases draws from work by A. Tversky and D. Kahneman in 1982 on “Heuristics and biasesi. According to Tversky and Kahneman, the use of heuristics of representativeness (based on similarity) and availability (based on ease of recall and imaginability) for judgement of probability can result in cognitive biases of illusions of validity and biases due to imaginability respectively. This theory can be used analogically to understand how errors arise in the judgement of environmental behaviour anticipated from various spatial configurations, leading to designs with dysfunctional performances when built. Incomplete information, limited time, and human mental resources make design thinking in practice difficult and impossible to solve. It is not possible to analyse all possible alternative solutions, multiple contingencies, and multiple conflicting demands, as doing so will lead to combinatorial explosion. One of the ways to cope with the difficult design problem is to use precedents as heuristic devices, as shortcuts in design thinking, and at the risk of errors. This is done with analogical, pre-parametric, and qualitative means of thinking, without quantitative calculations. Heuristics can be efficient and reasonably effective, but may not always be good enough or even correct, because they can have associated cognitive biases that lead to errors. Several debiasing strategies are discussed, and one possibility is to introduce a rebuttal mechanism to refocus the designeris thinking on the negative and opposite outcomes in his judgements, in order to debias these illusions. The research is carried out within the framework of design theory developed by the Design Knowledge System Research Centre, TUDelft. This strategy is tested with an experiment. The results show that the introduction of a rebuttal mechanism can debias and improve design judgements substantially in environmental control. The tool developed has possible applications in design practice and education, and in particular, in the designing of sustainable environments.
Hofmeyer, Herm. Combined web crippling and bending moment failure of first-generation trapezoidal steel sheeting: experiments, finite element models, mechanical models . Eindhoven, the Netherlands, 2000. Cold-formed trapezoidal sheeting of thin steel plate is a very popular product for building construction. It combines low weight and high strength and is economical in use. Current design rules, which predict sheeting failure for an interior support, do not provide sufficient insight into the sheeting behaviour, and can differ up to 40% in their predictions. To develop a new design rule, this thesis presents new experiments in which first-generation sheeting behaviour is studied for practical situations. The experiments show that after ultimate load, three different post-failure modes arise. Mechanical models have been developed for the three post-failure modes. These models can help to explain why a certain post-failure mode occurs. Finite element models were used to simulate the experiments. Studying stress distributions with finite element simulations, it can be seen that there are only two ultimate failure modes at ultimate load. One of these ultimate failure modes is not relevant for practice. A mechanical model has been developed for the other ultimate failure mode. This model performs as well as the current design rules, and it provides insight into the sheeting behaviour.
De Vries, B.. Communication in the building industry: a strategy for implementing electronic information . Eindhoven, the Netherlands, 1996. Information Technology in general and electronic communication in particular influence organizational structures. New communication media will change communication processes and business processes. To be able to analyze the influences of the new communication media, a clear view is required of the information flow and the information contents during a building project. Given this view, the question can be answered whether the business process and business organization fit the actual information needs. From the information flow frequency and the information contents, the most appropriate storage structure and transfer medium can be determined. The goal of this thesis is to create a formal description of the information exchange process during a building project, to provide the clear view as stated above.  
Bechthold, Martin. Complex shapes in wood: Computer-aided design and manufacture of wood-sandwich roof shells . Harvard, Massachussets - USA, 2001. Computer-Aided-Design, Engineering and Manufacturing (CAD/CAE/CAM) technology has changed the way consumer products, automobiles or airplanes are designed and made. The emerging applications for CAD/CAE/CAM technology in architecture, and the way this technology impacts how we design and construct the built environment, are yet unclear. This thesis investigates the relation between advanced digital design tools and the making of physical objects by focusing on an exemplary architectural element&mdash,wooden roof shells. The research objective is to expand the scope of architectural design through the application of CAD/CAE/CAM technology rather than to use this technology to streamline existing processes. The thesis develops a specific technical solution that allows the design and manufacture of new types of wooden roof shells. These are complexly shaped multifunctional construction elements that are manufactured off-site. Based on the close connection between digital design tools and the new Computer-Numerically-Controlled manufacturing process the author proposes a theoretical model of shared digital environments for collaborative design in architecture. The proposed manufacturing process treats wood as a modern composite material. Thin wood strips and foams combine into structural sandwich panels that can then be joined into a roof shell. The geometrically complex panels are generated by a combination of subtractive Computer-Numerically-Controlled machining processes and manual work. Infrastructure elements can be embedded into the sandwich build-up in order to enhance the functionality of the roof as a building envelope. Numerical tools are proposed that allow the determination of manufacturing-related parameters in the digital design environment. These inform the architectural and structural design in the early design phases. The digital collaborative design environment is based on a shared parametric solid model and an associated database. This collectively owned, feature-based design model is employed throughout the design and manufacturing process and constitutes the means of concurrent design coordination of all participants. The new manufacturing process for wood/foam sandwich shells is verified by designing and manufacturing prototypes. Design guidelines and a cost estimation are presented as the practical basis for architects and engineers to incorporate new types of roof shells into architectural projects. 
Ries, R. Computational Analysis of the Environmental Impact of Building Designs . Pittsburg. Pennsylvania - USA, 1999. Concem for the environmental implications of human activities is becoming increasingly important to society. The concept of current development that does not compromise future generations! abilities to meet their needs is a goal for many communities and individuals (WCED 1987). These concerns require the evaluation and assessment of the potential environmental impact of human activities so that informed choices can be made. Building construction and operation activities are of significant importance in view of a) national and intemational economies, 6) resource consumption, c) human occupancy, and d) environmental impact. For example, in the United States the built environment represents an extensive investment, both as an annual expenditure and as an aggregate investment. In the mid-1980's, up to 30% of new and remodeled buildings had indoor air quality related complaints. Buildings also consume approximately 35% of the primary energy in the U.S. every year, resulting in the release of 482 million metric tons of carbon in 1993. I Methods developed to assess the environmental impact of buildings and development patterns can and have taken multiple strategies. The most straightforward and simple methods use single factors, such as energy use or the mass of pollutant emissions as indicators of environmental performance. Other methods use categorization and weighting strategies. These gauge the effects of the emissions typically based on research studies and use a weighting or effect formulation to normalize, compare, and group emissions so that a scalar value can be assigned to a single or a set of emissions. These methods do not consider the characteristics of the context where the emissions occur. 
Paipai, Angeliki. Computational Assessment of Passive Cooling Methods in Buildings. Vienna, Austria, 2006. Various factors have been contributing to a recent steady increase in buildingsi demands for cooling energy: environmental changes, increased heat gains due to equipment and growing expectations in view of acceptable indoor thermal conditions. Given this context, itis both environmentally and economically meaningful to develop and implement passive cooling techniques toward the reduction of buildingsi demand for cooling energy. In the present study, we use parametric simulations to compute the relative impact of various passive cooling technologies toward the reduction of overheating risk in residential buildings. The cooling measures under examination are shading, natural ventilation (emphasizing on night time natural ventilation), and the application of phase change materials (PCM). The buildings that are being used for the parametric studies are an apartment and a double-storey single house, both simulated for a Mediterranean climate (Athens, Greece) and middle-European one  (Vienna, Austria). The results showed that passive cooling methods can significantly contribute the reduction of overheating in buildings. In particular shading and night time ventilation have been shown to be very effective especially if applied in combination. PCMs on the other hand, showed a limited potential in the reduction of overheating risk, at least under the specific climatic circumstances. 
Dervishi, Sokol. Computational Derivation of Incident Irradiance on Building Facades based on Measured Global Horizontal Irradiance Data. Vienna, Austria, 2006. Reliable simulation of buildings'energy performance requires, amongst other things, the availability of detailed information on the magnitudes of incident solar radiation on building facades. However, the availability of the measured data concerning the incident solar radiation on vertical surfaces is restricted to only few locations. In addition, concurrent measurements of horizontal global and horizontal diffuse (or direct normal) irradiance data are likewise available only for a limited number of locations. In contrast, global horizontal irradiance data is available for many locations. This research demonstrates how to computationally derive incident irradiance values on vertical (or otherwise inclined) building surfaces from measured globalirradiance values. Given this context, three methods are considered to compute incident vertical irradiance values based on measured global horizontal irradiance data. Vertical solar irradiance measurements are described. Then, the computationally derived values are compared withcorresponding measurements. The results are evaluated based on their correlation coefficients and relative error. Finally, the application of horizontal-to- vertical irradiance mapping is demonstrated using the case of an office building at Vienna University of Technology.  
Segers, Nicole. Computational Representations of Words and Associations in Architectural Design - Development of a System Supporting Creative Design. Eindhoven, the Netherlands, 2004. The aim of this research is to determine what the role of words and associations is in the field  of Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD), aiming at support for the architect in the  early phase of the design process. Aspects that are researched in greater detail are the  reduction of fixation and enhancement of creativity by using written words and semantic  associations to make graph representations. The research method contains two case studies along with a literature study leading to  assertions and hypotheses that are tested with a working prototype in an experiment.  
Reffat, Rabee. Computational Situated Learning in Designing - Application to Architectural Shape Semantics. Sydney, Australia, 2000. Learning the situatedness (applicability conditions), of design knowledge recognised from design compositions is the central tenet of the research presented in this thesis. This thesis develops and implements a computational system of situated learning and investigates its utility in designing. Situated learning is based on the concept that "knowledge is contextually situated and is fundamentally influenced by its situation". In this sense learning is tuned to the situations within which "what you do when you do matters". Designing cannot be predicted and the results of designing are not based on actions independent of what is being designed or independent of when, where and how it was designed. Designers'actions are situation dependent (situated), such that designers work actively with the design environment within the specific conditions of the situation where neither the goal state nor the solution space is completely predetermined. In designing, design solutions are fluid and emergent entities generated by dynamic and situated activities instead of fixed design plans. Since it is not possible in advance to know what knowledge to use in relation to any situation we need to learn knowledge in relation to its situation, i.e. learn the applicability conditions of knowledge. This leads towards the notion of the situation as having the potential role of guiding the use of knowledge. Situated Learning in Designing (SLiDe) is developed and implemented within the domain of architectural shape composition (in the form of floor plans), to construct the situatedness of shape semantics. An architectural shape semantic is a set of characteristics with a semantic meaning based on a particular view of a shape such as reflection symmetry, adjacency, rotation and linearity. Each shape semantic has preconditions without which it cannot be recognised. Such preconditions indicate nothing about the situation within which this shape semantic was recognised. The situatedness or the applicability conditions of a shape semantic is viewed as, the interdependent relationships between this shape semantic as the design knowledge in focus, and other shape semantics across the observations of a design composition. While designing, various shape semantics and relationships among them emerge in different representations of a design composition. Multiple representations of a design composition by re-interpretation have been proposed to serve as a platform for SLiDe. Multiple representations provide the opportunity for different shape semantics and relationships among them to be found from a single design composition. This is important if these relationships are to be used later because it is not known in advance which of the possible relationships could be constructed are likely to be useful. Hence, multiple representations provide a platform for different situations to be encountered. A symbolic representation of shape and shape semantics is used in which the infinite maximal lines form the representative primitives of the shape. SLiDe is concerned with learning the applicability conditions (situatedness), of shape semantics locating them in relation to situations within which they were recognised (situation dependent), and updating the situatedness of shape semantics in response to new observations of the design composition. SLiDe consists of three primary modules: Generator, Recogniser and Incremental Situator. The Generator is used by the designer to develop a set of multiple representations of a design composition. This set of representations forms the initial design environment of SLiDe. The Recogniser detects shape semantics in each representation and produces a set of observations, each of which is comprised of a group of shape semantics recognised at each corresponding representation. The Incremental Situator module consists of two sub-modules, Situator and Restructuring Situator, and utilises an unsupervised incremental clustering mechanism not affected by concept drift. The Situator module locates recognised shape semantics in relation to their situations by finding regularities of relationships among them across observations of a design composition and clustering them into situational categories organised in a hierarchical tree structure. Such relationships change over time due to the changes taken place in the design environment whenever further representations are developed using the Generator module and new observations are constructed by the Recogniser module. The Restructuring Situator module updates previously learned situational categories and restructures the hierarchical tree accordingly in response to new observations. Learning the situatedness shape semantics may play a crucial role in designing if designers pursue further some of these shape semantics. This thesis illustrates an approach in which SLiDe can be utilised in designing to explore the shapes in a design composition in various ways; bring designers! attention to potentially hidden features and shape semantics of their designs; and maintain the integrity of the design composition by using the situatedness of shape semantics. The thesis concludes by outlining future directions for this research to learn and update the situatedness of design knowledge within the context of use; considering the role of functional knowledge while learning the situatedness of design knowledge; and developing an autonomous situated agent-based designing system.
Brahme, R.. Computational Support for Building Energy Systems Analysis In Camegie Mellon University, School of Architecture., 1999.
Laing, Lamond. Computer aided architectural design simulation by computer of the flow of people through a variety of building types. Glasgow, Scotland - United Kingdom, 1982.
Lue, Q.. Computer aided descriptive geometry. Vienna, Austria, 1993. The main aim of this thesis is the creation of a software package for descriptive geometry. Why there is a need for such a descriptive geometry software? In descriptive geometry the ability of space perception is trained by solving spatial problems graphically with the use of a few constructions: Hence the solution of each problem consists of two parts: 1) 3D-part: After analyzing the spatial problem it is cleared how to proceed step by step in space. 2) 2D-part: Due to the basic rules of descriptive geometry for each step of the solving strategy the corresponding 2D-construction has to be carried out graphically. By use of CAD-DG the 2nd part can be replaced again by a 3D-part: Each step is solved using the basic routines offered in the menu. That means that each step is solved analytically but instead of any output of numbers the solution is immediately displayed in the main views on the screen. Therefore the user neither needs to apply formulas of analytic geometry nor has to take care of any coordinates. He still works directly with geometric objects in a graphic representation 
Wu, Rui. Computer Aided Dimensional Control in Building Construction . Eindhoven, the Netherlands, 2002. Dimensional control in the building industry can be defined as the operational techniques and activities that are necessary, during the construction process of a building, for the assurance of the defined dimension quality of a building (Hoof, 1986). Efficient and precise dimensional control of buildings under construction is becoming ever more important because of changes in the construction industry. More prefabricated components are used, more regulations appear, newly designed buildings have more complex shapes, and building construction is speeding up. To ensure the predefined dimensional quality, a plan of dimensional control must be designed, on the basis of building drawings and specifications delivered by architects, before the building is constructed. The dimensional control plan must provide site personnel with adequate information on, among others, setting out and assembling building components, which can often be done by means of Total Stations. The essence of designing a dimensional control plan is to find out which points should be used as positioning points, which points should be set out in advance or controlled afterwards, and not to forget why. In an effort to contribute to the improvement of the dimensional control of on-site construction projects, this research tries to capture the knowledge required to design an adequate dimensional control plan and make that knowledge more generally available, and build a digital connection between CAD systems and Total Stations, focusing on prefabricated concrete building structural elements. The instrument developed in this research for capturing of essential dimensional control information and knowledge makes use of Product Data Technology (PDT) and Knowledge Technology (KT). The chosen solution supports the stochastic analysis of optimal positioning points taking account of various sorts of deviations and their mutual relationships. The resulting information model has been written in a standardized information modelling language called UML (Unified Modelling Language). The model has been implemented in a Dimensional Control System (DCS) and applied in the “La Tour” construction project in Apeldoorn, the Netherlands. The DCS provides a digital way to bridge the floor plan design with dimensional control, predict dimensional deviation limits and output the data needed for a Total Station. The case study of “La Tour” tests the UML model and prototype of the DCS. The results prove that direct positioning of objects (by putting reflectors on the objects and using a Total Station and by inputting coordinates extracted and calculated from the AutoCAD drawings) provides higher speed, accuracy and reliability. It also shows a way to (pre)position free form objects in 3D where traditional methods cannot. In conclusion: (1) it seems to be justified to expect that the application of the DCS will contribute to increased confidence in dimensional control and the reduction of costs of failure, which potentially could support the increased use of cheaper construction methods, and will also contribute to the improvement of building design and construction process. (2) the scientific contribution of this research is a first step towards providing dimensional quality in a construction process covered by stochastic dimensional uncertainty, even for positioning of free form objects. 
QaQish, Ra'Ed. Computer Aided Learning in Computer Aided Design: inter and intra departmental computer management learning (CML) in architectural education (AE). Glasgow, Scotland - United Kingdom, 1997.
Eshaq, Ahmad Rafi Moham. Computer animation for architectural visualisation. Strathclyde Glasgow, United Kingdom, 1998. This thesis critically reviews the state of architectural animation, and relates this specific field to the more general motion-based representations, particularly traditional film-making techniques. It identifies key elements from traditional filmmaking and shows how these elements can improve computer-based architectural animation. The process of identification of the key elements from traditional film-making starts with a critical survey of the use of motion-based representation in local architectural practices and an empirical analysis of several architectural-based documentary films and past and present computer animations. All of the key ideas are illustrated on video by comparing real shooting clips to digital sequences focusing on production and post-production works. Some of these were implemented in two live projects ( Ministry of Finance, Malaysia and Damansara Parade ) for architects to understand the real problems and potentials in each process. These sets of illustrations expand the architect ideas to make full use of the motion-based process to improve the skill of combining architectural information in a good animation. The overall production process becomes more efficient when the motion-based footage is edited using a non-linear editing platform as it enhances the professional appearance as well as vastly saving most of the production time. The thesis concludes with specific recommendations relative to the stage at which the animation is produced. This technology can be best utilised with the right skills (a gained from film-making) and an understanding of each stage that requires a different level of input and gives a certain impact to the viewers.  
Gouraud, Henri. Computer display of curved surfaces., 1971.
Ballouz, Ibrahim. Computer graphics in architecture the quest for realism. Glasgow, Scotland - UK, 1997.
Belajcic, N.. Computer Implementation of Shape Grammars. Sydney, Australia, 1988. An approach is taken that shape grammars can be used as a possible vehicle for automated design generation. Historical background of shape grammars is discussed with emphasis on vocabulary/syntax aspect of the design process and significance of class solutions to problems. Similarities with expert system mechanics and structure is highlighted and advantages and disadvantages of rule-based and frame-based systems are considered. These concepts are implemented in a computer program written in LISP employing icon driven graphic interface with tools for creating shapes and rules. Finally, problems associated with adopted reasoning strategies are reported and areas of further development and improvement suggested.  [UNPUBLISHED. CADLINE has abstract only]
Guzmán, Adolfo. Computer recognition of three-dimensional objects in a visual scene. Cambridge, Massachussetes - USA, 1969. Methods are presented (1) to partition or decompose a visual scene into the bodies forming it, (2) to position these bodies in three-dimensional space, by combining two scenes that make a stereoscopic pair, (3) to find the regions or zones of a visual scene that belong to its background, (4) to carry out the isolation of objects in (1) when the input has inaccuracies. Running computer programs implement the methods, and many examples illustrate their behaviour. The input is a two-dimensional line-drawing of the scene, assumed to contain three-dimensional bodies possessing flat faces (polyhedra), some of them may be partially occluded. Suggestions are made for extending the work to curved objects. Some comparisons are made with human visual perception. The main conclusion is that it is possible to separate a picture or scene into the constituent objects exclusively on the basis of monocular geometric properties (on the basis of pure form), in fact, successful methods are shown.
Ruhl, Volker. Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing of Complex Shaped Concrete Formwork., 1997. The research presented in this thesis challenges the appropriateness of existing, conventional forming practices in the building construction industry--both in situ or in prefabrication--for building concrete “freeforms,i as they are characterized by impracticality and limitations in achieved geometric/formal quality. The author's theory proposes the application of alternative, non-traditional construction methods derived from the integration of information technology, in the form of Computer-Aided Design (CAD), Engineering (CAE) and Manufacturing (CAM), into the concrete tooling and placing process. This concept relies on a descriptive shape model of a physically non-existent building element which serves as a central database containing all the geometric data necessary to completely and accurately inform design development activities as well as the construction process. For this purpose, the thesis orients itself on existing, functioning models in manufacturing engineering and explores the broad spectrum of computer-aided manufacturing techniques applied in this industry. A two-phase, combined method study is applied to support the theory. Part I introduces the phenomenon of “complexityi in the architectural field, defines the goal of the thesis research and gives examples of complex shape. It also presents the two analyzed technologies: concrete tooling and automation technology. For both, it establishes terminology, classifications, gives insight into the state-of-the-art, and describes limitations. For concrete tooling it develops a set of quality criteria. Part II develops a theory in the form of a series of proposed “non-traditional” forming processes and concepts that are derived through a synthesis of state-of-the-art automation with current concrete forming and placing techniques, and describes them in varying depth, in both text and graphics, on the basis of their geometric versatility and their appropriateness for the proposed task. Emphasis is given to the newly emerging and most promising Solid Freeform Fabrication processes, and within this area, to laser-curing technology. The feasibility of using computer-aided formwork design, and computer-aided formwork fabrication in today's standard building practices is evaluated for this particular technology on the basis of case-studies. Performance in the categories of process, material, product, lead time and economy is analyzed over the complete tooling cycle and is compared to the performance of existing, conventional forming systems for steel, wood, plywood veneer and glassfiber reinforced plastic, value s added to the construction process and/or to the formwork product through information technology are pointed out and become part of the evaluation. For this purpose, an analytical framework was developed for testing the performance of various Solid Freeform Fabrication processes as well as the “sensitivity,” or the impact of various influencing processes and/or product parameters on lead time and economy. This tool allows us to make various suggestions for optimization as well as to formulate recommendations and guidelines for the implementation of this technology. The primary objective of this research is to offer architects and engineers unprecedented independence from planar, orthogonal building geometry, in the realization of design ideas and/or design requirements for concrete structures and/or their components. The interplay between process-oriented design and innovative implementation technology may ultimately lead to an architecture conceived on a different level of complexity, with an extended form-vocabulary and of high quality.
Zahnan, Lena. Computer-aided Design-based Project Management Model . Concordia, Canada, 2001. The construction industry is one that is fragmented by nature. In current practice, information is exchanged between the designers and contractors in the form of paper documents such as drawings, bills of material and specifications. Information is lost and errors are made during the forward and backward exchange of the design-construction information and constructability knowledge between the design professionals, cost estimators and contractors. Despite the technological developments in IT, the industry has been slow in adopting change in its processes. Computer Integrated Construction (CIC) strives to bridge the gaps of information by integrating the tools and processes within the Architecture, Engineering and Construction industries. This thesis proposes an integrated methodology across the design and construction functions supported by available CAD technologies. The proposed methodology has been implemented in a prototype software application named &ldquo,CAD-B PM&rdquo, that allows the user to integrate the CAD design with a central database that is a repository of project information. Productivity and cost estimates are generated within the database and are further integrated to a scheduling application for project planning and control. The prototype system provides a unique solution where the project information is openly shared between the applications in a dynamic environment through the use of Open Database Connectivity (ODBC). 
Terzidis, Constantinos. Computer-aided extraction of morphological information from architectural drawings. Michigan, USA, 1994. Along with the popularization of Computer-Aided Design (CAD), it has been becoming increasingly necessary and desirable for a computer to recognize engineering drawings and diagrams. Methods exist for inputting and recognizing such engineering drawings and diagrams. This is primarily because they are drawn to conform to specific standards. In contrast, architectural drawings are not prepared in accordance to existing standards. Hence, the problem of reading, recognizing, and extracting morphological information from them automatically remains unsolved. It is this problem that this study focuses on. The research undertaken by this author has three distinct but interrelated objectives. The first objective is to design, implement, and test a computer-based framework which allows its user to extract automatically the geometric and/or architectural structures of a two-dimensional plan. The second objective entails designing, implementing, and testing a computer-based framework which may be employed to compare the geometric and/or architectural structures of individual plans or classes of such plans. The third objective is to integrate the two aforementioned frameworks. Computer vision techniques are used to investigate, analyze, and compare plans of buildings from a morphological standpoint. Such techniques can contribute toward detecting differences or similarities between individual plans. Their ability to search for, combine, and compare morphological information is both parsimonious and effective. Predicated on the assumption that designers derive knowledge from past solutions to form-making problems, this study focuses on the methods by which the morphological information which is contained in building plans can be extracted automatically and entered in a knowledge base. Conceptually, this is part of a larger project which entails investigating how knowledge can be incorporated in a CAD system in a manner which aids and supports the form-making process. Conceivably, the approach of this work is, wholly or partially, applicable to the problem of extracting useful information from graphic representations used in a variety of disciplines (e.g., engineering). 
Gabriel, Gerard. Computer-Mediated communication in design. Sydney, Australia, 2000. Up till now, architects collaborating with other colleagues did so mostly face-to-face (FTF). They had to be in the same space (co-located) at the same time. Communication was “spontaneous” and ideas were represented, whether verbal or nonverbal, by talking and using “traditional drawing tools”. If they were geographically displaced, the interaction was then space affected as well as the probability of being time affected. In this case communication was usually mediated through the telephone, and graphically represented ideas were sent by Fax or posted documents. Recently, some architectural firms started using modems and Internet connections to exchange information, by transferring CAD drawings as well as design information, through e-mail and file transfer protocol (FTP). Discussing ideas in architecture, as a more abstract notion, is different from discussing other more concrete arguments using video conferencing. It is more important to “see” what is being discussed at hand than “watch” the other person(s) involved in the discussion. In other words the data being conveyed might be of more importance than the mode of communication. Taking into consideration recent developments in computer and communication technologies this thesis investigates different communication channels utilised in architectural collaboration through Computer Mediated Collaborative Design (CMCD) sessions as opposed to FTF sessions. This thesis investigates the possible effects these different channels have on collaborative design in general and collaborative design communication in particular. We argue that successful CMCD does not necessarily mean emulating close proximity environments. Excluding certain communication channels in a CMCD environment might affect the flow and quantity of synchronous collaborative communication, but not necessarily the quality and content of mutually communicated and represented design ideas. Therefore different communication channels might affect the type of communication and not necessarily the content of the communication. We propose that audio and video are not essential communication channels in CMCD environments. We posit that architects will collaborate and communicate design representations effectively although with some differences, since those two channels might cause interruptions and successful collaborative sessions can take place without them. For this purpose we conducted twenty-four one-hour experiments involving final year architecture students all working to the same design brief. The experiments were divided into three categories, FTF, full computer mediated collaborative design sessions (CMCD-a, audio-video conferencing plus whiteboard as a shared drawing space) and limited computer mediated collaborative design sessions (CMCD-b, with Lambda MOO used as a chat medium plus whiteboard as a shared drawing space). The experiments were video and audio taped, transcribed and coded into a custom developed coding scheme. The results of the analysed coded data and observations of the videotapes provided evidence that there were noticeable differences between the three categories. There was more design communication and less communication control in the CMCD-b category compared to the FTF and CMCD-a categories. Verbal communication became shorter and straight to the point in CMCD-b as opposed to spontaneous non-stop chat in the other two categories. Moreover in CMCD-b the subjects were observed to be more reflective as well as choosing and re-examining their words to explain ideas to their partners. At times they were seen scrolling back through the text of the conversation in order to re-analyse or interpret the design ideas at hand. This was impossible in FTF and CMCD-a sessions, since the subjects were more spontaneous and audio representations were lost as soon as they were uttered. Also the video channel in the CMCD-a category was ignored and hardly used except for the first few minutes of the experiments, for a brief exchange of light humour on the appearance of each subject. The results obtained from analysing the experiments helped us conclude that different communication channels produce different collaborative environments. The three categories of communication for architectural collaboration explored in our experiments are indicative of the alternatives available to architects now. What is not clear to architects is why they would choose one category over another. We propose that each category has its own strengths and difficulties for architectural collaboration, and therefore should be selected on the basis of the type of communication considered to be most effective for the stage and tasks of the design project.
Dawson, A.. Computerisation of Architectural Practices: Its Development in Victoria, Australia., 1996.
Sariyildiz, Sevil. Conceptual Design by Means of Islamic-Geometric-Patterns within a CAAD-Environment. Delft, the Netherlands, 1991. The starting point in this research was to develop a 3D grammar theory on top of existing 2D Islamic-geometric-patterns, trying to rescue their fundamental geometry contents to be applied in contemporary architecture without compromising any architectural style. As it is self evident the architectural design process consists of clearly distinct stages namely conceptual design, materialisation and further completion. A this conceptual stage the innovative item of the research deals with pattern grammars on 3D complex geometrical patterns, considering them as polyhedra and polytopes, for their use as an underlayer to a concept design, like architects use 2D rectangular and triangular grids by the conventional way. Handling these complex 3D patterns requires a special environment which is possible with CAAD. Within the CAAD environment, the handling of these complex patterns is easily done by means of 3D tools, because the 3D tools permit the user to make any possible manipulations and geometrical transformations in an easier way in space. To a geometrical patterns, there is some attention paid during the last 50 years by some scholars. The most complex geometrical patterns are highly developed in Islamic architecture because it is forbidden in Muslim religion to use man's portraits or sculptures of human beings in the religious buildings. All these approaches to complex patterns are analysed and studied as 2D elements. The question was how could we consider them in 3rd dimensions and use them instead of 2D underlayer, as 3D underlayers in the conceptual phase of the CAAD design. Pattern grammar is a generally employable aid (underlying pattern) for conceptual and material designs. On the basis of rules of symmetry and substitution, ordering principles have been worked out, which can be used for formal design methods as well as detailing systems (e.g. modular coordination). Through the realization of a pattern grammar a wider range of underlying patterns can be offered and a choice from these can be made in a more fundamental manner. At a subsequent stage the collection of “empty boxesi can be filled with (architectural) elements in such a way that another option is created between either filling up the boxes completely, filling them partly, or filling them in such a way that they overflow. It is self-evident that underlying patterns can also be used for details and decoration in a design. Concerning the materialisation of the concept design, within the 3D CAAD environment, substitution methods are partially developed. Further theoretical developments concerning the materialisation phase constantly backed up through feed-back with specialist matters (such as e.g. by means of expert systems, decision-support systems), must be worked out. As feed-back of the research, the possibilities of the design with 3D patterns have been tested and the procedures are explained. (*) Working with 3D patterns gives a designer more inspirations to develop new ideas and new concepts and gives the opportunity to handle the complexity. (*) The formal, structural and symmetrical qualities of geometrical patterns has a positive influence on the industrialisation of the building components. (*) Working with 3D tools which are able to handle complex geometry have a result because of the accuracy of the information, that there has hardly been a mistake made during the preparation and the assembly of the building components. This has also positive results concerning the financial aspects of the building process. 
Snyder, James. Conceptual modeling and application integration in CAD: the essential elements. Pittsburg. Pennsylvania - USA, 1998. A research focus in design research has been the exchange of information between different participants in the design process. While information system automation has occurred in various areas, known as islands of informafion, significant software integration has yet to emerge. A current belief among researchers in this area is that support for information sharing will require shared resources, and more specifically, shared descriptions of the information to be exchanged. If buildings are viewed as a product, the notion of a product and process modelling system ought to support the electronic exchange of information between various design process participants. While significant research has been done, no consensus has emerged as to a satisfactory solution to design information exchange. Many important contributions have been discovered, however, no overall strategy has emerged that embraces both the research issues as well as the practical issues surrounding information exchange. To address the above issues in a specific context, a series of experiments were conducted utilizing a prototype modelling framework that supports product modelling via the Object Model Language (Om). The results of these experiments along with a literature survey allowed for a comprehensive set of product/process modelling requirements. The resulting requirements were then formalized into a product /process modelling environment that includes a modelling language called SPROUT (supported by a compiler) and an associated software architecture that can be targeted toward many different hardware and software platforms. A particularly unique capability supported in this environment is formal support for integrating existing software systems. Given a schematic description in SPROUT, a formal specification can be used to generate computer programs that provably map data to and from the application program.
Gomez, Nestor. Conceptual Structural Design Through Knowledge Hierarchies . Pittsburg. Pennsylvania - USA, 1998. Computer support for conceptual design still lags behind software available for analysis and detailed design. The Software Environment to Support the Early Phases in Building Design (SEED) project has the goal of providing design generation and exploration capabilities to aid in the conceptual design of buildings, from architectural programming and layout to enclosure design and structural configuration. The current work presents a component of the efforts of the SEED-Config Structure group in providing computer support for conceptual structural design. The Building Entity and Technology (BENT) approach models data about building elements in a general, hierarchical form, where design evolution is represented by the growing specificity of the design description. Two methods of system-supported design generation are provided: case-based reasoning and application of knowledge rules. The knowledge rules, termed technologies, and how they are specified and used are the primary focus of this thesis. In the BENT approach, conceptual structural engineering knowledge is modularized into technology nodes arranged in a directed'AND/OR'graph, where OR nodes represent alternative design decisions and AND nodes represent problem decomposition. In addition, nodes in the graph may also be specified as having AND/OR incoming arcs thus reducing the duplication of nodes and enhancing the representational power of the approach. In order to facilitate the incorporation of new knowledge into the system, and verify and/or change the knowledge already in the system, the data model and the interface allow for dynamic creation, browsing, and editing of technology nodes. Design generation through the use of the knowledge hierarchy involves the conditional application of nodes according to the design context as represented by the building element(s) under consideration. Each application of a technology node expands the design of building elements by increasing the detail of the design description or by decomposing the elements into less abstract components. In addition, support for simultaneous design of multiple elements and for iteration control are also provided. An important feature of the BENT approach is that the generative knowledge (i.e., the technology hierarchy) is detached from the information repository (i.e., the database of entities which make up the building). This allows the technology hierarchies to be used in a modular fashion from building problem to building problem. 
Wang, Donggen. Conjoint Approaches to Developing Activity-Based Models. Eindhoven, the Netherlands, 1998. Since the late 1950's, transportation models have played an important role in forecasting travel demand and evaluating the impacts of plans and policies. Planners use transportation models to learn about the behaviour of transport systems. Over the past decades, the development of particular modelling approaches has closely followed planning needs, which in turn are closely related to dominant policy issues. The first generation of transportation models was developed during the late 1950's and early 1960's. Their purpose was to facilitate the prediction of future travel demand, such that road capacity programs could be based on predicted demand. The first generation models are commonly referred to as four-step models. These models are typically formulated and calibrated at the level of the traffic zones. Individuals are aggregated by traffic zone. Traffic is considered to be the result of four sequential decisions: trip generation, trip distribution, modal split and traffic assignment. These decisions are modeled separately at successive stages. Although the four-step models have been widely used, even institutionalized in literally thousands of applications (Stopher, et al., 1996), the major shortcoming of these large-scale, aggregate and supply-oriented models is their lack of behavioural content. 
