Keywords Abstract
"3D city model as a tool for connecting academic research." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This paper describes the city modeling process of Florianopolis, Brazil, within an architecture graduate program. The model focuses the city urban evolution and aims to integrate different research groups that have Florianopolis as their study object. The process of interpreting historical and other analog data in order to include them into the model becomes a tool to connect research information and stimulate collaboration with researchers who have worked separately. We discuss some tools applied to the modeling process and some research projects that are starting to be embedded in the model.
"3D modeling and animation for the development of an interactive virtual model in virtual reality (VRML) in fashion." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This article describes the development of a project that combines modeling and animation of three-dimensional objects (virtual model, clothing, environment) in the software 3D Studio Max with VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). The project allows various interactions between the user and the environment developed. The main interaction is the choice of clothing, in which different parts can be proven in the virtual model. The results can be applied to online sales, marketing strategies and 3D virtual simulation.
"A collaborative virtual environment for architectural design promoting life quality and sustainability improvements in low income housing projects." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This work presents a learning action developed to verify in what degree could the TIDIA-Ae virtual environment support design education emphasizing remote collaboration and the manipulation/visualization of data in multiple formats. The TIDIA-Ae virtual environment is a product of the Program on Information Technology in Development of Advanced Internet sponsored by the Foundation for the Support of Research of the State of São Paulo - FAPESP. A design exercise was developed enforcing the inclusion of guidelines for community integration and security, implementation, street system and parking, public, private and open space, and landscaping considering quality of life and sustainability for low income housing projects.
"A grammar-based system for the participatory design of urban structures." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. We propose a three-step participatory design cycle for the early urban design phase that can be integrated into the digital design chain. Step one involves a visualization method that is implemented as an interactive card-based interview technique for the collaborative requirement specification of urban designs. In step two these specifications are a) translated into simplified GIS data and then b) implemented into a grammar-based system together with the corresponding design regulations. The final outcome is a generative and iterative urban model, which includes buildings, building blocks, transportation networks and open spaces that visually communicates spatial impacts of urban design proposals.
"A research of the idea of new spatiality through contemporary architectural drawing: technological impacts." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The idea of spatiality is changing with the explosion of concrete boundaries in this age; this new idea is between the limited space and the continuum space. This paper shows a critical reading of three architectural drawings – ‘Micromegas’ (Daniel Libeskind), ‘The Block’ (Bernard Tschumi) and ‘The World’ (Zaha Hadid); the objective is discussing an idea of space impressed in these drawings, and the relationships with digital realm too. The base of this discussion is in Vidler´s Warped Space and Virilio´s Lost Dimension, searching to understand characteristics and influences that help the construction of this idea of space.
"A Sierpinski Space-filling Curve based Modeling of Height Fields." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. A continuous curve in 2, 3, or higher dimensions, can be thought as a path of a continuously moving point. This class of curves has been used in the design and implementation of spatial data structures. This paper is essentially focused on the efficient representation of terrain models. We propose to implement a binary triangles tree by means of the Sierpinski space-filling curve. The hierarchical nature of this curve makes it very useful to represent this kind of spatial structure. Traversal algorithms, neighbor finding techniques, among others, are presented on the paper demonstrating the efficiency of the proposed structure.
"Activation of Memory for the Project of Architecture through Metadata for the Characterization of Shape"." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Geometric knowledge increases the memory of the architect, which is formed dynamically, from new experiences on the comprehension of shape. Such process suggests the acquisition of a specific vocabulary for describing shape. With the aim of recognizing a wide geometrical and architectural terminology, experimentation is performed. The present work also describes an architectural project which uses metadata characterized by the identification of knowledge structures composed of four approaches whose geometrical and architectonical focus are present. The proposed systematization, which denotes and delimits a specific vocabulary, is considered as being able to contribute to the re-indexing of formal frameworks through the dynamic process of memory constitution to the architecture design.
"Advanced Praxis: Synthesizing Digital and Craft in Design." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Digital fabrication practices have allowed for a level of exactitude and precision unattainable by the designer’s hand. While the design community has benefited tremendously from developments in technology, certain qualities reflective of craft have been lost as a result of the overwhelming dependency on computer-based processes. In order to reinvigorate a sense of craft and personal expression into design, modalities of education must evolve to incorporate these characteristics with contemporary digital techniques. By combining craft, digital tools and collaborative efforts a new breed of designer will emerge – one that finds a personal voice in a globalized world. This paper outlines these issues as they were explored in an experimental design studio that focused on the integration of craft with digital fabrication methods that included both students of graphic design and architecture.
"Algorithmic Architecture: a conceptual approach." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The current paper aims to a conceptual approach to the widespread algorithmic architectures defined for Terzidis Kostas (2006) through the philosophy of complex sciences theorized by Edgar Morin (1998). It intends to discuss two approaches outwardly contradictory emerged from the theme: on one hand, the conception of contemporary architecture is beyond generation of complex shapes into computer software, on the other hand the overvaluation of logics can lead architects to incur in the same mistake of simplification performed by the modernists.
"An experience in teaching Graphics computing for courses of Science and Computer Engineering." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The objective of this article is presenting the teaching methodology of the discipline Graphics Computing, that is used in the Computer Science and Computer Engineering courses and also describing the experience of producing, every six months, an animation festival, with the work produced by students.
