Keywords Abstract
Leite, Leandro Silva, and Alice Theresinha Pereira. "A Controvérsia entre os Métodos de Análise de Projetos de Referência em Arquitetura e o Ensino de Projeto Performativo." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 581-585. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The architecture of the digital age yields complex shapes exemplars which once divulged on the internet, they become architectonic references. This article aims to discuss the influence of the reference projects analysis process (APR) in the projects generation within the current teaching. A comparative assessment of undergraduate final project has been carried out so as to identify the APR methods applied. From the application of the theory – Social Construction of Technologies (SCOT), the 05 facts that became evident show the controversy between the APR teaching processes and the interdisciplinary knowledge and abilities needed for the generation of complex and/or performative shapes.

Ghisolfi, Érika, and Simone Helena Tan Vizioli. "A Linguagem de Programação Aliada ao Desenho na Criação de Jogos Digitais como Instrumento de Arquitetura Patrimonial." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 564-568. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This research studies the use of digital games as a playful tool approach of knowledge in architecture heritage. We emphasize the potential of digital games as a teaching tool and the importance of digital drawing combined with programming language, the means by which the making of the games became possible. The models developed are based on the properties of historical and cultural interest in the city of São Carlos, Brasil.

Dametto, Ana Paula, Adriane Borda Alme da Silva, Janice de Freitas Pires, and Luisa dalla Vecchia. "A Lógica Compositiva dos Artefatos Metálicos da Arquitetura Eclética de Pelotas." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 604-607. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper describes a method of analysis of metallic artifacts present in the eclectic buildings considered cultural heritage in the city of Pelotas. This kind of analysis is configured as a reference in order to structure didactic content to be used in courses which discuss the geometry of form in a context of architectural training. These analyses demonstrate the potential of identifying basic concepts of geometry which can be viewed in a concrete manner in the compositions being analyzed.

Valdes, Francisco, Andres Cavieres, and Russell Gentry. "A Process-Centric Approach for Teaching Digital Fabrication." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 400-404. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

New generation of fabrication machines, such as 3-D printers, do not use “real” materials nor processes generally used in building construction, and so further exacerbate the disconnect between laboratory-based prototyping and full-scale building construction techniques. This research critically reviews the results of a graduate fabrication course from a process-centric standpoint. Students in the course create specification for fabrication and assembly activities through a diagrammatic language that integrates several types of construction knowledge such as design, material properties, machine constraints, and assembly guidelines. This document presents the foundations of the methodology, and discussed the results based on two criteria: Process Modeling and CAD/CAM workflow.

Barrios, Carlos R.. "A Textile Block Grammar: An Analytical Shape Grammar to Study the Block Designs of Frank Lloyd Wright's Californian Textile Block Houses." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 207-210. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper presents an analytical shape grammar to study the designs of the ornamental blocks in Frank Lloyd Wright’s Californian Textile Block Houses. The paper introduces the textile block system and expands on the design of the Millard house as a case study. The paper presents two formalistic applications of the shape grammar to generate the original block design: one as a sequential shape grammar and the other as a parallel shape grammar. Both examples are able to generate the same results; and they hint at the potential to expand the shape grammar to generate other design alternatives.

Arpak, Asli. "Abstract Styles in the Vienna Workshop: A Formalist Analysis of Josef Hoffman’s Two Designs." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 197-201. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

A shape grammar formalism is elaborated for the Vienna Workshop (Wiener Werkstaette) designer Josef Hoffmann’s two designs. Early instances of abstract expressionism are traced in Hoffman’s works by investigating stylistic parallels through shape rules and computations. The analysis of Hoffmann’s two works are carried out in parallel to Terry Knight’s analysis of De Stijl artists Georges Vantongerloo and Fritz Glarner paintings with the normal form grammars.

Luhan, Gregory A., and Robert Gregory. "Across Disciplines: Triggering Frame Awareness in Design Education." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 619-623. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

Tacit knowledge is paradoxical: something we know yet don't know we know, knowledge we sense but can't articulate. In Polanyi’s definition of tacit knowledge, “we know more than we can say" (1966/2009; Scott, 1985; Gelwick, 1977). It's important to see that tacit knowledge is part of a sequence; mental structures, in awareness when first learned, eventually become tacit, operating thenceforth as unquestioned assumptions. These tacit structures pose a problem for professional education in disciplines that encourage creativity. This paper examines the design and re-design of an interdisciplinary course intended to help make these tacit structures visible, to trigger frame awareness.

Banda, Pablo S., and Arturo Lyon Gottlieb. "Agregados Inflables y Patrones Emergentes: Logro de Patrones de Orden Superior mediante Compresión Axial." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 239-243. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper presents a Generative Design exploration of a simulated Inflatable Components Aggregate (ACN) ruled by local configurations and mechanical behavior, tested in a digital environment. The Design Product is revealed through compressions and deformations evaluation, where the ACN internal interaction’s exhibits emerging global patterns.

Souto, Ivan C. dos San, José Nieto Martínez, Matías Nieto Tolosa, and José Wagner García. "Aportaciones del Modelado Paramétrico a la Toma de Decisiones: Dos Estudios de Caso desde el Proyecto de Arquitectura." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 249-252. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

Research progress about the contributions from parametric, generative design to the general decision-making process, specially to Design & Decision Support Systems, into the architecture project, by 2 specific case study on professional practice in Brazil. Proposed approach deal with some contributions that contemporary media of computer graphics could add to architectural practice in a context of progressive automation, simultaneity demands and a need for higher coordination among engineering offices, taking into consideration the adaptation of handmade, industrial traditional tasks through computer-automated design, participative interfaces and digital fabrication support.

Calixto, Victor, and Charles C. Vincent. "Arquitetura Algorítmica: Processos e Ferramentas." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 362-365. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper presents the results of an academic research in the field of parametric-generative design and through projective tests and processes using parametric tools and computational logic. Thus, five experiments for the region of the Terminal Bandeira Flag Square were set forth. From the urban guidelines and an object in common, it was a distinct possibility, where it was possible to analyze the advances and setbacks in the process of project development. The approach taken is an exploration of design processes that involve computational logic for formulating, exploring and creating architectural themes and its interfaces with other fields of knowledge: algorithmic architecture.

Milioli, Larissa, and Neander Furtado Silva. "As Implicações Formais do Uso de Diferentes Sistemas CAD e Prototipagem Rápida no Início do Processo de Projeto de Arquitetura." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 454-458. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This article presents the formal results obtained from the same project, defined at the initial stage, modeled in three different CAD systems, exported and prototyped in two different types of three-dimensional printer. These digital systems have varying degrees of precision, can result in rapid prototyping different from the original virtual model, and this could frustrate the user's initial expectations, due to the need of modeling rework. The proper use of these tools can be helpful, since the beginning of the design process, with quick and reliable information, regarding the formal intent of the architect.

Veiga, Monica, Adriane Borda, Francisca Michelon, and Tatiana Lebedeff. "Atribuição de Acessibilidade à Fotografia através da Restituição e Desconstrução da Tridimensionalidade." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 449-453. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper describes the experiments that are being developed to support an inclusive or accessible exposition of photographs. Physical three dimensional models are being developed using 3D printing technologies to allow tactile experience. The method being structured for this production is registered. It includes the use of the concept of games seeking to work with the purpose of decomposition of information which is recommended by the inclusive communication literature.

Andia, Alfredo. "Automated Architecture: Why CAD, Parametrics and Fabrication are Really old News." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 83-87. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

Automation is transforming a significant number of industries today. This paper discusses how the Design and Construction industry is also entering into a new era of automation. In the paper I observe that designers are automating by using parametric tools (BIM, scripting, etc.) while contractors are moving into pre-fabrication and modularization. Both conceptualizations are incomplete. The paper presents how we are in the first steps of creating learning algorithms that develop specific intelligence in design synthesis and how the design field will became even more sophisticated as a second generation of multi-material 3D printing techniques produce new materials.

Nardelli, Eduardo Sampaio, and João Tales Oliveira. "BIM e Desempenho no Programa Minha Casa Minha Vida - PMCMV." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 312-316. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper describes the current stage of an ongoing research developed at Mackenzie Presbyterian University, with support of FINEP, to use information and communication technologies (ICT) for the production of affordable houses in Brazil, focusing on the government’s program “Minha Casa Minha Vida” (My Home My Life – MCMV). Here we highlight the specific issue of adapting and extending the current BIM library of components provided by the Ministry of Development, Industry and Trade (MDIC), since the validity of the standard NBR 15575/13, which as of 2013, will guide the production of buildings in Brazil through strict performance requirements. We make a brief summary of the MCMV program, the terms of the standard and the structure of that library and then present guidelines for adapting and extending the existing components, taking into account international examples and the requirements from the new standard. As a result, we expect the revised components will facilitate the work of professionals in the building industry when designing and planning buildings.

Portillo, Juan Pablo. "BIM enclosures, una aplicación para cálculos térmicos en cerramientos." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 279-283. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The BIM software (Building Information Modeling) enables a holistic model -a complete description of the model-building for a complete analysis and validation prior to build, as well as the plotting of final design in architecture and its subsequent maintenance. Users can extend virtually unlimited capabilities. For this reason we have chosen a BIM with programmability by the user to create a calculation module to validate, the heat transfer and possible condensation on both walls and ceilings. The Revit Architecture BIM was chosen using the API (application programming interface) in C#. In this paper, we analyze the experience gained and the results achieved. The objective is to create a calculation and graphing module thermal transmission and condensation.

de Menezes, Alexandre Monteiro, Maria de Lourdes Viana, Mário Lucio Pere Junior, and Sérgio Ricardo Palhares. "CAD e BIM: Evolução ou Revolução na Aprovação de Projetos de Edificações nas Instâncias Legais?" In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 302-306. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This research compared CAD and BIM, seeking to identify evolution, or revolution, in the field of building projects, focusing on municipal approval. The research sought to understand municipal, state and federal normative to approve architectural projects and studied CAD and BIM in the light of the technical documents generation submitted for building projects evaluation and approval. The aim was to compare the efficiency of 3D model for the analysis of projects in municipalities. The results identify adequacies and inadequacies on both platforms, but also formulate suggestions for improvements in the process of evaluation and approval of projects by local governments.