Hanson, Gabriel. Connection and Transition, Exploring Place-Based Physical Environment in a Digital Media FirmPhysical Environment in a Digital Media Firm. Washington, USA, 2001. The design solution of the typical high-tech firm bombards its employees with the same signs and sleek coded information that they are designing, instead of addressing their innate biological needs. In the workplace specifically, the change in technology has a pernicious result when its relationships are deployed society-wide as subsitutes for face-to face interactions, which are inherently richer than mediated interactions. This thesis presents a design of a media firm that engages build environment with lighting and natural and a CD-Rom digital sketchbookof the design process.
Kelleners, Richard. Constraints in object-oriented graphics. Eindhoven, the Netherlands, 1999. In the area of interactive computer graphics, two important approaches to deal with the complexity of designing and implementing graphics systems are object-oriented programming and constraint-based programming. From literature, it appears that combination of these two has clear advantages but has also proven to be difficult. One of the main problems is that constraint programming infringes the information hiding principle of object-oriented programming. The goal of the research project is to combine these two approaches to benefit from the strengths of both. Two research groups at the Eindhoven University of Technology investigate the use of constraints on graphics objects. At the Architecture department, constraints are applied in a virtual reality design environment. At the Computer Science department, constraints aid in modelling 3D animations. For these two groups, a constraint system for 3D graphical objects was developed. A conceptual model, called CODE (Constraints on Objects via Data flows and Events), is presented that enables integration of constraints and objects by separating the object world from the constraint world. In the design of this model, the main aspect being considered is that the information hiding principle among objects may not be violated. Constraint solvers, however, should have direct access to an objectis internal data structure. Communication between the two worlds is done via a protocol orthogonal to the message passing mechanism of objects, namely, via events and data flows. This protocol ensures that the information hiding principle at the object-oriented programming level is not violated while constraints can directly access “hiddeni data. Furthermore, CODE is built up of distinct elements, or entity types, like constraint, solver, event, data flow. This structure enables that several special purpose constraint solvers can be defined and made to cooperate to solve complex constraint problems. A prototype implementation was built to study the feasibility of CODE. Therefore, the implementation should correspond directly to the conceptual model. To this end, every entity (object, constraint, solver) of the conceptual model is represented by a separate process in the language MANIFOLD. The (concurrent) processes communicate by events and data flows. The implementation serves to validate the conceptual model and to demonstrate that it is a viable way of combining constraints and objects. After the feasibility study, the prototype was discarded. The gained experience was used to build an implementation of the conceptual model for the two research groups. This implementation encompassed a constraint system with multiple solvers and constraint types. The constraint system was built as an object-oriented library that can be linked to the applications in the respective research groups. Special constructs were designed to ensure information hiding among application objects while constraints and solvers have direct access to the object data. CODE manages the complexity of object-oriented constraint solving by defining a communication protocol to allow the two paradigms to cooperate. The prototype implementation demonstrates that CODE can be implemented into a working system. Finally, the implementation of an actual application shows that the model is suitable for the development of object-oriented software.   
Kotsopoulos, Sotirios. Constructing Design Concepts. Cambridge, Massachusetts - USA, 2005.
Heintz, John. Coordinating collaborative building design. Delft, the Netherlands, 1999.
Kim, Michael. Countermodeling as a strategy for decision making epistemological problems in design. Berkeley, California - USA, 1980.
Haapasalo, H.. Creative computer aided architectural design an internal approach to the design process . Oulu, Finland, 2000. This survey can be seen as quite multidisciplinary research. The basis for this study has been inapplicability of different CAD user interfaces in architectural design. The objective of this research is to improve architectural design from the creative problem-solving viewpoint, where the main goal is to intensify architectural design by using information technology. The research is linked to theory of methods, where an internal approach to design process means studying the actions and thinking of architects in the design process. The research approach has been inspired by hermeneutics. The human thinking process is divided into subconscious and conscious thinking. The subconscious plays a crucial role in creative work. The opposite of creative work is systematic work, which attempts to find solutions by means of logical inference. Both creative and systematic problem solving have had periods of predominance in the history of Finnish architecture. The perceptions in the present study indicate that neither method alone can produce optimal results. Logic is one of the tools of creativity, since the analysis and implementation of creative solutions require logical thinking. The creative process cannot be controlled directly, but by creating favourable work conditions for creativity, it can be enhanced. Present user interfaces can make draughting and the creation of alternatives quicker and more effective in the final stages of designing. Only two thirds of the architects use computers in working design, even the CAD system is being acquired in greater number of offices. User interfaces are at present inflexible in sketching. Draughting and sketching are the basic methods of creative work for architects. When working with the mouse, keyboard and screen the natural communication channel is impaired, since there is only a weak connection between the hand and the line being drawn on the screen. There is no direct correspondence between hand movements and the lines that appear on the screen, and the important items cannot be emphasized by, for example, pressing the pencil more heavily than normally. In traditional sketching the pen is a natural extension of the hand, as sketching can sometimes be controlled entirely by the unconscious. Conscious efforts in using the computer shift the attention away from the actual design process. However, some architects have reached a sufficiently high level of skill in the use of computer applications in order to be able to use them effectively in designing without any harmful effect on the creative process. There are several possibilities in developing CAD systems aimed at architectural design, but the practical creative design process has developed during a long period of time, in which case changing it in a short period of time would be very difficult. Although CAD has had, and will have, some evolutionary influences on the design process of architects as an entity, the future CAD user interface should adopt its features from the architect's practical and creative design process, and not vice versa. 
Reid, Elizabeth. Cultural formations in text-based virtual realities. Melbourne, Australia, 1994. Beginning with an understanding of virtual reality as an imaginative experience and thus a cultural construct rather than a technical construction, this thesis discusses cultural and social issues raised by interaction on'MUDs', which are text-based virtual reality systems run on the international computer network known as the Internet. MUD usage forces users to deconstruct many of the cultural tools and understandings that form the basis of more conventional systems of interaction. Unable to rely on physical cues as a channel of meaning, users of MUDs have developed ways of substituting for or by-passing them, resulting in novel methods of textualising the non- verbal. The nature of the body and sexuality are problematised in these virtual environments, since the physical is never fixed and gender is a self-selected attribute. In coming to terms with these aspects of virtual interaction, new systems of significance have been developed by users, along with methods of enforcing that cultural hegemony through power structures dependent upon manipulation of the virtual environment. These new systems of meaning and social control define those who use MUDs as constituting a distinct cultural group. 
Saunders, Robert. Curious Design Agents and Artificial Creativity - a Synthetic Approach to the Study of Creative Behaviour. Sydney, Australia, 2002. Creative products are generally recognised as satisfying two requirements: firstly they are useful, and secondly they are novel. Much effort in AI and design computing has been put into developing systems that can recognise the usefulness of the products that they generate. In contrast, the work presented in this thesis has concentrated on developing computational systems that are able to recognise the novelty of their work. The research has shown that when computational systems are given the ability to recognise both the novelty and the usefulness of their products they gain a level of autonomy that opens up new possibilities for the study of creative behaviour in single agents and the emergence of social creativity in multi-agent systems. The work presented in this thesis has developed a model of curiosity in design as the selection of design actions with the goal of generating novel artefacts. Agents that embody this model of curiosity are called “curious design agents”. The behaviour of curious design agents is demonstrated with a range of applications to visual and nonvisual design domains. Visual domains include rectilinear drawings, Spirograph patterns, and “genetic artworksi similar to the work of Karl Sims. Non-visual domains include an illustrative abstract design space useful for visualising the behaviour of curious agents and the design of doorways to accommodate the passage of large crowds. The design methods used in the different domains show that the model of curiosity is applicable to models of designing by direct manipulation, parametric configuration or by using a separate design tool that embodies the generative aspects of the design process. In addition, an approach to developing multi-agent systems with autonomous notions of creativity called artificial creativity is presented. The opportunities for studying social creativity in design are illustrated with an artificial creativity system used to study the emergence of social notions of whom and what are creative in a society of curious design agents. Developing similar artificial creativity systems promises to be a useful synthetic approach to the study of socially situated, creative design.  
Duarte, J.. Customizing mass housing: a discursive grammar for Siza s Malagueira houses. Cambridge, Massachusetts - USA, 2001. This thesis proposes a process of providing mass-customized housing based on computer-aided design and production systems. It focuses on the design part, which mainly consists of an interactive system for the generation of design solutions based on a mathematical model called discursive grammar. A discursive grammar includes a shape grammar, a description grammar, and a set of heuristics. The shape grammar provides the rules of formal composition, whereas the description grammar describes the design from other relevant viewpoints. The set of heuristics is used to guide the generation of designs by comparing the description of the evolving design with the description of the desired house. The generation of a design proceeds first by producing a design brief from the user-prompted requirements and then by finding a solution that satisfies this brief. Search is largely deterministic, which decreases the amount of time required to find a solution, thereby making it reasonable to develop Web-based implementations. The proposed model enables an enduring designer's dream, that of the mass customization of housing. The model is illustrated with a case study that includes a shape grammar developed for the houses designed by the architect Alvaro Siza at Malagueira, a description grammar based on the Portuguese housing regulations, and a set of heuristics inferred after a set of experiments. In these experiments, designers were asked to generate houses based on the Malagueira grammar for specific clients. It is argued that this discursive grammar provides a rigorous method for understanding and teaching Siza's design process and that similar grammars could be developed for other styles. A Web page for explaining the grammar and generating new designs on-line was developed as a prototype.
Chen, Julie. DAM: Digital Animation Museum. Washington, USA, 2002. The interaction of architecture and technology is, to many, simply a relationship between a building and the materials from which it is constructed. This thesis, however, explores the notion that architectural spaces and forms are influenced not only by construction technology, but also by everyday technology that we use to better our lives, and particularly focuses on the potential impact of wireless information technology on architecture. This thesis asserts that the implementation of information technology in architecture encourages greater interactivity between building and visitor and also increases flexibility in spatial programming. By incorporating wireless information technology as an essential design element of a museum, traditional notions of control points can be eliminated, and the building experience may be manipulated in a variety of ways to interact with and respond to visitor interests and preferences. In this way, both building and visitors are able to collaborate to produce a unique and individualized experience of the building space.
Kim, Inhan. Data representations in an integrated architectural design environment. Glasgow, Scotland - United Kingdom, 1994. The architectural design process is very complex and involves cross-disciplinary communication among many related fields. Given the further problems arising from the technological advances in building materials and construction methods, an integrated design environment becomes a central design issue. There have been many attempts to analyse and structure the design process as a uniform hierarchical framework. Most of the attempts resulted in a vague and inappropriate outcome due to the lack of understanding of architectural design complexity and inconsistent design data control sequence. A design problem cannot be comprehensively stated because the design problem has a multi-disciplinary nature and the design problem itself evolves as solutions are attempted by the designer. Therefore, an ideal CAAD system should have the capability to accommodate the multi-disciplinary nature of design and should not prescribe or restrict design concepts and design knowledge. A well designed integrated design environment provides more information and invokes creative imagination for each design stage, and therefore creative decision making by the designer can be achieved. This thesis proposes a prototype architectural design environment, Hybrid Integrated Design Environment [HIDE], which aims to integrate all applications for designing a building. Within the object-oriented design environment, a unified data model and a data management system have been implemented to seamlessly connect all applications. Development of the environment needs to consider the fundamental interaction between each module. Devising a data structure that is appropriate to an effective data communication among the various design stages is essential in a totally integrated CAAD system. The suggested unified data model organizes the structure of the design data to keep the design consistent throughout the design and construction process. By means of the unified data model, integrated CAAD systems could represent and exchange design information at a semantic level, i.e. the useris way of thinking, such as exchanging components and features of a building rather than graphical primitives. In consequence, the unified data model reduces the misunderstandings and communication problems among the multiple disciplines of architectural design. The suggested data management system supports the consistent and straight forward mechanisms for controlling the data representation through the inter-connected modules. It is responsible for creating, maintaining, and viewing a consistent database of the design description. It also helps to perform effective data communication among the various design stages to ensure quality and time saving in the final construction of the building. To support inter-disciplinary communication of design concepts and decisions, the integrating of relevant CAAD tools is essential. In the environment, the integration of CAAD tools has been performed on the basis of how well computerized design tools can assist designers to develop better solutions, enabling them to manipulate and appraise varying solutions quickly and with a minimum of effort in an environment conducive to creative design. A well designed user interface system can also benefit the seamless working environment. The proposed user friendly interface system allows a user to explore the environment in a highly interactive manner. From the development of the early data model to the final design, a user could benefit from the prototypes and methods of the user interface system. The ultimate goal of the prototype environment is to suggest a future design environment which helps the architect to have minimum discontinuity in his creativity and make the design process similar to the natural design process with the help of a set of design assistance modules. A prototype version of HIDE has been implemented and a demonstration of the environment is part of this thesis.  
Mardaljevic, John. Daylight Simulation: Validation, Sky Models and Daylight Coefficients . Leicester, United Kingdom, 2000. The application of lighting simulation techniques for daylight illuminance modelling in architectural spaces is described in this thesis. The prediction tool used for all the work described here is the Radiance lighting simulation system. An overview of the features and capabilities of the Radiance system is presented. Daylight simulation using the Radiance system is described in some detail. The relation between physical quantities and the lighting simulation parameters is made clear in a series of progressively more complex examples. Effective use of the inter-reflection calculation is described. The illuminance calculation is validated under real sky conditions for a full-size office space. The simulation model used sky luminance patterns that were based directly on measurements. Internal illuminance predictions are compared with measurements for 754 skies that cover a wide range of naturally occurring conditions. The processing of the sky luminance measurements for the lighting simulation is described. The accuracy of the illuminance predictions is shown to be, in the main, comparable with the accuracy of the model input data. There were a number of predictions with low accuracy. Evidence is presented to show that these result from imprecision in the model specification - such as, uncertainty of the circumsolar luminance - rather than the prediction algorithms themselves. Procedures to visualise and reduce illuminance and lighting-related data are presented. The ability of sky models to reproduce measured sky luminance patterns for the purpose of predicting internal illuminance is investigated. Four sky models and two sky models blends are assessed. Predictions of internal illuminance using sky models/blends are compared against those using measured sky luminance patterns. The sky model blends and the Perez All-weather model are shown to perform comparably well. Illuminance predictions using measured skies however were invariably better than those using sky models/blends. Several formulations of the daylight coefficient approach for predicting time varying illuminances are presented. Radiance is used to predict the daylight coefficients from which internal illuminances are derived. The form and magnitude of the daylight coefficients are related to the scene geometry and the discretisation scheme. Internal illuminances are derived for four daylight coefficient formulations based on the measured luminance patterns for the 754 skies. For the best of the formulations, the accuracy of the daylight coefficient derived illuminances is shown to be comparable to that using the standard Radiance calculation method. The use of the daylight coefficient approach to both accurately and efficiently predict hourly internal daylight illuminance levels for an entire year is described. Daylight coefficients are invariant to building orientation for a fixed building configuration. This property of daylight coefficients is exploited to yield hourly internal illuminances for a full year as a function of building orientation. Visual data analysis techniques are used to display and process the massive number of derived illuminances.
Borrero, Luis. Deliver E room: a new physical space for the residential units to come. Washington, USA, 2001. The need to allocate vendors of the 13th century castles gave origin to a large hall where all could gather,work and sleep.The need of ice boxes to be constantly replenished in the early 20th century gave origin to the ice/service entrance in many houses.In the 1950 “s the milkman model brought also the milk- box,a unit to be installed or built into customeris homes. Once again,deliveries will influence the architecture of the households,fueled this time by the e-commerce economy. Soon, a new appliance that will enable the unattended delivery of physical goods is going to be part of future households,and architects will have to plan ahead in order to accommodate this necessity of the Internet world. The space for this appliance, the deliver Eroom,will have to be accessible from the interior and exterior of the house, allow enough capacity for the appliance that must accommodate most if not all deliveries,and access to it will most probably be controlled through the Net.
Gross, Mark. Design as exploring constraints. Cambridge, Massachussetes - USA, 1986. A theory of designing is proposed, developed, and illustrated with examples from the domain of physical form. Designing is seen as the exploration of alternative sets of constraints and of the regions of alternative solutions they bound. Designers with different objectives reach different solutions within the same set of constraints, as do designers with the same objectives operating under different constraints. Constraints represent design rules, relations, conventions, and natural laws to be maintained. Some constraints and objectives are given at the outset of a design but many more are adopted along the way. Varying the constraints and the objectives is part of the design process. The theory accounts for various kinds of expertise in designing: knowledge of particular constraints in a design domain, inference--calculating the consequences of design decisions, preference--using objectives to guide decision-making, and partitioning--skill in dividing a large and complicated design into sets of simpler pieces, and understanding the dependencies between decisions. The ability to manage ambiguity and vagueness is an important aspect of design expertise. A computational model supporting the theory is proposed and its implementation discussed briefly. The constraint explorer, a computational environment for designing based on constraint descriptions is described. We see how the constraint explorer might be used in connection with a simple space- planning problem. The problem is taken from the procedures of the Stichting Architecten Research (S.A.R.), a specific architectural design methodology developed to help architects systematically explore layout variability in alternative floorplan designs. Finally, a selected review of related work in constraint-based programming environments, architectural design methods, and the intersection of the two fields is presented.  
Jeng, Tay-Sheng. Design coordination modeling: a distributed computer environment for managing design activities., 1999. The objective of this thesis is to develop an effective multi-user computer environment supporting design collaboration. This research takes a knowledge-based approach to capture meaningful process semantics specified by designers to effectively realize work. It concentrates on establishing a process infrastructure and tools for managing activities for a building design team, with emphasis on remote collaboration and distributed coordination. The results of this research include a design coordination model (DCM) and the prototype of a future generation of distributed coordination environments. DCM provides a digital representation of design processes and support visibility of coordination logic within a CAD environment. Some extended features of distributed coordination are explored in DCM, equipped with a model server that is developed using a web-based three-tier computing system architecture approach.    
Oh, Yeonjoo. Design evaluator: Critiquing freehand sketches. Washington, USA, 2004. This thesis concerns about how feedback integrates into a sketch design system. Design Feedback as critiques can help the designer better envisage what a design will be like in advance, allowing the designer to avoid certain kinds of errors. This thesis discusses how a freehand sketch critiquing system can be developed and how this tool can support in the architectural design process as design tool. The thesis proposes a working prototype, Design Evaluator to demonstrate the potential of this knowledge-based design system. The Design Evaluator system has the design knowledge translated into rules related to four architectural spatial issues: proper room sequence, adjacency, room placement, and minimum area. The Design Evaluator interprets the designer's architectural diagram and recognizes the spatial relations such as circulation paths and room placements. It checks the architectural diagram with the built-in rules. When a rule violation occurs, the system displays the design critiques in three ways: text messages, annotated drawings, and texture-mapped 3D visualization. These critiques stimulate the designer's “reflection-in-actioni cycle during the sketching of her/his design ideas. Moreover, they help the designer to detect errors in the early design stage.
Kilian, Axel. Design Exploration through Bidirectional Modeling of Constraints. Cambridge, Massachussetes - USA, 2006. Today digital models for design exploration are not used to their full potential. The research efforts in the past decades have placed geometric design representations firmly at the center of digital design environments. In this thesis it is argued that models for design exploration that bridge different representation aid in the discovery of novel designs. Replacing commonly used analytical, uni-directional models for linking representations, with bidirectional ones, further supports design exploration. The key benefit of bidirectional models is the ability to swap the role of driver and driven in the exploration. The thesis developed around a set of design experiments that tested the integration of bidirectional computational models in domain specific designs. From the experiments three main exploration types emerged. They are: branching explorations for establishing constraints for an undefined design problem, illustrated in the design of a concept car. Circular explorations for the refinement of constraint relationships, illustrated in the design of a chair. Parallel explorations for exercising well-understood constraints, illustrated in a form finding model in architecture. A key contribution of the thesis is the novel use of constraint diagrams developed to construct design explorers for the experiments. The diagrams show the importance of translations between design representations in establishing design drivers from the set of constraints. The incomplete mapping of design features across different representations requires the redescription of the design for each translation. This redescription is a key aspect of exploration and supports design innovation. Finally, this thesis argues that the development of design specific design explorers favors a shift in software design away from monolithic, integrated software environments and towards open software platforms that support user development.
Campbell, Dace. Design in virtual environments using architectural metaphor: a HIT lab gallery. Washington D.C., USA, 1996. This thesis explores the application and limitations of architectural metaphor in the design of virtual environments. Architecture, whether physical or virtual, is the expression of a society realized as meaningful space. Physical and virtual architecture have their own constraints and context, yet both use architectural organization as a way to order forms and spaces in the environment. Both strive to create meaningful place by defining space, and both must allow the participant to develop a cognitive map to orient and navigate in the space. The lack of physics of time and space in the virtual realm requires special attention and expression of its architecture in order for the participant to cope with transitions. These issues are exemplified by the development of an on-line gallery of virtual environments. Conclusions reached by the development of this design are discussed in the context of orientation, navigation, transition, enclosure, and scale. 
Papamichael, Konstantinos. Design process and knowledge possibilities and limitations of computer-aided design. Berkeley, California - USA, 1991. An attempt to determine how computers can be used to assist designers resulted in the development of a design theory, according to which design is'feeling and thinking while acting.'Design is theorized as living through one's imagination, however being continuously affected by real life itself. The design process is decomposed into elementary activities that are characterized with respect to the nature of knowledge requirements and the degree to which they can be specified and delegated to computers. The results are considered as criteria to determine possibilities and limitations of computer-aided design. An integration of a variety of computer applications tools is proposed towards the design and development of a computer-based Design Support Environment (DSE), that is applicable to any design domain. The proposed DSE automates all specifiable and delegable design activities, while assisting with the nondelegable ones through appropriate user interface. A DSE demonstration prototype is also presented in the Appendix. This prototype addresses the design of fenestration and electric lighting systems of office spaces with respect to comfort, energy and cost. 
Hwang, Young-Sam. Design Semantics and CAD Databases. Sydney, Australia, 1994.
Bilda, Zafer. Designers Cognition in Traditional versus Digital Media during Conceptual Design. Ankara Turkey, 2001. Designers depend on representations to externalize their design thoughts. External representations are usually in the form of sketches (referred to as traditional media) in architectural design during the conceptual design. There are also attempts to integrate the use of digital representations into the conceptual design in order to construct a digital design medium. This thesis aims at gaining an insight on designersi cognitive processes while sketching in digital versus traditional media. The analysis of cognitive processes of designers based on their protocols is necessary to reveal their design behaviour in both media. An experiment was designed employing six interior architects (at Bilkent University) solving an interior space planning problem by changing the design media they work with. In order to encode the design behaviour, a coding scheme was utilized so that inspecting both the design activity and the responses to media transition was possible in terms of primitive cognitive actions of designers. The analyses of the coding scheme constituents, which are namely segmentation and cognitive action categories enabled a comparative study demonstrating the effect of the use of different media in conceptual design phase. The results depicted that traditional media had advantages over the digital media such as supporting perception of visual-spatial features, and organizational relations of the design, production of alternative solutions and better conception of the design problem. These results also emerged implications for the computer aid in architectural design to support the conceptual phase of the design process. 
Fischer, Thomas. Designing (tools (for designing (tools for...)))). Melbourne, Australia, 2008. Outcomes of innovative designing are frequently described as enabling us in achieving more desirable futures. How can we design and innovate so as to enable future processes of design and innovation? To investigate this question, this thesis probes the conditions, possibilities and limitations of toolmaking for novelty and knowledge generation, or in other words, it examines designing for designing. The focus of this thesis is on the development of digital design tools that support the reconciliation of conflicting criteria centred on architectural geometry. Of particular interest are the roles of methodological approaches and of biological analogies as guides in toolmaking for design, as well as the possibility of generalising design tools beyond the contexts from which they originate. The presented investigation consists of an applied toolmaking study and a subsequent reflective analysis using second- order cybernetics as a theoretical framework. Observations made during the toolmaking study suggest that biological analogies can, in informal ways, inspire designing, including the designing of design tools. Design tools seem to enable the generation of novelty and knowledge beyond the contexts in and for which they are developed only if their users apply them in ways unanticipated by the toolmaker. Abstract The reflective analysis offers theoretical explanations for these observations based on aspects of second-order cybernetics. These aspects include the modelling of designing as a conversation, different relationships between observers (such as designers) and systems (such as designers engaged in their projects), the distinction between coded and uncoded knowledge, as well as processes underlying the production and the restriction of meaning. Initially aimed at the development of generally applicable, prescriptive digital tools for designing, the presented work results in a personal descriptive model of novelty and knowledge generation in science and design. This shift indicates a perspective change from a positivist to a relativist outlook on designing, which was accomplished over the course of the study. Investigating theory and practice of designing and of science, this study establishes an epistemological model of designing that accommodates and extends a number of theoretical concepts others have previously proposed. According to this model, both design and science generate and encode new knowledge through conversational processes, in which open-minded perception appears to be of greater innovative power than efforts to exercise control. The presented work substantiates and exemplifies radical constructivist theory of knowledge and novelty production, establishes correspondences between systems theory and design research theory and implies that mainstream scientific theories and practices are insufficient to account for and to guide innovation.
Kvan, Thomas. Designing Together Apart., 1999. The design of computer tools to assist in work has often attempted to replicate manual methods. This replication has been proven to fail in a diversity of fields such as business management, Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Computer- Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW). To avoid such a failure being repeated in the field of Computer-Supported Collaborative Design (CSCD), this thesis explores the postulation that CSCD does not have to be supported by tools which replicate the face-to-face design context to support distal architectural design. The thesis closely examines the prevailing position that collaborative design is a social and situated act which must therefore be supported by high bandwidth tools. This formulation of architectural collaboration is rejected in favour of the formulation of a collaborative expert act. This proposal is tested experimentally, the results of which are presented. Supporting expert behaviour requires different tools than the support of situated acts. Surveying research in computer-supported collaborative work (CSCW), the thesis identifies tools that support expert work. The results of the research is transferred to two contexts: teaching and practice. The applications in these two contexts illustrate how CSCD can be applied in a variety of bandwidth and technological conditions. The conclusion is that supporting collaborative design as an expert and knowledge-based act can be beneficially implemented in the teaching and practice of architecture.  
Sevaldson, Birger. Developing Digital Design Techniques Investigations on Creative Design Computing. Oslo, Norway, 2005. 1.1. The themes in this theses 16 1.1.1. Mind the mind gap 16 1.1.2. Prologue: The World Center for Human Concerns 17 1.1.3. Creative computer use 26 1.1.4. Design strategies and techniques 31 1.2. Overview 33 1.2.1. Main issues 34 1.2.2. The material 36 1.2.3. The framework of this thesis 37 2. CURRENT STATE AND BACKGROUND 39 2.1. New tools, old thoughts. 39 2.1.1. A misuse strategy 44 2.1.2. Emergence in design 47 2.1.3. Programming and design 50 2.1.4. Artificial intelligence 53 2.1.5. Human intelligence and artificial representations 53 2.2. Electronic dreams 54 2.2.1. The dream of intuitive software 55 2.2.2. The dream of the designing machine 60 2.2.3. The dream of self-emerging architecture; genetic algorithms in design 61 2.2.4. A cultural lag 62 2.3. Ideas and ideology 64 2.3.1. A personal perspective on the theories of the 1990s 65 2.3.2. "The suffering of diagrams" 68 2.3.3. Architectural theory and design methodology 69 2.4. Ideas on creativity 72 2.4.1. What is creativity? 73 2.4.2. Creativity, a cultural phenomenon. 75 2.4.3. Creativity in the information age 79 2.4.4. Creativity-enhancing techniques 81 2.4.5. Crucial fiicro-cultures 82 2.4.6. A proposal for a practitioner approach to creativity 83 2.5. Summary and conclusion of part 2 84 3. NEW DESIGN TECHNIQUES 86 3.1. Introduction 86 3.2. New technology - new strategy 87 3.3. Thinking through design practice: the inspirational playful design approach 88 3.4. A Corner stone: emergence 89 3.4.1. The source material 94 3.5. Recoding, translation and interpretation 95 A case: Tidsrom 97 3.6. Reconfiguring schemata 109 3.7. Rules and games 113 3.8. Virtuality and virtual models 118 3.8.1. What is "The Virtual"? 118 3.8.2. Virtual reality 119 Investigating "the virtual" 120 3.8.3. Analysing the virtual 126 3.9. Visual thinking (diagrams and visual thinking) 130 3.9.1. Visual Thinking and Abstraction. 130 3.9.2. A heuristic process 132 3.9.3. Visual thinking, skills and tacit knowledge 132 3.9.4. Media for visual thinking 133 3.10. Diagrammatic thinking 138 3.10.1. Descriptive diagrams 142 3.10.2. Generative diagrams 144 3.10.3. Versioning 149 3.10.4. Finding 153 3.10.5. Translation and interpretation 158 3.10.6. From generative diagram to program 168 3.10.7. Dynamic generative diagrams 171 3.11. The question of selection 175 3.12. Summary and conclusion of part 3 178 4. WAYS OF WORKING: FROM DESIGN PRACTICE TOWARDS THEORY AND DIGITAL DESIGN METHODS 179 4.1. Introduction 179 4.1.1. Practice-based research 180 4.1.2. Visual material is central. 180 4.1.3. Two investigation paths 180 4.1.4. Achievements 180 4.2. Methods 181 4.2.1. Explorative and generative research 182 4.2.2. A first-person approach 183 4.2.3. Analysis 184 4.2.4. The Material 185 4.3. Systematising creative computer use. Ways of working; techniques in creative computer use. 186 4.3.1. Categorization 186 4.3.2. Mapping the field of design computing. 187 4.3.3. Generic techniques 190 4.3.4. Specific techniques 192 4.3.5. Table of techniques 193 4.3.6. Examples of techniques 200 4.3.7. Traces of technology. 213 4.4. The further use of the generated material 219 4.4.1. Realisation strategies 221 4.4.2. Templates and scaffolds 223 4.5. Summary of Part 4 240 PART 5. WAYS OF THINKING: INTENTIONS IN CREATIVE COMPUTER USE. 241 5.1. Intentions 241 5.1.1. Categorising intentions 242 5.2. Intention themes 243 5.2.1. Cases and samples from Group one: Formal, phenomenal, spatial and geometrical themes 244 5.2.2. Intentions of response to the complexity of urban systems 297 5.3. The Hybrid Process 317 5.3.1. Hybridization strategies 319 5.3.2. The hybrid process and its elements. 328 6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 344 6.1. Principles, concepts and methods for creative design computing 344 6.2. A new type of creativity? 348 6.3. A practice as the field for an investigation 349 6.4. Suggestions for further studies 349
Koutamanis, Alexander. Development of a computerized handbook of architectural plans. Delft, the Netherlands, 1990. The dissertation investigates an approach to the development of visual / spatial computer representations for architectural purposes through the development of the computerized handbook of architectural plans (chap), a knowledge-based computer system capable of recognizing the metric properties of architectural plans. This investigation can be summarized as an introduction of computer vision to the computerization of architectural representations: chap represents an attempt to automate recognition of the most essential among conventional architectural drawings, floor plans. The system accepts as input digitized images of architectural plans and recognizes their spatial primitives (locations) and their spatial articulation on a variety of abstraction levels. The final output of chap is a description of the plan in terms of the grouping formations detected in its spatial articulation. The overall structure of the description is based on an analysis of its conformity to the formal rules of its “stylistici context (which in the initial version of chap is classical architecture). Chapter 1 suggests that the poor performance of computerized architectural drawing and design systems is among others evidence of the necessity to computerize visual / spatial architectural representations. A recognition system such as chap offers comprehensive means for the investigation of a methodology for the development and use of such representations. Chapter 2 describes a fundamental task of chap: recognition of the position and shape of locations, the atomic parts of the description of an architectural plan in chap. This operation represents the final and most significant part of the first stage in processing an image input in machine environment. Chapter 3 moves to the next significant problem, recognition of the spatial arrangement of locations in an architectural plan, that is, recognition of grouping relationships that determine the subdivision of a plan into parts. In the absence of systematic and exhaustive typologic studies of classical architecture that would allow us to define a repertory of the location group types possible in classical architectural plans, Chapter 3 follows a bottom-up approach based on grouping relationships derived from elementary architectural knowledge and formalized with assistance from Gestalt theory and its antecedents. The grouping process described in Chapter 3 corresponds both in purpose and in structure to the derivation of a description of an image in computer vision [Marr 1982]. Chapter 4 investigates the well-formedness of the description of a classical architectural plan in an analytical manner: each relevant level (or sublevel) of the classical canon according to Tzonis & Lefaivre [1986] is transformed into a single group of criteria of well-formedness which is investigated independently. The hierarchical structure of the classical canon determines the coordination of these criteria into a sequence of cognitive filters which progressively analyses the correspondence of the descriptions derived as in Chapter 3 to the constraints of the canon. The methodology and techniques presented in the dissertation are primarily considered with respect to chap, a specific recognition system. The resulting specification of chap gives a measure of the use of such a system within the context of a computerized collection of architectural precedents and also presents several extensions to other areas of architecture. Although these extensions are not considered as verifiable claims, Chapter 5 describes some of their implications, including on the role of architectural drawing in computerized design systems, on architectural typologies, and on the nature and structure of generative systems in architecture.