"An urban grammar for Portuguese colonial new towns in the 18th century." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This study describes the morphological urban order underlying Portuguese treatises and Portuguese urban cartographic representation produced from 16th century to 18th century. The historical documentation suggests that Pythagorean-Euclidian geometry appears to be a crucial ingredient for the understanding of Portuguese urban design-thinking and urban design-making. To unveil the genesis of the morphological urban order present in the Portuguese colonial plans of the eighteenth century, a descriptive method, Shape Grammar has been adopted. Shape Grammar, as method, supports the analysis of the form-making logic and has proved to be powerful in shape analysis, description, interpretation, classification, evaluation and generation of a design language.
"Analogical design and digital design in architectural projects." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The use of specific computer softwares for architecture design have been analyzed and allowed researchers in this matter to consider a change in architectural creation method realizing new possibilities in the way they project. Based on our experience as architectural project teacher we can observe that more and more students project and present projects with their drawings produced by computer. This tools changing envolves other changings in the project manners as we can notice in some architects that dawn in contemporary scene. This study wants to understand this changings in the projecting practice of Architecture and Urbanism students, and architects.
"Analysis of CO2 emission in construction using a CAD-BIM system." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The main objective of this research is to determine through the use of a CAD-BIM system, the emission of CO2 in the pre-operational phase of construction. Based on a case study in quantitative analysis of materials and the BIM system, it was possible to quantify the amount of CO2 emitted during the pre-operational life cycle of a building. By using this feature you can provide, before the begining of construction, the total CO2 that will released to the environment, and other analysis.
"Analysis of Virtual Elements Constructed by Means of Programming: the Example of BIM-Application Software." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Daylighting is an important part of designing sustainably. Daylighting is the use of natural light for primary interior illumination. This reduces our need for artificial light within the space, thus reducing internal heat gain and energy use. Direct sunlight, once it enters the building, is not only light but heat, and that additional heat will need to be taken into account in your energy analysis." While Autodesk Revit Architecture 2010 (ARA) itself cannot perform the actual analysis, there are some ways to do that. This papper focuses on the study of parametric modeling using a BIM tool for daylighting analysis. This paper presents the first part of the building method of LUME, a plug-in maked whit C# programming language in Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 and ARA Software Developer Kit (SDK) package. The script accepts as its input a standard three dimensional model of building opening and his position on space.
"Architects of information: Designing Architectural metaphors." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Recently, the handling of information design by architects was motivated by the progress and exploration of digital technologies. They began to experiment with the use of informational metaphors and their application in virtual environments. This paper presents these new experimentations in 3D information visualization designed by architects interested in experimentation with digital media as information environments in design. The examples presented in this paper attempt to demonstrate the design of information and aim to illustrate approaches to the representation of the structure and relationships within abstract datasets. The architectural exploitation of metaphors may constitute unique formulations of knowledge structures capable of communicating information in unique ways.
"Architectural morphogenesis - Towards a new description of architectural form." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Introduction of computational techniques and numeric potentials to the process of architectural design has significantly challenged the process of form generation. Architectural morphogenesis denotes the generation of architectural form via its geometric adaptation to materiality and constructability. This work is presented as a part of a research activity which investigates integration of construction information as well as material properties to geometric description of the architectural form. Different aspects of architectural form are explored through analysis of certain examples. Basic issues of the research were examined through a one week workshop experiment with architecture students
"Architecture derivations in light of seductive digital technology." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This research shows the theoretical foundations in the use of digital architectural technology. In order to reach this goal, it is necessary to study three generations of designers involved with this technology. The first theoretical foundation studied is the one of Massad and Guerrero, which brings together two generations of designers. A third generation of designers is called “regeneration,” because of their development of a bio-anthropological-cultural context in a digital post-revolution. This third re-generation has its starting point in Morin’s definition of complex epistemology. Morin’s contribution allows the understanding of complex epistemology in architectural design with digital technology.
"Architecture without "a form of use"." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The objective of this paper is to present the methodology used in the Computer graphics applied to architecture class, its potentialities and limitations, and preliminary conclusions. The premises of the course were: to discuss the relation between the architect and the users of architecture, considering that the spaces of the architecture must be projected without “a form of use”, and to teacher the students in the use of software being aimed at the elaboration of spaces in flexible form.
"Art Programmata: Between the Accident and Programming." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The aim of this paper is the discussion of aspects like accident and programming in the creative process in Media Art As a transdisciplinary and collaborative activity, it could be seen as a possibility for knowledge construction and sharing spaces. It also shows how media art practice can be used as a reference for the creative process in the architectural field. Building knowledge spaces through creative processes is a challenge based on the latest reconfiguration of the relations among artists, artworks and observers, which were enhanced after digital technology. Designing knowledge space as collaborative process, we assume that our examination contribute to any field by stimulating the transitions from analog to digital culture.
"Assembly of multimedia resources to support the implementation of shared environment for collaborative work and teaching of physical computing in architecture." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This article is based on a research project that brings together CSCW (Computer Supported Collaborative Work) and Physical Computing. Here, it will be registered some of the experience from three undergraduate students and one graduate student in a work process between two labs: the LAGEAR of UFMG (Laboratório Gráfico para Experimentação Arquitetônica), Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, and the LCG of UFU (Laboratório de Computação Gráfica), Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. The article describes the developing of an Assembly of multimedia resources to support the implementation of shared environment for collaborative work and teaching of physical computing in architecture.
"Baralt Square s urban record: proposal for its rescue." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This lecture states the importance of urban memory within the construction of social identity and the recovery of urban spaces of Maracaibo’s historic center. The subject to be studied is Baralt Square among 19th and 21st centuries, users, activities and its buildings. Nowadays, it is an urban space invaded by informal commerce, citizens know very little of it. The little information is spread and it is getting lost. Different approaches toward a methodological-theoretical approximation for the Urban Memory construction of space are used in this research. The use of digital tools can evoke individual or collective memory.