Gómez, Paula, Matthew Swarts, Pedro Soza, Jonathan Shaw, James MacDaniel, and David Moore. "Campus Landscape Information Modeling: Intermediate Scale Model that Embeds Information and Multidisciplinary Knowledge for Landscape Planning." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 61-65. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.
Al-Haddad, Tristan, Keyan Rahimzadeh, and Jill Fredrickson. "Concrete Continuum: Concept, Calculus, & Construction Connected Through Parametric Representation." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 230-234. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper outlines a custom-built suite of scripts that automate the processes of reinforced concrete design and is directly linked to the parametric design model of the architect. The workflow creates a design and engineering feedback loop for early phase schematic design. Using this system, the design geometry is generated and then deconstructed into a Finite Element model. The workflow executes a static analysis then calculates rebar size and placement, and finally generates fabrication drawings. This methodology allows architectural intent and engineering analysis to be collapsed into a single non-linear design process.

Orciuoli, Affonso. "Conhecimento Global, Aplicações Locais: A Caminho de um Ciberdesign?" In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 600-603. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper examines the work of some authors who have had a major influence in the modern world, establishing a relationship with some aspects that arise in the practice of contemporary creation, including all areas of design, especially those that occur in electronics areas. Argues that the way in which information is stored, distributed and processed - from digital - changes radically the way how to develop human relations in all spheres. The presence of digital is growing.

Velasco, Rodrigo, Julián Viasus, and Fabián Tocancipá. "Customizable Volumetric High Performance Brise-Soleil System Based on the Use of Planar Faces." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 328-332. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper presents a proposal for a cellular brise-soleil system appropriate for tropical humid climates. The system controls thermal gains whilst allowing for specific lighting requirements, permitting, in many cases, interior thermal and light comfort conditions without the use of thermal machines or artificial lighting. The development of the system involved a definition of variable design parameters and areas of performance evaluation and optimization, plus construction detailing development represented by a first project to be completed in 2014. Even if the geometrical definitions, optimization processes and production machinery are relatively simple and not particularly new to anyone in the field, it is claimed that the use of such already widely available technologies at this basic level, when solving relevant problems, has still to be used in generalised ways by common designers, and with the example shown, this paper wishes to promote such prospect.

de Morais, Lívia P. Zanelli, and David Moreno Sperling. "Datascapes: Diálogos entre Informação e Espaço." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 134-138. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This article reflects on the use of information in the production of spatialities and is part of an ongoing research about Project Experiences in Contemporary Housing that analyzes the projects of the Dutch office MVRDV. The text presented here focuses on the mapping of information as design process, a methodology used by the office that positions its production between research and project investigation. Then, it presents the Silodam project, a case study to illustrate aspects of the analysis intended by the research.

Pimentel, Diego, Mariano Cataldi, and Gonzalo Muñiz. "De la Visualización a la Sensorización de Información." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 129-133. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

Information Visualization is a discipline implemented on interfaces which use one sense to understand the ideas developed: sight. However, there are physical interfaces that allow users to interpret the data, either through sound or touch. The objective of this paper is to discuss the preliminary results of the research project that frames this paper, as a work in progress.

Rivas, Dayana Pirela. "Dialéctica Irresuelta de la Arquitectura en el Escenario Digital." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 36-39. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The aim of this text is to devise a flexible and thoughtful way to venture so responsibly in the plot of multiple dimensions involved in the architectural design and our contemporary reality immersed in a digital stage. We propose the integration of scans social and cultural process, from the recognition of the significant and symbolic choreography describing the bodies to inhabit the space in the architectural design process, through scenic bios architectural models.

Dezen-Kempter, Eloisa. "Diálogos Digitais: Integração entre Dados Documentais em Sistemas de Informação Baseados no Modelo para Conservação do Patrimônio Arquitetônico." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 293-296. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The architectural documentation plays a key role in the preservation of built heritage, as both support decision making in intervention projects, restoration and rehabilitation, such as the actions of preventive conservation. Building Information Modeling seems to be the adequate environment to assemble huge amounts of data. The aim of this research is to develop the integration of quantitative data (smart objects, performance data) and qualitative (photographs and historical documents) in model-based information, such as BIM, to be used in surveying, planning and control of interventions in historic buildings.

Maing, Minjung, and Rodrigo Vargas. "Digital Fabrication Processes of Mass Customized Building Facades in Global Practice." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 415-419. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper describes the process of digital design and fabrication for customized building facades and effects from highly customized configurations in U.S., major manufacturing power of China, and emerging construction in Asia and South America. Case studies are presented to form comparisons of technology adoption to project workflow in these three global contexts. Although integration of digital fabrication has shown signs of success in U.S., traditional practices of limited digital information exchange are commonplace in Asia and South America. With focus on adoption of new fabrication tools, BIM and larger production capacity, the potential benefits of digital fabrication are imminent.

Muñoz, Patricia. "Diseño Basado en Investigación." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 435-438. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

Basic research in morphology is a relevant contribution to Industrial Design. During the last years we have been studying cutting and unfolding techniques, in particular the correspondence between cutting patterns and the different types of flexibility provided to rigid sheets through laser cutting. Different types and generative strategies have been developed and tested in their application in product design and in teaching. This paper presents three products that were originated in the knowledge produced by a research project. They are a sample of the potential of the interactions between morphology and digital technology.

Lazzerini, Paola de la Sott, Eduardo Hamuy Pinto, and Bruno Perelli Soto. "Diseño de Aplicación en Base a Modelo de Evaluación del Proceso de Enseñanza Aprendizaje en El Taller." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 547-550. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

In design studio courses, assessment helps to improve teaching practice and student learning. Output-Mapping model considers a practical working method, applicable to teaching, based on records of students' outcomes. Visualization is a key component; iconographic resources aid understanding and observation of the territory conquered by each participant throughout the course. The next phase of the project addresses the need to manage large amounts of information generated by a statistical model for assessment. Visualization media used so far have proven limited. A new web system may dynamically visualize relationships between students' records more immediately, precisely and in a network.

Alvarado, Rodrigo Garcia, Flavio Celis D’Amico, Ernesto Echeverria Valiente, Maureen Trebilcock Kelly, Muriel Diaz, and Gerth Wandersleben. "Diseño Integrado para Viviendas de Alto Desempeño (Casa+)." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 629-633. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The growing environmental constraints encourage new strategies for housing projects. This work exposes the application of energy simulations and integrated design to develop an innovative prefabricated housing system called “Casa +” (House Plus), carried out by an international research team with industrial collaboration. The proposal achieves high density, flexible growth, environmental comfort and minimum fuel consumption, for demonstrate the use of new analysis technologies and design methods to substantially improve residential quality.

Scheeren, Rodrigo, and David Moreno Sperling. "Dos Diagramas aos Parâmetros: Transformações no Design Digital." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 262-265. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The article is part of an ongoing theoretical research about the emergence of parametric architecture. It discusses some of the last developments in digital design from the transition of the discourse and operativity by “diagrams” to the theories and processes derived from “parameters”. Centered in Peter Eisenman’s and Patrik Schumacher’s propositions, it is in its horizon to comprehend what relations are established between “diagram” and “parameter” - similarities, complementarities and differences -, contributing for the critical contextualization of theoretical movements and design processes in contemporary architecture.

Granero, Adriana, and Mabel Clara Brignone. "Educación en Diseño Arquitectónico Basada en el Nexo Cognitivo." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 542-546. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The proposed learning experience was intended to mean the creative act and establish a symbiotic perceptual in producing models of representation analogical, digital and digital-analogical manufacturing, this experience was made in the frame of Project DCI-ALA/19.09.01/10/21526/245-654/ALFA GAVIOTA ALFA III (2010) 149 and two developments of thesis. The experimentation was placed in a conceptual and operational level, with a search-oriented perceptual recognition of the limits of the figure. The reconfiguration from a line graph of signature linked to your identity, allowing formal ownership creator, then begin construction of architectural space limit according to these previous strokes.

Espinoza, Verónica Rossado. "El Diseño Arquitectónico en la Sociedad de la Información y el Conocimiento: Nuevo Paradigma en la Arquitectura." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 551-554. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The evolution of technology and the access to information began with the new millennium. Applying the techniques of information and communications in education allows improve the teaching and learning methodology. Influenced by the information society and knowledge, architecture students might be acquiring new architectural design ability. Research on the area of architectural design education, shows that students have an advantage when they use communication and technology. Architectural design is the result of investigation and exchange of ideas, that type of design process could be called a new paradigm in architecture.

Bustos, Gabriela. "El Método 7.1, Re-acción en Multi-re-forma: Re-generación Ética en la Tecnología Digital (TD) + Diseño Arquitectónico (DA)." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 54-57. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The goal of this article is to conceptualize and structure a theoretical proposed framed of ethics in digital technology in architectural design. The methodological vision of this proposal is one of complex epistemology, which seeks to understand applied ethics in a multicultural reality and the digital processes that reformulate contemporary architectural vision. The proposed “Method 7.1: Re-action in Multi-re-form” is based on Edgar Morin’s “Method 6, Ethics”, and Victor Martin’s “Applied Ethics.” The Method 7.1 is formed by seven ethical dimensions that constitute a pattern of complex thought that systematizes the values for the production of techno-architecture.

Molinas, Isabel. "El “Fuego inextinguible” de Harun Farocki: Dialéctica y Didáctica de las Imágenes Visuales en la Contemporaneidad." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 560-563. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The Farocki´s exhibition in Fundación PROA (Buenos Aires, 2013) and the publication in Argentina of his essays produced between 1980 and 2011 (the Black Box Editor, 2013), support the relevance of the german filmmaker. In his works, the sense it reads in transit, at the edges, in the dialogue between screens and languages, and in the virtuosity detail. The purpose is to make the perception less automatic to humanize the images and bring back sense to them. In the field of Didactics Proyectual - under construction-, that artistic experience intensifies the perception and reconstructs the established repertoire of situational grammars, enabling teaching and learning experiences enriched.