Stelios, Kouzeleas. Development of a help tool in architectural acoustics simulation adaptable in a modelisation CAD system In Order number 2642. Bordeaux, France, 2002. The aim of the proposed research in this thesis is the rapprochement of the acoustical conception and simulation with the architectural conception in order to give the architect the means to appreciate and evaluate the acoustical results, facilitate his collaboration with the acoustician, and, finally, allow him to have a help base during his architectural conception for acoustical simulation. This is proposed by the realisation of a plate-form of help adaptable to an architectural modelisation C.A.D. program, integrating acoustical calculate motors, graphical modules and research developed. This research concerns the definition of different processes of modelisation and simplification of architectural models for acoustical simulation, the translation of the acoustical results in an architectural way, the integration of an architectural approach to the acoustical conception, and an acoustical integrated multimedia database. 
Samiaji, Doddy. Development Simulator. Washington, USA, 2001. Development Simulator is a 3D simulation design application for architects and urban designers. Written in Visual Basic environment, using COM and ActiveX, it serves as a decision-making-support-system that reveals the impact of development numbers to three dimensional building form. The tool combines the power of a drawing program, AutoCAD 2000 and a spreadsheet program, Excel 2000. Development Simulator runs in Windows 2000.
Viswanadha, Kameshwari. Digital Charrette: a Web Based Tool to Supplement the Admission Procedure to Graduate Architectural Degree Programs. Texas, Texas - USA, 2001. The NAAB (National Architectural Accrediting Board Inc.), as an evaluator of architectural education in the United States has established both graduate architectural curriculum criteria and student performance criteria expected to be fulfilled by the student at the time of graduation. To fulfill these standards set by the NAAB, the graduate selection committees of architecture schools require the ability to predict graduate design studio performance of the applicants. The high percentage of international applicants suggests the necessity of a standardized evaluation tool. This research presents a standardized web based testing environment titled Digital Charrete‚ that would contribute towards the fair evaluation of applicants to graduate architectural degree programs. Spatial ability is related to Design and Visualization skills‚, a part of the NAAB criteria, and also associated with design studio performance of architecture students. The Digital Charrette is a VRML environment within which spatial exercises are administered. It is designed to supplement the current admission procedure, and would enable the selection of students with greater potential to perform well in graduate architectural design studios. This research is also an attempt to understand the implications of using virtual three-dimensional environments for such testing purposes. The ability of this web based tool to predict student performance in architectural design studios is investigated. Finally, the user reactions to testing in a virtual three-dimensional environment and timed tasks are included in this study. Analysis of the results showed that the test takers thought the Digital Charrette was a good evaluator of their spatial ability. The study population showed a preference for paper-based media in the pre-task analysis. A huge percentage of the study population found the Digital Charrette Œfun to do‚ and Œchallenging‚. The major drawback of this study was that the VRML environment was unable to render itself for testing purposes in a way that the medium would not hinder the test takers‚ performance. This may also be considered a cause for a relatively smaller percentage of success amongst test takers. The study population however unanimously considered the concept of the Digital Charrette, i.e. testing in virtual environments, significant to evaluation of architecture students.
Shelden, D.. Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry s Architecture. Cambridge, Massachusetts - USA, 2002. This thesis presents work in the development of computational descriptions of Gehryis architectural forms. In Gehryis process for realizing buildings, computation serves as an intermediary agent for the integration of design intent with the geometric logics of fabrication and construction. This agenda for digital representation of both formal and operational intentions, in the context of an ongoing exploration of challenging geometries, has provided new roles for computation in architectural practice. The work described in this thesis focuses on the digital representation of surface geometry and its capacity for describing the constructibility of building enclosure systems. A particular class of paper surface forms - curved surfaces with minimal in plane deformation of the surface material - provide the specific object of inquiry for exploring the relationships between form, geometry and constructibility. An analysis and framework for the description of Gehryis geometry is developed through existing theory of differential geometry and topology. Geometric rules of constructibility associated with several enclosure system strategies are presented in this framework. With this theoretical framework in place, the discussion turns to efforts to develop generative strategies for the rationalization of surface forms into constructible configurations.
Shelden, D.R.. Digital surface representation and the constructibility of Gehry s architecture . Cambridge Massachussets - USA, 2002.
Yakeley, Megan. Digitally Mediated Design: Using Computer Programming to Develop a Personal Design Process. Cambridge, Massachussetes - USA, 2000. This thesis is based on the proposal that the current system of architectural design education confuses product and process. Students are assessed through, and therefore concentrate on, the former whilst the latter is left in many cases to chance. This thesis describes a new course taught by the author at MIT for the last three years whose aim is to teach the design process away from the complexities inherent in the studio system. This course draws a parallel between the design process and the Constructionist view of learning, and asserts that the design process is a constant learning activity. Therefore, learning about the design process necessarily involves learning the cognitive skills of this theoretical approach to education. These include concrete thinking and the creation of external artifacts to develop of ideas through iterative, experimental, incremental exploration. The course mimics the Constructionist model of using the computer programming environment LOGO to teach mathematics. It uses computer programming in a CAD environment, and specifically the development of a generative system, to teach the design process. The efficacy of such an approach to architectural design education has been studied using methodologies from educational research. The research design used an emergent qualitative model, employing Maykut and Morehouses interpretive descriptive approach (Maykut & Morehouse, 1994) and Glaser and Strausss Constant Comparative Method of data analysis (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Six students joined the course in the Spring 1999 semester. The experience of these students, what and how they learned, and whether this understanding was transferred to other areas of their educational process, were studied. The findings demonstrated that computer programming in a particular pedagogical framework, can help transform the way in which students understand the process of designing. The following changes were observed in the students during the course of the year: Development of understanding of a personalized design process, move from using computer programming to solve quantifiable problems to using it to support qualitative design decisions, change in understanding of the paradigm for computers in the design process, awareness of the importance of intrapersonal and interpersonal communication skills, change in expectations of, their sense of control over, and appropriation of, the computer in the design process, evidence of transference of cognitive skills, change from a Behaviourist to a Constructionist model of learning Thesis Supervisor: William J. Mitchell Title: Professor of Architecture and Media Arts and Sciences, School of Architecture and Planning
Park, Hyeonsoo. Distributed Representation of an Architectural Model . Harvard, Massachussets - USA, 2001. This thesis proposes a new strategy for design representation that uses dynamically decentralized design objects, distributed over the web and instantiated just-in-time, instead of the traditional centralized, static and local CAD model. It addresses the problem of coping with dynamic information changes that architects face when designing with increasingly time-sensitive product information from multiple suppliers. The dissertation describes the new distributed architecture for design representation, and outlines a corresponding new process model to address the needs of AEC (Architectural, Engineering and Construction) industries'architectural designers during design and procurement phases. The feasibility of the process was tested in a prototype system that combines existing state-of-the-art technologies. The prototype integrates the direct manipulation functionality of Autodesk's i-Drop technology with the Internet communication protocols HTTP and TCP/IP, and a VBA macro running from within AutoCAD 2000i. In the proposed model, libraries of AEC objects, representing suppliers'products, are located in multiple suppliers'databases and are made available to CAD designers remotely over the Web. Suppliers using the system are expected to produce product information as XML documents. This standardizes the interface with the remote designers. 
Liu, Clive. Drawings as Models for Design: a Computer Drawing System to Build Models Supporting Design Process through Abstractions. Pittsburg. Pennsylvania - USA, 1984. A general design process can be characterized by the sequence of defining various abstract objects used to represent the artifact. For example, designers use various abstractions (dclined as abstrnct objects), such as graphs, polygons, etc., to represent the artifact. As design evolves, these abstract objects will be transformed into a definition (eg. of a building) detailed enough to allow manufacturing and to determine that the result will perform as desired. This thesis is concerned with providing a computer drawing system that could support various abstractions in the design process and allow various representations of the design to be processed and interpreted. A precise drawing contains not only the shape information, but also conveys many topological and geometric relations that its elements must hold to correspond to the arbfact in reality. For many operations during design, one wants these type of relations to be maintained. Other than the drawing being an iconic model, these relations are the semantics of the drawing and, if embedded in the drawing, imbue it with many characteristics of a symbolic model. Current CAD systems have no or limited mechanisms for embedding such relations in a drawing. It is my intent to demonstrate that drawings, especially for shape (both topologV and geometry) information, can be defined as various abstract objects during design process. Therefore, drawings are used as models to represent the artifact. When a model is manipulated, relations defined in the model are maintained.
Botman, J.J.. Dynamics of Housing and Planning: a Regional Simulation Model. Delft, the Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1981.
Fudos, Ioannis. Editable Representations for 2D Geometric Design ., 1993.
Ahmeti, Flamur. Efficiency of Lightweight Structural Forms: the Case of Treelike Structures - a comparative Structural Analysis. Vienna, Austria, 2007. This work addresses the structural efficiency of lightweight tree-like structures for three case studies: Stuttgart Airport, Beaverton Library, and Thermal Bad Oeyenhausen. The case studies are simulated using Build simulation software, to determine the stresses induced in each structure. The material efficiency and shapes areexplored in terms of load bearing structures. Hybrids of the above structures are formed to compare the pattern morphology used by various types of tree-like structure and assess the structural behaviour. In addition, (steel, wood and concrete) materials are compared to determine which would have better structural performance. In order to show the resemblance between the growing trees and the tree-like structures, an example of both cases is simulated and stresses evaluated. Results show that, in general, the minimum stress and deformations are obtained for steel. Structures made out of this material also exhibit higher load bearing capability, optimum stability factors and the best geometric efficiency, inspite of higher specific weight (10 times wood, and 3 times concrete). 
Jackson, Daniel. Electronic Telecommunications and the Emergence ofGlobal Architecture. New York, USA, 1990. The act of communicating is an organizational behaviour which can be learned and modified to create the most efficient environment for the exchange of information. A state of effective communication relies not only upon its methods but also upon its underlying state of organization. In utilizing the computer to decrease the obstruction of time and distance, the profession can accelerate and become more efficient in communicating on the three most basic levels of information and thought transfer: (1) between the architect and the client, (2) between the architect and the design team (whether they are within the same office or are distant consultants), and (3) between the constantly growing and universally accessible sources of both specific and general knowledge and data bases. The use of the computer as a tool for instantaneous access to knowledge pools, clients and other professionals poses several questions which should be of great concern within the architectural community which has become compartmentalized. This paper explores how the computer can aid the architect in communication amongst peers, with the client, and eventually, with the builder and user. Furthermore, this paper proposes a'global network'or'global office'as an extension of current practice wherein the architect's entire scope of design knowledge is broadened.  [Citation from CADLine]
Jun, H.J.. Emergence of shape semantics of architectural drawings in CAAD systems. Sydney, Australia, 1997.
Brandt, Eva. Event driven product development - collaboration and learning In Dept. of Technology and Social Sciences, Technical University of Denmark., 2001. This dissertation is the result of the research project “Event-Driven Product Development: Collaboration and Learning”. It is an industrial Ph.D. project carried out in collaboration between the company Danfoss A/S, and the Institute of Technology and Social Sciences at the Technical University of Denmark, now the Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management. The research was funded partly by Danfoss A/S and partly by the Danish Academy of Technical Sciences (ATV), who have named the project EF 609. The research project began in February 1996. I have had three supervisors: Thomas Binder and Jacob Buur both of whom represent Danfoss, and Lauge Baungaard Rasmussen from the Institute of Technology and Social Sciences at the Technical University of Denmark.
Wong, P.C.. EXPAN--An Integrated System for the Generation of Prefabricated Panel Wall Layout Design., 1989. This thesis develops an integrated system to demonstrate the capabilities of those systems in aiding preliminary design. An existing CAD system, the Eagle modelling system, is used to control the graphic generation of the preliminary design. Some knowledge is written in a macro language conforming to the Eagle syntax requirements. An expert system shell written in C, the EXBUILD expert system shell, is used to control the expert system. The knowledge used by the expert system is written in production rules and frames conforming to the EXBUILD syntax requirements. The control over the whole system is primarily through Eagle with the integrated system running within the Eagle environment. 
Oxman, Robert. Expert System for Generation and Evaluation in Architectural Design In Technion, Faculty of Architecture and Town Planing. Haifa, Israel, 1988. The research field, focuses on a new research area of Knowledge Based Systems for Architectural Design. The research deals with concepts and tools emerging from Artificial Intelligence, Knowledge Based Systems and Expert Systems. The research is involved with the construction of a theoretical basis for the development of approaches and methods for the representation and control of design knowledge as a reasoning process. Key questions which attempt to reconsider representation and control in design are formulated. The following questions serve as a research framework out of which new approaches, methods and tools were developed. (1.)What are the existing ideas, methods and tools in Expert Systems? (2.) What are the performance characteristics of Expert Systems in Architectural Design ? (3.) What are the desired operative characteristics and interactions for Expert Systems in design ? (4.) How is it possible to formulate and apply the diverse forms of Architectural Knowledge in Expert Systems for design? (5.) What are the problems of implementation in the development of Expert Systems for design ? The state of the art in knowledge based systems is surveyed, while emphasizing the differences between conventional systems and knowledge based systems. Representation and control methods and the components of expert systems are reviewed. Expert systems for diagnosis, interpretation, planning and design are analysed with respect to their performance characteristics. Techniques and technologies of existing tools are defined. An expert system for the generation and evaluation of ill defined architectural design problems is develped. A formalization of the concept of'design interpretation'is proposed and developed. It is applied in the process of defining and classifying the performance characteristics of expert systems for design. This concept is based upon two sets of reasoning processes: those which enable a mapping between design requirements and solution descriptions in the generation stage of design and those between solution descriptions and performance evaluation in the evaluation stage of design. On the basis of the formalization of this concept, an expert system capable of integrating various modes of performance is proposed and developed. The system functions as a'design generator', a'design critic', or a'design critic-generator'. These modes, which integrate generation and evaluation in the same system, operate by employing both forward chaining and backward chaining inference mechanisms. As a result of the examination of desired forms of interactions, a new approach for dual direction interpretation between graphic and verbal modes is developed. This approach reflects the importance of both graphical and verbal expression in design. The approach is based upon a simultaneous mapping between symbolic-verbal interpretation and graphic interpretation. The work presents the mapping process through the concept of design interpretation, employing geometrical knowledge, typological knowledge and evaluation knowledge. A tool which provides communication between an expert system and a graphic system was developed and is presented. The importance of such a tool in expert systems for design resides in the provision of free choice to the user for interacting with the system either graphically or verbally during the design process. An additional component in the development of knowledge-based systems for design is related to the important question of knowledge definition and the representational schemata of design knowledge. A new representational scheme for complex architectural knowledge, termed'The generation and refinement scheme of a design prototype'is proposed and developed. Its operation as part of a total integrated design system is demonstrated. The scheme is based upon the structures of knowledge of design precedents which constitute typical situations and solutions in architectural design. This scheme provides an appropriate representation for the two types of knowledge which operate in a refinement process of a design prototype. Generative knowledge describes the solution space by predefined refinement stages, interpretive knowledge enables their selection. The examination of representational methods for the proposed scheme indicated that employing a single representational method lacked enough generalization and expressive power for the needs of the design knowledge structures. It was found that a way to represent complex structures is through the integration of multiple methods of representation, each one according to the knowledge characteristics. In order to represent the proposed scheme of design knowledge, a unique method was developed which integrates both rules and frames. The method consists of a rules-frames-rules structure for the representation of a design prototype. An approach is developed for the implementation of these concepts in an expert system for design. PRODS: A prototype based expert system shell for design is developed and demonstrated. The system consists of three basic components: a rule-based expert system shell, a frame system, and a knowledge base interface. All system interactions are controlled by the inference engine. It passes control between the rule-base and the frame-base inference engines, and provides communications between the rule-based and frame-based representations. It is suggested that expert system can interface with external CAD systems including graphics, communicating through a central representation. These concepts and developments are demonstrated in two implementations. The PREDIKT system for the preliminary design of the residential kitchen, the PROUST system for the selection and refinement of dwelling types. PREDIKT demonstrates the integration of rules and a graphical-verbal interpreter, in addition, PROUST demonstrates the significance of hybrid representation in the generation and refinement processes. The results and conlusions are summarized. Future research agenda within the field of knowledge-based systems for design is discussed, and potential research areas are defined.
Washington, William. Exploring Ambient Media Presence. Washington, USA, 2001. In this paper I propose and explore a CMC interpersonal interaction paradigm for the home, based on instant messaging, that allows individuals to feel a connection with others while remaining centered and with their psyche intact. I consider the motivating factors of media use as well as the intersection of artifacts and technologies currently used to connect interpersonally with others. The interaction paradigm proposed, IM ambient media, “piggy backsi on IM interaction for three reasons 2: (1) IM user populations are growing fast, (2) IM use seems to be motivated by some of the same interpersonal communication motives as mass media and CMC surveillance and social affiliation, and (3) IM interaction is asynchronous and lightweight and thus lends itself to ambient media. These three characteristics of IM, as well as characteristics of ambient media are discussed, in depth.
De Vreede, G.J.. Facilitating Organizational Change . Delft, the Netherlands, 1995.
Scott, Sam. Feature Engineering for a Symbolic Approach to Text Classification. Ottawa, Canada, 1998. Most text classification research to date has used the standard'bag of words'model for text representation inherited from the word-based indexing techniques used in information retrieval research. There have been a number of past attempts to find better representations, but very few positive results have been found. Most of this previous work, however, has concentrated on retrieval rather than classification tasks, and none has involved symbolic learning algorithms. This thesis investigates a number of feature engineering methods for text classification in the context of a symbolic rule-based learning algorithm. The focus is on changing the standard'bag of words'representation of text by incorporating some shallow linguistic processing techniques. Several new representations of text are explored in the hopes that they will allow the learner to find points of high information gain that were not present in the original set of words. Representations based on both semantic and syntactic linguistic knowledge are defined and evaluated using the RIPPER rule-learning system. Two major corpora are used for evaluation: a standard, widely-used corpus of news stories, and a new corpus of folk song lyrics. The results of the experiments are mostly negative. Although in some cases the new representations are at least as good as the bag of words, the improvements in quantitative performance that were hoped for do not materialize. However, the results are not entirely discouraging. The syntactically defined representations may enable the learner to produce simpler and more comprehensible hypotheses, and the semantically defined representations do produce some real performance gains on smaller classification tasks that for various reasons fail to scale up to larger tasks. Some ideas are offered as to why the new representations fail to produce better results, and some suggestions are made for continuing the research in future. 
Logara, Irena. Finding of Form In ETH postgraduate studies final thesis. Zürich, Switzerland, 2004. The intention of the thesis is to explore the spatial effect created when multiple forces interact in the formation of space. Instead of modelling the form, an internal generative logic is articulated which then produces a range of possibilities for the “fi nding of form”. As a first step creative relationships are being built between the objects in the space and different behaviours are assigned to them. This way, objects interact with each other rather than just occupying space. New fields of infl uence are added or new relations made, creating new variations. These interdependencies then become the structuring, organizing principle for the generation and transformation of form. The surface boundary of the whole deforms as fi elds of infl uence vary in their location and intensity. The insertion of the dimension of time gives the opportunity to follow and observe the deformation process and establishes a relation of continuity between the objects and the space.
Senses, Nilufer. Foam Structures: a Comparative Structural Efficiency Analysis Based on the Building Case "Watercube". Vienna, Austria, 2007. Foam structure in macro-scale has arisen as a new type of large span building structure recently which is a product of cooperation of advanced structural design, radical architectural design approach, and computer and software technology, and efficiency of foam structure became an important question to answer which could help further structural improvements. This study analyses efficiency of large span foam structure relative to conventional large span building structures with a parametric simulation method. Space frames are a special case of conventional large span structures one compared with foam structures, because it satisfies criteria such as being lightweight and three-dimensional as foam structure. Analysis is based on the comparison of base cases of foam model and space frame model, which are developed on light of real projects the Water Cube and the Symbol Zone of Expo'70, based on the parameters structural depth, weight and displacement, and vertical and horizontal load cases. During the analysis structural behaviour of base cases were simulated by using a special structural behaviour simulation program. It was found that foam model is more efficient than space frame model in terms of structural depth which is an important issue for large span building structures from both architectural and engineering point of view. Capability of spanning large distance with significantly less structural depth makes foam structure a preferable, new generation, steel structure for large spans. Moreover, the development process of base case foam model demonstrated the critical importance of geometrical design concerns of foam structure. Structural behaviour simulations were exposed that structural optimization is one of the vitally important process of structural design of the foam structure.  
Yezioro, Abraham. Form and Performance in Intelligent CAAD Systems for Early Stages in Solar Design Building In Technion, Faculty of Architecture and Town Planing. Haifa, Israel, 1994. Great care should be taken at the initial design stages to determine the principles and solution schemes for climate and energy-conscious buildings. The present study deals with supporting the designer's efforts at the early stages to lay down the appropriate principles for a conceptual and geometric design of energy-preserving buildings, which are also thermally comfortable and adapted to local climatic conditions. For years, especially during the last decade, important data concerning climate-conscious construction has been compiled, but the information has not been utilized by designers, due to its inaccessibility. It is significant, though, that solutions based on this knowledge could be found and assessed at the preliminary design steps. A correct climate-conscious design conceived at the initial stages may guarantee that during later phases of the project's development no problems calling for essential and drastic changes in the basic design will crop up. The meaning of such changes at later stages may require sometimes a redesigning of the entire project. It is vital, therefore, to understand at the pre-conceptual phase, what are the correct climatic-solar design strategies which satisfy the requirements of the local conditions, and enable the attainment of thermal comfort conditions, while consuming the least possible energy. The present study proposes a computer-aided passive solar design system (PASYS) which enables the handling of entire designing process, and its general, conceptual aspects, as well as the preliminary designing steps and their particular, practical aspects. The system is based both on a knowledge base which stores the existing information concerning solar-climatic construction in the form of rules of thumb, and on precise procedural models which enable finding solutions suited to the local climatic conditions. The proposed system is an intelligent CAAD system which equips the designer who is aware of the constraints of climate and energy, with a tool to achieve a better design. PASYS was developed as a universal system to deal with the various activities involved in the initial - pre-conceptual and conceptual - design stages. The system supports the following design activities of each stage of this kind: analysis, synthesis, documentation, assessment and decision making. It is capable of analyzing given conditions, thus helping the designer understand which are the significant preliminary design stages that have a bearing on thermal comfort conditions in a given climate. The system is also capable of proposing solutions corresponding with the particular design phase, and assess their adequacy. These solutions take into account the constraints determined both by the designer and by the system itself, owing to the knowledge base it contains. The system can also document the various solutions that have been found and selected, so that may be further developed at later stages. This documentation is carried out by a graphic interface, developed as part of the system, as well as by an interface devised for existing CAD software. This study highlights the interaction between form and performance. The system is able to assess the performance of a proposed design by considering a given geometry (form), or viceversa, it is able to recommend a solution that can deliver desired and required performances. The study comprises three parts: (a.) Development of the conceptual model of a knowledge based design process. (b.) Further development of the initial stages of the afore mentioned process, including the pre-conceptual and conceptual stages. (c.) Demonstration of the mode of work with the PASYS system. // The first part of the study deals with the definition of the design process, the definition of the various design steps and their characteristics, and the definition of the activities involved in each design step. This part of the work also presents the kinds of knowledge bases affecting the design process, and shows how this knowledge is an inseparable part of the design process. The second part deals with the development of the initial design stages - the pre-conceptual and the conceptual - which are based on knowledge. This part also contains compiled knowledge that is relevant to the design stage, and a knowledge storage and retrieval method that was developed so as to make the knowledge available and accessible on demand. This part further presents precise procedural methods, developed to find solutions adapted to the specific given conditions, and to precisely assess the performance of the proposed solution. A case in point is the module of the SHADING system which enables a precise assessment of the mutual shading of buildings, and an examination of the exposure of the southern elevation to the sun, which is necessary in order to determine the effective solar absorption area in a proposed project in given environment conditions. The third part of the study demonstrates the solar-climatic design process put into action and supported by the system that was developed. This system enables the designer, even at the preliminary design stages, to determine which properties relating to local climatic conditions he will introduce into the building. This important, seemingly natural act, is usually performed during more advanced stages, when it might generate significant changes in the design, at a juncture when changes are hard to make. A PASYS-aided design environment ensures that from the beginning of the designing process, the project will be designed correctly and efficiently as far as energy is concerned.
Nagakura, Takehiko. Form Processing: a System for Architectural Design . Harvard, Massachussets - USA, 1996. This thesis introduces a new approach to developing software for formal synthesis in architectural design. It presents theoretical foundations, describes prototype specifications for computable implementation, and illustrates some examples. The approach derives from the observation that architects explore ideas through the use of sequences of drawings. Architects derive each drawing in a sequence from its predecessor by executing some transformation on a portion of the drawing. Thus, a formal design state is established by a sequence of drawings with historical information about their construction through progressive transformations. The proposed system allows an architect to develop a design in three ways. First, a new transformation can be added to a current sequence of drawings. Second, existing sequences can be edited by exchanging their subset sequences. Third, an existing sequence can be revised parametrically by assigning new values to its design variables. The system implements scripts that specify categories of shapes and transformations between any two shape categories. When an instance of a shape category is found in a design, a transformation can replace it with an instance of another shape category. Recursive application of a given set of transformations to an initial shape instance produces a sequence of drawings that represents a formal design state. The system encodes this formal design state as an assembly of all the shape instances used and their relationships (nesting, emergent and replacement). Furthermore, this assembly, called a construction graph, allows the existing sequences to be edited efficiently by exchanging subsets and to be revised parametrically. The advantage of this approach as demonstrated in the examples is that it allows intuitive, rapid and interactive construction of complex designs. Moreover, design knowledge can be captured by scripts that depict heuristic shapes and transformations as well as by assembled construction graphs which depict cases of formal design. Such a reusable and expandable knowledge base is essential for assisting disciplined and creative architectural design. 
Fihlo, Cabral. Formal Games and Interactive Design: Computers as Formal Devices for Informal Interaction between Clients and Architects In University of Sheffield, School of Architectural Studies., 1997.
Rutherford, J.H.. Forms - a Multi-faceted User Interface. Glasgow, Scotland - United Kingdom, 1987.
Tapia, Mark. From shape to style. Shape grammars: Issues in representation and computation, presentation and selection. Toronto, Canada, 1996. Shape grammars provide a graphical mechanism for generating a variety of shapes. A shape grammar is a production system for specifying recursive graphical computations for shapes (finite arrangements of finite lines of non-zero length). The dissertation considers design as a plan in art and confines itself to abstract designs composed of lines of uniform color and thickness. The dissertation develops an implementation of shape grammars in which the drawing is the computation. Restricting itself to non-parametric shape grammars, the dissertation approaches the area as two related topics: computation and representation delineate the internal aspects of the problem, presentation and selection are crucial to the user interface. The dissertation applies shape grammars to design, promoting three claims: First, that this dissertation advances the field of shape grammars, by combining approaches in the humanities with those in science, articulating the issues and providing a solid foundation for future work. Second, supporting quality design depends on enumerating the alternatives and pruning the design space using the visual aspects of design. Third, the generative aspect of design is not as important as its presentation and selection. 
Hasell, Mary. Gaming Simulation: a Communication Tool for Architects and Designers. Michigan, USA, 1983. In today's technological society, people spend more and more time in built environments that they have little or no control in shaping. There is also a large gap in communication between designers of the built environment and non-designers. The language that non-designers use to communicate specific spatial needs, whether aesthetic or functional, is different from the formal language that designers use to communicate these issues with each other. Gaming simulation, as a communication tool, has a number  Note of characteristics that make it useful for improving communication and increasing participation among designers and non-designers. In this study, a method of teaching the design of gaming simulation to designers of the built environment is developed. This method includes a Game Design Index or cataloging system of gaming tehniques, within the context of a game design process. A questionnaire was used to interview the designers of the most current physical design games about the gaming techniques in their games. Their answers were organized into the Game Design Index and set within the context of a process for designing a game. This process was tested by teaching a course to graduate students in Urban Planning and Architecture. Further testing was done by holding a game design workshop for professional architects. The findings indicate that it is possible to analyze existing games for their gaming techniques and to index them in an organized way. It is also possible to add this index to an existing game design process. By using this process, graduate students were able to design gaming simulations of high quality, although professionals who attended a day-and-a-half workshop, were not so successful. This latter problem was primarily the result of the complexity of the task and the time constraint imposed. This dissertation describes the game design process that was used to teach neophytes to design games as well as the Game Design Indexes for ten existing games. A comprehensive review of games concerned with physical design is included
Sowa, Agnieszka. Generation and optimization of complex and irregular construction/structure on example of NDS2004 final project In ETH postgraduate studies final thesis. Zürich, Switzerland, 2004. During the postgraduate studies in CAAD at ETH the research is mainly focused on computer based architectural design and its automatic production. Usually the way from an architectural idea to production starts with creating of a digital model of the structure which is than transformed into data which can be used by CNC machines. The final group work of NDS 2004students also follows this schema. This thesis is centered on its first element-computer aided architectural design.The aim of the research was to create a programming tool which generate linear construction grids for a cubic form and then optimize them according to given parameters. The data produced during this process is then visualized by digital models which can be evaluated by a designer as ready for production or can be changed in a further design process. Eventually, this data is an input for scripting tools creating production drawings for CNC machines. The thesis contains information about the mathematical description of the structure, methods of its generation, analysis and optimization. It deals also with problems connected with data exchange and storage. The effect of the work is presented by visualizations of digital models as well as by using rapid prototyping methods. Moreover, the most spectacular result of using tools presented in this thesis is the NDS2004 exhibition structure.
Heisserman, Jeff. Generative geometric design and boundary solid grammars. Pittsburg. Pennsylvania - USA, 1991. This thesis explores the automatic generation of solid models based on a grammatical paradigm. It introduces a formalism, boundary solid grammars, for this purpose. In this formalism, a set of geometric rules is applied to an initial solid model to generate a language or family of solids. A rule may match on a portion of the boundary of a solid, and then modify the solid or add new solids. Genesis is presented as an implementation of the formalism. A number of grammars have been constructed to demonstrate the concepts and usefulness of the formalism. These grammars generate simple geometric forms including snodakes, recursive octahedra, “fractali mountains, and spirals. Another grammar generates stereo lithography support structures. Queen Anne houses have been characterized with a more extensive grammar. Grammars are also being developed to generate housings for small computers and structural designs for high rise buildings. The thesis introduces the unary shape operations and a new paradigm for solid modelling, The unary shape operations take models that may have self-intersections, interpret the models consid- ering the given geometry and face orientations, and produce valid models. Local operations, the unary shape operations, and Boolean operations are used together within a valid modelling scheme. The thesis introduces a new boundary representation for manifold and nonmanifold solids, the generalized split-edge representation. It describes generalized Euler operations which manipulate the topology of the nonmanifold representation. Finally, the thesis presents a form of the Euler- Poincare equation that characterizes the relationship between elements of nonmanifold surfaces of solids.
Achten, Henri. Generic representations: an approach for modelling procedural and declarative knowledge of building types in architectural design . Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1997. The building type is a knowledge structure that is recognised as an important element in the architectural design process. For an architect, the type provides information about norms, layout, appearance, etc. of the kind of building that is being designed. Questions that seem unresolved about (computational) approaches to building types are the relationship between the many kinds of instances that are generally recognised as belonging to a particular building type, the way a type can deal with varying briefs (or with mixed use), and how a type can accommodate different sites. Approaches that aim to model building types as data structures of interrelated variables (so-called “prototypes”) face problems clarifying these questions. The research work at hand proposes to investigate the role of knowledge associated with building types in the design process. Knowledge of the building type must be represented during the design process. Therefore, it is necessary to find a representation which supports design decisions, supports the changes and transformations of the design during the design process, encompasses knowledge of the design task, and which relates to the way architects design. It is proposed in the research work that graphic representations can be used as a medium to encode knowledge of the building type. This is possible if they consistently encode the things they represent, if their knowledge content can be derived, and if they are versatile enough to support a design process of a building belonging to a type. A graphic representation consists of graphic entities such as vertices, lines, planes, shapes, symbols, etc. Establishing a graphic representation implies making design decisions with respect to these entities. Therefore it is necessary to identify the elements of the graphic representation that play a role in decision making. An approach based on the concept of “graphic units” is developed. A graphic unit is a particular set of graphic entities that has some constant meaning. Examples are: zone, circulation scheme, axial system, and contour. Each graphic unit implies a particular kind of design decision (e.g. functional areas, system of circulation, spatial organisation, and layout of the building). By differentiating between appearance and meaning, it is possible to define the graphic unit relatively shape-independent. If a number of graphic representations have the same graphic units, they deal with the same kind of design decisions. Graphic representations that have such a specifically defined knowledge content are called “generic representations.” An analysis of over 220 graphic representations in the literature on architecture results in 24 graphic units and 50 generic representations. For each generic representation the design decisions are identified. These decisions are informed by the nature of the design task at hand. If the design task is a building belonging to a building type, then knowledge of the building type is required. In a single generic representation knowledge of norms, rules, and principles associated with the building type are used. Therefore, a single generic representation encodes declarative knowledge of the building type. A sequence of generic representations encodes a series of design decisions which are informed by the design task. If the design task is a building type, then procedural knowledge of the building type is used. By means of the graphic unit and generic representation, it is possible to identify a number of relations that determine sequences of generic representations. These relations are: additional graphic units, themes of generic representations, and successive graphic units. Additional graphic units defines subsequent generic representations by adding a new graphic unit. Themes of generic representations defines groups of generic representations that deal with the same kind of design decisions. Successive graphic units defines preconditions for subsequent or previous generic representations. On the basis of themes it is possible to define six general sequences of generic representations. On the basis of additional and successive graphic units it is possible to define sequences of generic representations in themes. On the basis of these sequences, one particular sequence of 23 generic representations is defined. The particular sequence of generic representations structures the decision process of a building type. In order to test this assertion, the particular sequence is applied to the office building type. For each generic representation, it is possible to establish a graphic representation that follows the definition of the graphic units and to apply the required statements from the office building knowledge base. The application results in a sequence of graphic representations that particularises an office building design. Implementation of seven generic representations in a computer aided design system demonstrates the use of generic representations for design support. The set is large enough to provide additional weight to the conclusion that generic representations map declarative and procedural knowledge of the building type.
Datta, Sambit. Geometric delineation in Indian temple architecture: a study of the temple of Ranakdevi at Wadhwan . Ahmedabad, India, 1992.