"Between the Photo and the Three-Dimensional Virtual Model: Breakdown of Furniture for the Recognition of Styles and Trends." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The current work reports a methodology of analysis applied to the furniture collection of a museum which gathers items manufactured in the nineteenth century. The eclectic feature given to this collection has demanded the construction of a reasoning that points towards the formal frameworks, coming from different styles that were established through history. To answer this requirement, techniques of formal decomposition are used from the resources of photography and tridimensional modeling, thus promoting the comprehension of the geometric shape from the identification of element generation and composition rules. The speeches constructed in such analytical processes rely on conceptual maps structures as a proposal for systematizing the information about the furniture.
"BiCi_N, a CT-scan of Barcelona." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. BiCi_N is a "living" map of Barcelona that visualizes the intricate relationship between the human body and the city. Using GPS (Global Positioning System) and A/V (Audio/Video) devices on Bicing bikes the city is understood from above and from below as a dynamic quantitative and qualitative ever-changing entity defined through the activities of numerous inhabitants. From these a collective story is assembled as users go about their lives. The bicycle as an extension of the human body into the city becomes a full-scale mapping instrument, which captures both the sensual/experiential and the scientific/abstract notation of the human body into the city body and viceversa.
"Biology approximations in Architecture: Interpretative survey of contemporary experiments." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. It is appropriate to investigate the potential analogies between architecture and biology enabled by the use of digital processes, thereby testing the effectiveness of the application of biological principles to the lifecycle of buildings. The aim of this paper is to understand the way architects integrate and develop different biological approaches to architecture, by mapping the present situation and identifying the trends for future developments. Three major approaches were identified: biomimetics, bionics and biotechnology. The use of biological knowledge and technology in architecture, could pave the way for solutions to current problems, such as energy shortage, climate change, and lifestyle diversity.
"Building Information Modeling and Interoperability." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Interoperability is the ability of two or more systems to exchange information. It is one of the pillars of BIM because the information contained in a BIM model needs to be exchanged to be useful. IFC is cited as the best option for achieving interoperability in Construction but, although several applications have been certified to be IFC-compliant, flawed exchanges are too common yet. Behind IFC, some other less known standards play an important role to make BIM interoperability a reality. Among them are IDM, MVD and IFD. This paper will briefly show how these standards take part in data exchange and discuss the reasons why AEC interoperability is still such an elusive goal.
"Building Information Modeling as an instrument for designing airports." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Building Information Modeling may have obvious implications in the process of architectural design and construction at the present stage of technological development. However, BIM has rarely been really assessed and its benefits are often described in generic terms. In this paper we describe an experiment in which such benefits are identified from a comparison between two design processes of the same airport building, one run in a conventional way and the other in a BIM-based approach. The practical advantages of BIM to airport design were remarkable.
"Collaborating in a Virtual Architectural Environment: the Las Americas Virtual Design Studio (LAVDS) populates Second Life." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The paper describes exploratory work in the design, construction, and habitation of a virtual structure (VS) nested within an Internet-based multi-user environment and serving a geographically distributed collective of architecture students and faculty. In addition to a discourse on the design and implementation parameters that were used, the paper seeks to provide findings that make reference to the quality of teaching/learning experience of users and the effectiveness of the interaction among users while working on a common architectural design project. This experience will further contribute to the knowledge base that will be needed in the design of virtual architecture.
"Constructive Models by Digital Fabrication." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Digital manufacturing allows to elaborate constructive models to study material conditions and industrialization of building designs. This paper exposes strategies to develop models based on structural sections of 3D volumes, cutting profiles in BIM software, flexible manufacturing of building types and development of constructive systems. These procedures demonstrate combination of design and manufacturing technologies that encourages integrated building and new architectural possibilities.
"Contributions of the use of digital media for teaching and learning in the context of design." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. To redeem the importance of study of geometry for the representation of space, this article aims to show possible contributions that the use of digital media can bring to teaching and learning in the context of the courses of Design.
"Cooperative design studios in education: Lessons learnt from two experiments." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This article describes experiments of IT-supported cooperation in AEC pedagogical context. The Digital Cooperative Studio (SDC) places students in a situation of distant design cooperation. This experiment allows students to be confronted to a cross-disciplinary approach of the architectural design and leads to the analysis of their own cooperation processes. Two editions of the Digital Cooperative Studio have been carried out in 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. This article presents the lessons learnt from these two experiments.
"Design by Algorithms: a Generative design system for Modular Housing Arrangement." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This paper explores the applicability of algorithmic design in a real-world architectural context; through the creation of a generative system for modular housing arrangements (MHAS). It is a user interface in Autodesk Maya based on stochastic search to produce various alternatives for the modular housing arrangements. Through the UI, the designer can enter parameters and rules, and then the MHAS will produce 3D alternatives according to the specified frame conditions and renders a selected view. This generative system is expected to facilitate the design process, generate unexpected solutions for well specified rules, and save time consumption in the early design process.
"Design for 'Touch E-paper: the use of 'mock-ups and conceptual videos in the development of new products and services." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Design for ‘Touch E-paper’ terminals analyzes and discuses how the methodological use of ‘mock-ups’ and ‘conceptual videos’ can assist the view and the understanding of the project requirements, which are necessary to the development of new products and services concepts. It presents the head pedagogical didactic experience, in ‘Design Autoral II’ discipline, during the development of new concept products and services with the use of new technologies. It highlights how the method, in the development of the project, helps to bring up new issues about the way how the products and services relate to their ‘activity inducer’ and their ‘environment of use’.