Andino, Dulce, and Sheng-Fen Chien. "Embedding Shape Grammars in a Parametric Design Software." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 202-206. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The Garifuna are a group of people that live on the northern coast of Honduras and the coast of Belize. They have a very distinct and vibrant culture. Minority cultures are currently absorbed by mainstreamed cultures and the Garifuna ethnicity is directly influenced by this phenomenon. In this research it is of special concern to encapsulate Garifuna vernacular architecture by means of shape grammars. The research provides a clear documentation of the grammars implemented in Grasshopper, as well as discusses about the issues of embedding shape grammars in the Rhino/Grasshopper environment.

Rivera, Omar, Alexis Salinas, Paula Ulloa, Oscar Otárola, Braulio Gatica, William Fuentes, Rodrigo García Alvarado, and Mauro Chiarella. "Emprendimiento de Componentes Constructivos Paramétricos." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 244-248. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

New technologies of parametric design and digital fabrication encourages development of building components, involving a new approach to architectural work and promote professional endeavors. This paper presents several experiences of recent graduates of architecture in U. Bio-Bio, Chile, which demonstrate these capabilities. The development of a roof module, a structural grid, a flexible envelope, cutting partitions and folded units for wind protection are examples of mass-customization, with implementation of new processes of design, construction and divulgation into the building industry.

Zalamea, Esteban, Rodrigo García Alvarado, Maureen Trebilcock Kelly, Paulina Wegertseder, Sergio Baeriswyl, and Laline Cenci. "Estimación Integrada de Captación Energética Solar en SIG-BIM." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 348-352. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The use of solar energy in buildings requires defining proper systems according to different urban typologies. This paper presents a strategy for assessment in Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and a parametric analysis of an detached housing typology in Building Information Modeling (BIM), which demonstrates an integrated approach to estimate solar energy potential, applied to the context of Concepción, Chile. Residential areas are identified with different energy consumption and solar capture in roofs, walls or outside space recorded in a urban GIS, and checks the architectural implementation of a roofing system in residential buildings through an integrated evaluation and design in BIM.

Arriagada, Alexis Salinas. "Estrategia Experimental para la Visualización de Datos Urbanos: Visualización, Análisis y Evaluación de Flujos Vehiculares & Transporte Público." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 116-119. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The distance between the data and conventional graphical representation (line graphs, pie, bar), subtraction urban context information impoverishing their reading and understanding of territory, therefore his chances of inference, which leads to the omission of information for lack of representation. The urban spatial referencing such data could accommodate a much more thorough examination of these to a deeper realization of Analysis, Diagnostics and Evaluations for the city and its transport system is, as this research focuses his gaze, looking promote the efficient functioning of this important player in the city urban. This research presents the early development of a 'Strategy for representing experimental urban data "and visualization, using a graphical editor graphics algorithmic " Grasshopper ", as well as investigate their impact and how these can glimpse useful criteria to consider in the implementation and urban design.

Oleart, Carlos Bustamante, Paulo K. Ogino Altamirano, and Ester Higueras García. "Estrategia Metodológica para la Visualización Digital de Patrones Aerodinámicos Presentes en la Morfología Urbana y su Incidencia en el Uso Estancial de los Espacios Públicos." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 108-111. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

In relation to cities, wind is one of the less studied meteorological parameter. Constant vertical rate variations from meso scale to micro scale, altogether with strenght, direction, velocity of the urban canyon, makes the wind a complex subject of study. To achieve this, a methodological strategy that addresses the wind's multi dimensionality was raised. It was aplied to Punta Arenas, the southernmost city in the world, where most of the time winds come 90% from the same direction with speeds reaching 128 km/h. Wind's constant directional behavior allows the recognition of areodynamic phenomena produced, in the first instance, for the wind profiles influenced by the urban rugosity and then, at morphologycal level, the aerodynamic behavior of the layered fluids over the building bodies, generating a regular pattern between solids and fluids. The strong winds in cities with cold climate influence the use of public spaces, which, not being designed under this conditions, do not develop proper levels of thermal comfort.

Cordido, Mariolly Dávila. "Estudio para la Valoración y Recuperación del Patrimonio Arquitectónico Religioso Venezolano a través de Técnicas Digitales: Iglesia De San Jacinto, Caso De Estudio." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 177-181. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The purpose of this paper is to implement a methodology for the recovery of religious architectural heritage of Venezuela, exemplified in a case study: the virtual reconstruction of the church of San Jacinto, located in Caracas. The methodology consists of four stages: two investigative, graphic and informative stage using QR codes. As hypothesis is proposed that, given the limited existing documentation, should supplement the study and lifting Venezuelan Canarian churches with altarpieces and, based on that, characterize and play virtually Venezuelan colonial church model.

Figueiredo, Renato Tamaoki, and Simone Helena Tan Vizioli. "Estudo Comparativo entre as Novas Ferramentas Digitais Utilizadas no Desenho à Mão Livre." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 87-91. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper makes an analysis on the new technological resources related to architectural drawing that make use of the hand drawing. It tests and evaluates the use of new tools such as tablets (e.g. Wacom Bamboo), graphic tablets (e.g. iPad), tablet/screen hybrids (e.g. Wacom Cintiq) and electronic pens (e.g. Wacom Inkling) in the making of free drawings oriented for the developing of graphic products related to the projective act in architecture and design. The paper makes a comparative e interpretative analysis through the reading of those products.

Economou, Athanassios. "f(xn): Explicit and Recursive Definitions of Architectural Typology." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 211-216. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The notion of a generative description of architectural typology is discussed. Two different approaches are identified and contrasted in terms of their expressive power in design. The building type of the courthouse is selected to showcase and test the approach. One case study is briefly presented to pictorially illustrate the findings.

Miotto, Juliano, and Regiane Trevisan Pupo. "Fabricação Digital na Arquitetura Efêmera: Aplicação em Feiras Comerciais." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 464-467. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper presents a discussion about the ephemeral architecture, the insertion of the Digital Fabrication in the design process and its contribution to the transformation of these spaces. The paper presents an experience of the use of this technology in the production of some Businesses Fairs. In the case reported, the Digital Fabrication allowed greater freedom in the generation of form, facilitating the visualization of the project as a whole and consequently aiding in the compatibility, anticipating possible failures before fabrication and assembly.

Ho, Miriam. "Fibre Configurations for Moisture Control: A Vernacular Framework." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 410-414. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This research describes a theoretical framework for making water-sensitive architectural fabrics based on an examination of the subtle moisture controls in vernacular architecture. It explores a workflow for the articulation of environmental forces in material microstructure and how these can be amplified at an architectural scale. The interaction between moisture and material properties is modeled using physics simulations in Processing, offering a method to manipulate fibre configurations for new construction logics. The research is illustrated through parallel explorations in computationally generated fibre configurations and multi-scalar textile prototypes. The research aims to demonstrate the potentials of technology transfer from traditional knowledge to contemporary material manipulations.

Howe, Nathan. "FluidScape: Research in Parametric Concrete Formwork." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 405-409. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

Given the piecemeal nature of concrete formwork, the phenomenon of the monolithic result relies on elegant detailing, material choice, and formal continuity. Creating complex form out of concrete poses an intriguing problem, where these disparate constructive elements must be dynamic and flexible. This paper describes the design process from conception to prototyping for a public spray park competition project. The challenges inherent in the proposed forms included subtle reveals and ledges for water to flow down. Achieving the desired finish for the concrete requires a precise, digitally-generated form, particular materials and fabrication sequence. The project design and fabrication gives parametric control to Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) fabrication tools for an output of fluid form.

Baerlecken, Daniel, and Sabri Gokmen. "Gemming: Architectonics of Facets." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 225-229. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper will articulate on how the intrinsic principles of gem making could be applied in architectural form finding. It will speculate that the technical accumulation of expertise and knowledge in this crafty technique could be implemented algorithmically. This robust and efficient process could provide solutions for architectural design problems. It will conclude that faceting, as we can observe it in jewelry making and lamp design, produces facets that are not just reacting to an underlying geometry, but also add expression and articulation to an object.

Curi, Camila Barbosa, and Neander Furtado Silva. "Habitação na Sociedade de Informação: Configurador de Design para o Mercado Imobiliário Brasileiro." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 76-80. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

In this paper, we present preliminary specifications for a computer design tool for the application of mass customization in middle class apartment design in Brazil. Believing that in the digital era, network communication and digital design tools combined may create a design environment that considers consumer needs and preferences, we present a simple drafting of a computer tool that makes use of those concepts. And therefore we believe to contribute for the future construction of a design system that redefines problem scenarios, rather than providing individual solutions, repositioning architects and clients in the design process.

del Castillo, Ubaldo Arenas Alv, and José Manuel Fal Meraz. "Hacia la Adaptabilidad en Sistemas Robóticos de Construcción." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 71-75. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This article explores the concept of adaptability within the built environment, extending the feedback and inter-communication characteristics of parametric design into construction processes and the material components of contemporary buildings; providing a conceptual and contextual framework, it also describes several strategies explored to achieve such type of communication.

Moural, Ana; Sara Eloy, Miguel Sales Dias, and Tiago Pedro. "How Space Experimentation Can Inform Design: Immersive Virtual Reality as a Design Tool." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 182-186. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

Immersive virtual reality allows us to experience the space even before it’s constructed. In this way, the use of such an environment plays a decisive role in the design process in architecture. The spaces that architects design may now be evaluated in a real scale mode which enable the understanding of problems and/or opportunities that space bring to the buildings. The goal of this paper is to define the methodological framework for using an immersive virtual environment, namely CaveH, in an Architectural design process by exploring the use of real-time rendering. We intend that the developed software and infrastructure will be used in a very easy way as a valid design tool to any professional. Two 3d models were experiment along this research each one of them regarding to a different type of design problem.