Kolarevic, Branko. Geometric Relations as a Framework for Design Conceptualization. Harvard, Massachussets - USA, 1993. This study introduces geometric relations as a framework for design conceptualiza-tion-its key premise is that nothing is more fundamental in design than formation and discovery of relationships. The study attempts to establish a formal model for the development of a dynamic computer based graphic environment for design conceptualization that can recognize, record and maintain geometric design relations, merge “depictive” and “propositional”, explicit and implicit in design, and provide a qualitatively different way to explore shape, dimension, and geometric organization. The study presents an approach to this task of formalization, and explores some of the fundamental issues pertinent to the subject, such as computability and applicability to the task of designing.  Specifically, the study explores a relational description of shapes based on the concept of regulating or construction lines as an explicit formulation of a strategy to form generation and creative discovery, and proposes a lexicon of geometric relations to serve as a basis for composition. It hypothesizes that the construction lines can become much more useful and interesting when they are used not just as a rigid skeleton, but to regulate the behaviour of a drawing and to maintain its essential structure as its parts are manipulated. As a consequence, designers could structure the behaviour of the object being designed under future transformations, drawings could become seman-tically charged and could be manipulated in a semantically sophisticated fashion.  The first chapter places the issue in the broader context by arguing that designers form implicit relational models of their designs. This contention is supported by introducing some of the relevant literature on mental imagery. Second chapter introduces design relations and in particular geometric relations, as a focal point of this study. A dynamic computer -based graphic context for design conceptualization is presented and evalu-ated in the next two chapters and conclusions are drawn. In the third chapter, the model's computability is demonstrated and evaluated through ReDRAW, a limited implementation of a relations based graphic system. In the fourth chapter, the model's applicability in design conceptualization is discussed and supported by examples.
Chang, Teng-Wen. Geometric typed feature structures: toward design space exploration., 1999. Demonstrates the significance and usefulness of representation in geometry by generating various floor design layouts for a typical Australian house, a single fronted cottage and the building enclosures
Carlson, Christopher. Grammatical programming: an algebraic approach to the description of design spaces. Pittsburg. Pennsylvania - USA, 1993. The intuitiveness of spatial grammars makes them an attractive method of describing spaces of design. But grammars suffer from several inadequacies that limit their usefulness in design practice: (1) they cannot describe spaces of parametric, constrained designs, (2) they provide no control mechanisms for sequencing sets of rules, (3) they provide no'subroutines'for dealing with complexity, and (4) they do not accommodate transformation mechanisms other than the rewrite rule. All of these inadequacies my [sic] be remedied by embedding grammars in a larger framework of nondeterministic functional programming, a paradigm we call'grammatical programming.'In grammatical programs, rewrite rules are obtained from arbitrary nondeterministic functions by means of a'rewrite closure'operator. Both rules and the designs they operate upon may be parametric and have attached constraints, permitting grammatical programs to describe spaces of parametric, constrained designs. Rewrite rules, and more generally, nondeterministic functions, are combined into compound functions by means of the operators of a control algebra, which provides functional composition, union, iteration, and a type of negation called'failure.'The resulting modularity permits design space descriptions to be constructed, tested, and debugged piecewise, and to draw upon libraries of standard, debugged grammatical components. We begin this dissertation with an informal introduction to grammatical programming. We then give a formal, implementation-independent semantics of grammatical programs similar to the semantics of stratified logic programs. We discuss the implementation of a prototype compiler/interpreter and present case studies of the use of the prototype in describing spaces of rectangular dissections and a style of early Gothic traceries. We conclude with a discussion of lessons learned from the case studies and an agenda of further research necessary to make grammatical programming a useful tool in design practice.
Seo, Jongwon. Graphical Interface Design for Equipment Control in Unstructured Environments. Austin, Texas USA, 1998. This dissertation is concerned with graphical interfaces to improve equipment control in unstructured environments such as construction, demolition, mining, and facility/infrastructure maintenance. Initial evidence indicates that graphical representation of equipment and work environments would enhance equipment control by providing better spatial perception to the operator. Real-time simulation and task planning with graphical models can also ensure safe and reliable operation of equipment. In addition, graphical interfaces can assist the operator to plan, measure, and record work progress by integrating design or as-built CAD databases with graphical models of equipment and work environments. The use of graphical models for equipment control in unstructured environments, however, has limitations, because it is very difficult to generate exact graphical models in such a quickly changing environment. The main objectives of this study were to develop principles for design of, and to validate the usefulness of graphical interfaces for equipment control in unstructured environments. The design principles were derived based on general literature and case studies of the existing graphical control interface systems. The graphical control interface for a tele-operated clinker clearing robot was then designed and implemented based on the derived principles. The developed graphical interface was tested and evaluated, and the implementation was analyzed with respect to the derived principles. The quantitative test results of the graphical control interface for the tele-operated clinker clearing robot validated the usefulness of graphical interfaces for equipment control in unstructured environments. The design principles were also verified with the test results.
Bhavnani, S.K.. How Architects Draw with Computers: a Cognitive Analysis of Real-World CAD Interactions. Pittsburg. Pennsylvania - USA, 1996. New media throughout history have passed through a period of transition during which users and technologists took many years to understand and exploit the medium's potential. CAD appears to be passing through a similar period of transition, despite huge investments by vendors and users, CAD productivity remains difficult to achieve. To investigate if history can provide any insights into this problem, this thesis begins with an examination of well-known examples from history. The analysis revealed that, over time, users had developed efficient strategies which were based on powers and limitations of tools, delegation strategies exploited powers provided by tools, and circumvention strategies attempted to overcome their limitations. These insights on efficient strategies were used to investigate the CAD productivity problem based on four research questions: 1. How do architects currently use CAD systems to produce drawings? 2. What are the effects of current CAD usage on product and performance? 3. What are the possible causes of current CAD usage?  4. What are the capabilities of the CAD medium and how can they be used efficiently? The above four questions were addressed through the qualitative, quantitative, and cognitive analysis of data collected during an ethnographic study of architects working in their natural environment. The qualitative and quantitative analysis revealed that users missed many opportunities to use strategies that delegated iteration to the computer. The cognitive analysis revealed that missed opportunities to use such delegation strategies caused an increase in execution time, and an increase in errors many of which went undetected leading to the production of inaccurate drawings. These analyses pointed to plausible cognitive and contextual explanations for the inefficient use of CAD systems, and to a framework to identify and teach efficient CAD strategies. The above results were found to be neither unique to the CAD domain, nor to the office where the data were collected. The generality of these results motivated the identification of seven claims towards a general theory to explain and identify efficient strategies for a wide range of devices. This thesis contributes to the field of architecture by providing a detailed analysis of real-world CAD usage, and an approach to improve the performance of CAD users. The thesis also contributes to the field of human-computer interaction by demonstrating the generality of these results and by laying the framework for a general theory of efficient strategies which could be used to improve the performance of users of current and future computer applications. 
Koti, Vijayalakshmi. Hypermedia in Architectural Education: the World Wide Web as a Learning Tool. Washington, USA, 1997. Consideration of the World Wide Web as a tool for architectural education, especially through the production, presentation, and cataloging of critical case studies of buildings. Focuses on development of a collaborative paradigm for distributed development of such information through a case study template and central catalog web site. Includes an sample case study.
Wittkopf, Stephen. I-Light, a webbased learning system for architectural lighting design. Darmstadt, Germany, 2001. With the rising meaning of architectural lighting also the requirement at appropriate light planning rises. The possibilities of digital instruments were realized by several lamp manufacturers, which use 3D-CAD to present visualizations and use the Internet for their distribution. However in the field of universities it is important to offer instruments and methods with which the interaction of light and architecture can be learned descriptive, comprehensibly and interactively. Introductory in a theoretical section the bases of light planning and learn-educational concepts are pointed out. Parallel the state of the art in the areas of computer-aided learning and the light simulation is presented and evaluated regarding the learn-educational suitability. Thereupon an action requirement is formulated, which designates a new integration of the individual areas. It flows into the development of an interactive Web-based training system for the design with light - I-Light - whose concept and implementation in the following sections is described. In an application of examples the author points out finally, how this innovative connection of the Internet, 3D-CAD and simulation supports a better understanding of the medium light in the architecture perception. A new virtual light laboratory forms the core of this training system, in which architectural planning examples can be represented three-dimensional and changed interactively. A developed semantic scene model ensures for the fact that lighting, materials and delimitation surfaces are varied didactically appropriately and compared, so that visual effects and important interrelation can be assumed and checked. The author orients itself at the methodology by simulation and merges 3D-CAD and light simulation programs into the training system. The calculated photo-realistic picture is regarded not - as otherwise usual - as presentation material, but as interactive tools. Since 3D-CAD and light simulation programs presuppose much application knowledge, the author does not pursue to confront the user with these complex programs. He developed a new system with a Web-based graphic surface, that enables 3D-scenes to be loaded, be changed and stored easily (front-end). Furthermore it enables the remote control to an automatic, photo-realistic simulation on push of a button on an external high end render machine, that is connected via Internet, where at least all files are externally stored. For the operation of the front-end is only an average PC with a standard Webbrowser necessary. For the receiving station the author develops a new interface, which extends a standard Web server by the new possibility of storing and executing lighting simulations (back-end). The system presented by the author differs in the didactical concept and in the technical implementation from the solutions existing so far in similar areas. The interactive virtual light laboratories of the architectural planning examples represent a new beginning of Web-based learning environments. To the selected tools (HTML, Java, VRML, Web server, Lightscape) there yet exist no matured alternatives. 
Pires, Janice F., and Adriane Borda. Identificaçào de estruturas de saber implícitas em materiais didáticos para a delimitaçào de uma taxonomia de demínio In 1° Congresso Internacional de Educação a Distáncia da UFPel. Pelotas, Brasil, 2010.
Jiraschek, Roberta. Improving Child Safety in Residential Buildings via Architectural Design and Technology Integration. Vienna, Austria, 2007. This work intends to create design guidelines based on the classification of design elements in residential buildings according to risk levels. It suggests the inclusion of safety aspects in childrenis immediate environment by better design solutions and technologies which can help to prevent home accidents that mainly affect children aged between 0 and 4 years.  The guidelines could help to create new building and design standards for architects and the building industry. They are based on research, conducted mainly in the European Union and the United States of America, into regulations and programs focusing on the prevention of home accidents. This work may be of benefit to parents, manufacturers, the building industry, architects and governments. Parents may benefit, obviously, because they get information on how to decrease the number of hazards within their childrenis environment. It may help manufacturers improve their safety standards. Consumers may choose from a range of safer products. It may prompt the building industry to create safer designs and products thus avoiding liability claims. It may inspire architects to a more safety-oriented design. Finally governments could reduce health costs - in Austria alone, for example, more than € 3.4 billion a year are spent on home and leisure accidents.
Reymen, Isabelle. Improving design processes through structured reflection: a domain-independent approach. Eindhoven, the Netherlands, 2001.

In the world of designing, three fields of attention can be recognised, namely design research, design practice, and design education. Gaps exist between these three fields. In this thesis about designing, the focus is on the gap between design research and design practice. Design practice includes many design disciplines and an increasing number of multidisciplinary teams. Main problems in design practice are the communication between designers with a different background and the integration and co-ordination of important aspects during a design process. By tackling these problems, the effectiveness and efficiency of design processes in practice can be improved. The study of similarities and differences between design processes in several design disciplines and the development of support for reflection on design processes are topics that can improve design practice and that deserve more attention in design research. The goal of my research is to decrease the gap between design research and design practice in order to improve design processes. Reflection on design processes can help designers to improve their design process, its results, and the designer’s proficiency: By reflecting explicitly on the current design situation and on the performed design activities, in a systematic way and on a regular basis, designers can plan next design activities that can be performed effectively and efficiently given the design goal at that moment. In this thesis, the combination of systematic and regular reflection is called structured reflection. To improve design processes in various design disciplines in practice, the study of similarities and differences between design processes in several disciplines can be useful. Similarities between design processes are the basis for domain-independent design knowledge (as distinguished from domain-specific design knowledge). To reach the goal of my research, I have chosen to combine, in a broad explorative study, the development of support for structured reflection on design processes and the development of domain-independent design knowledge. This thesis describes a domain-independent approach to improve design processes through structured reflection. My research process can be summarised as follows. I studied three design disciplines, namely architecture, mechanical engineering, and software engineering. To get input from design practice, I did qualitative empirical research: I performed twelve case studies in the three disciplines to inventory characteristics of design processes and I compared the cases for similarities and differences. The similarities, together with the results of a literature study, have been the basis for the development of domain-independent descriptive design knowledge. The developed descriptive knowledge, in turn, formed the basis for developing domain-independent prescriptive design knowledge. At the end of the project, I confronted all results with design practice to get feedback on the results in another empirical study and I performed a literature study to position the results in the design literature. My design philosophy and design frame are the descriptive results developed to answer the first research question, namely “How to describe design processes in a domain-independent way?”. My design philosophy is a set of domain-independent concepts and terms for describing a design process. The concepts and terms are based on an application of the general theory of state-transition systems to the context of designing; the concepts of state and state transition correspond to the main concepts of design situation and design activity in my design philosophy. The answer to the first research question given by the design philosophy is refined in a design frame: The design frame offers a means to structure the description of a design process in a domain-independent way. Major structuring concepts of the design frame are dimensions and subjects. I define three dimensions, namely level, perspective, and time. These dimensions define a three-dimensional space, called a positioning space, in which important aspects of design processes can be positioned. A positioning space must be defined for each subject, being the three parts of a design situation: the product being designed, the design process, and the design context. My design frame is a domain-independent structure formed by the combination of the three dimensions for each subject. My design method is the prescriptive result developed to answer the second research question, namely “How to support structured reflection on design processes in a domain-independent way?”. My design method is a domain-independent aid that offers designers support for reflecting on design processes in a structured way. Reflection on design processes is defined as an introspective contemplation on the designer’s perception of the design situation and on the remembered design activities. A reflection process is described as a process that consists of three steps that are called preparation, image forming, and conclusion drawing. The design method is based on two main concepts: The first concept is the systematic description and analysis of design situations and design activities by means of forms and checklists; only systematic support for the preparation step of a reflection process is developed. The second concept is the idea of design sessions, introduced to stimulate designers to reflect regularly during a design process. A design session is defined as a period of time during which one or more designers are working on a subtask of a certain design task, for example, one afternoon, a whole day, or a week. Both concepts are combined to support structured reflection on design processes. The complete design method consists of five steps for each design session, namely planning a design session, defining the subtask of the design session, reflecting at the beginning of a design session, designing during the core of a design session, and reflecting at the end of a design session. A prototype software tool, called ECHO, has been developed to explore the benefits of using a software system to facilitate the use of the design method. Together, the design philosophy and the design frame offer concepts, a vocabulary, and a structure to describe design processes in a domain-independent way. The design method is a first proposal of a method that supports structured reflection on design processes. My results are thus possible answers to the mentioned research questions and are starting points to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of design processes. Based on the feedback I collected, I am optimistic about the applicability of my results in design practice. By asking input from design practice and by developing results that are useful for design practice and that contribute to design research, I contribute to decrease the gap between design research and design practice. The most important recommendations for further research are to test all results extensively in design practice and to investigate how to apply the results in design education.

Hitchcock, Robert. Improving life-cycle information management through documentation of project objectives and design rationale. Berkeley, California - USA, 1996. Fragmentation is a defining characteristic of the US building industry that has evolved with increased specialization in building disciplines, and is exacerbated by the present industry business model. While the industry has agreed that productivity and product quality can be dramatically improved by information integration and communication, it has not agreed what information is most important to share to achieve these improvements. Traditional documentation in drawings and specifications captures only the final product of building design decisions. Yet, reported building failures indicate that a lack of understanding between project participants regarding their diverse objectives may be a key factor in failure. This deficiency leads to an inadequate understanding of the rationale behind the myriad design decisions that must work in concert to achieve a global set of project objectives. This information is routinely lost under current information management practices as the building moves through its life cycle. The dissertation develops an innovative information framework intended to effectively structure and manage building life-cycle information. The framework contains a product model that represents the details of a building design that are traditionally documented for sharing between project phases. Two additional elements are integrated with this product model to document key information that is currently lost. Explicit Global Objectives define the overall purpose of a building project by explicitly identifying its intended performance and the criteria for evaluating their achievement. Design Rationale Records capture the associations between individual details of the product model and the objectives that these details are meant to achieve. This information is linked within the framework so that it can be archived, reviewed, and updated in an integrated fashion as a building project moves through time. Example applications of the framework are given. Documenting this key information has benefit across the building life cycle. Participants can more clearly specify project objectives. Multi-criteria evaluation of alternative design solutions and construction methods can be better supported, and the resulting decisions better documented for sharing amongst participants. Comprehensive commissioning can be more cost-effectively performed. During operations, evaluation of the actual performance of a building and detection of maintenance problems can be enhanced. 
Heylighen, Ann. In Case of Architectural Design. Critique and Praise of Case-Based Design in Architecture In Dissertation - Doct. Toegepaste wetenschappen., 2000. Architects are said to learn design by experience. Learning design by experience is the essence of Case-Based Design (CBD), a sub-domain of Artificial Intelligence. Part I critically explores the CBD approach from an architectural point of view, tracing its origins in the Theory of Dynamic Memory and highlighting its potential for architectural design. Seven CBD systems are analysed, experienced architects and design teachers are interviewed, and an experiment is carried out to examine how cases affect the design performance of architecture students. The results of this exploration show that despite its sound view on how architects acquire (design) knowledge, CBD is limited in important respects: it reduces architectural design to problem solving, is difficult to implement and has to contend with prejudices among the target group. With a view to stretching these limits, part II covers the design, implementation and evaluation of DYNAMO (Dynamic Architectural Memory On-line). This Web-based design tool tailors the CBD approach to the complexity of architectural design by effecting three transformations: extending the concern with design products towards design processes, turning static case bases into dynamic memories and upgrading users from passive case consumers to active case-based designers. 
Donath, Judith. Inhabiting the virtual city: the design of social environments for electronic communities In Program in Media Arts & Sciences. Cambridge, Massachussetes - USA, 1997. The goal of this work is to develop an approach to the design of on-line social environments. My thesis is that, in order to foster the development of vibrant and viable online communities, the environment - i.e. the technical infrastructure and user interface - must provide the means to communicate social cues and information: the participants must be able to perceive the social patterns of activity and affiliation and the community must be able to evolve a fluid and subtle cultural vocabulary. The theoretical foundation for the research is drawn from traditional studies of society and culture and from observations of contemporary on-line systems. Starting with an analysis of the fundamental differences between real and virtual societies - most notably, the presence and absence of the body - the first section examines the ways social cues are communicated in the real world, discusses the limits imposed on on-line communities due to their mediated and bodiless nature, and explores directions that virtual societies can take that are impossible for physical ones. These ideas form the basis for the main part of the thesis, a design platform for creating sociable virtual environments. The focus of the discussion is on the analysis of a set of implemented design experiments that explore three areas of the platform: the visual representations of social phenomena, the role of information spaces as contexts for communication, and the presentation of self in the virtual world. 
Vineeta, Pal. Integrated Computational Analysis of the Visual Environment in Buildings. Pittsburg. Pennsylvania - USA, 1999. Despite significant advances in the area of computational support for lighting design, lighting simulation tools have not been sufficiently integrated into the lighting design process. There is a significant body of designers who rely solely on their individual experience and do not use predictive simulation tools. Even when simulation tools are utilized, it is for design verification or presentation rather than for design support. A number of factors are thought to contribute to this lack of integration of simulation tools into the design process: a) Most existing tools rely on the problematic assumption implying the appropriateness of simplified models for the less complex early design and detailed simulation for the more complex later stages of design, b) They do not support an active exploration of design variables to satisfy desired performance criteria, c) They are not integrated with other building performance simulation models. This thesis addresses the above shortcomings by contributing to the field of visual analysis in the following areas, pertaining to the development of active, integrated design and performance simulation environments: - Implementation of a consistent and coherent, physically-based modelling approach, combining radiosity and ray-tracing methods for the simulation of light propagation. - Provision of design support both in terms of evaluation support for interpreting large amounts of computed data with diverse performance indices, and in terms of active design support to explore the relationships between the design variables and performance indices. - Integration of the lighting simulation module within a larger software environment (SEMPER) for the prediction and evaluation of multiple performance indicators (for energy, light, acoustics, etc.) in buildings.
Mathew, Paul. Integrated Energy Modeling for Computational Building Design Assistance. Pittsburg. Pennsylvania - USA, 1996. Insights into the importance of energy modelling in building design have not yet resulted in the sufficient and systematic use of modelling tools in practice. In recent years, there has been considerable discussion on the limitations of simulation tools, and there is a noteworthy consensus as to the nature of the contributing factors (material and time implications, problematic user-interfaces, inefficient data communication structures, poor integration with CAD systems, absence of'active'design support). This thesis deals with three research questions that are especially pertinent to the quest for active, multi-aspect design and simulation environments: (1) The appropriateness and feasibility of a methodologically consistent performance modelling approach through the entire design process. (2) Strategies for a structurally'seamless'containment of performance simulation within a computational design environment. (3) Technologies to facilitate dynamic and interactive performance-to-design mapping. At a paradigmatic level, this thesis critically examines the existing responses to each of these questions, and proposes alternative computational frameworks and technologies to overcome some of the system-immanent ('endogenous') limitations of the existing approaches. At an operational level, this thesis demonstrates the proposed solutions by implementing an active thermal simulation module (NOD
De Groot, E.H.. Integrated Lighting System Assistant . Eindhoven, the Netherlands, 1999. The aim of the design project described in this thesis is to design a tool to support the building design process. Developing a design is considered to be a wicked problem because it goes beyond reasonable or predictable limits. Consequently, in this design project we address two wicked problems simultaneously: a double wicked problem. The two wicked problems concerned are the design of Design Decision Support System [DDSS] and the conceptual design of office lighting systems. To get a handle on the first wicked problem, two workshops were organised to meet the possible future users and to create a common basis for the tool to be developed.  To tackle the wickedness of the second problem, an office lighting model and performance evaluation method were developed and implemented in a new prototype computer system: Integrated Lighting System Assistant [ILSA]. The workshops have proven to be a good source of feedback and an essential link to daily practice. The ILSA prototype shows that it is possible to implement the lighting model and evaluation method into a working prototype that can support architects in making decisions for the early design stage in the field of integrating daylight and artificial lighting. 
Goel, Ashok. Integration of case-based reasoning and model-based reasoning for adaptive design problem solving., 1989. In the case-based approach to design, a novel problem is solved by adapting a design known to solve a related problem. Adapting a known design to solve a related problem by the commonly used methods of heuristic association and search, however, can be computationally expensive if the adaptation search space is not small. The adaptation space, then, needs to be decomposed into smaller and simpler spaces that can be searched more efficiently and effectively. The knowledge for decomposing the adaptation search space can be represented as a behaviour-structure model that specifies how the structure of the known design results in its output behaviours. This research investigates the use of such behaviour-structure models for adapting the designs of physical devices. Comprehension of how the output behaviours of a design arise from its structure is represented as a behavioural component-substance model for the design. The model explicitly specifies (i) the expected output behaviours of the design including its functions, (ii) the elementary structural and behavioural interactions between components and substances constituting the structure of the design, and (iii) the internal causal behaviours of the design that compose the elementary interactions into its output behaviours. The causal behaviours of the design, in this model, are indexed by the expected output behaviours for which they are responsible. The model aids case-based design in several ways. First, it identifies conceptual primitives for specifying the functions of designs, which are used to index the known designs stored in a case-based memory. Second, it identifies elementary types of behaviour transformations and elementary types of structure modifications. Third, it provides knowledge for decomposition of the adaptation search space into smaller spaces so that the search for the needed structure modifications is localized. Fourth, it leads to a novel method for simulating the behavioural effects of structure modifications. The output and causal behaviours of the modified design, in this method, are derived by revising the output and causal behaviours of the known design. This integrative approach unifies case-based methods, associative methods, heuristic search methods, decomposition methods, and model-based methods into one architecture for adaptive design problem solving. Core portions of this approach have been implemented in an experimental design system called KRITIK.    
Gorczyca, Adam. Interaction of the design methods and the contemporary computer techniques. Warsaw, Poland, 2003. The thesis researches a bilateral relations between computer techniques and methods of architectural design. It represents a holistic attitude because of a multithread analysis in the field of the theory of design, a new hard- and software used by architects,  and a design practice.  Thesis: Contemporary computer science development at the end of the twentieth century pushed  architects to use hard- and software as tools, which became an active support  (more than just CAAD).  It enabled to widen the scope of a form-properties research and a generation of solutions impossible to achieve before, by using traditional methods and tools. This situation leads to new, unpredictable possibilities of architectural research and design.  Objectives: 1. Definition of the latest trends in computer technologies applied in architectural offices. 2. Presentation of some practical consequencies of application of those technologies in design and construction. 3. Separation of new design methods caused by use of digital tools. 4. A simplified taxonomy of the methods above, with characteristic features. 5. A research in practical application of digital tools in Polish and foreign offices,  as well as at the WUT Faculty of Architecture. The subject of the work: The thesis constitutes of five chapters. The first chapter is an introduction, where the range of work is presented in the context of place, time and the research made. The following chapters research three aspects of CAAD: (1) hardware and software,  (2) new definition of architecture, which is a result of application of the digital tools,  (3) practical problems connected with the use of computer techniques.  The second chapter describes the new technologies in use -Virtual Reality (incl. VRD, CAVEis, Data Gloves, motion-capture), Rapid prototyping (incl. holographic printers, 3D scanners, routers, milling-machines), new types of interfaces (e.g. xWorlds, InfoSpace, Flock of birds), etc. The third chapter is a theoretical one. It presents three types of changes in design methods, which can be classified, judging by results, in architecture of: (a) in-formation (b)  de-formation and (c) cyberspace. All the mentioned applications of a digital technology cause redefinition of the range of the architectsi profession. The fourth chapter is concentrated on the application and utilization of technology. It is a detailed analysis of chosen buildings (characteristic examples) and design methods used by some avant-garde and well-known practitioners and visioners of architecture (Eisenman, Gehry, Spuybroek, etc.). It also presents statistics, where the influence of digital tools on the way of working (efficiency, productivity, use of tools)  is expressed  numerically. A synthesis summarizes the relation between architects and the new digital tools in some aspects: hard- and software, social changes, ergonomics, methodics, linguistic/symbolic and architectural. The mentioned ranges of interaction constitute the proof of the thesis. 
van Emmerik, Maarten. Interactive design of parameterized 3D models by direct manipulation. Delft, the Netherlands, 1990. The practical applicability of a computer-aided design system is strongly influenced by both the user interface and the internal model representation. A well designed user interface facilitates the communication with the system by offering an intuitive environment for for specification and representation of model information. An internal model representation, capable of storing geometric, topological and hierarchical dependencies between components in a model, increases the efficiency of the system by facilitating modification and elaboration of the model during the different stages of the design process. The subject of this thesis is the integration of a high level parameterized model representation with direct manipulation interface techniques for the design of three-dimensional objects. A direct manipulation interface enables the user to specify a model by interaction on a graphical representation, as an alternative for an abstract and error-prone apha-numerical dialogue style. A high level model representation is obtained by using a procedural modelling language with general purpose control structures, including arithmetic and logical expressions, repetition, conditionals, functions and procedures, and dedicated data types such as coordinate systems, geometric primitives and geometric constraints. The language interpreter is interconnected with a graphical interface, an incremental constraint solver and a geometrical modeler, using visual programming techniques. The developed techniques are implemented in a modelling system called GeoNode. The system incorporates paradigms of object-oriented design, with respect to both the user interface and to the system implementation. The applicability of the presented techniques is illustrated by examples in application domains such as solid modelling, kinematic analysis, feature modelling and top-down design.
Lee, Sanghyun. Internet-based collaborative design evaluation: an architect's perspective. Harvard, Massachussets - USA, 1999. This research aims at developing a design evaluation system that employs a Product Model as the logical basis for integrating building design and construction processes. The system is implemented with Java language, which allows the system to work over the Internet. Accordingly, the system helps architects to collaborate with remote participants. Thus, this design evaluation system is a building performance evaluator like DOE-2, RADIANCE, HVAC, and the Automated Building Code Checker. This research, however, is mainly concerned with an architect's view during the schematic design and design development stage, while the existing design evaluation systems cover other special consultants'views such as those of HVAC designers, structural engineers, and contractors. From an architect's view, this evaluation system checks the compliance of design objects represented by means of physical objects such as walls and windows and conceptual objects such as rooms as well, to the design criteria focused on accommodating human behaviour, rather than other building performances such as sustaining building structures and maintaining indoor livability. As such, the system helps designers analyze and evaluate design solutions according to their original intent. The innovative points of this research lie in the following: (1) Unlike other inquiries, it addresses a systematic evaluation of building design from an architect's view focusing on the experiential quality of the built environment. This research demonstrates that such an evaluation becomes available by introducing human activity-based evaluation. (2) It can take a multi-agenda for several groups of different interests by providing an Aspect Model based on human activity-centered systematic translation of their design considerations and 3D model-based graphical representations into system readable ones. (3) As a result, it addresses the possibility of expanding the capability of the design evaluator from a mere code checker to a general design evaluator while simultaneously, enhancing the availability from stand alone to Internet based networking. 
Van Loon, Peter Paul. Interorganisational Design: a New Approach to Team Design in Architecture and Urban Planning. Delft, the Netherlands, 1998.
Huang, Jeffrey. Interorganizational Systems in Design. Harvard, Massachussets - USA, 1997. This thesis employs recent developments in coordination theory to analyze and map the coordination processes among participating firms in building design. The process model enables an understanding of the activities and dependencies in the collaborative design process, based on which potential implications of Interorganizational Information Systems (IOS), such as concurrent design platforms, vertical information links and electronic marketplaces, can be understood and critically assessed. Part One defines the parameters of the research, and contrasts the implementation of IOS in the aerospace, automobile and consulting industry to the state of practice in the building design industry. From the comparison, the need for fundamentally rethinking and redesigning the building design process is derived. Part Two describes how this can be accomplished by making the coordination processes in building design explicit. The building design process is decomposed into its core activities and dependencies, and new ways of recomposing the processes are identified which use alternative coordination mechanisms facilitated by IOS. Part Three describes the implications of the process model. Suggestions for appropriate IOS are made, and evidence of IOS applications in design is given in the analysis of four field studies, and in an example redesign of a design process. 
Jung, I.Y.. Knowledge Based Approach to Computer Aided Architectural Design and Evaluation: a Cost Evaluation Experiment. Sheffield, United Kingdom, 1996.
Cherneff, Jonathan. Knowledge Based Interpretation of Architectural Drawings . Cambridge, Massachussetes - USA, 1990. Architectural schematic drawings have been used to communicate building designs for centuries. The symbolic language used in these drawings efficiently represents much of the intricacy of the building process (e.g. implied business relationships, common building practice, and properties of construction materials). The drawing language is an accepted standard representation for building design, something that modern data languages have failed to achieve. In fact, the lack of an accepted standard electronic representation has hampered efforts at computer intergration and perhaps worsened industry fragmentation. In general, drawings must be interpreted, by a professional, and then reentered in order to transfer them from one CAD system to another. This work develops a method for machine interpretation of architectural (or other) schematic drawings. The central problem is to build an efficient drawing parser (i.e. a program that identifies the semantic entitites, characteristics, and relationships that are represented in the drawing). The parser is built from specifications of the drawing grammar and an underlying spatial model. The grammar describes what to look for, and the spatial model enables the parser to find it quickly. Coupled with existing optical recognition technology, this technique enables the use of drawings directly as: (1) a database to drive various AEC applications, (2) a communication protocol to integrate CAD systems, (3) a traditional user interface. 
Ryu, J.. Knowledge-based Approach to Computer Aided Urban Design. Sheffield, United Kingdom, 1991.
Hofmeyer, Herm. Konstruktief ontwerpen met behulp van computerprogrammatuur (1) verslag afstudeerproject (2) bijlage gebruiksaanwijzing, code en toelichting bij programma., 1994. This thesis presents the first basics of an expertsystem to transform a spatial into a structural design. The system thus relates space-allocation techniques and structural design software for stress-engineering. For the implementation Prolog-2 was used. Although in Dutch, the thesis provided background information for more recently written papers for eCAADe (2005) and CAADRIA (2006). The thesis was published as a paper in Design Studies (2006).
Kapellos, Alexandre. Lightscape - an exploration in interactive lighting In ETH postgraduate studies final thesis. Zürich, Switzerland, 2004. The aim was to provide a theoretical approach to the lighting project undertaken for the xCube group work. The nds2004 students had decided to build an interactive, computeroptimised structure as their final project, where lights, sensors and textured surfaces were to create an interactive experience for the visitor. For various reasons the interactive aspect was abandoned. The idea to work on a light(-ing) object came up when I discovered a little device called the Barionet™. This device allows you to control an on/off switch remotely, through a web interface or through programming. That was it! The ip_lamp (its first name): a small object that has its own IP address, and therefore can be accessed via the internet. Turn it on or off. This evolved into the _lightscape where 2 interacting lights send each other data about the other (distance from a wall or number of people for example). The atmosphere of a room becomes dependant of what is going on in another. This work is also an attempt to develop a pluridisciplinary approach to an architectural project by making use of the many tools available to the postgraduate students: programming a simulation in Flash, experimenting with different hardware interfaces or rapidly manufacturing a light box on the 3-axis mill. A cross-over project in a (modest) way.