"Design Information Web 2.0: the interface result of a collective construction." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. We will address the challenges of design information in designing interfaces and functional dynamics considering a content part of the collaboration of users whose commitment to the project reaches various levels. The use of a well-structured iconography and the availability of help, shortcuts and tutorials are some of the resources already exploited, however, there is still room for reflection on the use of visuals and sounds aimed at facilitating the navigability on such projects. Here are some important details that must be considered by examining models of existing applications.
"Design mediation in technological appropriation." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Innovation in digital manufacturing should not be impetuously assimilated, in particular in developing countries. They should not be rejected either, regarding them as unattainable. Industrial design knowledge establishes criteria to select and take advantage of the differential resources that these technologies provide to the project activity. Beyond the arguments that support and oppose digital manufacturing systems, the appropriation process progresses without definite information of the ways in which they are used by design studios and industries. Within the framework of a research project we developed a survey in order to obtain an outlook of the incorporation of these technologies in our country.
"Design of a poiesis." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This article seeks an adequate manner to stand for a generative process in architecture. The processes of typology development in a vernacular architecture is adopted. As a proper cultural object, a type is perceived as a general principle of creation, a supra-individual mechanism. In that context, there are some issues concerning the research problem: how to adequately represent a poiesis? The related theories to support this research development are distinct. However, the theoretical framework point out shape grammar as a base for generative process representation in architecture. A generative system that operates with the same generative logic is proposed.
"Design of an Heuristic Interface for FADU s Virtual Library." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Facing the challenge of considering that, in XXI century cyberspace will be a place for knowledge (Lévy, 2004), this research group assumes the project Design and Develop of a Virtual Library for FADU as a contribution for cyberspace’s consolidation, starting from the design of an innovative interface that contains and spreads out the existent information through a web site. It’s also an objective the gathering and digitalization of the academic production of FADU’s educational community, as a valuable repository for the generation of new knowledge.
"Digital Anarchitecture." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This article reviews the work and the artistic and architectural context of the artist Gordon Matta-Clark. It checks the context as well as the urban and social conditions of his interventions, to place these works in contemporary culture. In particular this paper analyzes “Splitting”, Matta-Clark´s work that synthesizes his critical attitude to the Modern condition; using computational techniques of geometric modeling, visualization, graphics, digital manufacturing and structural analysis to explore and determine the formal rules and materials used by the artist to develop actions with significant spatial and social connotations.
"Digital anastilosi of vernacular architecture in wooden huts of rubber tappers in the Acre river - Western Brazilian Amazon - 1870 to 1910." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Discusses the difficulties in (re)compose in digital form (digital anastilosi) the vernacular architecture of the wooden huts of the Amazon rubber Acreana through imagistic and literary documents in the period from 1870 to 1910. The trading of rubber are the cores of settlement have been established to collect the latex from Hevea brasiliensis (Muell.Arg., 1865), for industrial purposes, along the Amazonian rivers in the mid-nineteenth century. Currently there are fragments in the ruins scattered in rural areas or urban entwined in the meshes of cities along the river Acre.
"Digital Craft Meets the Ancient Art of Ceramics: Would the Bauhaus Approve? ." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The Bauhaus was founded upon the controversial premise that emergent mechanical processes offered new and creative ways to explore materials. Today, we encounter equally tendentious scenarios where the designer often appears one step further removed—automated CNC machines are driven by computational machines. Like the early activities of the Bauhaus some view digital pursuits with suspicion; however, digital design/fabrication is the “Nächster Bauhaus Bewegun” offering opportunities for design innovation equal in significance to that of the Bauhaus. This paper partially examines the theoretical implications of digital design/fabrication, then presents a collaboration between an architect and artist re-examining the architectural cladding possibilities using digital tools to shape one of mankind’s most venerable materials—ceramics.
"Digital Design through Production Pedagogy: Cases Involving Student/Industry Collaboration." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Innovation through digital design in contemporary practice has led to completely new ways of designing and making architecture. To prepare for these innovative opportunities, students are turning to alternative skill sets than those traditionally gained in an architectural curriculum. This paper argues that we must reconstruct our architectural curricula in order to better prepare students for a shifting professional landscape. While current material-based production realities of translating digital design into built form have much in common with modernist traditions, exercises, sequences, and collaborative opportunities in schools should pass through a relevant lens examining the true potential of working with the information age.
"Digital Fabrication for Brazil s Architecture and construction, the use of Contouring method." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This paper presents a digital manufacturing strategy for architecture and construction, which allows the production of high complexity objects. This piece demonstrates the use of CAD / CAM technologies in the manufacturing process trough Contouring method, which translate the general geometry of the building in two-dimensional components and is applied by architects like Bernard Franken. The paper show partial results from the undergraduate dissertation, Virtual Ways, by the author, through its application to a model. As a result, the article analyzes the differences between the use of digital and traditional manufacturing technology, emphasizing its use in Brazil
"Digital Fabrication of Surfaces: parametric applications in ornament creation in contemporary architecture." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Digital fabrication (DF) is suitable to produce regular and intricate components with reduction of time and higher precision. The authors adopted parametric modeling (PM) and the laser cutter to investigate new standards of ornaments to be used in the contemporary architecture. In this way, some Paracloud resources are analyzed with the purpose of generating new geometric patterns. This paper contributes to discussion about PM and DF in the production of architectural components.