Bunster, Victor. "How to Customize Architecture under Heavily Prescribed Design Conditions? Principles and Prospects for an Evolutionary System." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 319-323. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

Architectural design is a complex activity. The development of a building involves management of the diverse goals of a heterogeneous group of agents using no more than the discrete resources of a given setting. These variables can often conflict and result in rigid normative frameworks that can limit the capacity of a designer to respond with accuracy to diverse environmental factors. The main aim of this paper is to present the theoretical foundations of an evolutionary system to assist the customization of architecture under such prescribed design conditions.

Costa, Márcia Silvano, Evangelos D. Christakou, Lenildo S. Da Silva, and Antônio A. Nepomuceno. "Identificação de Danos em Fachadas de Edificações: Geração de Mosaicos Fotográficos Obtidos por Plataforma Robótica." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 161-165. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

Damage in façades rendering is a problem that has been much discussed currently since such damage is important to the degradation process of building. There are many techniques to verify damages in façades and in other external parts of buildings; however, some techniques have restrictions regarding their practical applications. This work deals with the application of the remote sensing (RM) technique. Such technique derives from the need to identify, locate and scale, quickly, accurately and without human risk, the existing damage or potential damages that may appear in the façades of buildings. Moreover, the RM technique may help to detect damages not visible at long distance or in location of difficult access. This technique is performed by corrected high-resolution panoramic images generated from a mosaic of pictures taken with a standard digital camera coupled in a robotic platform. The Itamaraty Palace, a government building, located in Brasília - DF (Brazil), is the object of the present study. The correction of the Itamaraty Palace panoramic image was carried out so that the identification, quantification and mapping of the Palace façade damages were performed using specific softwares such as GigaPan Stitch, AutoCAD and ArcGIS.

de Vasconselos, Tássia Borges, and Adriane Borda Alme da Silva. "Identificação de Geometrias Implícitas na Arquitetura a Partir de Realidade Aumentada." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 44-48. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

For the initial stages of architectural training one of the strategies traditionally used is to study design cases. This exercise can help in the comprehension of implicit geometries and design processes. The use of the golden ratio, for example, is recurrent in the history of architecture. However, adequate instruments are necessary for this kind of statement. This paper demonstrates the use of Augmented Reality with this goal: virtual elements are viewed overlaying the architecture or its representation, configuring a “digital proportion measurer”. The comprehension of known architectural practices assists in structuring methods and constructing repertoires for architectural design.

Tosello, Maria Elena, María Georgina B. Colombo, and Matías Dalla Costa. "Imaginando Mundos: Didáctica Proyectual para Aprendizajes Significativos y Colaborativos." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 537-541. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

One of the challenges faced by design disciplines is how to activate the imagination, motivate and engage students and professors in significant and heuristic learning processes, integrating educative and design technologies in relation to a new epistemological, aesthetic and technical paradigm. A didactic proposal, that encourage a ludic and creative experience of collaborative construction of knowledge, is created starting from the task to imagine, design and build worlds. This article describes the basis, objectives, characteristics and results of the experience carried out in the 2013 Digital Graphics Studio, issued for Architecture and Visual Design students in a public Argentinian University.

Angulo, Antonieta, and Guillermo p Vasquez de Velasco. "Immersive Simulation of Architectural Spatial Experiences." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 495-499. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The paper describes our research efforts seeking to assess the potential use of immersive simulation through virtual reality (VR) environments as a tool for aiding the design of architectural spatial experiences. By making use of a fully implemented HMD-based VR Environment in our school at Ball State University we conducted a controlled experiment with novice design students. After the evaluation of results of the experiment we have found evidence of the positive impact of the use of the system in design education. We will further investigate on the best practices to incorporate its pervasive use based on high-impact simplified methods.

Cáceres, Alex González, Laline Cenci, and Cristian Muñoz. "Impacto de la Visualización de Información e Interpretación de Gráficas de Herramientas de Simulación Energética en la Toma de Decisiones de Diseño." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 383-387. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

Simulation programs are an important tool to reduce building energy demands. However, there are difficulties that limit the use of these applications including the understanding and interpretation of the results. Due to the uncertainty regarding the reading and interpretation of results leading to design decisions, we propose a graphical display analysis, both scientific and information, charts, tables, diagrams, etc. Which apply to both energy simulation tools as complementary programs. It seeks to establish what tools have the greatest impact in the analysis process and how it influences the design decisions.

Soto, Carolina. "Innovación por el usuario en la construcción y el diseño digital: La relación entre herramientas BIM standard y requerimientos específicos de los usuarios." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 274-278. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

BIM tools are being adopted in many different countries, in a wide range of types of projects, and by professionals from different disciplines. Consequently, the requirements of its users are becoming heterogeneous, hindering the development of BIM tools that can satisfy all of them. Utilizing the user innovation theory as the framework of analysis, the paper examines whether and how BIM users are adapting the technology to their requirements. Through the study of eight cases from different contexts of use, the work analyzes the process of user innovation in BIM with two main objectives: first, to recognize whether there is that type of innovation, and second, to understand how it is developed.

Araneda, Claudio. "Instantánea Urbana (Rudimentos Analíticos para una Aproximación Fenoménica Sistemática al Estudio del Comportamiento de Nuestro Campo Visual en Relación a la Percepción de Personas en el Espacio Urbano)." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 124-128. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.
Baltazar, Ana Paula, José dos Santos Filho, Mateus de Souza van Stralen, Guilherme Ferreira de Arruda, Estevam Quintino Gomes, Junior, Laís Rodrigues Pizano, and Fabiano Nardy de Moraes. "Interface de Eletrônica e Objeto Interativo como Introdução ao Knowledge Based Design." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 608-612. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper discusses the evolution of an interface used to introduce eletronics in the foundation design course at the School of Architecture at Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil. The use of this interface by the students triggers the discussion of the possibilities of new technologies in architecture and initiates a tactical learning process in which the students are responsible for the very content they are learning. This interface introduces the discussion of interactivity and indeterminism, crucial to the development of the two main works of the course: an individual interactive object and an urban interactive intervention in group.

Lonsing, Werner. "Introducing a Workshop to build an Affordable 3D-Scanner: Presenting a Variety of Computational Concepts to Novice Students of Architecture." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 475-478. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper outlines and describes a workshop designed for presenting and teaching a variety of computational concepts to novice students of architecture. While the ostensible purpose is the building of a cheap scanner the workshop facilitates a variety of techniques like model-making, basics of robotics or 3D-point-clouds. Novice students can discover a broad range of computational technologies both in hardware and software over a short period of time.

Bielitz, Bárbara Echaíz, and Carla Ponzano Quintanar. "Juguetes Interactivos por Medio de Arduino para Niños con Discapacidad Motriz." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 484-488. Physical Computing Toydesign. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This research project explores the Arduino potentialities, as a performer and mediator between individuals and their environment. Our goal is to generate spaces to modify that environment through an interface that dialogues with stimuli and actions.Our interest is to connect vulnerable individuals to possible acts of appropriation that is, being able to perform a symbolic ownership of their environments. For doing that, we see the opportunity of using Arduino within the context of differential pedagogy for children with special needs. All this, considering the evident deficiencies of that kind of educational facilities, particularly regarding children with motor disabilities daily activities.

Gelpi, Nick, and Shahin Vassigh. "Kinetic Forms of Knowledge." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 510-514. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The introduction of Kinetic design processes, particularly through computer aided programming of input and output relationships has created a unique territory for design. This new design territory offers architects a unique opportunity to rethink discreet typological design by fostering more active engagements and interventions with design. Unlike discrete-typological design thinking, which may be transmitted by books or lectures, these new Kinetic interactions with design are taught by example and are learned by doing, representing new emergent forms of design knowledge which allow us to reengage and reinvent the process of design.

Poblete, Carlos I. de la B.. "Librería de Algoritmos Genéticos para Arquitectura (LAGA)." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 338-342. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

LAGA is an all-purpose library to create and design Genetic Algorithms (GAs). Originally the library was born as a series of GAs as a search and optimize tool for author's PhD thesis. The originals GAs were applied to different architectural scales: Urban design, architectural design, space optimization and energy design optimization. At the beginning the algorithms were written in different platforms: Rhinoscript, C#.NET and GCScript. The author after finish his PhD, he decided to put all the algorithms in a single language. JAVA was selected to create a flexible Genetic Algorithm library to use in different platforms.

Iglesias, Rodrigo Martin. "Los Medios de Producción del Proyecto: Entre Imaginación y Representación." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 32-35. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The present work explores the relationship between the architectural project and the representational media from a perspective that seeks to explain the role of the tool on thought and practice. Also, we understand that its interaction with the media representation is exacerbated in high architecture or formal filing due to the increasing prevalence and representational media, especially digital. Leading to the problem about how to establish a consistent and coherent theory of the project operativity taking into account the importance that representational media have on design practice, and to make clear their mutual influence.

Rossado, Verónica. "Los Procesos de Creación del Proyecto Arquitectónico Digital: El Pensamiento Creativo Superior." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 40-43. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

Architectural design is a complex process; developments and influences of information technology in architecture could change creative thinking. Architecture students go through several design levels until achieving a final project and the access to technology and communications are present in the process. The result of design has been influenced by the application of technologies. Designs are creative and innovative, enhanced by the exchange of ideas. This change, with scientific and technological advances, interferes with the creation processes, making the designer reach a complex and higher thinking.

Carreiro, Patrícia Porto, and Rejane de Moraes Rêgo. "Mapas Mentais e Ferramentas Computacionais na Gestão da Informação do Processo de Ensino Projetual da Arquitetura, Urbanismo e Paisagismo." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 590-594. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This article relates a teaching experience in the discipline “InfoAU II” at the CAU/UFPE/Brasil. One of the objectives is, working with the students, reflecting about the design as a multidisciplinary knowledge integration process. The other one is opening a discussion about the importance in the Information management in the process of design teaching in Architecture, Urbanism and Landscaping within digital environments. The methodology involves a construction of mind maps on paper and digital format (using the software Prezi) as a tool for registration of design process, which it shows the requirement to get deeply in seeking methodologies and tools for a reflexive design teaching.