Tang, John. Listing, Drawing and Gesturing in Design: a Study of the Use of Shared Workspaces by Design Teams. Stanford, California - USA, 1989. This dissertation is a descriptive study of the shared workspace activity of small groups working on conceptual design tasks. Shared workspace activity refers to the listing, drawing, and gesturing activity that occurs in the work environment of a group. This research is premised on the need to understand what participants actually do in an activity in order to guide the development of technology (especially advanced computer tools) to support this activity. The thesis presents: (1) a methodology for observing and analyzing collaborative design activity, (2) a detailed description and analysis of key aspects of shared workspace activity, (3) a set of specific recommendations for the design of tools to support shared workspace activity. The methodology of interaction analysis was applied to study the activity of small groups (3-4 people) working on short (approximately 1$1/over2$ hours) conceptual design tasks. The group's work was organized around either a whiteboard or large paper sheets on a conference table. Eight design sessions were videotaped and analyzed. The analysis included integrating a variety of perspectives on the data, including that of the participants themselves. The analysis focused on how teams use their shared workspace. A framework for analyzing workspace activity was proposed. This framework provides a structure for categorizing workspace activity according to two dimensions: actions and functions. The actions describe the process of producing the activity: listing, drawing or gesturing. The functions indicate the purpose effectively accomplished by the activity: storing information, expressing ideas, or mediating interaction. Using the framework to analyze workspace activity led to specific observations about shared workspace activity: (1) gestures, and their relationship to the workspace, convey important information, (2) the overhead involved in the process of recording information can be problematic, (3) the process of creating artifacts conveys significant information that is useful in understanding their meaning, (4) workspace actions and functions fluently intermix, (5) the nature of access to the workspace (orientation, simultaneous access, and proximity) structures how the workspace is used. These observations led to specific recommendations for the development of technology to support shared workspace activity.    
Palidar, Brian. Live and Direct:A Research and Development Facility for Robotics and Artificial Intelligence Applications In University of Washington, Design Machine Group., 2000. This thesis proposed a design project focusing on creating a center for the incorporation, assembly, and demonstration of cutting edge research in AI applications. The project s client is an Institute dedicated to developing the platform for general intelligence by assembling current research and technologies into composite prototypes that push the boundaries of artificial beings. This center also proposes an interactive forum in which the general public can experience the results of the research first hand as well as learn about past projects, attend lectures and presentations, and other activities related to this endeavor and its implications to humanity.
Damski, José. Logic representation of shapes. Sydney, Australia, 1996.
Walker, Bruce. Magnitude Estimation of Conceptual Data Dimensions for Use in Sonification ., 2000. Most data exploration tools are exclusively visual, failing to exploit the advantages of the human auditory system, and excluding students and researchers with visual disabilities. Sonification uses non-speech audio to create auditory graphs, which may address some limitations of visual graphs. However, almost no research has addressed how to create optimal sonifications.Three key research questions are: (1) What is the best sound parameter to use to represent a given data type? (2) Should an increase in the sound dimension (e.g., rising frequency) represent an increase or a decrease in the data dimension? (3) How much change in the sound dimension will represent a given change in the data dimension? Experiment 1 simply asked listeners which of two sounds represented something that was hotter, faster, etc. However, participants seemed not to make cognitive assessments of the sounds. I therefore proposed magnitude estimation (ME) as an alternative, less transparent, paradigm.Experiment 2 used ME with visual stimuli (lines and filled circles), replicating previous findings for perceptual judgments (length of lines, size of circles). However, judgments of conceptual data dimensions (i.e., the temperature, pressure, or velocity a given stimulus would represent) yielded slopes different from the perceptual judgments, indicating that the type of data being represented influences value estimation.Experiment 3 found similar results with auditory stimuli differing in frequency or tempo. Estimations of what temperature, pressure, velocity, size, or number of dollars a sound represented differed, indicating that both visual and auditory displays should be scaled according to the type of data being displayed.Experiment 4 presented auditory graphs and asked which of two data descriptions the sounds represented. Data sets based on the equations determined in Experiment 3 were preferred, providing validation of those slope values. Results also supported the use of the unanimity of mapping polarities as a measure of a mapping's effectiveness.Replication with different users and sounds is required to assess the reliability of the slopes. However, ME provides an excellent way to obtain a function relating conceptual data dimensions to display dimensions, which can be used to create more effective, appropriately scaled sonifications.
Robitaille, Sophie. Make Sense . Oregon, USA, 2000.
Ellis, G.. Managing Complex Objects. Queensland, Australia, 1995.
Ataman, Osman. Media effect on architectural design. Georgia, U.S.A., 2000.
Burnham, G.T.. Microcomputer-Based Expert System for the Design of Operational Military Airfields In Department of Architectural Science, University of Sydney. Sydney, Australia, 1987. This thesis develops a number of prototypical expert systems on a microcomputer to assist the military designer or engineer with facets of military operational airfield design. An existing expert system shell BUILD written in PROLOG-1 was altered to provide a more permanent record of the results of the system execution. The individual knowledge base includes production rules which conform to the BUILD syntax requirements. A number of additional clauses related to the knowledge base are written in PROLOG-1. The expert system consists of some 200 rules and an additional 36 clauses. The rules contain knowledge on soil characteristics pertinent to airfields, factors involved in calculating lengths of runways and factors for determining the effort involved in construction. The knowledge for the expert systems was gathered from a combination of civilian and military literature sources, the author's own experience, and discussions with military and air force personnel currently engaged in the design, planning and construction of these facilities. Development of these prototypical expert systems demonstrates the feasibility of implementing expert systems on microcomputers in this domain. Furthermore, it demonstrates their possible application to military engineering design particularly where the design process relies on a large amount of tabulated data and heuristic knowledge. It is this type of knowledge that is often used by the military engineer to find a timely problem solution when provided with a range of options. [Unpublished. -- CADLINE has abstract only.]
Chase, Scott C.. Modeling Designs with Shape Algebras and Formal Logic. California, USA, 1996. A formal, hierarchical model of shape, spatial relations and non-spatial properties is presented, constructed from first principles of geometry, topology and logic. The combination of the two major paradigms used here, shape algebras and logic, is one which has been largely unexplored. The underlying interest is the development of generalized design modelling systems in which the components may be used for a variety of synthesis and recognition problems. The algebras of shape described by Stiny have been shown to be useful in the generation and analysis of designs. The generality of their representations, their non-reliance upon predetermined structure, and their use in combination provide a richness of expression lacking in more traditional representations. The use of formal logic as a specification tool for modelling spatial relations is investigated here. Logic has proven itself useful as a programming and specification tool, providing advantages over traditional procedural programming methods. Among those is the ability to specify the knowledge to be encapsulated in a model without the need to specify data manipulation procedures. It is argued that specification in logic provides a natural method of development. The model is developed by extending the formalisms of shape algebras with the use of logic to make more precise, generalized, parametric definitions of shape and spatial relations than has been previously possible. The value of such a model is demonstrated by the use of these generalized spatial relations for solving typical problems in the fields of geographic information systems and architecture. The advantages of the representations used over more traditional'kit-of-parts'models is also illustrated. 
van Leeuwen, Jos. Modelling architectural design information by features: an approach to dynamic product modelling for application in architectural design . Eindhoven, the Netherlands, 1999. Architectural design, like many other human activities, benefits more and more from the ongoing development of information and communication technologies. The traditional paper documents for the representation and communication of design are now replaced by digital media. CAD systems have replaced the drawing board and knowledge systems are used to integrate expert knowledge in the design process. Product modelling is one of the most promising approaches in the developments of the last two decades, aiming in the architectural context at the representation and communication of the information related to a building in all its aspects and during its complete life-cycle. However, after studying both the characteristics of the product modelling approach and the characteristics of architectural design, it is concluded in this research project that product modelling does not suffice for support of architectural design. Architectural design is characterised mainly as a problem solving process, involving illdefined problems that require a very dynamic way of dealing with information that concerns both the problem and emerging solutions. Furthermore, architectural design is in many ways an evolutionary process. In short term this is because of the incremental approach to problem solving in design projects, and in long term because of the stylistic development of designers and the continuous developments in the building and construction industry in general. The requirements that are posed by architectural design are concentrated in the keywords extensibility and flexibility of the design informationmodels. Extensibility means that designers can extend conceptual models with definitions that best suit the design concepts they wish to utilise. Flexibility means that information in design models can be structured in a way that accurately represents the design rationale. This includes the modelling of incidental characteristics and relationships of the entities in the model that are not necessarily predefined in a conceptual model. In general, product modelling does not adequately support this dynamic nature of design. Therefore, this research project has studied the concepts developed in the technology of Feature-based modelling, which originates from the area of mechanical engineering. These concepts include the usage of Features as the primitives for defining and reasoning about a product. Features have an autonomous function in the information model, which, as a result, constitutes a flexible network of relationships between Features that are established during the design process. The definition of Features can be specified by designers to formalise new design concepts. This allows the design tools to be adapted to the specific needs of the individual designer, enlarging the library of available resources for design. In addition to these key-concepts in Feature-based modelling as it is developed in the mechanical engineering context, the project has determined the following principles for a Feature-based approach in the architectural context. Features in mechanical engineering are used mainly to describe the lowest level of detail in a product's design, namely the characteristics of its parts. In architecture the design process does not normally follow a strictly hierarchical approach and therefore requires that the building be modelled as a whole. This implies that multiple levels of abstraction are modelled and that Features are used to describe information at the various abstraction levels. Furthermore, architectural design involves concepts that are non-physical as well as physical, Features are to be used for modelling both kinds. The term Feature is defined in this research project to reflect the above key-concepts for this modelling approach. A Feature is an autonomous, coherent collection of information, with semantic meaning to a designer and possibly emerging during design, that is defined to formalise a design concept at any level of abstraction, either physical or non-physical, as part of a building model. Feature models are built up entirely of Features and are structured in the form of a directed graph. The nodes in the graph are the Features, whereas the arcs are the relationships between the Features. Features can be of user-defined types and incidental relationships can be added that are not defined at the typological level. An inventory in this project of what kind of information is involved in the practice of modelling architectural design is based on the analysis of a selection of sources of architectural design information. This inventory is deepened by a case study and results in the proposition of a categorisation of architectural Feature types.
Dürr, Christian. Morphogenesis - Evolution of shape, Imagination amplifier version 1.0 In ETH postgraduate studies final thesis. Zürich, Switzerland, 2004. The advent of computer technologies in the design-processes has already taken place, is meanwhile ordinary. New design perspectives are opened, and an almost inexhaustable form repertoire is available, even buildable - “Nothing is impossible”. This thesis work deals only with a small clip from there. Essentially it consists of two parts: “ MORPHOGENESIS - Evolution of Shape “ describes the present situation of generating shape with the help of computers. Some of the technologies that are used for, as comupter-morphing or evolutionary programming, are examined more closely here. “IMAGINATION AMPLIFIER Version 1.0” is an interactive Form-Generator for houses - a House-Machine. The program deals with the possibilities of interpolation and morphing between two, 3 dimensional, states (Startand Target-House) configured by the user. As an output-result, the generator depicts the put in number of steps in between, with characteristic values like cubical contents (V), surface quadrature (A) and the relation between V/A. All the results are stored in a database, where it is possible to select from for new morphing operations, to get in the end closer to a more optimized shape.
Therakomen, Preechaya. Mouse.class: Experiments for Exploring Dynamic Behaviors in Urban Places. Washington, USA, 2001. Urban space comprises not only physical forms - buildings, streets, plazas, trees, etc. - but also the people'acting on them'. The purpose of this thesis is to increase our awareness of behaviour and environment relationships, focusing on local movement at the individual level in a pedestrian environment. The thesis describes the experiment Mouse.class, as a concept demonstration model, which allows users to create a 2D-virtual environment for accommodating autonomous agents, Mouse, to explore (pedestrian) dynamic behaviour in relation to (urban) space. The program uses multi-agent technology to construct an individual-based simulation in which each agent employs individual behaviours. The agents have abilities to navigate through the environment using a behaviour rule set derived from a wide range of research - both theoretical and empirical approaches - on spatial behaviour in small-scale urban space. These simulated individuals also have the ability to improvise their actions according to the situations they find themselves in. In the simulation, each agent reacts to the space configuration, to specific attractions in the environment, as well as to other mice. The local movement of an individual is, therefore, the result of the interaction of its visual perception, motivation, and social actions. The program then tracks each movement - path of use - revealing patterns that emerge from interactions among the components of the environment. The exploration seeks to develop a way urban designers think of'space'as fluid processes and recognize that objects in the urban environment can have radically differing effects, depending on the circumstances and contexts in which they exist. Indeed, people are parts of the environment.      
Camarata, Ken. Navigational Blocks (an interplay between the physical and the virtual) In University of Washington, Design Machine Group., 2001. The Navigational Blocks project demonstrates a tangible user interface that facilitates retrieval of historical stories in a tourist spot. Orientation, movement, and relative positions of physical Blocks support visitor navigation and exploration in a virtual gallery. The Navigational Blocks system provides a physical embodiment of digital information through tactile manipulation and haptic feedback. The simple cubic form of the Blocks is easy to understand and therefore easy to use to manipulate complex digital information. Electromagnets embedded in the Blocks and wireless communication encourage users to quickly rearrange the Blocks to form different database queries.
Tarandi, Väino. Neutral intelligent CAD communication: information exchange in construction based upon a minimal schema. Stockholm, Sveden: KTH, 1998. An improved information exchange is frequently proposed as one solution to the inefficiency problems which the construction industry is suffering from today. Such an improvement is very dependent of the use of information technology, IT. To enable an advanced use of IT, there is a need for integrated project communications frameworks and integrated industry wide information. This thesis discusses how product models can be used to improve the information exchange from design to construction. Today there are several approaches to product modelling. Some researchers propose very detailed models whereas others propose generic models with fewer concepts. In this area there is a close connection between research and standardisation, which is carried out by organisations such as the ISO STEP committee and the International Alliance for Interoperability. To get acceptance for a standard proposal, it has to be accepted by both users and standardisation bodies. Thus this research, in addition to the technical requirements on information content and structure, also discusses success factors for standardisation, implementation and usage. In order to define important requirements on a product model for information exchange between design and construction, current research, development and standardisation in the field of product modelling was studied. This thesis advocates a minimal approach in the number of concepts used in a product model, in combination with an external building element classification, following national industry practice. The minimal NICC schema, developed during this research, was tested in a prototype and test study. Three applications were tested: PreFacto (planning tool), Microsoft Project (time scheduling tool) and Calc3(cost estimation tool). From the CAD-system MCAD, NICC files with the building objects were created and transferred into a relational database from which the three applications received their specific input files. The results of the evaluation of the NICC schema and the test study demonstrated that a product model based on few concepts can manage the required information exchange.
Schofield, Simon. Non-photorealistic rendering: a critical examination and proposed system., 1994. In the first part of the program the emergent field of Non-Photorealistic Rendering is explored from a cultural perspective. This is to establish a clear understanding of what Non-Photorealistic Rendering (NPR) ought to be in its mature form in order to provide goals and an overall infrastructure for future development. This thesis claims that unless we understand and clarify NPR's relationship with other media (photography, photorealistic computer graphics and traditional media) we will continue to manufacture “new solutionsi to computer based imaging which are confused and naive in their goals. Such solutions will be rejected by the art and design community, generally condemned as novelties of little cultural worth ( i.e. they will not sell). This is achieved by critically reviewing published systems that are naively described as Non-photorealistic or “painterlyi systems. Current practices and techniques are criticised in terms of their low ability to articulate meaning in images, solutions to this problem are given. A further argument claims that NPR, while being similar to traditional “natural mediai techniques in certain aspects, is fundamentally different in other ways. This similarity has lead NPR to be sometimes proposed as “painting simulationi - something it can never be. Methods for avoiding this position are proposed. The similarities and differences to painting and drawing are presented and NPR's relationship to its other counterpart, Photorealistic Rendering (PR), is then delineated. It is shown that NPR is paradigmatically different to other forms of representation - i.e. it is not an “effecti, but rather something basically different. The benefits of NPR in its mature form are discussed in the context of Architectural Representation and Design in general. This is done in conjunction with consultations with designers and architects. From this consultation a “wish-listi of capabilities is compiled by way of a requirements capture for a proposed system. A series of computer-based experiments resulting in the systems “Expressive Marksi and “Magic Painteri are carried out, these practical experiments add further understanding to the problems of NPR. The exploration concludes with a prototype system “Piranesii which is submitted as a good overall solution to the problem of NPR. In support of this written thesis are: - * The Expressive Marks system * Magic Painter system * The Piranesi system (which includes the EPixel and Sketcher systems) * A large portfolio of images generated throughout the exploration  
Alexander, Christopher. Notes on the Synthesis of Form. Cambridge, Massachusetts : Harvard University Press, 1964.

Every design problem begins with an effort to achieve fitness between two entities: the form in question and its context. The form is the solution to the problem, the context defines the problem. We want to put the context and the form into effortless contact or frictionless coexistence, i.e., we want to find a good fit. For a good fit to occur in practice, one vital condition must be satisfied. It must have time to happen. In slow-changing, traditional, unselfconscious cultures, a form is adjusted soon after each slight misfit occurs. If there was good fit at some stage in the past, no matter how removed, it will have persisted, because there is an active stability at work. Tradition and taboo dampen and control the rate of change in an unselfconscious culture's designs. It is important to understand that the individual person in an unselfconscious culture needs no creative strength. He does not need to be able to improve the form, only to make some sort of change when he notices a failure. The changes may not always be for the better, but it is not necessary that they should be, since the operation of the process allows only the improvements to persist. Unselfconscious design is a process of slow adaptation and error reduction. In the unselfconscious process there is no possibility of misconstruing the situation. Nobody makes a picture of the context, so the picture cannot be wrong. But the modern, selfconscious designer works entirely from a picture in his mind - a conceptualization of the forces at work and their interrelationships - and this picture is almost always wrong. To achieve in a few hours at the drawing board what once took centuries of adaptation and development, to invent a form suddenly which clearly fits its context - the extent of invention necessary is beyond the individual designer. A designer who sets out to achieve an adaptive good fit in a single leap is not unlike the child who shakes his glass-topped puzzle fretfully, expecting at one shake to arrange the bits inside correctly. The designer's attempt is hardly as random as the child's is, but the difficulties are the same. His chances of success are small because the number of factors which must fall simultaneously into place is so enormous. The process of design, even when it has become selfconscious, remains a process of error-reduction. No complex system will succeed in adapting in a reasonable amount of time or effort unless the adaptation can proceed component by component, each component relatively independent of the others. The search for the right components, and the right way to build the form up from these components, is the greatest challenge faced by the modern, selfconscious designer. The culmination of the modern designer's task is to make every unit of design both a component and a system. As a component it will fit into the hierarchy of larger components that are above it, as a system it will specify the hierarchy of smaller components of which it itself is made.

Fox, M.A.. Novel Affordances of Computation to the Design Process of Kinetic Structures . Cambridge, Massachussetes - USA, 1996. This paper is a discourse into the relationship between the process, computational tools and the role which symbolic structure can play in both. I argue the relationship of the process and tools is dialectic, whereby the tools we utilize in design develop new heuristics, the methodologies in turn, if reflectively understood, can be more aptly facilitated through the development of novel tools. The tools and the process then evolve together. A theory is laid out exploring the human visual information processing systems pertinence to the limitations in mental three-dimensional imaging and transformation operations as relevant to the operations of drawing and mental visualization within the architectural design processes, substantiating the designers necessity to draw (by traditional means, but more importantly here, through the inclusive integration of CAD within the process). The necessity to draw is explored as a representational process to the visual system as predicated upon the existence of a structured internal library of diagram-like representations in our heads. I argue that the ways we utilize such idiosyncratic libraries is predicated upon the ways in which we go about structuring the perceived experienced world around us into symbol systems. And finally, the ways we utilize our reflective understanding of the heuristic transformations of these symbols within the design process in the context of a CAD environment are explored as a means to an enhanced understanding of that which is being designed and consequently as a vehicle for the development of future CAD systems to better facilitate such methodologies of designing. A personal design process of several kinetic structures is carried out in order to arrive at a localized process analysis within computer-aided design environment. Through an interactive, reflective process analysis, conclusions are drawn as to the affordances and limitations of such tools as suggestive of the operations a CAD environment might perform so as to better foster future methodologies of designing. The design experiments are utilized as a vehicle to understand the process. Specifically three kinetic projects are exploited for the prototypical operations they display. When difficulties or mental limitations are encountered with the operations, specific tools are developed to facilitate the limitation or to overcome the problem.  
Koshak, N.. Object-Oriented data modeling and warehousing to support urban design. Pittsburgh, USA, 2002. All over the world, local authorities are moving towards managing and storing urban data in digital form. But the data storage devices used are heterogeneous and typically include relational database management systems (DBMS), GIS and CAD files. As a result, data are present in different locations on different platforms and under different schemas. This poses a problem for software applications meant to support decision-making in urban design that require input from more than one data source. This dissertation demonstrates how data warehousing ? combined with object-oriented data modelling ? is able to provide a general solution for this problem. Data warehousing is a technique initially developed for business applications, but is equally useful for urban design: The data warehouse constitutes a communication layer between the urban design applications and data sources. It makes the data available through a unified interface that hides the sources themselves and represents that data in terms of a general-purpose, preferably object-oriented, model. The dissertation also describes an implementation prototype of the data model and the data warehouse. The test case of this research is the city of Makkah in Saudi Arabia, which faces significant urban design and planning issues in connection with the pilgrimage (Hajj) that brings millions of visitors to the city every year.
Pires, Janice F., and Adriane Borda. Objetos de Aprendizagem para Promover a Apreensào e Criaçào da Forma Arquitetónica In 5° Congresso Nacional de Ambientes Hipermídia para Aprendizagem, UCPel e UFPel. Pelotas, Brasil, 2011.
Paranandi, Murali. Observations on daylighting as demonstrated by the work of Alvar Aalto., 1991. Daylight plays a dominant role in the works of Finnish architect Alvar Aalto. This thesis project investigates the role played by the natural light in his architectural works. One of the major concerns of this paper is to discover his intent behind the use of daylight, as well as to identify some of the techniques he devised to handle daylight. Literature research and physical model simulation studies have been incorporated as a method for the study. Significant works of Aalto have been surveyed. It has been observed that the use of daylight has been one of the preoccupations of Aalto since the design of Viipuri Library and Paimio Sanatorium. It was also observed that skylights play a prominent role in Aalto's architecture and that they are well developed and sophisticated devices. Some of the technical components and contributing factors of Aalto's skylights have been identified. Three case-studies were conducted through literature research and simulations. It was concluded that Aalto treats daylighting as one of the elements to embody sufficient psychological factors in man's built environment. It was discovered that the selection and the detailing of the skylights in each case has been predominantly guided by the climate, function, personal relationships, and the visual task of the individual space. Physical model simulations proved to be extremely helpful in understanding the modelling of the daylight and the spatial quality.
Makkonen, Petri. On multi body systems simulation in product design. Stockholm, Sveden: KTH, 1999. The aim of this thesis is to provide a basis for efficient modelling and software use in simulation driven product development. The capabilities of modern commercial computer software for design are analysed experimentally and qualitatively. An integrated simulation model for design of mechanical systems, based on four different “simulation viewsi is proposed: An integrated CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) model using Solid Geometry (CAD), Finite Element Modelling (FEM), Multi Body Systems Modelling (MBS) and Dynamic System Simulation utilising Block System Modelling tools is presented. A theoretical design process model for simulation driven design based on the theory of product chromosome is introduced.   This thesis comprises a summary and six papers. Paper A presents the general framework and a distributed model for simulation based on CAD, FEM, MBS and Block Systems modelling.   Paper B outlines a framework to integrate all these models into MBS simulation for performance prediction and optimisation of mechanical systems, using a modular approach. This methodology has been applied to design of industrial robots of parallel robot type. During the development process, from concept design to detail design, models have been refined from kinematic to dynamic and to elastodynamic models, finally including joint backlash. A method for analysing the kinematic Jacobian by using MBS simulation is presented. Motor torque requirements are studied by varying major robot geometry parameters, in dimensionless form for generality. The robot TCP (Tool Center Point) path in time space, predicted from elastodynamic model simulations, has been transformed to the frequency space by Fourier analysis. By comparison of this result with linear (modal) eigen frequency analysis from the elastodynamic MBS model, internal model validation is obtained.   Paper C presents a study of joint backlash. An impact model for joint clearance, utilised in paper B, has been developed and compared to a simplified spring-damper model. The impact model was found to predict contact loss over a wider range of rotational speed than the spring-damper model. Increased joint bearing stiffness was found to widen the speed region of chaotic behaviour, due to loss of contact, while increased damping will reduce the chaotic range. The impact model was found to have stable under- and overcritical speed ranges, around the loss of contact region. The undercritical limit depends on the gravitational load on the clearance joint. Papers D and E give examples of the distributed simulation model approach proposed in paper A. Paper D presents simulation and optimisation of linear servo drives for a 3-axis gantry robot, using block systems modelling. The specified kinematic behaviour is simulated with multi body modelling, while drive systems and control system are modelled using a block system model for each drive. The block system model has been used for optimisation of the transmission and motor selection. Paper E presents an approach for re-using CAD geometry for multi body modelling of a rock drilling rig boom. Paper F presents synthesis methods for mechanical systems. Joint and part number synthesis is performed using the Grübler and Euler equations. The synthesis is continued by applying the theory of generative grammar, from which the grammatical rules of planar mechanisms have been formulated. An example of topological synthesis of mechanisms utilising this grammar is presented. Finally, dimensional synthesis of the mechanism is carried out by utilising non-linear programming with addition of a penalty function to avoid singularities. 
Mendivil, Angulo, and Antonieta Humbelina. On the Conceptual Feasibility of a CAAD-CAAI Integrated Decision Support System: a Computer Aided Environment for Technical Decision Making in Architecture. Delft University of Technology, 1995. This document addresses two questions: What are the ultimate means of design support we can offer to the architect, and how can we devise them? We are not the first ones to address these questions, neither the first ones to point our finger in the direction of Decision Support Systems for such purposes. Nevertheless, we may be among those scholars that understanding'Decision Support” in terms of “Learning Support”, are willing to explore the implications that such an understanding assumes for the concept of Decision Support Systems. Our exploration in such regards has shown us that knowledge application and knowledge acquisition cycles describe a continuum, and that such cycles, encapsulated in our “Practice Based Learning” and “Continuing Professional Development” dynamics are present in both our instructional and professional environments. From such a perspective, our scope regarding feasible Decision Support Systems is not restricted to the use of CAAD instrumental resources, but expanded into a context of CAAD-CAAI integration. Throughout this document we conceive a system that blends CAAD and CAAI resources looking forward to the creation of a Support Environment that seeks to motivate a reflective attitude during design, in such a way, upgrade our capability for acquiring as well as applying knowledge in design. In instrumental terms, this document explains how mainstream CAAD developments in the field of “Intelligent Front End Technology” and CAAI developments in the field of “Knowledge-based Curricular Networksi can complement each other in the establishment of a Decision Support System of trans-environmental relevancy. As an application framework for the concept and instrumental base described above, this document presents an image of the kind of decision-making model that it will intend to support, the kind of task support model it will look forward to implement, and the kind of general instrumental layout it will require. On the basis of such an instrumental layout, the system that is hereby outlined can be regarded as a “CAAD-CAAI Integratedi, “Intelligent”, and “User-Oriented” Interface System. 
Karasick, Michael. On the Representation and Manipulation of Rigid Solids. Montreal, Canada, 1989. Solid modelling studies how to represent geometric properties of solids by computer. A fundamental operation is the construction of representations of solids. Algorithms for set operations construct boundary representations of solids from boundary representations of other solids. A correct and efficient intersection algorithm for polyhedral solids that uses boundary representations is described. A finite-precision implementation of the algorithm uses incidence tests that use symbolic inference in order to limit errors due to finite-precision approximations. The incidence tests are described and experimental evidence is presented to show that the incidence tests are both empirically reliable and practical. The intersection algorithm uses a new boundary representation called the Star-Edge representation. A complementation algorithm for solids that uses the new representation is given, and an algorithm is given that uses the new representation to determine if two boundary representations describe the same solid. A canonical boundary representation for solids is described and used to prove a lower bound for the same-object problem. 
McCall, Raymond Joseph. On the structure and use of issue systems in design. Berkeley, California - USA, 1978. The purpose of this dissertation is to explain and justify the concept of issue serving-systems as a new paradigm for descriptive and normative models of design processes. This paradigm is based in general on Horst Rittel's “Argumentative Planning Paradigm” and in particular on Rittel's “Issue-Based Information System” --IBIS-- method. Like IBIS, the issue serving-system concept views design as consisting of the raising and answering of various questions, called issues. The addition of the issue serving-system concept to IBIS is the claim that the serving relationship is the main means for structuring issues into a system for design. That relationship is the one in which an issue A serves an issue B, by which it is meant that the answering of A is useful in deriving the answer to B. Collections of issues structured by this relationship are labelled “issue serving-systems.” In the dissertation it is explained that an issue servingsystem has a quasi-hierarchical structure and has as its function the answering of a P!L issue, i.e., an issue of the form, “What should this plan be.” Two projects are undertaken in order to demonstrate the normative significance of the issue serving-system concept. The first is to show that the concept forms the basis of a variety of techniques for mechanical (algorithmic) generation of issues and answers. The second is to show how the concept provides criteria for determining which issues should be dealt with and in what order. In particular, it is argued that a topdown breadth-first order of raising issues is best. These conclusions are incorporated into procedures for design, and two applications of these procedures are described. One application involves use of an interactive computer program written by the author. The other involves a non-computerized version of the method.
Hensen, J.L.M.. On the Thermal Interaction of Building Structure and Heating and Ventilating System. Eindhoven, the Netherlands, 1991. In this dissertation, developments in the field of building performance evaluation tools are described. The subject of these tools is the thermal interaction of building structure and heating and ventilating system. The employed technique is computer simulation of the integrated, dynamic system comprising the occupants, the building and its heating and ventilating system. With respect to buildings and the heating and ventilating systems which service them, the practical objective is ensuring thermal comfort while using an optimum amount of fuel. While defining the optimum had to be left for other workers, the issue of thermal comfort is addressed here. The conventional theory of thermal comfort in conditions characteristic for dwellings and offices assumes steady-state conditions. Yet thermal conditions in buildings are seldom steady, due to the thermal interaction between building structure, climate, occupancy, and auxiliary systems. A literature rewiew is presented regarding work on thermal comfort specifically undertaken to examine what fluctuations in indoor climate may be acceptable. From the results, assessment criteria are defined. Although its potentials reach beyond the area of Computer Aided Building Design, a description is given of building and plant energy simulation within the context of the CABD field of technology. Following an account of the present state-of-the-art, the choice for starting from an existing energy simulation environment (ESPR) is justified. The main development areas of this software platform - within the present context - are identified as: fluid flow simulation, plant simulation, and their integration with the building side of the overall problem domain. In the field of fluid flow simulation, a fluid flow network simulation module is described. The module is based on the mass balance approach, and may be operated either in standalone mode or from within the integrated building and plant energy simulation system. The program is capable of predicting pressures and mass flows in a user-defined building / plant network comprising nodes (ie building zones, plant components, etc) and connections (ie air leakages, fans, pipes, ducts, etc), when subjected to flow control (eg thermostatic valves) and / or to transient boundary conditions (eg due to wind). The modelling and simulation techniques employed to predict the dynamic behaviour of the heating and ventilating system, are elaborated. The simultaneous approach of the plant and its associated control is described. The present work involved extensions to the ESPR energy simulation environment with respect to robustness of the program, and with respect to additional plant simulation features, supported plant component models and control features. The coupling of fluid flow, plant side energy and mass, and building side energy simulation into one integrated program is described. It is this “modular-simultaneousi technique for the simulation of combined heat and fluid flow in a building / plant context, which enables an integral approach of the thermal interaction of building structure and heating and ventilating system.  A multi stage verification and validation methodology is described, and its applicability to the present work is demonstrated by a number of examples addressing each successive step of the methodology. A number of imaginary and real world case studies are described to demonstrate application of the present work both in a modelling orientated context and in a building engineering context. Then the general conclusions of the present work are summarized. Next and finally, there are recommendations towards possible future work in the areas of: theory, user interface, software structure, application, and technology transfer.
Ribaudo, Michelangelo. Parametric Construction Stylesheets In ETH postgraduate studies final thesis, Edited by Ludger Hovestadt. Zürich, Switzerland: ETH ZÜRICH, Chair of CAAD , 2004. The present thesis is centred on the use of programmed tools as alternative or as support of the classical computer aided architectural design methods.This thesis shows among other things how were programmed/generated the mathematical descriptions of the frames, the joints and the production drawings using MEL (Maya Embedded Language).Further will be discussed pros and cons of the imported and exported digital data structures for their respective purpose like the generation of the joint details, the model visualizations, the different prototypes and the generation of the construction stylesheets.The result of this work will be shown by visualizations of digital models as well as by using rapid prototyping methods and CNC machines.Moreover this thesis will deal with the programming of stylesheets which were used to generate variants of constructions.The NDS2004 prototype represents such a variant and was produced with the above mentioned programmed tools.
Kourkoutas, Vassilios. Parametric Form Finding in Contemporary Architecture. Vienna, Austria, 2007. The search of new geometry has been during the last years an interesting subject for Contemporary Architecture. As the 21st century brought a new era for architectural design, CAD programs have evolved together with the idea of Form Finding. The possibilities offered make the collaboration of the architect with the computer now possible in terms of searching the appropriate form for given cases. As the analysis of contemporary architectural pieces has indicated, the procedure of architectural design can be semi-automated. Parametric Form Finding is transferring generative approaches into the architectural design workflow by introducing a set of rules to describe the constrains of the form. Given this context, two methods have been realized, which are guided by the user by providing basic two dimensional shapes, restrictions and form characteristics. The approach is fitted in a plug-in for the modelling environment of Rhinoceros that generates three dimensional form based on the user?s input. The methods followed are being evaluated.