"Digital materialization for architecture: definitions and techniques." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The introduction of digital technologies for making models, prototypes, and buildings or building parts in the architectural research, teaching, and practice is a reality today. However, the process is sometimes jeopardized by the lack of clarity regarding the use of certain terms still found in the literature. The goal of this paper is to contribute for overcoming this flaw by providing such a clarification and a possible categorization of the available technologies. The term digital materialization is proposed as a general term to designate all the production technologies available for making physical artifacts.
"Digital photography and multi-perspective image in the study of historical sities." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The creation of panoramic images for depicting urban landscape is a technique that has its origins in Antiquity. These images, which are known to represent large urban areas from multiple views, can be considered true works of art. Recently there has been a growing interest by some researchers, especially in the area of computer graphics, in the production of multi-perspective images for representing historic sites. However, the focus of these studies has been especially the computational aspects of this process, and there are few studies that address the impact and possibilities of these methodologies in historic preservation and urban planning. Realizing this shortcoming and considering the demand for a perspective more connected to cultural heritage, our proposal is to associate the excellent visual results of the multi-perspective images to the rich possibilities of computer simulation that can provide digital photography. The fact is that in recent years we have experienced technological innovations in the field of computer simulation that far exceeded our expectations. While most surveys of buildings are still based on the use of tape measure, pencil, paper and camera, the computer has become increasingly the main interface between the user and the information and is now the preferred instrument for the production and viewing of images, including the creation of virtual environments. Thus, this work seeks to explore the great potential which seems to exist in the combination of digital photography and the technique of multi-perspective image representation, which may provide new approaches and perspectives for the field of historic preservation. For that, we present a rapid and low cost methodology, developed in recent years, which generates orthophotos and metric multi-perspective images, useful for the analysis of built heritage and historic sites. In addition to that, we will also discuss further possible byproducts of this methodology, among which we could highlight the creation of three-dimensional models, and the analysis of building pathologies in combination with thermal photography. As a case study, we will present a representation of the Rua dos Caetés, a listed historic district in Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil.
"Displays interativos no atelier de projeto: um experimento pedagógico." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This research started with of a literature review about the importance of drawings as a design and a thinking tool, and the changes introduced by digital media in the production of drawings and in the design process. The study led to a discussion about how digital media interferes in the architectural practice, and how digital tools have reduced the use of hand drawings. A pedagogical experiment was developed with senior architecture students in a studio course during one semester. The experiment was preceded by a pilot study, in which the equipment was tested. The equipment used in the experiment was a frontal projection interactive white board. We expect that the results of the experiment will help establishing the systematic use of interactive displays in the studios in our school and elsewhere.
"Documentation and Communication Digital Architectural Heritage Classic: Aerospace Technical Center - CTA." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This paper intends to contribute for the analysis of the digital representation applied for documentation, communication and diffusion of architecture as cultural heritage, more specifically the production and communication of informations about buildings and sites of modern movement, arguing the possibilities and limits of this instrumental for the best understanding, recognition, evaluation and diffusion of the architecture on a historiographical perspective. As studies of cases, were selected buildings of an important technical center of aeronautic of Brazil, the CTA (Centro Técnico de Aeronáutica) in São José dos Campos, State of São Paulo.
"Energy performance simulation of Brasília s office buildings." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This paper presents a parametric analysis where WWR and color glass was varied to determine their influence in the thermal performance of an office building’s room. Design Builder tool was used to calculate the thermal load and the internal gains. The WWR variation in different orientations resulted in a significant increase of the thermal load. The reflective glass allowed a better thermal performance of the room. With the use of computer simulation was possible to analyse many constructive and design characteristics of the facade and its influence on the results, when considered together.
"EOS, or the creation process from a systemic point of view." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This paper proposes a reflection on the design process of hybrid and interactive objects considering the knowledge from different areas, aiming at the creation of objects in the building scale. Such process will be analyzed in the EOS, a project developed by NOMADS.USP - center for interactive-living studies - from the University Of São Paulo, Brazil. The project considers theoretical exploration and practices on the involved parts in the creation process of hybrid object.
"Frank Lloyd Wright s Treatment of Light in Unity Temple: Digital Model and Simulations." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The paper demonstrates the utility of digital models and simulations in the study of light in sacred architecture. Specifically, it applied this method and analyses on Frank Lloyd Wright’s treatment of light in Unity Temple, Oak Park, Illinois (1905). The findings of the light simulations augmented the observation and qualitative analyses of Wright’s lighting design and show that his treatment of light fulfilled the accentuated, architectural, and celebration lighting recommendations of IES, while the task lighting of reading was partially fulfilled. Still, Wright’s original design provided the dramatic effect of light and shadows and enhanced the spiritual experience in the Temple.
"From analog to digital?" In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. After admitting that the immersion of Architecture in digital environment happened in the last decade of the XX Century, this paper argues about the (im)possible links established between analogical and digital worlds. Discarding the possibility of a “transition” between them, the paper points the existence of a “jump” that, more than to tie, unlinks them leaving an emptiness that has to be analyzed. Coexisting in this emptiness we find hybrid structures of pragmatic approach, ruptures of paradigms and sprouting of new forms to project and to make architecture. Clarify this panorama is a basic task we need to do before facing the future, not only in a professional way, but also in the field of architectural education, because we have to know which architecture we desire to transmit.