Lobos, Danny, Gerth Wandersleben, and Lorena Silva Castillo. "Mapeo de Interoperabilidad entre BIM y software de Simulación Energética para Chile." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 378-382. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The Research focuses on possible links between (Building Information Modeling), the Building Energy Performance Requirements and BPS software (Building Performance Simulation). It is expected to establish critical paths within the interoperability processes between BIM and BPS to support architects and energy consultants to choose the most appropriated workflow for the analyzed buildings to fulfill the performance requirements given by the Chilean laws. Several study cases in interoperability and the state-of-the-art are presented and discussed. Finally a novel map of relation between these three areas is presented.

de Paula, Frederico Braida Rod, Lara Scanapieco Barreto, Felipe Arlindo Silva, Fernando Lima, and Vinícius Morais. "Maquetes Híbridas: Diálogos Entre as Técnicas Tradicionais e as Tecnologias Digitais no Processo Projetual." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 49-53. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This article is about hybrid models, as a kind of three-dimensional representation emerged from of the possibilities of combining traditional techniques with digital technologies. The purpose is to reflect on the possibilities of production and applications of these types of hybrid models, highlighting them as recurring elements of design practice after the rise of new technologies of information and communication, and prototyping and digital manufacturing. By adopting the model as an object of research, we propose to expand the field of reflection on the incorporation of several digital technologies in the design process, specifically aspects of three-dimensional and graphical representation.

Sharif, Shani. "Material Cognition: Designer’s Perception of Material in a Creative Design Process." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 23-26. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The new trends in digital design and fabrication attempt to utilize material information as a generative factor in the design and form exploration processes. An investigation on the designers’ cognitive processes in perceiving materiality in an integrated design process could potentially impact these integrated digital endeavors. As a result, this research explores the role of materiality as an external representation based on two main concepts in cognitive science, situated and distributed cognition.

Gómez, Diego, Mario Marchant, Loreto Ulloa, Bárbara Echaíz, Carla Ponzano, Rocío Hurtado, and Adolfo Á. lvarez. "Mediaciones Algorítmicas para la Percepción de la Ciudad y su Apropiación Agonista." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 479-483. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper presents conceptual and theoretical basis, methodological processes, and ongoing developments for the research work done within the Design and Agonism group at the Department of Design of the School of Architecture and Urbanism of the University of Chile. The research problem guiding this work has been defined as algorithmic mediations for the perception of the city, as vehicles for agonistic citizen appropriation in a hypothetic Santiago, Chile.

Banda, Pablo, and Juan Eduardo Subercaseaux. "Meta-patrones Morfogenéticos: Propuesta de Framework para Arquitecturas Generativas Basadas en Desempeño." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 253-257. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

Architecture and Technology’s relationship nowadays has arrived to multi-disciplinary practices; they are growing exponentially while keeping away from to architectural discourse, are remarkable for its expressive power and the ability to solve complex problems. This opens the possibility for the generation of the organic, a path discarded by the Modern Movement in the past.Our approach explores three active premises called Morphogenetic Meta-Patterns: discrete processes (systemic guidelines) for the development of performance-based generative systems. These processes arise from Generative Design and their associated paradigms in the creation of a Framework between architecture and related disciplines.

Mendes, Leticia Teixeira, José Nuno Beirão, and Gabriela Celani. "Meta-PREVI: Uma Meta-Gramática para a Geração de Habitação de Interesse Social." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 217-222. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

A set of independent small grammars corresponding to design patterns were inferred from the PREVI Lima urban plan by C. Alexander. This pattern language composed of grammars inferred from the plan layout and grammars inferred from the text instructions (or pattern descriptions) written by Alexander can be applied to design new plans within a wider formal universe than what the plan layout would suggest.

Böhme, Luis Felipe Gon, Cristián Calvo Barentin, and Mauro Chiarella. "Métodos Computacionales en Arquitectura: La Formación de Arquitectos con Competencia en CyT." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 524-528. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

Tomorrow’s architects will need to deal more confidently and skillfully with scientific and technological innovations in their field, e.g., parametric design, building physics, construction robotics, home automation, etc. Architecture students today must understand how things work and absorb some of the basic principles and techniques involved in their design, construction or operation. Now students need to build back some of that analytical, logical, critical, and analogical thinking that may have atrophied due to a traditional architectural education. Playing with toy construction kits for building automatic control and mobile robot models, does the job without losing the architect´s approach and attitude.

Hernández, Silvia, María Figueroa, Gabriela Mengo, María José Verón, Luciana Lanzone, Alejandra Rezk, Natalia Vogliotti, and Agustín Zavala. "MIBUS – Módulo Interactivo BUS : Diseño Interdisciplinar." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 634-638. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

Industrial robots controlled by parametric design software and visual programming environments are gaining popularity in the research and use of non-conventional construction processes in architecture. Process automation which can be personalized through variable components promises to become an industry standard with similar cost structures to current pre-fabrication industrial processes. In order to incorporate competencies from non-serial variable architectural modular design, an initial teaching initiative (Advanced Architectural Design Studio – USM) was developed in Latin América. The strategy employed is based on incorporating concepts and instruments of Construction & Design Automation for CAD/CAM processes with a Six Axis Robotic Arm (KUKA KR125/2).

Checcucci, Érica de Sousa, Ana Paula Carv Pereira, and Arivaldo Leão de Amorim. "Modelagem da Informação da Construção (BIM) no Ensino de Arquitetura." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 307-311. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper discusses the experience of the initial phase of introduction of the BIM paradigm in the undergraduate program in Architecture and Urbanism (evening course) of FAUFBA. We started from the premise that BIM should be adopted gradually and integrated with the various subjects of the course, and should be initiated through the disciplines of graphic representation. The proposal for this course is presented and practices are discussed, as they were experienced in the discipline of Computing and Design II, which deals with this paradigm. It was observed that BIM process requires significant changes, as it encountered some initial resistance from the students. However, this approach increases the understanding of building and facilitates the project documentation. Furthermore, the understanding of the scope of the paradigm was crucial to the effective use of the adopted tool.

de Paula, Frederico Rodrigues, and Fernando Tadeu de A. Lima. "Modelagem Digital, Prototipagem e Ensino de Arquitetura e Urbanismo: Impactos e Desdobramentos de uma Intervenção Curricular." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 577-580. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This article aims to describe the experience developed within the course entitled Modeling and Digital Prototyping, offered by the Architecture and Urbanism of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora. We focus the impacts and consequences of a curriculum intervention that values __the digital graphic as the possibility of development of architecture and urbanism in contemporary society.

Iglesias, Rodrigo Martin. "Modelos Analógicos para la Visualización del Tiempo." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 112-115. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

We present the foundations of a research project which is currently in development. This project aims to explore new dimensions and configurations of a traditionally one-dimensional Time. Initially we have systematized the material produced since 2005 with students of History of Architecture in relation to analogical (multidimensional) Timemaps, while we sought for theoretical tools that allows its interpretation. We have characterized different times and durations, from phenomenological aspects of temporal construction and perception, to historical and natural phenomena of long duration. Finally, we explored analogical and digital visualization tools to understand the intrinsic complexity of Time and its models.

Baerlecken, Daniel, and Katherine Wright Johnson. "Nominalized Matter - Generative Textiles Procedures." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 515-519. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper investigates making as a process that brings together diverse materials and combines their flow in anticipation of what might emerge. Ingold calls this approach the textility of making, which gives priority to the formation of materials as a process, in which form is generated through interventions within fields of forces and currents of materials and not through a predefined notion of an ideal outcome , opposes the Aristotelian “hylomorphic approach” which focuses on final products.

Gonçalves, Marly. "O Produto de Joias Representado Pela Ilustração Digital." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 613-616. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This article will show learning activity developed during the third semester of Graphic Computer discipline, in the Jewelry and Accessories Production Course, from Faculty of Technological Istituto Europeo di Design in Sao Paulo, using the Problem Based Learning methodology. The present theme aims to encourage students in searching for new ways of graphics representation of his projects using 2D digital programs, based on the work done in the previous semester. The main aim is to show the contribution of an exercise in interdisciplinary training for syllabus of the course Production jewelry and accessories.

Soto, Carolina, and Moa Carlsson. "Object Interaction Query: A Context Awareness Tool for Evaluating BIM Components’ Interactions." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 269-273. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

During the creative process, designers constantly evaluate the relations between objects in space. BIM aids this process by providing a modeling platform where objects are embedded with information, which can be extracted on demand. The object Interaction Query (oIQ) proposes a novel way to query BIM models, not only for geometric properties and dimensions, but also about the relations among the components. By including the queried objects’ context and interrelations as part of the computation, the prototype tool is able to provide feedback on complex interactions and conflicts in the design environment. The oIQ approach and its implementation are developed as integral parts of the design process, allowing users to perform customized queries through a GUI in which users can apply their knowledge and design preferences to the model’s evaluation.

Soza, Pedro, Matthew Swarts, Paula Gómez, and Jonathan Shaw. "On the Process of Building Knowledge to Support the Design of Digital Tools: A Case Study for Future Residential Buildings on Campus." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 66-70. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This article presents the process of building knowledge to inform the process of developing a design application for mid-size urban settings. We call such an application Campus Information Modeling – CIM. Four different strategies are exposed, with special interest in a behavioral study regarding users’ qualitative evaluation of buildings they inhabit and how such information will be used in the design of the CIM tool. Finally, implications and future research are discussed.

de Andrade, Ludmila Santos, Neander Furtado Silva, Ecilamar Maciel de Lima, and Igor Monteiro. "Os Sistemas BIM e a Redução de Inexatidões e Tempo nas Obras Públicas Brasileiras." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 284-287. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The creation of an algorithm that will allow the quantitative accuracy of inputs, related to the Brazilian reality, inside the BIM platform will cause a decrease of the public costs of work. However, in this article only focus on how you can modify internally the BIM system platform for achieving the quantitative goals in planning materials. The new tool of construction planning and scheduling when using BIM systems's contribution, through the external database, will provide the construction control based on composition of inputs along the time that will allow a more economical execution to ensure the efficiency of public buildings.