Durmisevic, Sanja. Perception Aspects in Underground Spaces using Intelligent Knowledge Modeling . Delft, the Netherlands, 2002. The intensification, combination and transformation are main strategies for future spatial development of the Netherlands, which are stated in the Fifth Bill regarding Spatial Planning. These strategies indicate that in the future, space should be utilized in a more compact and more efficient way requiring, at the same time, re-evaluation of the existing built environment and finding ways to improve it. In this context, the concept of multiple space usage is accentuated, which would focus on intensive 4-dimensional spatial exploration. The underground space is acknowledged as an important part of multiple space usage. In the document'Spatial Exploration 2000', the underground space is recognized by policy makers as an important new'frontier'that could provide significant contribution to future spatial requirements.In a relatively short period, the underground space became an important research area. Although among specialists there is appreciation of what underground space could provide for densely populated urban areas, there are still reserved feelings by the public, which mostly relate to the poor quality of these spaces. Many realized underground projects, namely subways, resulted in poor user satisfaction. Today, there is still a significant knowledge gap related to perception of underground space. There is also a lack of detailed documentation on actual applications of the theories, followed by research results and applied techniques. This is the case in different areas of architectural design, but for underground spaces perhaps most evident due to their infancv role in general architectural practice. In order to create better designs, diverse aspects, which are very often of qualitative nature, should be considered in perspective with the final goal to improve quality and image of underground space. In the architectural design process, one has to establish certain relations among design information in advance, to make design backed by sound rationale. The main difficulty at this point is that such relationships may not be determined due to various reasons. One example may be the vagueness of the architectural design data due to linguistic qualities in them. Another, may be vaguely defined design qualities. In this work, the problem was not only the initial fuzziness of the information but also the desired relevancy determination among all pieces of information given. Presently, to determine the existence of such relevancy is more or less a matter of architectural subjective judgement rather than systematic, non-subjective decision-making based on an existing design. This implies that the invocation of certain tools dealing with fuzzy information is essential for enhanced design decisions. Efficient methods and tools to deal with qualitative, soft data are scarce, especially in the architectural domain. Traditionally well established methods, such as statistical analysis, have been used mainly for data analysis focused on similar types to the present research. These methods mainly fall into a category of pattern recognition. Statistical regression methods are the most common approaches towards this goal. One essential drawback of this method is the inability of dealing efficiently with non-linear data. With statistical analysis, the linear relationships are established by regression analysis where dealing with non-linearity is mostly evaded. Concerning the presence of multi-dimensional data sets, it is evident that the assumption of linear relationships among all pieces of information would be a gross approximation, which one has no basis to assume. A starting point in this research was that there maybe both linearity and non-linearity present in the data and therefore the appropriate methods should be used in order to deal with that non-linearity. Therefore, some other commensurate methods were adopted for knowledge modelling. In that respect, soft computing techniques proved to match the quality of the multi-dimensional data-set subject to analysis, which is deemed to be'soft'. There is yet another reason why soft-computing techniques were applied, which is related to the automation of knowledge modelling. In this respect, traditional models such as Decision Support Systems and Expert Systems have drawbacks. One important drawback is that the development of these systems is a time-consuming process. The programming part, in which various deliberations are required to form a consistent if-then rule knowledge based system, is also a time-consuming activity. For these reasons, the methods and tools from other disciplines, which also deal with soft data, should be integrated into architectural design. With fuzzy logic, the imprecision of data can be dealt with in a similar way to how humans do it. Artificial neural networks are deemed to some extent to model the human brain, and simulate its functions in the form of parallel information processing. They are considered important components of Artificial Intelligence (Al). With neural networks, it is possible to learn from examples, or more precisely to learn from input-output data samples. The combination of the neural and fuzzy approach proved to be a powerful combination for dealing with qualitative data. The problem of automated knowledge modelling is efficiently solved by employment of machine learning techniques. Here, the expertise of prof. dr. Ozer Ciftcioglu in the field of soft computing was crucial for tool development. By combining knowledge from two different disciplines a unique tool could be developed that would enable intelligent modelling of soft data needed for support of the building design process. In this respect, this research is a starting point in that direction. It is multidisciplinary and on the cutting edge between the field of Architecture and the field of Artificial Intelligence. From the architectural viewpoint, the perception of space is considered through relationship between a human being and a built environment. Techniques from the field of Artificial Intelligence are employed to model that relationship. Such an efficient combination of two disciplines makes it possible to extend our knowledge boundaries in the field of architecture and improve design quality. With additional techniques, meta know/edge, or in other words “knowledge about knowledge”, can be created. Such techniques involve sensitivity analysis, which determines the amount of dependency of the output of a model (comfort and public safety) on the information fed into the model (input). Another technique is functional relationship modelling between aspects, which is derivation of dependency of a design parameter as a function of user's perceptions. With this technique, it is possible to determine functional relationships between dependent and independent variables. This thesis is a contribution to better understanding of users'perception of underground space, through the prism of public safety and comfort, which was achieved by means of intelligent knowledge modelling. In this respect, this thesis demonstrated an application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) as a partner in the building design process by employing advanced modelling techniques. The method explained throughout this work is very generic and is possible to apply to not only different areas of architectural design, but also to other domains that involve qualitative data.
Marsh, A.J.. Performance Analysis and Conceptual Design ., 1997. A significant amount of the research referred to by Manning has been directed into the development of computer software for building simulation and performance analysis. A wide range of computational tools are now available and see relatively widespread use in both research and commercial applications. The focus of development in this area has long been on the accurate simulation of fundamental physical processes, such as the mechanisms of heat flow though materials, turbulent air movement and the inter-reflection of light. The adequate description of boundary conditions for such calculations usually requires a very detailed mathematical model. This has tended to produce tools with a very engineering-oriented and solution-based approach. Whilst becoming increasingly popular amongst building services engineers, there has been a relatively slow response to this technology amongst architects. There are some areas of the world, particularly the UK and Germany, where the use of such tools on larger projects is routine. However, this is almost exclusively during the latter stages of a project and usually for purposes of plant sizing or final design validation. The original conceptual work, building form and the selection of materials being the result of an aesthetic and intuitive process, sometimes based solely on precedent. There is no argument that an experienced designer is capable of producing an excellent design in this way. However, not all building designers are experienced, and even fewer have a complete understanding of the fundamental physical processes involved in building performance. These processes can be complex and often highly inter-related, often even counter-intuitive. It is the central argument of this thesis that the needs of the building designer are quite different from the needs of the building services engineer, and that existing building design and performance analysis tools poorly serve these needs. It will be argued that the extensive quantitative input requirement in such tools acts to produce a psychological separation between the act of design and the act of analysis. At the conceptual stage, building geometry is fluid and subject to constant change, with solid quantitative information relatively scarce. Having to measure off surface areas or search out the emissivity of a particular material forces the designer to think mathematically at a time when they are thinking intuitively. It is, however, at this intuitive stage that the greatest potential exists for performance efficiencies and environmental economies. The right orientation and fenestration choice can halve the airconditioning requirement. Incorporating passive solar elements and natural ventilation pathways can eliminate it altogether. The building form can even be designed to provide shading using its own fabric, without any need for additional structure or applied shading. It is significantly more difficult and costly to retrofit these features at a later stage in a projectis development. If the role of the design tool is to serve the design process, then a new approach is required to accommodate the conceptual phase. This thesis presents a number of ideas on what that approach may be, accompanied by some example software that demonstrates their implementation.  
Kristianto, Mandau. Performance Evaluation of 3D-Model CAAD Implementation in Dutch Architecture Firms In In cooperation with Hogeschool van Arnhem en Nijmegen - The Netherlands. Nijmegen - the Netherlands, 2003. The principal theme of this research is to provide information regarding the implementation of 3D Model CAAD, CAAD system which uses 3D Drawing Production Method (DPM) instead of 2D DPM This research is focused on its implementation in architecture firms and on justifies its performance and investment value. Principally there are two evaluations conducted in this research. First evaluation aimed to justify 3D-Model CAAD influence on design process and the second is investment evaluation which aimed to provide information for current and prospective user regarding their current and future investment on 3D-Model CAAD.  The results of the evaluations are: 3D Model CAAD has improved performance through efficiency on time and cost of design process also improvement on design quality. However correlation between the use of 3D-Model C.4AD and better performance, while tested using Chi-Square Test, is not significantly. This fact indicates that there are some other strong factors to influence design performance. Second, 3D-Model CAAD, according the Importance-Performance Map is positioned at top right quadrant which categorised as'keep the good work'which means it has good investment value.
Eriksson, Joakim. Planning of Environments for People with Physical Disabilities Using Computer Aided Design., 1998. In the area of environment adaptations for people with physical disabilities, it is of vital importance that the design is optimized considering the human-environment interactions. All involved persons in such a planning process must be given sufficient support in understanding the information, so that everyone can participate actively. There is an apparent risk that discussions will be kept between experts, due to difficulties in understanding the complex and technical adaptation issues. This thesis investigates the use of computer-based tools for planning/designing environments for physically disabled people. A software prototype, and a method to use such a tool in the planning process, was developed and evaluated, based on the findings from six case studies of real planning situations. The case studies indicated that although such a tool would support the design, as well as the dialog between the participants, a certain level of technical and economical efficiency must be obtained. To facilitate the professional planner's work, an important issue is to maintain a large library of 3D objects. With the latest prototype implementation, it was found that such a planning tool can be produced, even when using consumer-oriented computers. One previous critical factor, interactive manipulation of 3D objects, can now be achieved if utilizing modern graphic cards with 3D acceleration. A usability test was performed to evaluate the prototype's basic operations, involving two groups of future users: five occupational therapist students, and four persons with major physical impairments. It was found that although the usability was satisfactory for the basic tasks, several items needed to be improved or added in future versions. It is important with an integrated support for manikins, in order to evaluate, e.g., wheelchair accessibility, reach ability, positioning of handrails, etc. This thesis reviews and compiles published anthropometrical and biomechanical data into a uniform segment-by-segment structure, in order to aid the design and modifications of manikins. The compilation was implemented as a spreadsheet document. An MRI investigation of the neck-shoulder region was performed on 20 healthy Scandinavian, female volunteers, measuring various musculoskeletal properties. These measurements can be used for further refinements of manikin specifications and biomechanical models. 
Laakso, Mikko. Practical Navigation in Virtual Architectural Environments In Espoo. Helsinki, Finland, 2001. The interest towards virtual reality (VR) and virtual environments (VE) is growing all the time. The applications being developed for VE run a wide spectrum, from games to business planning. This thesis concentrates on navigation in virtual architectural environments, movement in worlds that are very similar to our own. Navigation in a virtual world should be practical, intuitive and simple. Unfortunately, it is very often far from that - for some reason the usability issues in VEs have been usually left with little attention. Currently it is easy for a user to get lost and disoriented when traveling in a VE. This situation must change, navigating through virtual environments can no longer be considered a task reserved for the experts only. 3D-worlds and architectural applications for the common user require new, intuitive interface techniques. This thesis addresses issues related to both physical and cognitive aspects of navigation as well as theoretical models that bind them together. In the technology survey of this thesis, the virtual environment technology is presented. Different visual display systems, new input devices and some 3D user interface design aspects are described. The literature survey section discusses the main issues concerning navigation theory. The two parts of navigation, travel and wayfinding, are described in detail. The major challenges are discussed and some solutions and various research results are presented. A major part of the thesis consists of the description of HCNav, a new navigation system developed by the author. The system was constructed for use in the virtual room at Helsinki University of Technology. The purpose of HCNav is to provide a very intuitive and practical navigation interface. Three new experimental input devices, namely custom wand, data glove and speech recognition system, were tested. Another important part of the work is to evaluate the effectiveness of the HCNav system. A usability test was conducted to determine if the use of HCNav was actually improving navigation performance. Twelve subjects participated in a test where HCNav was compared with a traditional navigation software used previously in the virtual room. The experiment setup has been described and the results analyzed. The results are promising and show that the navigation methods adopted in HCNav are clearly better.  
Takatalo, Jari. Presence and Flow in Virtual Environments: an Explorative Study. Helsinki, Finland, 2002. Virtual environments (VEs) are thought to elicit a sense of presence to the user. The sense of presence is considered as a psychological experience of being in a world generated by the computer instead of using the computer from the outside. As a field of research the psychology of VE is quite new and not well explored. In this study the three components of the sense of presence are examined: spatial awareness, attention and the realness of the VE. The three components solution of presence is accused of following Cartesian tradition in separating perception from action. Interaction is considered an important part of the experience of presence. Some authors consider it as the only determinant of presence. The purpose of this study was to explore empirically this human experience. The idea was to integrate the presented presence components into a cognitive-emotional appraisal process from the environment. This type of an appraisal process in generating emotions dominates the field of modern psychological emotion theories. It has also been presented that similar appraisal process precedes optimal experience, i.e., flow. Flow has been used as a metrics to evaluate human computer interaction. However, there are only few studies in which both presence and flow has been measured. In this study the participants gained experiences while conducting a simple search task in a virtual CAVEtm. These experiences were measured with a questionnaire. Based on the results a three-dimensional framework was constructed. This framework integrated the experience of presence and interaction as well as an appraisal process from the environment based on oneis skills and challenges provided by the environment. In the appraisal process also personal relevance and evaluation of the interactivity of the VE are included. Framework also included two basic emotional dimensions arousal and control, which are considered important in producing the overall emotional experience. The framework was used to explain different endpoint experiences gained by the users. The results showed that the sense of presence is an integral part of the flow experience in VEs and in order to experience VE positively a user should experience both presence and flow in VE. Although, the framework needs more careful studying, it provides a fair depiction of the basic dynamics behind a subjective experience in VE.  
Fridqvist, Sverker. Property-Oriented Information Systems for Design Prototypes for the BAS•CAAD system., 2000. Property-oriented systems are a new kind of information systems that are based on concepts of properties instead of concepts of things or classes of things. By focusing on properties, the property-oriented systems become more flexible and more suited to the dynamic early stages of design than the traditional class-oriented systems can be. The theoretical framework for property-oriented systems developed within the BAS*CAAD project and presented in this thesis has previously been presented in several papers, a selection of which are included here. Some of the basic considerations from the papers are further developed in a separate chapter. Additionally, the thesis covers several questions regarding prerequisites for and implications of property-oriented systems. These questions have not been addressed in earlier BAS*CAAD publications. The development of research proptotypes based on the theoretical framework is presented, with a discussion of the different versions and the considerations behind them. A study of the history of computer aided building design has revealed that many basic ideas of today were developed the first time at the beginning of electronic computing, in the early sixties. Since the early development seems to be unknown today, a brief account is presented in this thesis, with special focus on issues considered in the BAS*CAAD project. Finally, the experimental architectural design software DASK, developed mainly by the present author in the later 1980s, will get its first presentation in writing in this thesis. 
Brewster, S.A.. Providing a Structured Method for Integrating Non-Speech Audio into Human-Computer Interfaces In Heslington, York: University of York., 1994. This thesis provides a framework for integrating non-speech sound into human-computer interfaces. Previously there was no structured way of doing this, it was done in an ad hoc manner by individual designers. This led to ineffective uses of sound. In order to add sounds to improve usability two questions must be answered: What sounds should be used and where is it best to use them? With these answers a structured method for adding sound can be created. An investigation of earcons as a means of presenting information in sound was undertaken. A series of detailed experiments showed that earcons were effective, especially if musical timbres were used. Parallel earcons were also investigated (where two earcons are played simultaneously) and an experiment showed that they could increase sound presentation rates. From these results guidelines were drawn up for designers to use when creating usable earcons. These formed the first half of the structured method for integrating sound into interfaces. An informal analysis technique was designed to investigate interactions to identify situations where hidden information existed and where non-speech sound could be used to overcome the associated problems. Interactions were considered in terms of events, status and modes to find hidden information. This information was then categorised in terms of the feedback needed to present it. Several examples of the use of the technique were presented. This technique formed the second half of the structured method. The structured method was evaluated by testing sonically-enhanced scrollbars, buttons and windows. Experimental results showed that sound could improve usability by increasing performance, reducing time to recover from errors and reducing workload. There was also no increased annoyance due to the sound. Thus the structured method for integrating sound into interfaces was shown to be effective when applied to existing interface widgets. 
Kacmar, Charles. PROXHY: a Process -Oriented Extensible Hypertext Architecture. Texas, Texas - USA, 1990. This research describes a new architecture for hypertext environments. The architecture merges the process, object-oriented, and hypertext models to provide hypertext services to object-based, distributed, application components. Through this architecture, applications are integrated to form a comprehensive hypertext computing environment, allowing links to connect applications or objects in different applications. The architecture separates hypertext and application functionality so that multiple applications can use the facilities of a common hypertext layer. The design of the architecture is such that components can be extended or tailored in order to support future applications, multimedia objects, or the needs of specific applications or users. The process-based, object-oriented framework allows objects of arbitrary complexity to live and interact in a hypertext world. Additionally, the protocol and facilities which support component interaction provide location transparency, arbitrary object granularity, and parallel computation over a network. This dissertation provides a conceptual model of hypertext and a general architecture for hypertext system construction. Related literature from object-oriented programming, operating systems, multimedia applications, and database is discussed in terms of the architecture. A hypertext data model, computational model, and hypertext system taxonomy are used to discuss the capabilities of current hypertext systems. Interaction scenarios are provided in order to illustrate object interaction and the distribution of work among the components of the architecture. A prototype system, implemented to demonstrate the feasibility of the architecture, is discussed. The prototype illustrates all aspects of the architecture including distributed application and hypertext components, cross-application linking, and anchors acting as proxy objects for applications. Application scenarios, problems and limitations, and future research issues provide an understanding of the power of the architecture and its potential for impacting the design of next-generation hypertext systems.    
Long, A.. Quil a Gesture Design Tool for Pen-based User Interfaces. Berkeley, California - USA, 2001. This dissertation describes the motivation, design, and development of a tool for designing gestures for pen-based user interfaces. Pens and other styli have been ubiquitous for recording information for centuries. Recently, pen-based computers have recently become common, especially small devices such as the Palm Pilot. One benefit pens provide in computer interfaces is the ability to draw gestures ? marks that invoke commands. Gestures can be intuitive and faster than other methods of invoking commands. However, our research shows that gestures are sometimes misrecognized and hard to remember. We believe these problems are due in part to the difficulty of designing “good” gestures ? that is, gestures that are easy to remember and are recognized well “ and the lack of tools for helping designers create good gestures. We believe that an improved gesture design tool can help interface designers create good gestures for their applications. Since people confuse similar objects and misremember them, we performed experiments to measure why people perceived gestures as similar. We derived computational metrics for predicting human perception of gesture similarity. Based on the results of our experiments, we developed a gesture design tool, quill. The tool warns designers about gestures that may be hard to remember or recognize, and provides advice about how to improve the gestures. It also provides a convenient way to test recognition of gestures. To evaluate quill, a user study was performed with 10 professional user interface designers and one professional web designer. All designers were able to create gesture sets using quill, but not all designers benefited from quillis suggestions. More work is needed to make suggestions useful for most designers. The primary contributions of this work are: • Improved understanding of the gesture design process, including the types of problems people encounter when designing gestures. • Computational models for predicting human-perceived gesture similarity. • Confirmation of the importance of good naming for gesture memorability. • An intelligent gesture design tool, quill, which automatically warns designers about potential problems with their gestures and advises them about how to fix these problems. This work also suggests several areas for future work in the areas of gesture design tools and gesture similarity and memorability.
Sola-Morales, Pau. Representation in Architecture: a Data Model for Computer-Aided Architectural Design In DDes Thesis. Cambridge, Massachusetts - USA, 2000. Traditional representation systems - including technical drawings, perspectives, models and photography - have historically been used by architects to communicate projectual ideas to other agents in the process, as well to communicate ideas to themselves and recording them for future reference.  The increasing complexity of the projects, involving more agents in ever more distant locations, the need for a greater semantic richness to express all the subtleties of the technical, cost and styling details, and  -- most importantly - the introduction of computers in every day practice, which enable powerful data generation and manipulation, all these factors together demand for a new representation system adapted to the new digital medium.  Yet, traditional CAAD software packages do not offer a solution to any of these problems, for their data model is too simplified to model complex projects and ideas, and are based on geometrical representations of the built environment. This dissertation addresses the issue of computer representation of architecture, and tries to refocus the discussion from a “geometric representation of objectsi to a “representation of relationships among objects.i After studying the nature of design, it is observed that objects in the built environment can be represented as patterns of relationships.  Based on the object-oriented data model (OODM), which can capture such relationships, the research proposes a new data model and a new set of abstractions of architectural elements that represent the patterns of relationships among them.  The resulting representations are networks of design concepts and intentions, hypertext-like structures conveying all the semantic richness of the architectural project, containing qualitative as well as quantitative information.  It is analogous to a “digital writingi or “encodingi of architecture.  Being stored in an OO, centralized, concurrent database, these object models can be shared and exchanged among design professionals, adding up to a universal computer-readable design representation system.
Chen, Xiangping. Representation, Evaluation and Edition of Feature-based and Constraint- based Design., 1995. This thesis investigates a general and systematic approach to feature-based and constraint-based design. We combine feature-based design and constraint-based design by globally decomposing a design into a sequence of feature attachments and locally defining and positioning each feature by constraints. Analogous to the concept of high-level programming languages, we formalize a layered design model that eliminates the dependency of a design representation on a solid modeler. With this design model, design intent, such as feature descriptions and constraints, is stored in an unevaluated, modeler-independent design representation while the geometry to which it corresponds is stored in an evaluated, modeler-dependent design representation. The separation essentially relies on a naming and matching schema that converts between a geometric reference and a generic name, and a design compiler that automatically instantiates the unevaluated design representation to an evaluated design representation with respect to a solid modeler. The geometric references for defining feature attributes and constraints are recorded with their generic names in the unevaluated design representation. We propose several techniques for naming geometric entities unambiguously. The design compilation or instantiation involves remapping a generic name back to a geometric reference in the selected geometric modeler, solving constraints and implementing feature operations or attachments. Instead of developing a constraint solver for this design compiler, we use an independent and general solver. Feature attachment operations are different from classical Boolean operations in solid modelling. However, we provide a semantics for them that is based on existing operations in solid modelling. The layered design model allows users to edit archived conceptual designs to derive new designs quickly. We investigate the coordination of later features in the unevaluated and modeler-independent representation when a feature is edited and provide a method for editing feature-based and constraint-based design. We also discuss how to extend this work to a commercial feature-based and constraint-based CAD system.    
Fukuda, Tomohiro. Research of collaborative design support system for landscape design in the night. Osaka, Japan, 1999.
Inanç, B.S.. Retrieving Architectural Information Objects by the Heuristics of Laziness. Delft, the Netherlands, 2003.
Tyler, Sherman. SAUCI. Self-Adaptive User Computer Interfaces. Pittsburg. Pennsylvania - USA, 1986. Different approaches to the design of the human-computer interface have been taken in the past. These can be organized into four broad categories: tack-on, intuitive/empirical, formal, and conversational. There are several important interface design criteria that have never been adequately attained in any of these approaches. One is modularity, that is, maintaining a clear separation between the interface and its target system. A second criterion is self-adaptation, or the ability of the interface to modify its own behaviour to suit a given individual user. Two further criteria relate to the interface's potential to guide users in performing typical high-level tasks on the target system and to provide intelligent advice on the use of that system. This research was focused on developing an integrated technique for achieving these four design criteria. To that end, an abstract architecture called SAUCI, or the Self-Adaptive User-Computer Interface, was proposed, embodying a knowledge-based, object-oriented approach to interface design. The foundation of this approach rests upon information encoded within sets of objects. This information includes separate knowledge bases describing the individual users, the commands of the target system, and the high-level tasks appropriate for that system. The behaviour of the interface is controlled by various methods which call upon the knowledge bases in a rule-governed manner to decide what interface features should be present at each phase of the user's dialogue with the target system. To test the feasibility of the proposed architecture, a working interface was implemented on a Xerox 1108 computer in the LOOPS language, with a UNIX operating system running on a separate minicomputer as the target system. An empirical evaluation of this prototype revealed clear advantages over the standard interface. Closer examination pointed to each of the factors of modularity, task guidance, and user-tailored assistance as playing a significant role in these effects. A discussion of additional applications of this architecture and of areas for future development is offered as further evidence of the value of this approach as a general framework for human-computer interface design.    
Rottensteiner, Franz. Semi-automatic extraction of buildings based on hybrid adjustment using 3D surface models and management of building data in a TIS. Vienna, Austria, 2001. A new method for semi-automatic building extraction together with a concept for storing building models alongside with terrain data in a topographical information system (TIS) is presented. A user interface based on Constructive Solid Geometry is combined with an internal data structure completely based on boundary representation. Each building can be de-composed into a set of simple primitives which are reconstructed individually. After selecting a primitive from a data base of common building shapes, the primitive parameters can be modified by interactive measurement in digital images in order to provide approximate values for automatic fine measurement. In all phases, the properties of the boundary models are directly connected to parameter estimation: the parameters of the building primitives are determined in a hybrid adjustment of camera co-ordinates and fictitious observations of points being situated on building faces. Automatic fine measurement is an application of a general framework for object surface reconstruction using hierarchical feature based object space matching. The integration of object space into the matching process is achieved by the new modelling technique. The management of both building and terrain data in a TIS is based on a unique principle. Meta data are managed in a relational data base, whereas the actual data are treated as binary large objects. The new method is evaluated in a test project (image scale: 1:4500, 70 % overlap, 50 % side lap). The automatic tool gives results with an accuracy of +-2-5 cm in planimetric position and +-5-10 cm in height. 
Liew, Haldane. SGML: a meta-language for shape grammars. Cambridge, Massachusetts - USA, 2004. A shape grammar develops a drawing through a series of transformations by repeatedly applying if-then rules. Although the rules can be designed, in principle, to construct any type of drawing, the drawings they construct may not necessarily develop in the manner intended by the designer of the grammar. In this thesis, I introduce a shape grammar meta-language that adds power to grammars based on the shape grammar language. Using the shape grammar meta-language, the author of a grammar can: (1) explicitly determine the sequence in which a set of rules is applied, (2) restrict rule application through a filtering process, and (3) use context to guide the rule matching process, all of which provide a guided design experience for the user of the grammar. Three example grammars demonstrate the effectiveness of the meta-language. The first example is the Bilateral Grid grammar which demonstrates how the meta-language facilitates the development of grammars that offer users multiple design choices. The second grammar is the Hexagon Path grammar which demonstrates how the metalanguage is useful in contexts other than architectural design. The third and most ambitious example is the Durand grammar which embodies the floor plan design process described in Précis of the Lectures of Architecture, written by JNL Durand, an eighteenth century architectural educator. Durand's floor plan design process develops a plan through a series of transformations from grid to axis to parti to wall. The corresponding Durand grammar, which consists of 74 rules and 15 macros organized into eight stages, captures Durand's ideas and fills in gaps in Durand's description of his process. A key contribution of this thesis is the seven descriptors that constitute the meta-language. The descriptors are used in grammar rules: (1) to organize a set of rules for the user to choose from, (2) to group together a series of rules, (3) to filter information in a drawing, (4) to constrain where a rule can apply, and (5) to control how a rule is applied. The end result is a language that allows the author to create grammars that guide users by carefully controlling the design process in the manner intended by the author.  
Merz, R.. Shape deposition manufacturing. Vienna, Austria, 1994. This thesis addresses the issue of rapidly and automatically fabricating functional metal parts directly from CAD models. A newly developed process called Shape Deposition Manufacturing (SDM) is introduced. The process is based on the concept of layered manufacturing in SFF, but uses separate deposition and shaping steps to create a layer. Three dimensionally shaped layers are created using 5-axis CNC machining, to achieve the required geometric accuracy for fully functional shapes. Thermal deposition technologies (thermal spraying, welding) are used to achieve the required material properties. A novel, droplet based deposition process, microcasting, has been developed, to create well- bonded, high-strength material, while minimising the heat input into previously shaped layers. To create layers with a true three dimensional geometry, more detailed building strategies, than used by conventional SFF processes, are required by the SDM process. A CAD based planning system, which addresses these issues by decomposing a solid model of a part into layers and manufacturable, fully three dimensional segments is described. An automated testbed facility installed at Carnegie Mellon's Shape Deposition Laboratory is discussed, and shows the feasibility of automating the process. The microcasting process is explained in detail and its performance in the SDM environment is evaluated. Different strategies and material combinations for the support structure have been developed and are presented with detailed descriptions of several building strategies for parts with various complexity and material quality. Material properties of structures created by the SDM process are evaluated. Problems affecting the accuracy and material integrity of SDM created structures, which mainly involve the buildup of thermal stresses during material deposition, are identified and opened for future research. Finally, various parts, with different complexity, have been built with the SDM process, to show the feasibility and performance of the process. Building time and material usage are evaluated and compared to conventional SFF processes 
Gips, James. Shape grammars and their uses: artificial perception, shape generation and computer aesthetics. Stanford, California - USA, 1974. Shape grammars are defined and their uses investigated. Shape grammars provide a means for the recursive specification of shapes. The formalism for shape grammars is designed to be easily usable and understandable by people and at the same time to be adaptable for use in computer programs. Shape grammars are similar to phrase structure grammars, which were developed by Chomsky. Where a phrase structure grammar is defined over an alphabet of symbols and generates a language of sequences of symbols, a shape grammar is defined over an alphabet of shapes and generates a language of shapes. The dissertation is divided into three sections and an Appendix. In the first section: Shape grammars are defined. Some simple examples are given for instructive purposes. Shape grammars are used to generate a new class of reversible figures. Shape grammars are given for some well-known mathematical curves (the Snowflake curve, a variation of Peano's curve, and Hubert's curve). To show the general computational power of shape grammars, a procedure that given any Turing machine constructs a shape grammar that simulates the operation of that Turing machine is presented. Related work on various formalisms for picture grammars is described. A symbolic characterization of shape grammars is given that is useful for implementing shape grammars in computer programs. In the second section, a program that uses a shape grammar to solve a perceptual task is described. The task involves analyzing and comparing line drawings that portray three -dimensional objects of a restricted type. The third section is divided into two parts. First, a formalism for generating paintings is defined. The primary component of this formalism is a shape grammar. The paintings generated are material representations of shapes specified by shape grammars. The computer implementation of this formalism is described. The second part is concerned with aesthetics. A formalism is defined for specifying an aesthetic viewpoint. The formalism is used to specify a particular aesthetic viewpoint for interpreting and evaluating paintings generated using shape grammars. This viewpoint has been implemented on the computer. The net result is that the program described in Section 3 can be used to interactively define the rules for producing a painting, can use the rules to generate and display the resulting painting, and can then evaluate the painting relative to the specific aesthetic viewpoint. Relationships between the formalism for aesthetic viewpoints and information theory and science are touched upon. Finally, the possibility of using this approach to aesthetics to write programs that automatically analyze presented art objects or design new art objects is explored. In the Appendix, a method for constructing the inverse of a Turing machine is presented. This construction was created in response to a problem that is described in the aesthetics section.
Saad, M.. Shared understanding in synchronous collaborative design. Sydney, Australia, 1994.
Sellgren, Ulf. Simulation-driven Design. Stockholm, Sveden: KTH, 1999. Efficiency and innovative problem solving are contradictory requirements for product development (PD), and both requirements must be satisfied in companies that strive to remain or to become competitive. Efficiency is strongly related to “doing things right”,  whereas innovative problem solving and creativity is focused on “doing the right things”. Engineering design, which is a sub-process within PD, can be viewed as problem solving or a decision-making process. New technologies in computer science and new software tools open the way to new approaches for the solution of mechanical problems. Product data management (PDM) technology and tools can enable concurrent engineering (CE) by managing the formal product data, the relations between the individual data objects, and their relation to the PD process. Many engineering activities deal with the relation between behaviour and shape. Modern CAD systems are highly productive tools for concept embodiment and detailing. The finite element (FE) method is a general tool used to study the physical behaviour of objects with arbitrary shapes. Since a modern CAD technology enables design modification and change, it can support the innovative dimension of engineering as well as the verification of physical properties and behaviour. Concepts and detailed solutions have traditionally been evaluated and verified with physical testing. Numerical modelling and simulation is in many cases a far more time efficient method than testing to verify the properties of an artifact. Numerical modelling can also support the innovative dimension of problem solving by enabling parameter studies and observations of real and synthetic behaviour. Simulation-driven design is defined as a design process where decisions related to the behaviour and performance of the artifact are significantly supported by computer-based product modelling and simulation. A framework for product modelling, that is based on a modern CAD system with fully integrated FE modelling and simulation functionality provides the engineer with tools capable of supporting a number of engineering steps in all life-cycle phases of a product. Such a conceptual framework, that is based on a moderately coupled approach to integrate commercial PDM, CAD, and FE software, is presented. An object model and a supporting modular modelling methodology are also presented. Two industrial cases are used to illustrate the possibilities and some of the opportunities given by simulation-driven design with the presented methodology and framework.
Sivaloganathan, Sangarappillai. Sketching input for computer aided engineering ., 1991. The design process often begins with a graphical description of the proposed device or system and sketching is the physical expression of the design engineer's thinking process. Computer Aided Design is a technique in which man and machine are blended into a problem solving team, intimately coupling the best characteristics of each. Solid modelling is developed to act as the common medium between man and the computer. At present it is achieved mainly by designing with volumes and hence does not leave much room for sketching input, the traditional physical expression of the thinking process of the design engineer. This thesis describes a method of accepting isometric free hand sketching as the input to a solid model. The design engineer is allowed to make a sketch on top of a digitizer indicating (i) visible lines, (ii) hidden lines, (iii) construction lines, (iv) centre lines, (v) erased lines, and (vi) redundant lines as the input. The computer then processes this sketch by identifying the line segments, fitting the best possible lines, removing the erased lines, ignoring the redundant lines and finally merging the hidden lines and visible lines to form the lines in the solid in an interactive manner. The program then uses these lines and the information about the three dimensional origin of the object and produces three dimensional information such as the faces, loops, holes, rings, edges and vertices which are sufficient to build a solid model. This is achieved in the following manner. The points in the sketch are first written into a file. The computer than reads this file, breaks the group of points into sub-groups belonging to individual line segments, fits the best lines and identify the vertices in two dimensions. These improved lines in two dimensions are then merged to form the lines and vertices in the solid. These lines are then used together with the three dimensional origin (or any other point) to produce the wireframe model in three dimensions. The loops in the wireframe models are then identified and surface equations are fitted to these loops. Finally all the necessary inputs to build a B-rep solid model are produced. 
Sutherland, Ivan. SKETCHPAD: a Man-Machine Graphical Communication System. Cambridge, Massachussetes - USA, 1963.