"From Ancient to Digital: the Challenges of a Major Transition Towards the Virtual Reconstruction of the Andean Past (With Special Reference to Inca Architecture.)." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The definition of an underlying shape grammar behind Inca architecture can assist in the virtual archaeological reconstruction of destroyed sites; that is, allowing us to step from the ancient to the digital realm. The Inca architectural style tends to be consistent throughout the Andes and was in effect, a statement of power. Geometricity, interlocking patterns, orthogonal layouts, colour and texture reversal, modular compression, derivations, rotation, mirroring, repetition, symmetry, proportion, ratios, recombination and Andean “entasis” are qualities frequently encountered in Andean art and architecture. They are “CAD-friendly” and can be integrated into predictive digital virtual reconstruction techniques representing partially damaged and substantially destroyed ancient Andean monuments (and fine arts).
"From modern to digital to non modern: the relevance of second order cybernetics for a Brazilian architecture." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Brazilian society is marked by informality, by social plasticity and a predisposition towards game and play. These characteristics are opposed to the perspectival paradigm’s principles, which are the base of modern architecture. Therefore, a modernist practice in Brazil meets an extra level of difficulty because it has to cope with these rather playful aspects. If we consider the second-order cybernetics and its conversation theory, the plasticity that characterizes Brazilian culture may stop being an obstacle and, if coupled with digital technologies, may become the very basis for a truly modern Brazilian architectural practice.
"From Modern to Digital: transition between "vanguards"?" In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This paper reflects, by means of the ideas of the philosopher Jacques Rancière, some possible transitions between the modern and the digital paradigms. It retrieves the notion of vanguard as an element for mediation, and with its re-signification by the term “digital”, intends to discuss about some correlations between the terms technics, aesthetics and politics that inhabit the digital horizon.
"From perspectiva artificialis to cyberspace: Game-engine and the interactive visualization of the natural light in the interior of the building." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. In order to support the conceptual design, the architect used throughout the years, mockups - scaled physical models - or perspective drawings that intended to predict architectural ambience before its effective construction. This paper studies the real time interactive visualization, focused on one of most important aspects inside building space: the natural light. Although the majority of physically-based algorithms currently existing was designed for the synthesis of static images which may not take into account how to rebuild the scene - in real time - when the user is doing experiments to change certain properties of design.
"From texture to volume: an investigation in quasi-crystalline systems ." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The relation between texture, pattern and massing is a fundamental question in architecture. Classical architecture, as Leon Battista Alberti states in “De re aedificatoria” (Book VI, Chapter 2), is developed through massing and structure first; texture is added afterwards to give the bold massing and structure beauty. Only the ornamentation adds pulcritudo to the raw structure and massing. Rather than starting with a volume and applying texture afterwards, the Digital Girih project started with textural operations that informed the overall volume later. The stereometric, top-down methodology is questioned through the bottom-up methodology of the Girih project. Girih lines of traditional Islamic patterns were used as a starting point. The aspect of 3-dimensionality was developed analogue as well as digital, using the deformability of different materials at various scales and digital construction techniques as parameters. The flexibility within the Girih rules allowed the system to adapt to different tasks and situations and to react to different conditions between 2- and 3- dimensionality. The project in that way explored a bottom-up process of form generation. This paper will describe the process of the project and explain the necessity of digital tools, such as Grasshopper and Rhino, and fabrication tools, such as laser cutter and CNC fabrication technology, that were essential for this process.
"Generation of Ortographics Views Using the Method in 3D CAD rotations." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This method consists in doing copys of modeling 3D solid in CAD enviroment, tri-dimensions rotations to positioning the copys like ortographics views, wen they are projects in one plan. The tri-dimensions rotations simule projection plan rotation, making students understand the process of views generate in mongean system. The result has being better in primary and second auxiliar views, witch depends of descriptive geometry study and spacial interpretation to be understand. The aplications of this method have been doing with sencond year students of engeneering course.
"Generative Craft." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Popular discourses and representations of automation in design practice have often committed to an ontology of design and creativity where both materials, media and tools are rendered passive actors in design processes. The ways in which these narratives are articulated have consequences for how the materiality of media and of construction elements is construed in both design discourses and environments. Providing a brief critical history of the mutual construction of design technologies and notions of creativity and design is a concern of this paper, which concludes with a critical re-writing of disembodied conceptions of automation in design.
"Geometry and Architecture. of the rigorousness modulating to informalism." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The geometry (science of the form and the space) and the architecture they possess an interesting road along the history of the western thought. The geometry contributes its capacity to interpret the structuring of the world and of the reason; while the architecture contributes with its capacity to transform the semantic and physical aspects of our habitat. The different advances in the geometric representation have defined the characteristics of the architectural spaces that go: since the rigorousness modulating of the Classicism and the birth of the Euclidean geometry, to the contemporary informalism; the incorporation of the digital mathematical calculation, and its strong review of the traditional cartesian space.
"Graphic Design and Urban Planning in a Software Development of Signs and Street Names." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This article presents, starting from data collection applied to graphical design, the development of GERAPLACA software which helps designers to create signaling plates and street plates of standardized form with respect to the choice of font, layout, production comments, finishing and installation, in order to avoid the subjectivism that favors the inefficiency of furniture. This software allows the integration of urban planning and graphic design, has low production costs , unifies the languages among professionals from diverse backgrounds who work with urban furniture. The methology for the creation of plates and the results obtained with the software are presented below.
"Heritage recognition of intermediate city - Using space data base, and virtual urban models." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This project advances in the research on the urban architectonic cultural heritage of one Buenos Aires intermediate city in order to obtain some lines of proposals on policies of action applied to the chosen city. It is taken as training center of MERCEDE’S city, located in the nor west of Buenos Aires province –Argentina. Within the project digital technological tools of three-dimensional modelling are used and their interphases of space bases with different representational levels of complexity 2d-3d-4d-5d, applied to the recognition and research of the cultural and urban architectonic heritage These would allow to qualify to facilitate other ways to research rescue and re-construct the city, for one better understanding of their present and past.