Natividade, Verônica G.. "Os Três Gerúndios: Uma Análise da Variação das Constantes Arquitetônicas." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 468-472. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper is a reflection on the directions that digital architectures have been taking due to their growing materialization achieved after the popularization of digital fabrication technologies. It aims to discuss some reformulations of the conceptual foundations of the architecture under the influence of digital design methodologies based on the concepts of forming, structuring and performing.

Pires, Janice de Freitas, Carolina Machado Alves, Luisa dalla Vecchia, Adriane Borda Alme da Silva, and Ana Paula Dametto. "Padrões de Simetrias e Recursão em Ladrilhos Hidráulicos e Bandeiras: Exercícios Didáticos e Construção de Conhecimento Sobre Patrimônio Histórico." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 595-599. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper describes activities of analysis and composition of patterns based on architectural elements of buildings of historic heritage. During two separate workshops, which used a method previously established, the rules of symmetry and recursion were recognized in the geometry of these architectural elements and new patters were created through dynamic processes of digital representation. Such activities can stimulate the students´ capacity of recognizing design actions, contributing to their perception of the design problems and, thus, to the knowledge for design practice.

Dantas, Dandara Macedo Cos, and Celso Pereira Guimarães. "Partituras imagéticas: Um Diálogo Poético entre Música e Imagem." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 646-650. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper suggests a new and experimental way of visualizing music. This project turns linear information from piano sheets into a two-dimensional representation. Using a symbology created to translate music data to visual plastic elements, in a metaphorical way to link sound and image, the project aims to build a music map, that could be able to picture those music data in other visualizations. Besides, this code can be used in the other way around: to create piano sheets from ready images. So, those experiences resulted in virtual images, tridimensional sculptures and new ways of creating music.

Herrera Polo, Pablo C.. "Patrones en la Enseñanza de la Programación en Arquitectura: De la Hetero-Educación a la Auto-Educación en Latinoamérica." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 555-559. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

Teaching programming to architects, in academic and professional contexts, occurs in Latin America through self-management, and focused on results, without analyzing the processes and establishing a follow-up to participants, to establish patterns of application. The pointing out of these problems and the proposal of how to make said education sustainable has allowed finding variables specific to the region and to the very same tools and instruments, which are constantly evolving. At the same time, it is proposed after the analysis, that hetero-education (shared learning) itself requires self-education (self-teaching processes) as a complementary process.

Nome, Carlos A., and Natália Queiroz. "Performance do Edifício: Produtos e Processo para Integração no Projeto Arquitetônico." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 357-361. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The paper presents a case study on BIM supported design processes and its intersections with discussions about sustainability and energy efficiency simulations. The objective of the study is to identify different levels of detail for BIM models that are compatible with sustainability and energy efficiency simulations. As a result an integrated design, model and simulation process is proposed and validated.

Sanguinetti, Paola. "Performance Testing in Architectural Design: Evolving the Problem-Solving Paradigm for Novice Designers." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 520-523. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper compares two approaches to introduce novice architectural designers to computational tools for performance testing. Focus is placed on parametric design changes to test solutions. The first approach is limited to the design of a shading component. The second approach consists of short exercises using Building Information Modeling to test and analyze discrete decisions. The hurdles in the learning process are discussed, including the role of visualization to evaluate performance. The effectiveness on learning strategies is discussed.

Smithwick, Daniel, and Lawrence Sass. "Physical Design Cognition: A Non-Symbolic Formalization for Physical Computing." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 27-31. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper frames design knowledge as formalizable physical action for developing embodied computational design skills that can more fully exploit current and future digital fabrication prototyping methods. Digitally integrated prototyping tools reveal the physicality of cognition in computational design activity; however, because current theories of design knowledge define cognition as a mental process, physical computation design skills remain underdeveloped. We identify symbolic formalization as the root of this problem. We present a non-symbolic action-based notation drawing from embodied cognition as an alternative model for design cognition. Designerly knowledge is discussed in terms of reflective action and epistemic action.

Bonifacio, Paulo Pereyra, and Fernando García Amen. "Pieles Responsivas en Arquitectura y Sistemas de Integración Info-Ambiental a través de Tecnología Arduino." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 430-434. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper presents a case study consisting in proposing and building a responsive skin that reacts to different environmental impulses using Arduino technology. Thus, we aim to obtain an intelligent, integrated and economic achievement, through digital manufacturing processes and low cost technologies integrated in an architectural project.

Santos, Denise Monaco dos, Marcelo Tramontano, and Alison Henrique Nasario. "Por Trás do Que Você Vê: Rock, Ação Cultural e Espaços Híbridos na Cidade." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 659-663. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper presents the development and results of interventions in urban spaces using two graphic interactive interfaces, Backstage and Comments. They were implemented during cultural actions carried out as part of the 'Hybrid Territories project: digital media, communities, and cultural actions' developed by Nomads.usp, University of São Paulo, Brazil. It consists of events aiming to explore the creation of hybrid situations in urban fragments so as to enrich them in multiple ways, but mainly from a sociocultural perspective.

Barros, Diana Rodriguez. "Prácticas Disruptivas e Intervenciones de Diseño Desde lo Lúdico y Participativo." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 533-538. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

We present learning experiences related to Textile Design in postdigital environments, linked to disrupted practices from Design Thinking perspective, with the intention to translate it into sustainable didactic strategies. Methodologically from the workshop, we develop design and graphic’s databases from textiles and digital printing methods, different media’s applications, prototyping and identity simulation of their own business, which includes branding, communication pieces and packaging. We recognize innovative and meaningful responses from students regarding exploration, idea’s generation and prototype’s creation. As teachers, like craftsmen, we have tried to link material culture, tacit knowledge, resistances, social interaction and production methods.

Barros, Diana Rodriguez. "Prácticas Disruptivas e Intervenciones de Diseño en Estampación Digital, Imagen de Marca y Prototipado." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 529-532. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

We present learning experiences related to Textile Design in postdigital environments, linked to disrupted practices from Design Thinking perspective, with the intention to translate it into sustainable didactic strategies. Methodologically from the workshop, we develop design and graphic’s databases from textiles and digital printing methods, different media’s applications, prototyping and identity simulation of their own business, which includes branding, communication pieces and packaging. We recognize innovative and meaningful responses from students regarding exploration, idea’s generation and prototype’s creation. As teachers, like craftsmen, we have tried to link material culture, tacit knowledge, resistances, social interaction and production methods.

Weston, Mark. "Prime Negatives: Parametric Sponge-Forming and Slip Casting for Ceramics." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 396-399. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

Traditional methods for slip casting require the creation of prototype “patterns” for the making of molds. Computer modeling, however, can be understood to produce virtual positives, thereby suggesting a CNC production focused on the creation of negatives, or molds, without the need for a physical pattern. Three experiments in slip casting for ceramics are examined as a means of producing production parts without first making prototype patterns in the positive. Two techniques leverage computer modeling and CNC tools to directly produce formwork for casting positives, while the third technique uses a lost positive formwork for production of the final part.

Rocha, Bruno Massara, Mario Victor Mar Margotto, and Victor Nolasco Co Malheiros. "Princípios e Protótipos Improvisacionais nas Interfaces entre o Design, a Arquitetura e a Arte Digital." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 489-492. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

In this paper we present final results of interface design processes developed regarding a low-tech-oriented procedures supported by computer vision and physical computing techniques. All the prototypes presented were developed in academic context in a few workshops grounded in interdisciplinary approaches between art, design and architecture. There were applied artistic creative processes such as improvisation, reprograming and post-production in the development of innovative users interfaces from the perspective of re-appropriation of existent objects and its cultural nature.

Alves, Gilfranco, and Anja Pratschke. "Processos de Projeto Cibersemióticos: Procedimentos de Observação, Representação e Performance Aplicados ao Design Paramétrico." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 258-261. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The abstract presented here is part of a PhD research in progress, currently developed at USP - University of São Paulo, with the Nomads.usp research group, under the guidance of Professor Anja Pratschke. This research starts from the assumption that Cybersemiotics, initially defined by the Philosopher and Information Scientist Dr. Søren Brier - and therefore gathers concepts of Second Order Cybernetics and Semiotics of Charles Sanders Peirce - while meta-theory designed and developed to promote transdisciplinarity, can bring other perspectives and base updated reflections in order to produce a framework for architectural design processes that make use of digital mediation, especially Parametric Design.

Gutierrez, Rodrigo L. Minot. "Processos Históricos, Análise Contemporânea: Documentação de Desenhos na Parede do Consistório da Capela do Carmo em Ouro Preto-MG, no Brasil." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 170-174. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

Given the lack of studies on the design (or Risco) in the wall of the Church of Carmo de Ouro Preto, and references to it were found in the documents of 1789, saw the need to develop a detailed study of the same, which can be described in the following steps: photographic documentation, drawings and descriptive observation, mapping and analysis of photographs, scanning and vectorization, interpretation and analysis. It is about the process of reflection on history, based on the use of Digital Technologies that this article discusses.

de Faria, José Neto, Karine Itao Palos, and Katia Akemi Omine. "Projeto Design Condensado: A Promoção do Conhecimento Sobre a História do Design com Sistemas de Visualização Dinâmica de Dados Baseados em Tecnologia JavaScript, PHP e HTML5." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 139-142. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The ‘Condensed Design Project’ aims to discuss and reflect on how dynamic data visualization systems can be used to promote knowledge building in design history. The goal is to understand how the languages can be used to intensify the interaction of data visualization systems with the ‘activity inducer’ and understand how they impact data interpretation. Thus, we conceived, planned and implemented a system which aims to promote the selection, organization, visualization, analysis and interpretation of ‘historical facts’, as well as understand the potential for use of JavaScript, PHP and HTML5 technologies.