Ebnöther, If. SkinChair In ETH postgraduate studies final thesis. Zürich, Switzerland, 2004. The skin chair project is an exploration of some of the possibilities that CNC technologies offer for designers and makers. At the center of attention is the fascination with the possibility of small-scale, on-demand production without the need for large investments in tooling. A lot of work has already been done in this field. The skin chair project aims to examine a few aspects using specific tools available at ETH Hi¶nggerberg. The idea for the skin chair emerged from a commercial project where I learnt how difficult it can be to manufacture a threedimensional seating surface for a chair in steel. The constructional concept of the skin chair is simple: two ribs at either side of the chair define the shape, a skin (a thin material) is wrapped around these thus a hollow volume is created. The simple principle lends itself to parameterisation and thus the creation of many variants of the intial design. In an attempt to approximate a real-life product scenario, a number of components of the workflow were prototyped.
Eggink, Dustin. Smart Objects: Constraints and Behaviors in a Dimensional Design . Washington, USA, 2001. Each new design problem in architecture presents a new set of requirements.A designer must remain aware of these requirements and effectively communicate them to collaborators because the degree to which the requirements are met will determine the success of the solution. This thesis explores how design can be effectively presented in a medium that is both explorative of form and descriptive of the design problemis requirements. To facilitate this, we present Smart Objects, a constraint-based three-dimensional(3D) computer program. In Smart Objects, design intentions of an architectural problem are embedded as constraints into the modeled objects that compose a formal solution. A model is presented through a 3DVirtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) viewer and constrained by a software program we wrote in the Java language. Both the VRML viewer and the Java program are contained within a single web page. In Smart Objectsd. A designer meets or violates constraints, objects behave in a manner that reflects the requirements of the problem and intentions of the designer. Smart Objects communicates the design principles and guidelines that inform an architectural design to the collaborators involved in the project. It ensures that these principles and guidelines are maintained as the design progresses.   
Bier, Eric. Snap-Dragging. Interactive Geometric design in Two and Three Dimensions. Berkeley, California - USA, 1988. Graphic artists, mechanical designers, architects, animators, authors of technical papers and others create geometric designs (illustrations and solid models) as a major part of their daily efforts. Some part of this shape construction must be done with precision. For instance, certain line segments should be horizontal, parallel or congruent. In recent years, interactive computer programs have been used to speed up the production of precise geometric designs. These programs take advantage of high-speed graphics, equation solving, and computer input peripherals to reduce the time needed to describe point positions to the machine. Previous techniques include rounding the cursor to points on a rectangular grid, solving networks of constraints, and supporting step-by-step drafting-style constructions. Snap-dragging is a modification of the drafting approach that takes advantage of powerful workstations to reduce the time needed to make precise illustrations. Using a single gravity mapping, a cursor can be snapped to either points, lines or surface. The gravity algorithm achieves good performance by computing intersection points on the fly. To aid precise construction, a set of lines, circles, planes, and spheres, called alignment objects, are constructed by the system at a set of slopes, angles, and distances specified by the user. These alignments objects are constructed at each vertex or edge that the user has declared to be hot (of interest). Vertices and edges can also be made hot by the system through the action of an automatic hotness rule. When snap-dragging is used, shapes can often be constructed using a few more keystrokes than would be needed to sketch them freehand. Objects can be edited at arbitrary orientations and sizes. The number of primitive operations is small, making it possible to provide keyboard combinations for quickly activating most of these operations. The user interface works nearly identically in two or three dimensions. In three dimensions, snap-dragging works with a two-dimensional pointing device in a single perspective view.    
Lee, Ming-Chun. SpaceMaker: a Symbol-based Three-dimensional Computer Modeling Tool for Early Schematic Development of the Architectural Design. Washington, USA, 2001. Designing architecture is an action of creating space. Architects start designing by making twodimensional (2-D) drawings in order to explore alternatives of spatial arrangement. However, architects are actually working with three-dimensional (3-D) space. They see 3-D space in their mindis eye when making sketches in 2-D. It is thus valuable to help designers truly see 3-D space during designing. In addition, different spaces may have different functions and configurations of architectural components. Architects usually use text labels in their drawings to identify architectural concepts. They identify the function of space and remind themselves of the proposed configuration of architectural elements when labeling each space with a symbol. By recognizing the text label, it is possible to identify the architectural configuration of the space. Therefore, it is possible to create a 3-D modelling tool based on the recognition of labels in freehand sketches. This thesis introduces a symbol-based 3-D modelling tool - the SpaceMaker - that allows designers to make freehand floor-plan drawings to explore the initial concept of spatial layout and allows users to apply labels to identify different types of space. Finally, the program converts those floor plans into 3-D models according to the labels. In the SpaceMaker, a designer predefines a label by assigning it four boundary elements that encircle a space. When the designer draws the label in the sketch floor plan, the SpaceMaker then recognizes the label and constructs the space based on the defined boundary condition in a VRML (Virtual Reality Modelling Language) format that enables the designer to view the 3-D space through a VRML enabled web browser.            
Hwang, Jie-Eun. SpaceScope: Developing a Spatial Information Retrieval System - Focused on Apartment Unit Floor Plans -. Yonsei, Korea Sud, 2002. This research investigates the spatial information retrieval (IR) in architecture focused on constructing efficient metadata that is crucial for data retrieval. Generally speaking, metadata is “structured data about datai to describe resources especially in a digital format. In this research, metadata is a sort of data object to be useful in searching spatial information. Metadata is also used to describe raw spatial data object as not only attribute data but also content structurally and semantic ally. There are two issues that motivate this research, 1) what is the spatial information - that materializes the intangible space as a data object, and 2) how we can search the information efficiently - the content-based information retrieval. Although knowledge of a buildingis spatial content is most important in architecture, there has been no logical method to manage it. From the viewpoint of content-based retrieval, the researcher analyzes spatial information of a floor plan, with a focus on the apartment unit floor plan common in Korea. Then the metadata items are extracted in a structured manner. To manage the items efficiently, the researcher develops a data model for spatial information according to the concept of the “Structured Floor Plan” nodes of spaces and their linkages. There are two ways to organize the metadata: the traditional index files and the RDF (Resource Description Framework). While the index files are still efficient with computability, the RDF applies greater options to retrieve, such as fuzzy predicates, semantic predicates, and so on. To exploit the metadata, this research shows several possibilities of query operations that present a set of sample queries about L-DK(Living room - Dining room - Kitchen). Implementation of the prototype system is divided into three parts: 1) a modelling module using Vitruvius, 2) an indexing module using MS SQL Server? 2000 in conjunction XML, and 3) a browsing module using the SpaceScope browser. The future works may consider XML-based databases and a knowledge based query language, such as RQL/XQL, working on such databases. The more specific domain knowledge is involved, the more practical systems would be. Even in architecture, there may be a diverse range of domain knowledge, such as design, building performance, facility management, energy management, post occupied evaluation, historical research, and so on. Also the issue of interface should be investigated in depth, so that it will be adequate to the needs of the architectural field.  
Bakker, N.H.. Spatial Orientation in Virtual Environments. Delft University of Technology, 2001. Recently, a growing interest can be detected in the application of Virtual Environment (VE) technology as an operator interface. VEs are three-dimensional computer-generated images that can be shown on a conventional monitor, on a large screen display, or on a head-mounted display. In order to use these three-dimensional interfaces for finding and retrieving information, the user must be able to spatially orient themselves.  Different types of VE technology are available for navigating in these VEs, and different types of navigation can be enabled. A choice has to be made between the different options to enable good spatial orientation of the user. There are two main types of VE interfaces: an immersive interface that provides rich sensory feedback to the user when moving around in the VE, and a non-immersive interface that provides only visual feedback to the user when moving around in the VE. Furthermore, navigation through the VE can either be continuous providing fluent motion, or can be discontinuous which means that the viewpoint is displaced instantaneously over a large distance.  To provide insight into the possible effects of these options a series of nine experiments was carried out. In the experiments the quality of spatial orientation behaviour of test subjects is measured while using the different types of interface and the different types of navigation.  The results of the experiments indicate that immersive navigation improves the perception of displacement through the VE, which in turn aids the acquisition of spatial knowledge. However, as soon as the spatial layout of the VE is learned the two types of navigation interface do not lead to differences in spatial orientation performance. A discontinuous displacement leads to temporary disorientation, which will hinder the acquisition of spatial knowledge. The type of discontinuous displacements has an effect on the time needed for anticipation. The disorienting effects of a discontinuous displacement can be compensated for by enabling cognitive anticipation to the destination of the displacement.  These results suggest that immersive navigation might only be beneficial for application domains in which new spatial layouts have to be learned every time or in domains where the primary users are novices. For instance, in training firemen to teach them the layout of new buildings with VE, or in using architectural walkthroughs in VE to show new building designs to potential buyers. Discontinuous movement should not be allowed when exploring a new environment. Once the environment is learned and if fast displacement is essential then discontinuous displacement should be preferred. In this case, the interface designer must make sure that information is provided about the destination of a discontinuous displacement.
Henry, Daniel. Spatial Perception in Virtual Environments: Evaluating an Architectural Application. Washington, USA, 1992. Over the last several years, professionals from many different fields have come to the Human Interface Technology Laboratory (H.I.T.L) to discover and learn about virtual environments. In general, they are impressed by their experiences and express the tremendous potential the tool has in their respective fields. But the potentials are always projected far in the future, and the tool remains just a concept. This is justifiable because the quality of the visual experience is so much less than what people are used to seeing, high definition television, breathtaking special cinematographic effects and photorealistic computer renderings. Instead, the models in virtual environments are very simple looking, they are made of small spaces, filled with simple or abstract looking objects of little color distinctions as seen through displays of noticeably low resolution and at an update rate which leaves much to be desired. Clearly, for most applications, the requirements of precision have not been met yet with virtual interfaces as they exist today. However, there are a few domains where the relatively low level of the technology could be perfectly appropriate. In general, these are applications which require that the information be presented in symbolic or representational form. Having studied architecture, I knew that there are moments during the early part of the design process when conceptual decisions are made which require precisely the simple and representative nature available in existing virtual environments. This was a marvelous discovery for me because I had found a viable use for virtual environments which could be immediately beneficial to architecture, my shared area of interest. It would be further beneficial to architecture in that the virtual interface equipment I would be evaluating at the H.I.T.L. happens to be relatively less expensive and more practical than other configurations such as the “Walkthrough” at the University of North Carolina. The set-up at the H.I.T.L. could be easily introduced into architectural firms because it takes up very little physical room (150 square feet) and it does not require expensive and space taking hardware devices (such as the treadmill device for simulating walking). Now that the potential for using virtual environments in this architectural application is clear, it becomes important to verify that this tool succeeds in accurately representing space as intended. The purpose of this study is to verify that the perception of spaces is the same, in both simulated and real environment. It is hoped that the findings of this study will guide and accelerate the process by which the technology makes its way into the field of architecture.  
Bugajska, Malgorzata. Spatial Visualization of abstract Information: a Classification Model for Visual Spatial Design Guidelines in the Digital Domain. ETH Zürich, Switzerland, 2002. Visualization of abstract information refers to the design of graphical representations of information that has no simple relation to known concrete or physical forms. Designing visualizations of abstract information requires proposing visual representation for often a large body of data pants. determining a meaningful structure for the complex relations among them and suggesting a method for Interacting with this body of data. Spatial perception plays an Important role for cognitive processing when interacting with abstract information, slice spatially-organized Information can be accessed and operated on rapidly and effortlessly, especially when a spatial arrangement reveals the conceptual organization of Information. This thesis focuses on aspects of the spatial visual design of abstract information presented as computer-generated. dynamic and interactive images accessible through flat displays. The process of spatial visualization design is shaped by various factors including interactive, perceptual, navigational as well as organizational and metaphorical aspects and as such requires an interdisciplinary approach. Therefore, in researching spatial visual design. it is crucial to use methods facilitating the process of sharing competencies among different disciplines. In this thesis, we introduce a new classification model accommodating features important in designing effective spatial visualizations of abstract information. To enhance the effectiveness of spatial visualization, this model offers a holistic approach in classifiying spatial Visualization features. As part of the model, we analyze properties already used in architectural representation and other visual design disciplines for spatial presentations as well as investigate their potential usage in digital domains of abstract information. The process of spatial visualization In the digital environment is mostly based on the practical experience of a designer. and therefore the majority of spatial design know-how is heuristic in nature. Based on this assumption, we present a set of guidelines addressing the general problem of spatial design.  The Spalial Design Classificahon Model, Visual Spatial Properties and Spatial Design Guidelines build an extendable infrastructure which becomes a first step towards augmenting the quality of spatial information design- We propose to use this infrastructure as a general blueprint for structuring the exchange of expertise in Interdisciplinary problem-solving processes.   
Yun, Yong. Structural Composite Members in Architecture Fabricated by CAD/CAE/CAM Technology . Harvard, Massachussets - USA, 2001. The doctoral research in this dissertation is aimed at exploring new materials and innovative methods for fabricating complex-shaped buildings, which have surfaced as a prevailing trend in architecture today. Over the past few years, the field of architecture has witnessed revolutionary changes in design. The recent completion of Frank O. Gehry's new Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain, brought unprecedented attention to complex-shaped, non-conventional designs and its influence on the global architectural trend has been immense. In following these latest trends, the author was drawn to the issues concerning construction materials and methods that are being currently adopted in realizing these complicated designs. It is perhaps inevitable that the traditional steel construction methods, suitable for use in the conventional linear shapes, face tremendous challenges and limitations in building such complex-shaped designs. In the author's opinion, the next step to go from here is to seek joint efforts between the architectural field and the engineering field to search for a new methodology which will best serve the contemporary design style. This research first focused on examining the problems that traditional methods pose for the new complex-shaped buildings. Paying attention to Gehry's recent projects, the author was able to identify major difficulties in association with representing and constructing these complicated shapes, mainly in terms of the relationship between the primary structure and the envelope surface. The second part of the research moved on to proposing a new alternative to the traditional methods, by utilizing polymer composite materials (PCM) as construction material and employing advanced Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/Computer Aided Engineering (CAE)/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) technologies. More specifically, the author has attempted to present effective theories in support of the two following ideas: (1)&nbsp,circular tubes made of PCM are the most promising alternative to regular steel members, especially steel tubes, to follow the envelope surface of the complex shaped building. (2)&nbsp,state-of-the-art CAD/CAE/CAM technologies are the most essential tools to achieve the geometrical and functional quality of the proposed new material. In the second phase, the primary focus of the quantitative approach was on fabricating an experimental model (1:1 scale prototype) called &ldquo, a unit of boundary structures&rdquo,, the basic unit of structure system that wraps a complex-shaped building's entire territory . (Abstract shortened by UMI.) 
Pranovich, Sviataslau. Structural sketcher: a tool for supporting architects in early stages. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 2004. Traditionally, architects use pen and paper for the early stages. Architects have great expertise in drawing, their use is simple and has low overhead, and a high precision is not required, and even counterproductive. The last decades many systems to support architects have been developed. These are primarily suited for the production of final technical drawings. Architects do not use them in the early phases, because they do not offer the freedom, speed, and ambiguity needed there. Nevertheless, the use of a computer could offer benefits, such as ease of modification and editing as well as higher level support. The aim of the project described in this thesis was to develop a computer-sketching tool to support architects in the early design stages.
Donker, P.. Structuring Communication in the Architectural Forum for On-Line Design. Delft, the Netherlands, 1999.
Morozumi, Mitsuo. Studies on the Network Analysis for Locational Optimization and their Application to Locating Ambulance Stations. Tokyo, Japan, 1985.
Choo, Seung. Study on computer-aided design support of traditional architectural theories. München, Germany, 2004. The research presented in this thesis describes a computer-aided design support of traditional architectural theories. Traditional architectural theories in western architecture have been considered as a basis for answering the fundamental questions of architecture: proportion, symmetry, colour, harmony and so on. In particular, the aesthetic aspect of these theories has been one of many important architectural aspects, and which is concerned with the field of architecture in determining the beauty of architectural form. The most significant role of the traditional theories in architecture is to maintain unity, to avoid chaos and then to achieve harmony in a design, using some specific design principles. However, current technology-guided constructions tend to neglect often the importance of these theories due to the standardization of building elements, due to mechanically-prepared construction and the reducing completion costs, etc.  Thus, this research proposes a design support system as a design assistant that gives an intelligent advice on architectural design, using analytical design- and ordering- principles of traditional theories for the optimization of the architectural design from the aesthetic perspective.  To evaluate the aesthetic quality of an architectural design, this system is implemented in the AutoCAD environment, using the AutoLISP. It is applied so as to explain and develop aesthetic qualities of a design. Designs proposed by this system include optimum designs, which are based on the traditional architectural theories, and new ones which can be in future connected to information models. To do this, the definition of information about building elements is accomplished by using the neutral format EXPRESS and EXPRESS-G for such application systems.  The results of the application system are presented, such as the easily generating and quickly conceptualising of an object model, the checking of the aesthetic value of the design during the various design phases, the helping to find direction during rational searching for a solution. The user can easily appreciate the usefulness of the proposed system as a set of tools for searching for rational architectural aesthetics and formal solutions at different design-stages.  It is to be hoped that a new “traditionali fundamental of architecture, such as the proposed system, incorporating CAAD systems, will find its place among new technological methods in the AEC industry and so help to bridge the gap between the value of traditional architecture and CAAD systems.
Chien, Sheng-Fen. Supporting information navigation in generative design systems., 1998. Generative design systems make it easier for designers to generate and explore design altematives, but the amount of information generated during a design session can become very large. Intelligent navigation aids are needed to enable designers to access the information with ease. Such aids may improve the usability of generative design systems and encourage their use in architectural practice. This dissertation presents a comprehensive approach to support navigation in generative design systems. This approach takes account of studies related to human spatial cognition, wayfinding in physical environments, and information navigation in electronic media. It contains a general model of design space, basic navigation operations, and principles for designing navigation support. The design space model describes how the space may grow and evolve along predictable dimensions. The basic operations facilitate navigation activities in this multi-dimensional design space. The design principles aim at guiding system developers in creating navigation utilities tailored to the needs of individual design systems. This approach is validated through prototype implementations and limited pilot usability studies. The validity of the design space model and basic navigation operations is examined through the development of a design space navigation framework that encapsulates the model and operations in a software environment and provides the infrastructure and mechanisms for supporting navigation. Three prototype navigation tools are implemented using this framework. These tools are subjected to usability studies. The studies show that these tools are easy to leam and are efficient in assisting designers locating desired information. In summary, it can be demonstrated that through the prototype implementations and usability studies, this approach offers sufficient support for the design and implementation of navigation aids in a generative design system. The research effort is a pioneer study on navigation support in generative design systems. It demonstrates why navigation support is necessary, how to provide the support, and what types of user interaction it can offer. This research contributes to information navigation studies not only in the specific domain of generative design system research, but also in the general field of human-computer interaction.
Yessios, Christos. Syntactic structures and procedures for computable site planning. Pittsburg. Pennsylvania - USA, 1973.
Harrilchak, M.. The affect of rendering techniques on the evaluation of computer generated design simulations. New York, USA, 1993. Contributed by Susan Pietsch ([email protected])
Stouffs, Rudi. The Algebra of Shapes. Pittsburg. Pennsylvania - USA: Carnegie Mellon University, 1994.

This thesis investigates a new representation scheme for geometric modelling, based on an algebraic model for shapes and formalized using a boundary representation. The algebraic model is mathematically uniform for shapes of all kinds and provides a natural and intuitive framework for mixed-dimensional shapes. The corresponding maximal element representation is essential to the concept of shape emergence. The representation scheme particularly supports computational design as a generative process of search or exploration. This thesis begins with a treatment of the algebraic and geometric properties of shapes and gives a formal and complete definition of the maximal element representation for n-dimensional shapes in a k-dimensional space (n ? k). Efficient algorithms are presented for the algebraic operations of sum, product, difference and symmetric difference on shapes of plane and volume segments. An exploration of related research in shape grammars, computational design and construction simulation, illustrates the potential of this representation scheme, while an agenda for future research depicts its present shortcomings.

Timerman, A.. The ALPHA Project Object Database . Berkeley, California - USA, 1998.
Mahalingam, Ganapathy. The Application of Object-Oriented Computing in the Development of Design Systems for Auditoria. Florida, USA, 1995. This dissertation has a two-part theoretical basis. The first part is that architectural entities like spatial enclosures can be modeled as computational objects in object-oriented design systems. The second part is that spatial forms of auditoria can be generated from acoustical, functional and programmatic parameters. The method used to establish the theoretical basis is the application of the concepts of object-oriented computing in the development of design systems for auditoria. As a practical demonstration of the theoretical basis, two object-oriented design systems for the preliminary spatial design of fan-shaped and rectangular proscenium-type auditoria were developed. In the two systems, the concept of acoustic sculpting is used to convert acoustical, functional and programmatic parameters into architectural parameters used in the spatial design of the auditoria. Statistical, analytical and mathematical methods are used to generate the spatial forms of the auditoria based on the various parameters. The auditoria are modeled as parametric computational objects. The implementation of the systems is described in detail. The systems are true design systems because they involve the creation of spatial information from nonspatial information. The application of acoustic sculpting in the implemented systems is tested with case studies. The results are presented and discussed. These systems serve as indicators of the potential of object-oriented design systems in architecture. The dissertation concludes with a projection of how the object-oriented computing paradigm can benefit the creation of design systems in architecture. Future directions for research and development are outlined. 
Charitos, Dimitrios. The architectural aspect of designing space in virtual environments. Glasgow, Scotland - United Kingdom, 1998. This thesis deals with the architectural aspect of virtual environment design. It aims at proposing a framework, which could inform the design of three-dimensional content for defining space in virtual environments, in order to aid navigation and way finding. The use of such a framework in the design of certain virtual environments is considered necessary for imposing a certain form and structure to our spatial experience in there. Firstly, this thesis looks into literature from the fields of architectural and urban design theory, philosophy, environmental cognition, perceptual psychology and geography for the purpose of identifying a taxonomy of spatial elements and their structure in the real world, on the basis of the way that humans think about and remember real environments. Consequently, the taxonomy, proposed for space in the real world is adapted to the intrinsic characteristics of space in virtual environments, on the basis of human factors aspects of virtual reality technology. As a result, the thesis proposes a hypothetical framework consisting of a taxonomy of spatial and space-establishing elements that a virtual environment may comprise and of the possible structure of these elements. Following this framework, several pilot virtual environments are designed, for the purpose of identifying key design issues for evaluation.  As it was impossible to evaluate the whole framework, six specific design issues, which have important implications for the design of space in virtual environments, are investigated by experimental methods of research. Apart from providing answers to these specific design issues, the experimental phase leads to a better understanding of the nature of space in virtual environments and to several hypotheses for future empirical research.
Alkhoven, Patricia. The Changing Image of the City. Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1993. The image and structure of a town are constantly subject to a dynamic process of change and continuity. Visual material, such as photographs, historical maps, town plans, drawings and prints, show us the impact of these changes on the image of a town. The main point of departure of this study stems from the question of how this process of change and continuity is visually detectable in a town or city. The fact that the ideas about the appearance of a city (gradually) change, can be read from the often subtle changes in the townscape. Though in many cases we have a general knowledge of the choices made in urban management, the most difficult problem is to detect the underlying decisions. This raises the question to what extent these changes and also the continuities are the result of deliberate choices in urban management and to what extent they are autonomous developments in the townscape resistant to interventions. Using different kinds of visual information as a basis, computer visualization techniques are used in the present study to examine some cartographic maps and to reconstruct the urban development in the twentieth century of the town of Heusden three-dimensionally in significant phases. The resulting visualization provides us with a tool for a better understanding of the dynamics of urban transformation processes, typologies and morphological changes and continuities.
Ozel, Filiz. The Computer Model "BGRAF": a Cognitive Approach to Emergency Egress Simulation. Michigan, USA, 1987. During the past decade, fire safety researchers have come to the understanding that human factors in fires play an important role in controlling the spread of fire, and in decreasing the number of fire casualties in buildings. With the current developments in computer technology, computer modelling of human behaviour in fires emerged as an effective method of research. Such computer modelling techniques offered the advantage of being able to experiment with hypothetical fires in buildings without  Note endangering human life. Consequently, a study to develop a computer model that will simulate the emergency egress behaviour of people in fires was undertaken. Changes in the information processing capacity of the individual as a result of time pressure and stress was considered as part of the emergency egress decision process. Theories from environmental psychology identified a range of cognitive factors, such as visual access in buildings, architectural differentiation, signage and plan configuration that affect way finding and route selection in buildings. These factors needed to be incorporated into emergency egress models. The model was based on the integrated building data base of the CAD system developed at the University of Michigan, Architecture and Planning Lab., which provided a comprehensive building definition, and allowed both graphic and tabular output. Two actual fire incidences were simulated as part of the validation study. These studies have stressed the importance of the cognitive aspects of the physical environment as a factor in emergency egress. A goal structure that represented the total decision process during fires was incorporated into the model. This structure allowed the inputting and testing of a variety of goal structures by using actions as model blocks. The objectives of the model developed in this study can best be summarized as to study and eventually to predict the route selection and exiting behaviour in fires, with the purpose of using such information in making building design and code development decisions, and in suggesting action sequences that will best support the safety of the occupants of a building under different emergency conditions. 
Madrazo, L.. The Concept of Type in Architecture: an Inquiry into the Nature of Architectural Form. ETH Zürich, Switzerland, 1995. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the meaning of the concept of Type in the field of architectural theory. Even though the use of the term type by architectural theorists is a relatively recent phenomenon, which can be traced back to Quatremre de Quincy in the early nineteenth century, the idea of Type, as opposed to the explicit use of this term by theorists, has pervaded much of architectural theory ever since Vitruvius. In fact, many theorists have been concerned with issues which convey a notion of Type, like the origins of architectural form, the systematization of architectural knowledge and the understanding of the process of creativity. A basic premise of this work is that to understand the true significance of the idea of Type in architecture, it is necessary to overcome certain traditional views that have associated Type with the work of specific authors at a given time like, for example, Quatremre de Quincy and Semper in the nineteenth century, or Rossi in the twentieth. Only a comprehensive study of the most relevant ideas formulated in the field of architectural theory -beginning with Vitruvius and finishing with contemporary design methodologists- can reveal the essential meaning, or meanings, of Type. This work attempts to provide such a comprehensive study. To derive the fundamental meanings of the concept of Type from the body of the architectural tradition, it has been necessary to proceed, simultaneously, along two different lines: one diachronic, the other synchronic. From a diachronic point of view, the aim has been to trace the evolution of the theories of Type from one author to another, for example from Laugier to Quatremre de Quincy. From a synchronic point of view, the goal has been to disclose the common ideas that lie behind theories formulated at different times, for instance, between Vitruvius'theory of the origins of architectural form and the artistic theory developed after the advent of Gestalt psychology. In recent times, the term type has been used by architectural writers as synonymous with typology. Unfortunately, establishing this identity between type and typology has served to undermine some of the essential meanings conveyed by Type. In the overall context of the architectural tradition, the idea of Type has much deeper implications than those that are confined to the classification and study of building forms. Type embraces transcendental issues of aesthetic, epistemological and metaphysical character, issues that have to do with the most generic problem of Form. Certainly, the essential meaning of Type is intimately related with the more transcendental problem of Form. To explore the relation between the idea of Type and the historical evolution of architectural form, has also been the purpose of this research. As this work attempts to show, the variety of meanings that Type has adopted through history are inseparably connected to the evolution undergone by architectural form. For that reason, this work, although primarily a study of the concept of Type, it is, at the same time, an investigation on the nature of architectural form. 
Steele, Guy. The Definition and Implementation of a Computer Programming Language Based Constraints., 1980. The constraint paradigm is a model of computation in which values are deduced whenever possible, under the limitation that deductions be local in a certain sense. One may visualize a constraint'program'as a network of devices connected by wires. Data values may flow along the wires, and computation is performed by the devices. A device computes using only locally available information (with a few exceptions), and places newly derived values on other, locally attached wires. In this way computed values are propagated. An advantage of the constraint paradigm (not unique to it) is that a single relationship can be used in more than one direction. The connections to a device are not labelled as inputs and outputs, a device will compute with whatever values are available, and produce as many new values as it can. General theorem provers are capable of such behaviour, but tend to suffer from combinatorial explosion, it is not usually useful to derive all the possible consequences of a set of hypotheses. The constraint paradigm places a certain kind of limitation on the deduction process. The limitations imposed by the constraint paradigm are not the only one possible. It is argued, however, that they are restrictive enough to forestall combinatorial explosion in many interesting computational situations, yet permissive enough to allow useful computations in practical situations. Moreover, the paradigm is intuitive: It is easy to visualize the computational effects of these particular limitations, and the paradigm is a natural way of expressing programs for certain applications, in particular relationships arising in computer-aided design. A number of implementations of constraint-based programming languages are presented. A progression of ever more powerful languages is described, complete implementations are presented and design difficulties and alternatives are discussed. The goal approached, though not quite reached, is a complete programming system which will implicitly support the constraint paradigm to the same extent that LISP, say, supports automatic storage management.
Hewitt, Carl. The Description and Theoretical Analysis (using schemas) of PLANNER: a Language for Proving Theorems and Manipulating Models in a Robot. Cambridge, Massachussetes - USA, 1971. PLANNER is a language for proving theorems and manipulating models in a robot. The language is built out of a number of problem solving primitives together with a hierarchical control structure. Statements can be asserted and perhaps later withdrawn as the state of the world changes. Conclusions can be drawn from these various changes in state. Goals can be established and dismissed when they are satisfied. The deductive system of PLANNER is subordinate to the hierarchical control structure in order to make the language efficient. The use of a general purpose matching language makes the deductive system more powerful. 
Harrison, Beverly. The Design and Evaluation of Transparent User Interfaces. from Theory to Practice. Toronto, Canada, 1996. The central research issue addressed by this dissertation is how we can design systems where information on user interface tools is overlaid on the work product being developed with these tools. The interface tools typically appear in the display foreground while the data or work space being manipulated typically appear in the perceptual background. This represents a trade-off in focused foreground attention versus focused background attention. By better supporting human attention we hope to improve the fluency of work, where fluency is reflected in a more seamless integration between task goals, user interface tool manipulations to achieve these goals, and feedback from the data or work space being manipulated. This research specifically focuses on the design and evaluation of transparent user interface'layers'applied to graphical user interfaces. By allowing users to see through windows, menus, and tool palettes appearing in the perceptual foreground, an improved awareness of the underlying workspace and preservation of context are possible. However, transparent overlapping objects introduce visual interference which may degrade task performance, through reduced legibility. This dissertation explores a new interface technique (i.e., transparent layering) and, more importantly, undertakes a deeper investigation into the underlying issues that have implications for the design and use of this new technique. We have conducted a series of experiments, progressively more representative of the complex stimuli from real task domains. This enables us to systematically evaluate a variety of transparent user interfaces, while remaining confident of the applicability of the results to actual task contexts. We also describe prototypes and a case study evaluation of a working system using transparency based on our design parameters and experimental findings. Our findings indicate that similarity in both image color and in image content affect the levels of visual interference. Solid imagery in either the user interface tools (e.g., icons) or in the work space content (e.g., video, rendered models) are highly interference resistant and work well up to 75% transparent (i.e., 25% of foreground image and 75% of background content). Text and wire frame images (or line drawings) perform equally poorly but are highly usable up to 50% transparent, with no apparent performance penalty. Introducing contrasting outlining techniques improves the usability of transparent text menu interfaces up to 90% transparency. These results suggest that transparency is a usable and promising interface alternative. We suggest several methods of overcoming today's technical challenges in order to integrate transparency into existing applications.    
Harris, Robert. The Digital Sandbox: Integrating Design and Analysis in a new Earth-forming Tool. Washington, USA, 2001. The design solution of the typical high-tech firm bombards its employees with the same signs and sleek coded information that they are designing, instead of addressing their innate biological needs. In the workplace specifically, the change in technology has a pernicious result when its relationships are deployed society-wide as subsitutes for face-to face interactions, which are inherently richer than mediated interactions. This thesis presents a design of a media firm that engages build environment with lighting and natural and a CD-Rom digital sketchbookof the design process.
Woodbury, Robert F.. The knowledge based representation and manipulation of geometry. Pittsburg. Pennsylvania - USA, 1988. An approach to the integration of geometric information in knowledge based systems is described as an architecture for geometric reasoning. The general requirements for this integration arise from the need for rich geometry representations in engineering domains and the conflicting demands of current geometric modelling and knowledge based systems. Four concepts are used as a basis: (1) Classes of spatial sets, which act by inheritance as a means for incremental definition by specialization, (2) Features, which denote evaluated portions of a geometric model, (3) Abstractions, which provide partial representations of geometric objects, and (4) Constraints through which spatial relationships are expressed. These four concepts combine in a synergistic manner to define the complete architecture. A prototype implementation of the architecture, built using object oriented programming techniques and a boundary based solid modeller, has been achieved and demonstrated through examples in the domains of robot task planning and automotive parts design. 
Cole, R.J.. The Management and Visualisation of Document Collections Using Formal Concept Analysis . Griffith, Australia, 2000. This thesis proposes a methodology, notation/theory, and software framework for organising documents using formal concept analysis. The documents are organised for the purposes of retrieval and analysis using background information in the form of a taxonomy of terms. An emphasis is placed on the development of a methodology that employs scalable computer programs to assist humans in the process of organisation, retrieval and analysis of document collections.The text retrieval community has also been concerned with the organisation of documents. The work outlined in this thesis makes use of the results of the text retrieval community at its lowest layer. Above this layer formal concept analysis is used as a mechanism to allow users to organise document collections using views determined by small numbers of attributes. These views, also known as scales, can make a mixture of coarse and specific distinctions between documents, and are either selected or created by the users to make precisely the distinctions between documents that are important to their current tasks.The primary tool for the presentation of the results of formal concept analysis is a line diagram. The e ectiveness of the presentation of information contained in a line diagram is heavily dependent on the quality of the diagram. To support users in arriving at a quality diagram for a newly created view, graph drawing algorithms are adapted to the special case of determining a good layout for a concept lattice. This task is di erent from traditional graph layout problems because lattices exhibit a high degree of structure which should be exploited and made evident in the  nal diagram. A new layout algorithm is proposed that combines a layered diagram approach and an additive diagram methodology. This new hybrid algorithm is shown to produce better diagrams than other adapted graph drawing algorithms.  