"ICT as generators of a new paradigm in architecture - humanism and scale." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Despite the global and universal characteristics of nowadays’ society, the new information and communication technologies, seem, in paradox, to direct Architecture to growing individualism, shown in the nervous search for each one’s form. This path seems to end up in cities filled up with iconic buildings with no respect neither for the consolidated built environment, nor for the human being. Known as an innovation tools, with huge power and able to make all the visionary and utopian projects become real seem to further Architecture away from its humanist basis. The architect, selfish and egocentric, dives deep into his own craziness, in an era where the new technologies allow everything. If boundaries are not established, a new architectural paradigm is anticipated, where all the individualisms live but that the individual cannot inhabit, and where the innovation seems to enter in conflict with built heritage.
"Immersed visualization of the historical patrimony. a time and space model for the Mackenzie-Itambé campus." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The cluster of centenary buildings which form part of Mackenzie Presbyterian University Campus in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, stands as a perfect example of urban site where these conditions are found. This group of buildings is protected by CONDEPHAAT (Sao Paulo’s Council for the Protection of Historical, Artistic, Archaeological and Touristic Heritage) in 1993. In the group, one building stands as a landmark, Mackenzie Building. Its construction begun in 1894 and it was erected for the establishment of Brazil’s first Engineering School, formerly named Mackenzie Engineering School.This study aims the presentation of the work in progress preparation of a Digital Quadridimensional Model linked to a database, intended to generate a historical and documental framework for the “Preservation Degree 1” buildings at the university campus
"Information Visualization in the news television: an approach under the design sight." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This article proposes a classification, under the Visualization Information point of view, of infographics broadcasted in the brazilian news television. To achieve this purpose these so called motion graphics were analised under the basis formed by three main authors: Tufte (1997), Bertin (1977) and Spence (2007), whose theories are in this article compared to the digital means of the motion graphics. With these theoretical foundation and the analisys of two hundred motion graphics broadcasted in the brazilian news television, we achieved a classification which covers every type of these motion graphics, hoping it becomes a basis for the study of these projects.
"Integrating Information Visualization methods in an agent-based approach to urban simulation." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This paper defines paths into the integration of urban simulation and new methods of Information Visualization (IV) first observing the current state of IV methods in general, and visualization in urban modelling and simulation in particular. Secondly, it proposes a set of issues where progress in forms of integrating IV methods into urban simulation techniques can be made – namely, through the concept of ontologies (rules of relations between categories of objects and information) – in stages like problem definition and analysis, information processing and the generation of user-friendly graphic outputs for simulated scenarios and analyses.
"Interaction Protocol for Questions and Answers through Screen Capture, in Virtual Learning Environments." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Virtual Environments for Learning typically include a FAQ (frequently asked questions) repository, built up from interactions between students and teachers. Based on Media Richness Theory, there is evidence that dynamic audiovisual demonstrations show advantages over text and still-image based tutorials. A protocol with a structured modus operandi seems suitable for those interactions. This paper accounts for a project startup, which will compare two communication procedures for building a low cost FAQ repository with screen-capture software CamStudio and YouTube. Six sample courses will compare highly structured protocol and a low one. We expect evidence in favor of a more structured protocol.
"Interfacing architectures: websites modeling for architectural documentation of historical sites." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The architectural documentation of historical sites using digital technologies produces a huge database which may be difficult to access by the local community because of academic language or technical issues. Local community involvement on Cultural Heritage questions has been strongly discussed and represents an important challenge for historical sites preservation. This work proposes to create a website for divulgation of architectural documenting data from Rio de Contas to the local community and specialized users. Using appropriated technologies, relevant metaphors and friendly interfaces it will be possible to encourage the public interest on cultural heritage preservation.
"Intuition and design method." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The creative processes by which designers go through are frequently associated with the notion of intuition. This paper is part of an initial discussion that relies on some concepts brought by Bergson to discuss theoretically about specific tools or design instruments. Three of these instruments that use the image as a mean of representation and elaboration of ideas are discussed: the mood board, the blue sky research and the storyboard.
"Inventory of Modern Architecture: Virtual reconstruction of public buildings at Santo André, Sào Bernardo do Campo e Sào Caetano do Sul (1960 - 1973)." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The object of this research, is identify and quantify the Public Architecture of some cities near form the city of São Paulo (Santo André, São Bernardo do Campo e São Caetano do Sul), during the years of 1960 till 1973. This research looks to realize a documental reference for new researchs, and to help in process of preservation, and the most important, give a new value to the buildings studied in this work. In the case and period studied, the documentatin is very important, because shows, in general lines, a production that is part of what is called “Arquitetura Brutalista Paulista”.
"Is the construction industry ready for digital fabrication and mass customization? a study on a Brazilian case." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that digital fabrication has had little impact in the Brazilian architecture so far, as compared to other countries, not because of an alleged unavailability of CNC technology in this country’s construction industry, but for other reasons that must be investigated. We show in this paper the results of a preliminary survey carried out in the region of Brasilia that reveals a significant presence of CNC technology in the local construction industry which points to new opportunities for innovation in the architectural field.