Omine, Katia Akemi, José Neto de Faria, and Karine Itao Palos. "Projeto Design Condensado: Definição de ‘Modelo Sociocultural’ para Sistemas de Visualização Dinâmica de Dados que Estimulem a Geração de Novos Conhecimentos sobre a História do Design." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 143-147. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The ‘Condensed Design Project’ aims to discuss and reflect on how the definition of an ‘activity inducer’, by describing and characterizing ‘social-cultural models’, can be used in the development of dynamic data visualization systems. The aim is to discuss and try to understand how the profile of the ‘activity inducer’, routines, scenario and context impact the navigation, interaction, research and learning processes in design history. Thus, the knowledge building process is strictly conditioned to the way the relation between the ‘visualization system’ and the ‘activity inducer’ is promoted, considering the technological limitations and the individual’s predisposition.

de Faria, José Neto, Karine Itao Palos, and Katia Akemi Omine. "Projeto Design Condensado: O Design da Experiência Histórica, Produção de Ensaios d Simulações das Relações entre ‘Fatos Históricos’ d ‘Metodologias de Pesquisa dm História’, dom Sistemas de Visualização Dinâmica de Dados." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 148-152. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The ‘Condensed Design Project’ aims to discuss and reflect on how the historical experience can be produced, by analyzing and interpreting essays and simulations of the relations between ‘historical events’ and ‘research methodologies in history’, with a dynamic data visualization system. The goal is to understand how the visualization systems can be prepared to support researchers, professor and students to live the historical experience, in order to promote knowledge building processes in design history. It emphasizes history’s concern about bringing back, using the ‘historical sources’ approach, the necessary ‘historical facts’ to describe a certain ‘historical event’.

Lima, Fernando, Vinícius Morais, Frederico Braida, and Raiane Duque. "Protótipo Virtual a partir da Plataforma BIM: Uma Base Digital de Dados para Estudos Simulativos de Cenários Ambientais e Mapeamento de Infra-estrutura." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 297-301. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

In this article is presented some results of the studies and data obtained in the undergraduates’ research project linked to the Architecture and Urbanism curse of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF), in which a digital evaluative approach of environmental performance of buildings in the campus is pursued. In this paper is reported the unfolding of this research project that aims to develop a virtual prototype in Building Information Modelling platform of a campus construction, and its application in environmental simulation studies as well as the management of the building´s information as-built.

Leitao, Antonio, Rita Fernandes, and Luís Santos. "Pushing the Envelope: Stretching the limits of Generative Design." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 235-238. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

Design is characterized by change. Nowadays, addressing change in design requires enormous efforts, particularly, when the designer is exploring different solutions or when it is necessary to adapt the design to evolving constraints. This paper discusses the potential of Generative Design to help designers handling change, namely in the generation of several alternative design solutions. We propose a programming-based approach that, although requiring an initial investment, dramatically reduces the efforts of design modification. We evaluate the approach in a case study and we show that it is cost-effective in the development of an architectural design.

Schneid, Geovana, Andrew Escobar, and Adriane Borda. "Realidade Aumentada e Turismo Ubíquo: Aplicação no Caso das Charqueadas Pelotenses." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 190-194. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper describes a process of development of three-dimensional virtual models to be viewed in augmented reality through mobile devices. It considers the concept of ubiquitous tourism applied to the tourist rout “the path to the jerked beef farms of Pelotas”, RS. Thus, overlapping models of the buildings related to the history of the jerked beef farms, over the real environment, respond to a specific demand of the place. Most of these places do not allow access or demand a virtual reconstruction.

Rimkus, Carla M. Furuno, and Fernando de Medeiro Galvão. "Realidade Aumentada: Visualização Tridimensional e Interatividadena Documentação do PatrimônioArquitetônico." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 186-189. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper presents preliminary results from an outgoing research about the Scholarship Program on Technological Development and Innovation (PIBITI), in which we focused the potentiality of Augmented Reality (AR) application on documentation of the architectural heritage according to the UNESCO principles. We took as the object of study of the “Quarteirão dos Trapiches”, one of the historic buildings in Laranjeiras, Sergipe, Brazil, and we reconstructed it digitally with Augmented Reality and subsequently generate a QR Code information associated with this building, available on a website. In this context, this work highlight the potential application of architectural heritage documentation in AR, where discourse about the digital processing RA we use, and the association of this digital model with a history of the building. Finally, we present our conclusions on the use of RA in shareholders highlighting the advantages of three-dimensional visualization of architectural heritage, in an interactive, dynamic and low cost of deployment, pondering the importance of encouraging a policy of initiating development activities and technological innovation to digital architectural documentation.

Abdelmohsen, Sherif M.. "Reconfiguring Architectural Space using Generative Design and Digital Fabrication: A Project Based Course." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 391-395. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper discusses a course that addresses the integration between generative design and digital fabrication in the context of reconfiguring architectural space. The objective of the course, offered for 3rd year architecture students at the Department of Architecture, Ain Shams University, Egypt, was to design and fabricate interior design elements to be installed within the department lobby. Students worked in digital and physical environments to develop 8 group projects that featured concepts of shape grammars, L-systems, fractals and cellular automata. The potential of the realized projects is discussed in terms of 3D development of systems, contextual generative design, and pedagogical objectives.

Chiarella, Mauro, Luis Felipe Gon Böhme, and Cristián Calvo Barentin. "Robots: Automatización en Diseño y Construcción para la Enseñanza de Arquitectura." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 439-443. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

Industrial robots controlled by parametric design software and visual programming environments are gaining popularity in the research and use of non-conventional construction processes in architecture. Process automation which can be personalized through variable components promises to become an industry standard with similar cost structures to current pre-fabrication industrial processes. In order to incorporate competencies from non-serial variable architectural modular design, an initial teaching initiative (Advanced Architectural Design Studio – USM) was developed in Latin América. The strategy employed is based on incorporating concepts and instruments of Construction & Design Automation for CAD/CAM processes with a Six Axis Robotic Arm (KUKA KR125/2).

Hemmerling, Marco. "Simple Complexities: A Rule-based Approach to Architectural Design." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 324-327. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The paper discusses rule-based design strategies that allow for the generation of spatial complexity based on simple principles and taking as well the parameters of construction into account. The presented case studies as part of the academic project „Simple Complexities“ focused on the early integration of optimization parameters, regarding structural performance, physical properties and material specification as well as aspects of fabrication to inform the architectural design. The clear conception of a computation-process whose rules lead to certain formal and structural consequences is the necessary first step towards an architecture that is both structurally interesting and systematically coherent.

Webb, Alexander. "Simulacrum, Not Simulation: A Theoretical Approach to Simulation in Education." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 369-372. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

As the practice of architecture grows increasingly more infatuated with verisimilitude, the technical skills required to enable a morphogenetic design process become increasingly specific and extensive. While this model is not as problematic within the realm of practice, in a pedagogical environment the time and expertise requisite for conducting and evaluating comprehensive simulation is an impediment to developing fundamental design skills and mastery of a morphogenetic process. This paper promotes an approach of simulacra; a procedural acknowledgement of an imperfect simulation that serves to advance design aptitude and critical thinking, rather than the pretention of perfection or accuracy.

Pontes, Mateus Moreira. "Sistemas BIM no Ensino de Arquitetura: Uma Investigação do Processo de Ensino de Geometria Descritiva e Desenho Arquitetônico através de Elementos Construtivos Virtuais." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 569-571. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This article discusses the current conditions for learning basic knowledge of architectural drawing and descriptive geometry by incorporating geometric modeling software and modeling building components, aimed at developing a significant learning and objective skills improvement for the practice of architecture design.

Riether, Gernot, and Keyan Rahimzadeh. "SKIN: An Open Negotiation between Form, Function and Materiality." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 424-429. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The Nuit Blanche Pavilion is a recent project by Gernot Riether in collaboration with artist Damien Valero. The project takes advantage of an elastic behavior found in high-density elastomers to form a lightweight structure that integrates form, geometry and program in a single material system. Grasshopper and the finite element plug-in Karamba were used to optimize these interdependencies. This paper will describe the design of the project and elaborate on an aspect of Riether’s research that uses digital technology to promote environmentally responsible materials and construction methods.

Navarro-Sanint, Miguel. "Social Cartography for Social Innovation: A Design Approach." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 103-107. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

In this paper I describe the use of social cartographies as a tool for design students in a social innovation process with communities. I show the process since the first approach to the communities until the end of the cartographic process and its outcomes. I present the advantages of using social cartographies when facilitating social innovation processes: the high involvement of the participants, how it helps to construct a common language, how it allows to understand the community and how it helped the design students to apprehend the tool for their design practice.

Gokmen, Sabri. "Studio on Beauty: A new Methodology for Digital Design Research." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 505-509. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

In this paper we present a studio framework that connects Ruskin’s conception of beauty and digital design tools. We define eight different aspects of beauty that are studied via natural and artificial patterns. These studies developed by students are later applied to a site and program in the second half of the studio. Some of the works of the students are presented while narrating the overall pedagogical process. The aim of the paper is to present a unique approach that combines theory on beauty with digital tools in order to re-define design research as an open-ended and dynamic practice.

Swarts, Matthew. "Symmetry Fields of Palladian Villas." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 99-102. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

In this paper we present the idea of symmetry fields and an analysis of them on Palladian villas. Symmetry fields describe the symmetry related to the localized experiential view of an individual. We propose that the amount of symmetry, whether it be reflective, rotational, or translational, can be computed along with several other measures of visual aesthetic. While many buildings are designed using symmetry about the plan, and are represented using a plan view, it is only accessible to the designer and cannot actually be experienced in the real world. The local symmetries produced are drastically different than those planned.

Klinger, Kevin R.. "Synchronizing Decisions: Design-through-Production Methodology." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 420-423. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper demonstrates the process-oriented decision-making developed through multiple years of case studies developed in partnership with the Institute for Digital Fabrication at Ball State University in concert with industry partnerships. Crucial steps in the process of developing solutions will be used to illustrate potentials for informing new strategies for future projects. A catalogue of the diverse issues inherent in a design-through-production project will be included to serve as a road map, and enlighten the human decision-making factor in these technological processes.