Huang, Hsu-Jen. The objective world of CAD visualisation, animation, daylight and sound: the world of reality? . Glasgow, Scotland - United Kingdom, 1998.
Sidawi, Bhzad. The pattern of Internet use for information management by architectural practices in the UK. Cardiff, United Kingdom, 2003. In recent history, architects have experienced problems related to the use and management of new innovations. The Internet presents one such challenge. It offers considerable expansion in types of communication and sources of business information and connects people and businesses around the globe. As is argued in this research, these services could play a positive role in architectural practice. This research examines the use of the Internet by architectural practices in UK in order to reveal how aware they are of the opportunities it presents, the extent to which they are taking advantage of them, and the problems they are experiencing. A field study was conducted of two types of practices: RIBA private practices and local authority practices. A number of research tools were used to inspect how these practices are using the Internet to manage various types of information that used and produced in the practice, namely: the acquisition of web information, the exchange of the practiceis information through the web and the presentation of the practiceis information on the web. Explanations for the results were sought by correlating variables from the questionnaire study, using simple statistical tests. The field study shows that many Internet services are unpopular among architects, and that practices have problems in adopting and using the technology. The pace at which the Internet is being absorbed and accepted by practices is slow. The study suggests that possible causes are: the little knowledge of usersi about IT, the poor resources of the practice, and old or imperfect Internet installations and the absence of the Internet support to the architectis activities. The research argues that there are a number of links between these negative factors which make the practice unable to utilize the Internet and to manage the practiceis information through the Internet.    To break these links, the research suggests that practices should adopt a specific management strategy to promote more utilization of Internet services in the office and to manage information. Practices need to make certain changes to the way they manage the Internet and work with it, if they plan to integrate the Internet more successfully into their practice. The research discusses techniques for improving practice management which would help practices to digest Internet technology and to use it more effectively in the practice.
Bassanino, May. The perception of computer generated architectural images . Liverpool, United Kingdom, 1999. The broad aim of the research is to examine the role of computer generated architectural images on the way different people perceive architecture, and within this field of interest I have established a list of specific tasks to define the specific points of interest to examine. The following list of the main research objectives served as a guide in designing the experimental tests undertaken as part of this research: (*) Study the effect of both representation techniques and the used media on perceiving architecture. (*) Establish the differences (if there are any) of perception between different groups of people, principally architects and non-architects, but also subsets of each of these two groups. (*) To suggest the appropriate technique for presenting architecture for a particular group in a particular stage in the design process. (*) To investigate the influence of CAAD in architectural education on the students perception for architectural images.
Prothero, Jerrold. The Role of Rest Frames in Vection, Presence and Motion Sickness . Washington, USA, 1998. A framework is presented for comprehending partly participants'spatial perception in virtual environments. Specific hypotheses derived from that framework include: simulator sickness should be reducible through visual background manipula- tions; and the sense of presence, or of \being in" a virtual environment, should be increased by manipulations that facilitate perception of a virtual scene as a perceptual rest frame. Experiments to assess the simulator sickness reduction hypothesis demon- strated that congruence between the visual background and inertial cues decreased reported simulator sickness and per-exposure postural instability. Experiments to assess the presence hypothesis used two measures: self-reported presence and visual- inertial nulling. Results indicated that a meaningful virtual scene, as opposed to a random one, increased both reported presence and the level of inertial motion re- quired to overcome perceived self-motion elicited by scene motion. The simulator sickness research implies that visual background manipulations may be a means to reduce the prevalent unwanted side-e ects of simulators. The presence research intro- duces a procedure, possibly based on brain-stem level neural processing, to measure the salience of virtual environments. Both lines of research are central to developing e ective virtual interfaces which have the potential to increase the human-computer bandwidth, and thus to partially address the information explosion.
Ervin, Stephen. The structure and function of diagrams in environmental design: a computational inquiry. Cambridge, Massachussetes - USA, 1989. The design process often begins with a graphical description of the proposed device or system and sketching is the physical expression of the design engineer's thinking process. Computer Aided Design is a technique in which man and machine are blended into a problem solving team, intimately coupling the best characteristics of each. Solid modelling is developed to act as the common medium between man and the computer. At present it is achieved mainly by designing with volumes and hence does not leave much room for sketching input, the traditional physical expression of the thinking process of the design engineer. This thesis describes a method of accepting isometric free hand sketching as the input to a solid model. The design engineer is allowed to make a sketch on top of a digitizer indicating (i) visible lines, (ii) hidden lines, (iii) construction lines, (iv) centre lines, (v) erased lines, and (vi) redundant lines as the input. The computer then processes this sketch by identifying the line segments, fitting the best possible lines, removing the erased lines, ignoring the redundant lines and finally merging the hidden lines and visible lines to form the lines in the solid in an interactive manner. The program then uses these lines and the information about the three dimensional origin of the object and produces three dimensional information such as the faces, loops, holes, rings, edges and vertices which are sufficient to build a solid model. This is achieved in the following manner. The points in the sketch are first written into a file. The computer than reads this file, breaks the group of points into sub-groups belonging to individual line segments, fits the best lines and identify the vertices in two dimensions. These improved lines in two dimensions are then merged to form the lines and vertices in the solid. These lines are then used together with the three dimensional origin (or any other point) to produce the wireframe model in three dimensions. The loops in the wireframe models are then identified and surface equations are fitted to these loops. Finally all the necessary inputs to build a B-rep solid model are produced. 
Shannon, S.J.. The studio critique in architectural education . Adelaide, Australia, 1995. A feminist poststructuralist thesis about studio-based, architectural critique in architectural education. Undertakes a critical ethnography of a School of Architecture including extensive observations and interviews. The author argues from her location as a feminist researcher, architect and teacher that critique is not equitable for all students discriminating in many ways against some students, particularly women. 
Roberts, S.E.. The Theory behind and Development of an Architectural Sketch Modelling System. Sheffield, United Kingdom, 1990.
Shih, Shen. The Use of String Grammars in CAAD. ETH Zürich, Switzerland, 1993.
Bukowski, Richard. The WALKTHRU editor: towards realistic and effective interaction with virtual building environments In Computer Science Division, University of California, Berkeley., 1995.
Tan, Milton. Themes for Schemes: Design Creativity as the Conceptualization, Transformation, and Representation of Emergent Forms. Harvard, Massachussets - USA, 1991. Architects, graphic designers, and others frequently develop designs by picking out and transforming subshapes of two-dimensional or three-dimensional shapes. Shape grammars formalize this aspect of design by specifying rules of the form /to b$: the left-hand side a describes a type of subshape that may be picked out, while the right-hand side b describes what that type of subshape may become. Designs in the language specified by a shape grammar are derived by recursively applying the shape transformation rules to a starting shape. To apply a shape-transformation rule automatically, a computer system, must have the capacity to recognize instances of the type of subshape specified on the left-hand side of the rule. Sometimes such instances are explicitly input by the designer, and explicitly represented in a data structure: in this case, recognition is a relatively straightforward task. But there may also be'emergent'instances that were not explicitly input, and are only indirectly represented in the data structure. These emergent instances are potentially numerous, and may be extremely difficult to discover. This thesis focuses on mechanisms for picking out and transforming subshapes. The first three chapters place the issue in its broadest context by arguing that different designers--bringing different knowledge and attitudes to the task--will pick out and pay attention to different subshapes in a drawing. This contention is supported by introducing some of the relevant literature on perception, problem-solving, and creativity. Chapter 4 introduces shape grammars to provide a more formal framework for investigating this topic. Chapter 5 describes the properties and limitations of Topdown--a computer program which supports design by applying the rules of a shape grammar, but does not provide for recognition of emergent subshapes. Chapter 6 introduces ECART, a computer program which supports efficient recognition and transformation of emergent subshapes, and demonstrates how its performance transcends that of Topdown. Examination of the results produced by ECART suggest that a designer's conceptual filter--the repertoire of subshape types that he or she can recognize in a drawing--plays a crucial role in the development of design ideas.    
Zandi-Nia, Abolfazl. Topgene: an artificial Intelligence Approach to a Design Process. Delft, the Netherlands, 1992. This work deals with two architectural design (AD) problems at the topological level and in presence of the social norms community, privacy, circulation-cost, and intervening opportunity. The first problem concerns generating a design with respect to a set of above mentioned norms, and the second problem requires evaluation of existing designs with respect to the same set of norms. Both problems are based on the structural-behavioural relationship in buildings. This work has challenged above problems in the following senses: (1) A working system, called TOPGENE (The TOpological Pattern GENErator) has been developed. (2) Both problems may be vague and may lack enough information in their statement. For example, an AD in the presence of the social norms requires the degrees of interactions between the location pairs in the building. This information is not always implicitly available, and must be explicated from the design data. (3) An AD problem at topological level is intractable with no fast and efficient algorithm for its solution. To reduce the search efforts in the process of design generation, TOPGENE uses a heuristic hill climbing strategy that takes advantage of domain specific rules of thumbs to choose a path in the search space of a design. (4) TOPGENE uses the Q-analysis method for explication of hidden information, also hierarchical clustering of location-pairs with respect to their flow generation potential as a prerequisite information for the heuristic reasoning process. (5) To deal with a design of a building at topological level TOPGENE takes advantage of existing graph algorithms such as path-finding and planarity testing during its reasoning process. This work also presents a new efficient algorithm for keeping track of distances in a growing graph. (6) This work also presents a neural net implementation of a special case of the design generation problem. This approach is based on the Hopfield model of neural networks. The result of this approach has been used test TOPGENE approach in generating designs. A comparison of these two approaches shows that the neural network provides mathematically more optimal designs, while TOPGENE produces more realistic designs. These two systems may be integrated to create a hybrid system. 
Weiler, Kevin. Topological Structures for Geometric Modeling In Computer and Systems Engineering., 1986. Geometric modelling technology for representing three-dimensional objects has progressed from early wireframe representations, through surface representations, to the most recent representation, solid modelling. Each of these forms has many possible representations. The boundary representation technique, where the surfaces, edges, and vertices of objects are represented explicitly, has found particularly wide application. Many of the more sophisticated versions of boundary representations explicitly store topological information about the positional relationships among surfaces, edges, and vertices. This thesis places emphasis on the use of topological information about the shape being modeled to provide a framework for geometric modelling boundary representations and their implementations, while placing little constraint on the actual geometric surface representations used. The major thrusts of the thesis fall into two areas of geometric modelling. First, a theoretical basis for two-manifold solid modelling boundary topology representation is developed. The minimum theoretical and minimum practical topological adjacency information required for the unambiguous topological representation of manifold solid objects is determined. This provides a basis for checking the correctness of existing and proposed representations. The correctness of the winged edge structure is also explored, and several new representations which have advantages over existing techniques are described and their sufficiency verified. Second, a non-two-manifold boundary geometric modelling topology representation is developed which allows the unified and simultaneous representation of wireframe, surface, and solid modelling forms, while featuring a representable range beyond what is achievable in any of the previous modelling forms. In addition to exterior surface features, interior features can be modeled, and non-manifold features can be represented directly. A new data structure, the Radial Edge structure, which provides access to all topological adjacencies in a non-manifold boundary representation, is described and its completeness is verified. A general set of non-manifold topology manipulation operators is also described which is independent of a specific data structure and is useful for insulating higher levels of geometric modelling functionality from the specifics and complexities of underlying data structures. The coordination of geometric and topological information in a geometric modelling system is also discussed. 
Cheng, Min. Towards an integrative paradigm of digitally procured architecture: a case study of singapore's construction 21 initiative and its effects on architectural practices. Melbourne, Australia, 2004. The thesis investigates Singapore's C21 policy as an example of an integrated paradigm for digitally procuring buildings, together with various implications of this policy, and their impacts on the architectural practices that currently operate under this policy in Singapore.
Cheng, Nancy. Tradition and Innovation: Mixing digital and manual methods in designing a Cambodian Community Center. Harvard, Massachussets - USA, 1990. This thesis examines how an architectural problem with specific social and site constraints can be addressed by a formal solution. In the process of exploring formal possibilities, computer imaging techniques were used to complement traditional models and drawings. Because the methods reveal different aspects of the project, they elicit different perceptions. The project yielded insights into the use of representational techniques in design. Changing media keeps the designer alert to alternate ways of understanding. Successive manifestations can keep the identity of the design shifting: useful for exploring variants, but antithetical to resolution.  In presentation, traditional representations can make the work more legible.  If traditional and digital media are shown together, they must be arranged to complement rather than compete with each other.
Knight, Terry. Transformations of Languages of Designs. Los Angeles, California - USA, 1986. Stylistic change and innovation is a central and traditional issue in art and architecture. In this study, a formal model is developed for representing stylistic change. Styles are defined in terms of rule-based systems called shape grammars that generate languages of designs. Changes in styles are represented as transformations of the shape grammars that define these styles. The model is first sketched informally and considered in relation to other, traditional approaches to style and change. It is then presented in detail and illustrated with numerous simple examples. Last, the model is applied to describe actual, historical examples of stylistic transformations: one in the decorative arts, one in the fine arts, and one in architecture. 
Aeck, R.. Turnstijl Houses and Cannoli Framing. VDM Verlag Dr. Muller Aktiengesellschaft Co. KG, 2008. This work presumes that integrating modelling tools and digital fabrication technology into architectural practice will transform how we build the detached house. Single-family houses come in all shapes and sizes, and in doing so, imply variation as well in certain materials, methods, and lighter classes of structure. Ultimately, houses are extensions, if not expressions, of those dwelling within, yet our attempts to produce appealing manufactured houses have prioritized standardization over variation and fall short of this ideal.  Rather than considering new offerings born of the flexibility and precision afforded by digital production, sadly, todayis homebuilders are busy using our advancing fabrication technology to hasten the production of yesterdayis home. In response to such observations, and drawing upon meta-themes (i.e., blending and transition) present in contemporary design, this study proposes a hybrid SIP/Lam framing system and a corresponding family of houses. The development of the Cannoli Framing System (CFS) through 3D and physical models culminates in the machining and testing of full-scale prototypes. Three demonstrations, branded the Turnstijl Houses, are generated via a phased process where their schema, structure, and system geometry are personalized at their conception. This work pursues the variation of type and explores the connection between type and production methodology. Additional questions are also raised and addressed, such as how is a categorical notion like type defined, affected, and even “bredi?
Burrow, Andrew. Typed Feature Structures and Design Space Exploration In Department of Computer Science, The University of Adelaide. Adelaide, Australia, 2002. This thesis describes:  * a mechanism for structuring and indexing a design space, where  * the elements of the space are functional decompositions, and  * the generative operators are recursive type constraints.  The goal is to produce an index for design space that is based on cataloguing design decisions.
Kuo, C.J.. Unsupervised Dynamic Concurrent Computer-Aided Design Assistant. Los Angeles, California - USA: UCLA, 1999. The increasing capability of computer-aided architectural design systems has strengthened the role that the computer plays in the workplace. Due to the complexity of developing new techniques and research, these systems are undertaken mostly by scientists and engineers without significant architectural input (Willey, 1991). The design concept of these systems may be based on a well-defined and well-understood process, which is not yet realized in architectural design (Galle, 1994). The output of such research may not be easily adapted into the design process. Most of the techniques assume a complete understanding of the design space (Gero and Maher, 1987) (Willey, 1991). The description or construction of the design space is always time and space consuming, and the result can never be complete due to the ever-changing nature of architectural design. This research intends to initiate a solution for the above problems. The proposed system is an unsupervised-dynamic-concurrent-computer-aided-design assistant. The &ldquo,unsupervised&rdquo, means the learning process is not supervised by the user because it is against the designer's nature to &ldquo,think-aloud&rdquo, in the design studio and it also increases the work load. It is dynamic because the size of the knowledge base is constantly changing. Concurrent means that there are multiple procedures active simultaneously. This research focuses on learning the operational knowledge from an individual designer and reapplying it in future designs. A computer system for this experiment is constructed. It is capable of The preliminary result shows a positive feedback from test subjects. The purpose of this research is to suggest a potent computational frame within which future developments may flourish. 
Tokel, Haydar. User Control Actions in Buildings: a Case Study of Shading. Vienna, Austria, 2006. This thesis describes the results of a research to find out how users interact with shading and lighting devices in an office building in Vienna, Austria. The aim of the research is to explore the parameters that lead occupants to change shade positions. For this purpose, changes in shading on the southwest and north façades of the building were observed by capturing images of the whole façade. Weather conditions were registered by the weather station mounted on the top of the building. Inside the building, 15 rooms on the southwest façade and 14 rooms on the north façade were selected. Usersi operation of lighting was captured in each room. Data over a period of twelve months was collected and analyzed. The relationship between usersi behaviour and environmental parameters was studied. The potential for energy saving through the use of occupancy sensors was explored. 
Tsou, Jin-Yeu. Using conceptual modelling and an object-oriented environment to support building cost control during early design., 1992. This research investigated formal information modelling techniques and the object-oriented knowledge representation on the domain of building cost control during early design stages. The findings contribute to an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of applying formal modelling techniques to the analysis of architectural problems and the representation of domain knowledge in an object-oriented environment. In this study, information modelling techniques were reviewed, formal information analysis was performed, a conceptual model based on the cost control problem domain was created, a computational model based on the object-oriented approach was developed, a mechanism to support information broadcasting for representing interrelationships was implemented, and an object-oriented cost analysis system for early design (OBCIS) was demonstrated. The conceptual model, based on the elemental proposition analysis of NIAM, supports a formal approach for analyzing the problem domain, the analysis results are represented by high-level graphical notations, based on the AEC Building System Model, to visually display the information framework of the domain. The conceptual model provides an intermediate step between the system designer's view of the domain and the internal representation of the implementation platform. The object-oriented representation provides extensive data modelling abilities to help system designers intuitively represent the semantics of the problem domain. The object-oriented representation also supports more structured and integrated modules than conventional programming approaches. Although there are many advantages to applying this technique to represent the semantics of cost control knowledge, there are several issues which need to be considered: no single satisfactory classification method can be directly applied, object-oriented systems are difficult to learn, and designing reusable classes is difficult. The dependency graph and information broadcasting implemented in this research is an attempt to represent the interrelationships between domain objects. The mechanism allows users to explicitly define the interrelationships, based on semantic requirements, among domain objects. In the conventional approach, these relationships are directly interpreted by system designers and intertwined into the programming code. There are several issues which need to be studied further: indirect dependency relationship, conflict resolution, and request-update looping based on least-commitment approach. 
Papper, Mike. Using high-level constraints to aid space planning applications in computer-aided design. Toronto, Canada, 1990. This thesis describes a system that aids in solving space planning and layout design problems through an innovative use of constraints. Space planning problem solving is aided by constrained manipulation, a trial-and-error approach, and modelling the scaling properties of objects. Constraints are used to model various physical properties of solid objects (including gravity and friction) and to control the way in which objects scale. The system runs on a Silicon Graphics workstation supporting interactive, real-time, 3-dimensional graphics that aid in visualizing designs. The problems handled by our prototype are restricted to objects representable with rectangular solids oriented along the cartesian axes. This system was used by designers and novice computer users to solve a studio layout problem. Constraints were found to aid in the manipulation of objects by providing predictable behaviour for objects. The test results indicate that subjects learn the behaviour of objects easily and use this information in useful ways. In addition, there are indications that constraints can reduce users'cognitive loads at the user interface level. The coupling of constraints with the interactive, 3-dimensional aspect of the system encourages the use of the system at earlier stages of the design process than simple geometric drafting systems. (Abstract shortened by UMI.) 
Wesselink, Wieger. Variational modeling of curves and surfaces. Eindhoven, the Netherlands, 1996. This dissertation is concerned with curve and surface modelling. In the past, curves and surfaces were modeled by first making wooden models, from which the final results were obtained by means of'copy-milling'. Since the early 1960s, people have started to use computers to support the design of curves and surfaces. The increasing computing power and the increasing potential of graphical hardware in the last decade has opened many new possibilities for Computer Aided Geometric Design (CAGD). Especially the field of curve and surface modelling is rapidly evolving. This is reflected in the recently started series called'Geometric Design Publications'that contains several books on curve and surface modelling. The most important applications of curve and surface modelling are found in industrial design, for instance in the automobile, aerospace and shipbuilding industries. An often encountered application is the interpolation and approximation of data with B-splines and Bézier curves and surfaces or other representation schemes. Another related application is variational curve and surface modelling, where one is looking for smooth curves and surfaces that satisfy a number of geometric constraints.
Kim, S.. Version Management in Computer-Aided Architectural Design . Cambridge, Massachusetts - USA, 1997. This thesis introduces the requirements for version support in a computer-aided architectural design system which seeks to support the work of designers in the early stages of design. It addresses the problems of current computer-aided design systems when they are used for conceptual design. Perceiving the implications of mature technology, this thesis provides a model of version management. The model makes use of object-oriented technology to link the design process and the design artifacts in a dynamic manner, providing a powerful tool for conceptual design. By capturing design versions, and keeping track of multiple design sessions, designers will be able to reuse design ideas, and check on the progress of current design while the interruption of design thinking is minimized. The creation of the design history is considered to be the creation of the version history. By being able to navigate and modify the design history, the issues of design reuse, alternative designs, and the preservation of design information can be facilitated. This thesis presents a working prototype based on the version management model. 
Sirikasem, Peerapong. Video-Computer Imaging Techniques: the Effect of Presentation by Animation and Multiple Views on Comnnunicative Effectiveness of an Architectural Design . Texas, Texas - USA, 1990. In an attempt to enhance the communication between architect and client, research was conducted in the use of computer modelling and video imaging techniques for the final architectural presentation process. By superimposing the painted building design from the computer-aided design (CAD) system onto a digitized image of the intended location, a composite image was achieved. These techniques have advantages in creating realistic composite images of proposed building designs in their intended location within a short period of time. In order to provide more visual clues, a multiple view presentation was examined. In addition, the research attempted to present the video-computer in an animation sequence. This was done by creating a series of sequential composite images, and recording them frame by frame onto the video tape. Then, the animation presentation was played back in real time. The animation presentations were evaluated by comparing them with the multiple view presentations. Manual rendering and single viewpoint displays were also included in the comparisons in order to aid in interpretation of the results. Questionnaires were used to measure the capability of each presentation format in communicating the building design information to non-architecturally trained persons. The results indicate that video-computer presentations were equal to or better than manual rendering. The video-computer presentations, with their short production time, were more practical to use in the architectural process than the conventional presentations. The results of the comparisons revealed that video-computer presentations in animation format were superior to those of multiple view format in the depth cue category. On the other hand, video-computer presentations by multiple view format was found to be superior to animation format in communicating both size and scale. These results occurred under the different complexity levels of the buildings used.    
Wang, Jun. VIDI: a Lightweight Protocol Between Visualization Systems and Digital Libraries. Virginia, USA, 2002. Achieving interoperability between digital libraries and visualization tools is a difficult problem. To solve this problem, a version of the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) Protocol for Metadata Harvesting called VIDI is proposed. It is a lightweight protocol, which contains only 5 request verbs -- Identify, ListMetadataFormats, ListVisdataFormats, ListTransformers, and RequestResultSet. It is extended from the OAI protocol, which enables its simplicity and wider acceptability. It is flexible, which avoids a rigid architecture in implementation. It is general, so it can apply to all kinds of Visualization Systems and Digital Libraries. But most importantly, it reaches our goal of enabling operability between Visualization Systems and Digital Libraries. The protocol design and implementation details are given. Two prototype systems are implemented to demonstrate the above features. Implementation details are given about ENVISION-ODL and ENVISION-MARIAN. Analysis, evaluation, and conclusions reinforce the discussion of the benefits of VIDI.
Stellingwerff, M.. Virtual context - investigating the characteristics and opportunities of digital visualisation media for situated approaches to architectural design in an urban environment. Delft University Press, 2005. This research initiative addresses the issue of Design in relation to Virtual Context.  Central to this study are the innovative potentials and instrumental opportunities of computer based media techniques, capable of generating interactive models and changing perspectives for the benefit of urban and architectural design. The ambition was to not only make a contribution to the existing body of knowledge concerning digital technologies and their applications, but explore theoretical conditions which might help define and stimulate further study.  From the outset, the focus was on furthering the opportunities for computer based representation media in creative design. On the basis of a series of explorative studies the subject of this research was targeted: the issue of Design in Context, or more specifically: Design(ing) in a Virtual Context.  During the process there was a marked shift in the conception of the subject from - more or less immersive - VR technologies in the direction of approaches which might be expected to become readily available in practice and education and could be effective in actual design processes. This insight also brought about a shift in emphasis from realism per-se towards creating a sense of situatedness.  The design representation system which was developed was intended to not just allow for one type of model view, but to afford an array of different views, from which the designer would be able to choose freely, depending on the phase and focus of design as well as personal preferences. A series of interface prototypes and support tools were developed especially and successively tested experimentally. For the intended final design driven experimental study, different virtual context models were considered. Eventually, an integral -  purely fictitious - design “environment” was constructed in the computer, so that the workings of the proposed system and its components would be tested systematically. A conscious choice was made for an in depth study, on a relatively modest scale, which would a certain amount of mutual involvement between designer and researcher, to confront the participants with the finer aspects of the proposed system in a relatively short time and to gather detailed data. A half dozen design professionals were invited to participate in a closely monitored experimental exercise.  The results of this study therefore do not offer straightforward, indisputable facts, to be considered representative for the design community as a whole, but indicate that the working methods of the individual designers - when discovering aspects of the site, developing and presenting proposals and reflecting on the qualities of represented designs - tend to vary considerably. For this reason the interactive representation system proved to be of value. Participants could express different view preferences, with more or less realistic image modes being used in different phases of their design developments, with varying experiences of situatedness. Some of the design professionals participants were very appreciative of the systemis opportunities, others tended to be more “set in their ways”. The results of this experimental study indicate that there may particularly be opportunities for interface applications which are able to function interactively, offering individual designers -  as well as others involved in evaluating design proposals - a variety of tools with which to approach specific design artefacts in their changing contexts. Virtual models can play not only an important role as a “reminder” for the designer but also to other parties playing an active role in the design and implementation processes. Interactive environment models are not only promising as exploration tools for existing sites, but could be valuable to test the impact of a design on its location. This could be especially interesting if the site is difficult or impossible to visit or as yet a virtual construction. In addition such an approach might be beneficial for objective comparison and evaluation of design proposals in competitions and in education as well as in on-line collaborative design projects where the context is still in the process of being developed.     
Steinø, Nicolai. Vision, Plan and Reality., 2003. How come, that there is often a gap between what is considered good urban design and the built reality of the urban environment? This is the question which the thesis aims to investigate. It has often been stated that urban development can no longer be controlled, and the reason for this has been ascribed, among other things, to the power of the market, postmodern pluralism, or simply to the increased complexity of society. Yet, to decline on the capacity of urban design to guide urban development on such accounts, is to give up on urban design altogether. Rather, if urban design is incapable of achieving what it is aiming at, something must be wrong with it. Thus, the basic argument of the thesis is, that the answer to this question must be sought within urban design itself, rather than within the context in which it operates. In order to approach the research question, the thesis is organized as a twofold investigation, consisting of both an empirical study of the practice of urban design - in the form of a detailed case study of two urban development histories - and a study of the theoretical foundations for this practice. As urban design is regarded as an interdisciplinary activity, the theoretical study is organized as a threefold investigation of urban design theory, planning theory, as well as urban theory. As urban design in practice must consider what the built environment should be like as well as how it is developed, it must include normative as well as procedural considerations. Thus, the issues of normativity and process are central to the understanding of urban design. These issues therefore constitute the foci of both the empirical and the theoretical study.
Telea, Alexandru. Visualisation and simulation with object-oriented networks., 2000. Among the existing systems, visual programming environments address best these issues. However, producing interactive simulations and visualisations is still a difficult task. This defines the main research objective of this thesis: The development and implementation of concepts and techniques to combine visualisation, simulation, and application construction in an interactive, easy to use, generic environment. The aim is to produce an environment in which the above mentioned activities can be learnt and carried out easily by a researcher. Working with such an environment should decrease the amount of time usually spent in redesigning existing software elements such as graphics interfaces, existing computational modules, and general infrastructure code. Writing new computational components or importing existing ones should be simple and automatic enough to make using the envisaged system an attractive option for a non programmer expert. Besides this, all proven successful elements of an interactive simulation and visualisation environment should be provided, such as visual programming, graphics user interfaces, direct manipulation, and so on. Finally, a large palette of existing scientific computation, data processing, and visualisation components should be integrated in the proposed system. On one hand, this should prove our claims of openness and easy code integration. On the other hand, this should provide the concrete set of tools needed for building a range of scientific applications and visualisations. This thesis is structured as follows. Chapter 2 defines the context of our work. The scientific research environment is presented and partitioned into the three roles of end user, application designer, and component developer. The interactions between these roles and their specific requirements are described and lead to a more precise formulation of our problem statement. Chapter 3 presents the most used architectures for simulation and visualisation systems: the monolithic system, the application library, and the framework. The advantages and disadvantages of these architectural models are then discussed in relation with our problem statement requirements. The main conclusion drawn is that no single existing architectural model suffices, and that what is needed is a combination of the features present in all three models. Chapter 4 introduces the new architectural model we propose, based on the combination of object-orientation in form of the C++ language and dataflow modelling in the new MC++ language. Chapter 5 presents VISSION, an interactive simulation and visualisation environment constructed on the introduced new architectural model, and shows how the usual tasks of application construction, steering, and visualisation are addressed. In chapter 6, the implementation of VISSIONis architectural model is described in terms of its component parts. Chapter 7 presents the applications of VISSION to numerical simulation, while chapter 8 focuses on its visualisation and graphics applications. Finally, chapter 9 concludes the thesis and outlines possible direction for future research.
Mantere, Markku. Visualization of Flow Data in Photo-realistic Virtual Environment In Espoo. Helsinki, Finland, 2001. Virtual reality technology has been adopted in many different fields and new application areas are searched continuously. At the moment virtual reality has been applied separately for instance to scientific visualization and illustration of architectural spaces. In this work, a photo-realistic room model and a visualization of an air flow inside the room has been combined. The integrated illustrative three-dimensional model is presented within an immersive virtual environment. The first part of the work covers scientific visualization and virtual reality implementation techniques. The visualization review begins with a discussion about human percepion of visual information and proceeds with an introduction to three-dimensional visualization. The focus is on illustration of a flow data produced as a result of a computational simulation. The flow visualization techniques utilizing all three dimensions are discussed and many examples of different graphical elements are presented. Virtual reality is examined from technical solutions point of view. The features having effect on the quality of a virtual experience are discussed and three different commonly used display techniques are introduced. The hardware of Experimental Virtual Environment -facility at Helsinki University of Technology is given as a detailed example. The implementation of a visualization software is described in the applied part of this thesis. Discussion covers the evaluation of different software tools, the tool selection process, and a detailed description of the design principles and implementation of the software. The different visualization solutions are also justified in this part. In the implementation, the real-time system requirements and utilization of all three dimensions have been taken into account. Finally, the results and their meaning are discussed and the performance of the implementation is evaluated. The applied part successfully integrated the room model and the flow visualization in an interactive virtual environment.  
Colley, Tim. Visualizing Information: Internet Guidelines for Distributing Architectural Research. Virginia, USA, 1997. A web site was designed and constructed for the Research + Demonstration Facility (RDF) as a masters thesis project to help educators teach future architects more interactively by using the dynamic medium of the Internet. Students and faculty will learn about evolving architectural research and technology as well as potential consequences of design decisions. Educators will be able to conduct online research, or tele-experiments, in the classroom thus allowing students to learn, in near real-time, the outcome or progress of research on and off campus. This project presents some of the possibilities of how the Internet can enhance re-search information delivery to students and faculty of architecture.
Byrne, Christine. Water on tap: the use of virtual reality as an educational tool In College of Engineering, University of Washington., 1996. A study was conducted that explored Virtual Reality (VR) as an educational tool. High school students created water molecules in an immersive virtual environment. They were tested on their knowledge of atomic and molecular structure before and after their VR experience. These results were compared to the test results of students who experienced other educational media in learning the same topic. The other media differed from VR in terms of immersion and interactivity. Interactivity was found to be significant, while immersion was found to be insignificant. Issues of training, world design, assessment, hardware resolution, and student population were suggested as possible reasons for immersion's lack of significance in this study.
Darken, Rudolph. Wayfinding in Large-Scale Virtual Worlds., 1996. As important as navigation is to human performance in virtual worlds, it is an often overlooked problem in the design process. This dissertation reports an experiment intended to show that real-world wayfinding and environmental design principles are effective in designing virtual worlds which support skilled wayfinding behaviour. The design principles are adapted from both the cognitive psychology literature and urban and architectural design methodologies. There are two categories of design principles, those that guide the organizational structure of the environment, and those that guide the use and presentation of maps. The study measures subject performance on a complex searching task in a number of virtual worlds with differing environmental cues. The environments are extremely large and consist of open sea, land, and ships which are used as targets for search tasks. The worlds are augmented with either a radial grid, a map, both, or neither. For each trial, the subject's viewpoint position and orientation was sampled approximately once per second. A verbal protocol with accompanying video was used to elicit information about the search strategies employed. A map drawing exercise followed each trial in order to gain insight to the subject's spatial knowledge (i.e. cognitive map) of the environment. The results show that subjects in the treatment without any additional cues were often disoriented and had extreme difficulty completing the task. The grid was shown to provide superior directional information but both treatments using the map were superior overall due to the geocentric perspective provided. Behaviors associated with each treatment indicate that the cues had a strong effect on both search performance and search strategy. The results suggest that users of large-scale virtual worlds require structure in order to effectively navigate. Augmentations such as direction indicators, maps, and path restriction can all greatly improve both wayfinding performance and overall user satisfaction. 
Wang, Ming-Hung. Ways of arrangement:The basic operations of form-making. Cambridge, Massachussetes - USA, 1987.