Mattos, Erica Azevedo da, Diego Fagundes da Silva, and José Ripper Kós. "Tecnologias Interativas e Processos de Criação: Experiências de Aprendizagem Transdisciplinares Associadas a um Hackerspace." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 572-576. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The article presents an experience of association between a hackerspace and a multidisciplinary design studio at the Department of Architecture and Urbanism of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, during two semesters. The Tarrafa Hacker Club members shared their collaborative environment with the students and tutors throughout the academic experiment. The hacker culture highlighted dynamic relations that connect people, information, tools and matter. This approach has suggested meaningful speculations about the future of architecture education and practice.

Cardoso, Eduardo, Sérgio Leandro do Santos, Fábio Pinto da Silva, Fábio Gonçalves Teixeira, and Tânia Luísa Kol da Silva. "Tecnologias Tridimensionais para Acessibilidade em Museus." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 444-448. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

New technologies for 3D scanning and digital fabrication have greatly contributed to the research and production of artifacts and accessibility services to artistic fruition in museums. Thus, this article presents the results of research conducted in the discipline of 3D Technologies of the Design Graduate Program at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. The work consisted in the research, selection and employment of scanning technologies for 3D scanning of artifacts from the Museum's collection Joaquim José Felizardo - Porto Alegre - RS, for subsequent production of tactile replicates, as an example and validation of these applications in this context.

Alencar, Viviane, and Gabriela Celani. "The Art of Computer Graphics Programming: Translating Pioneer Programs." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 500-504. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

Considering the importance of the use of programming languages for teaching computational design to architects, this paper proposes the translation of computer programs from a pioneer work in this field into a more contemporary programming language. The book The Art of Computer Graphics Programming: A Structured Introduction for Architects and Designers was published in 1987 by William J. Mitchell, Robin Ligget and Thomas Kvan, and remains an important reference for architects. The original Pascal codes in the book were translated into Processing, and made available through an Internet website, along with images and comments, in order to give late Prof. Mitchell’s work the consideration it deserves.

Cavieres, Andrés, and Joseph Goodman. "The Role of Functional Knowledge in Multidisciplinary Design: The Case of Solar Energy Integration in Buildings." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 333-337. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The paper presents a model-based methodology to support multidisciplinary collaboration for the application of photovoltaic systems to buildings. It focuses on the representation of domain specific knowledge necessary for the design of novel PV racking and mounting structures, based on principles of multi-functionality and functional integration. The proposed representation is based on a language for modeling functional requirements in terms of causal behaviors. These behavioral models provide common ground not only for multidisciplinary design, but also for the elaboration of performance metrics and verification procedures for evaluation of design alternatives. The paper concludes with a discussion on the potential of Model-based approach to support innovation in Design.

Ribeiro, Marcelo Gonçalves, and Julie de Araujo Pires. "Tipografia Multidimensional." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 641-645. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This work intends to outline some ways of how typography has been presented, taking into consideration the different configurations type designs may contemporarily take on. In other words, through various approaches and usages, the font drawings are converted into sculptures, paintings, among other things. For this study, the aim is to analyze the path of historical-conceptual contextualization of typography, as well as some of its implications, based on Rosalind Krauss' study on the expanded field.

Veloso, Pedro L. Alves, and Anja Pratschke. "Uma Arqueologia de Diagramas Cibernéticos." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 353-356. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper investigates the use of explicit structures of information in architectural design. Particularly, it approaches the use of diagrams related to cybernetics and information theory in experimental practices in the 1960’s and 1970’s. It analyses the diagram of cybernetic control proposed by the cybernetician Gordon Pask for the Fun Palace, the diagrams produced by the utopian architect Yona Friedman in the conceptual description of the Flatwriter program and Christopher Alexander’s diagrams and his theories of Synthesis of Form and Pattern Language. Finally it establishes a brief parallel between current domestication and use of dataflow programming with the cybernetic diagrams, highlighting differences in their complexity approach.

Dezen-Kempter, Eloisa. "Urbanidade 360º – Explorando Ferramentas Interativas." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 586-589. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The emergence of new social codes and knowledge, including on new technologies of information and communication, has changed our gaze in the new and complex order of the city and the everyday experience of the people. In this article, we show how the user friendly software like Google Earth, Google Maps and the 3D modeling program SketchUP were used to explore urbanity in a current research with high schools students at University of Campinas (Unicamp). This research had as the main objective to integrate geometric aspects into simulation of urban development and environmental impacts.

Kotsopoulos, Sotirios D., François Guermeur, and Federico Casalegno. "Using Computational Fluid Dynamics to Assess Natural Airflow in a Prototype House-Interior." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 373-377. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper presents an airflow study with Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software that was used to model the natural ventilation attributes at the interior of a prototype house. This study informed the design development phase of the house and guided the design of a dynamic curtain wall involving a matrix of 3 x 9 openable windows for its south façade. Alternative ways of modeling the building geometry were employed and different possible states of the house were examined to determine how change in the orientation and the basic dimensions of the envelope, and modifications in the number, distribution and angle of the open windows affect natural ventilation.

Bruscato, Underlea, Clariana Fischer Brendler, Felipe Schneider Viaro, Fábio Gonçalves Teixeira, and Régio Pierre da Silva. "Uso da Fabricação Digital e Prototipagem no Desenvolvimento do Projeto de Produto: Análises do Produto através de Simulações Digitais." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 459-463. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The aim of this paper is to design a public facilitie using both digital manufacture and rapid prototyping design methods. These new technologies have been used in product design development by some ways: helping in the comprehension of complex geometries; used as tools for analyzing the design process, thus avoiding errors in the project. The analysis were carried out using virtual simulation tests and physical prototype in reduced scale. The prototype was manufactured using the 3D printer V-Flash in the Virtual Design Laboratory – UFRGS, where positive and negatives aspects were identified and described.

Caldera, Sebastián, Gonzalo Silva, and Mauricio Loyola. "Uso de Herramientas Paramétricas de Optimización Evolutiva y Simulación Energética en el Diseño Basado en Performance." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 343-347. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This article describes three cases of integration of technologies of evolutionary optimization and energy simulation in performance-based design. The aim is to share the details of the process of creation, validation and use of the various techniques and tools, with an emphasis on the mistakes and successes obtained, so that experiences can be useful for non-specialist users interested in working with these methodologies.

Bastian, Andrea Verri. "Vetorização Automática de Ortofotos." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 166-169. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

The architectural documentation is a means of perpetuating the memory for future generations, traditional techniques applied in most studies conducted in Brazil, using direct measurements on the monument. The Photogrammetry, like lifting technique, allows metric and morphological recovery of an object without direct contact with it, and as a product of 2D - orthophotos. The focus of this work is the automatic vectorization of orthophotos, presenting experiments done with software for automatic feature extraction from orthophotos, aiming to test tools and procedures that can speed up the process for generating drawings refund.

Braga, Morgana, Henrique Ewerton Pires, Washington Gutemberg Lüke, and Antonio Carlos de Miranda. "Virtualização da Construção em Fase Orçamentária." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 288-292. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

Esse trabalho apresenta a comparação dos orçamentos de um projeto modelado no software REVIT, com o emprego do BIM. No caso de obras públicas, o processo do anteprojeto até sua efetiva construção pode ser um processo demorado devido aos vários procedimentos burocráticos. Devido a esse longo processo que usualmente ocorre nesse tipo de obra, optou-se nesse trabalho por acompanhar uma edificação na fase de construção. A obra objeto de estudo é um laboratório para alunos de graduação em engenharia da Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Esse laboratório é um prédio de dois andares com 2400 m2 no total. O objetivo principal de estimar os custos de construção de uma obra já em andamento com uso das ferramentas BIM.

Keshani, Smruti, and Matthew Swarts. "Virtualization of Medication Delivery in Intensive Care Unit Layouts to Analyze Impact on Nurse Behavior." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 624-628. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This research design aims to understand medication delivery behavior under different spatial configurations through the virtualization of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) environments. Architectural visualization using virtual reality is used to demonstrate capabilities in capturing experiential data. Three different Intensive Care Unit floor plans were modeled and presented in 3D virtual environments. Tasks were developed to simulate nurses’ activities during medication delivery to be analyzed for variables thought to affect nurse efficiency, nurse effectiveness, and satisfaction.

Bruscato, Underlea, Sandro J. Rigo, Cristiano A. Costa, and Humberto J. M. Costa. "Visualização de Informações Geográficas no Turismo Ubíquo de Itinerários Culturais." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 153-157. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

This paper presents a practical experience developed within the framework of a network of researchers dedicated to develop projects of technology transfer, training and research in the field of innovation, involving virtual reality, augmented reality and advanced interaction. The group develops visualization oriented technologies and aim to socialize the experiences developed. In this sense was created an Electronic Guide to cultural routes in southern Brazil, exploiting the contemporary concept of ubiquitous tourism, in which users access tourism content with mobile devices, using sensitivity to context, semantic web and advanced visualization, thus rescuing the memory and regional architectural heritage.

Wandersleben, Gerth, Rodrigo García Alvarado, Claudio Labarca Montoya, and Cristian Muñoz Viveros. "Visualización de Desempeños Ambientales de Viviendas en BIM." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 120-123. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

In order to promote a sustainable design in building information modeling systems (BIM), it proposes a color-code to mark the volume and rooms according geometric relationships defined by parametric environmental simulations. For suggest the estimated performance of the building and sectors, and encourage design adjustments to reduce energy demands with proper comfort. This approach is applied to single housing in temperate-humid climate based on records and analysis carried on in Concepción, Chile. Like a visual aid for designers to improve environmental performance of buildings.

Rodríguez, Awilda, and Paolo Sanza. "Visualizing the (in)Visible: Mapping Culture and the Forces that Shape the Urban Experience." In Knowledge-based Design - Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, 95-98. SiGraDi. Valparaiso, Chile, 2013.

Digital technologies not only have made information accessible but also have exponentially generated new data. The continue growth of urban GIS and pervasive computing is helping us analyze human interactions in unprecedented ways. Yet, when researching urban sites, the students’ task is conventionally limited to the analysis of aggregate spatial data that does not reveal the invisible forces acting upon the site. The limitation of this approach is further evident if students cannot visit the site. This paper explores the role of information visualization to uncover uncommon site forces and to supplement students’ lack of embodiment with far distanced sites.