"Kirimure: an application of geometric modeling on the synthesis of Architectural Form." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Kirimurê is as Brazilian Indian Tupinambás called the Baia de Todos os Santos. Around the bay developed a region with significant agricultural production, at a time Salvador was the main export port in the Southern Hemisphere. This economic strength and its export potential were greatly due to the saveiro, a small wooden vessel with sail propulsion, which dominated these waters for a long time. Testimony of the Bahia’s history, they had great influence in the culture of Bahia. Currently, these vessels are disappearing and with them the traditional techniques of shipbuilding, intangible heritage, held in memory of the master builders. This paper presents an experience in developing the architectural shape of a complex building using geometric modeling, to house this cultural heritage.
"Lighting Studies and Post-Occupancy Evaluation with HDR Images and Compact Digital Cameras." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Nowadays HDR images are becoming a useful tool in lighting studies and post-occupancy evaluation. However, this technique requires cameras with manual control, and these features are not common on contemporary snapshot cameras, usually labeled as “amateurs”. However, all cameras have some kind of control that allows taking pictures with different exposures. This paper examines the possibility of making HDR images from digital compact cameras, as a way to contribute with a more accessible method for lighting studies. Tests were done in actual spaces and luminances were also measured by luminance meter. The comparison between both measures showed fairly correlative values.
"Making customized tree-like structures: Integrating algorithmic design with digital fabrication." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The ultimate goal of this paper is to contribute for the discussion on the role of digital technologies in architecture, focusing on the convergence of generative design systems with digital fabrication processes for expanding design capabilities. It presents a generative design system of customized tree-like structures for supporting irregular roof surfaces, as an alternative to conventional architectural design processes. It discusses the introduction of an algorithmic and parametric approach to design problems as a methodology for promoting design experimentation and enabling the fabrication of complex design configurations.
"Memory and Meeting Places for heritage settlements in the southern Brazil." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This paper exposes the development of heritage settlements in southern Brazil and virtual systems to diffuse cultural features and touristic services. These settlements are related to European immigration and diverse economic and cultural activities spread on mountain regions. Including religious missions, vineyards, agriculture, bakery, etc. They requires information systems to proper diffusion and exploitation. It proposes an virtual system based on territorial data, linked to cultural and touristic information, as well 3D models of architectural landmarks and social networks. That suggest an integrated approach the cultural and economic development of heritage settlements.
"Meso-scale Digital Spaces (EDEI)." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The base of informal urban settlements (slums) is housing, basic urban cell with both habitation and productive functions - tertiary, social and environmental. Intermediate spaces between housing and the city (the ground floor and the free space between the house and the street) become mediating mechanism between the individual and collective life, hence, urban tissue catalysts. New technologies get inserted in this intermediate scale through locutorios (premise offering public telephones and Internet connection), key spaces in social life.This scale between the house and the city allows proximity, accessibility, appropriation and identity, and shows rhe capacity of intermediate scale to absorve urban transformations.
"Meta process of Design - an insight in the dynamic model." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This paper proposes the study of 'phenomenon' described by the design actions in order to recognize the complex structure of decision-making processes to be faced by a designer. It is assumed that this process is composed of either the ‘designer act’ (or 'creative act'), and of the complex structure of information integration and the evaluation of decisions and alternatives. In this sense, design is not understood as a creative process that comes out of nowhere, but as 'the continuous process of evolutionary adaptation between the interpretative model of reality, and the intervention on that reality’.
"Methodological procedures for computer simulation of historical surroundings." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This study aims to present a classification of methodological procedures for using computer programmes to simulate architectural historical heritage. Produced for a Master’s Degree dissertation in Architecture, the methodology was developed based on several analyses of applications, possibilities and restrictions, with the assistance of photogrammetric reconstruction and several computer-graphics programmes. The files generated enable production of animations recording the changes experienced by buildings at various historical periods. These procedures were applied to the simulation of several buildings around the Praça Dante Alighieri in the centre of Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, demonstrating their appropriateness and effectiveness and also showing the potential of computer-simulation resources for the historical environment, both educationally and in appreciation of architectural heritage.
"Micro-architecture - Domotized Equipment for Bookstore Display." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The working team is comprised of professionals and students from Engineering and Architecture degree courses. This group, participating at a certified research by Secretaría de Ciencia y Técnica de la Nación, have agreed to carry out a joint designing experience about a micro-architecture prototype to be domotized by the Chair of Automation of Mechanical Engineering.We have designed a display equipment for local bookstores. The equipment in itself is ductile and useful to build a stand. It can be easily coupled and divided into modules for shop windows and different spaces within stores. It is changeable, flexible, and its arrangement is dynamic. The design contemplates general sample functions according to the various sizes of the product, which range from small to large-scale objects.The equipment offers its own domotic features.
"Modernism, fundament of the Digital Design." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. In this paper, the results of various investigations realized in the UAA and UANL have been gathered, since the year 2000, where the practice of architectonic design has been studied with and without computer, with the purpose of preparing students and teachers about the way of learning to do architectonic design with the new digital technologies. To explain the transformations that the architectonic Design has suffered with the use of the computer, a summarized table has been realized to show the roll that Modernism plays in the transition period between traditional and digital design.
"Modernist and Digital Design: Parallel heresies?" In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The Digital and Modernist values are arguably different from each other, yet exhibit similarities that sometimes have been neglected; these can be discussed at three different levels: a. Social impact (new paradigms reacting to the norm) / b. Character (emergence from a functionalist premise; tectonic treatment) / c. Historical connections (implicit associations with the Renaissance and Baroque; internal historical stratifications)
"Modular Flow, Hard on parametrics." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The design and fabrication of an exhibition display project was taken as an opportunity to explore parametric design with a group of students in Chile. This article presents the experience of a design studio workshop exercise by addressing the introduction of parametric design principles and the development of a built academic project through a team based design and fabrication process. The strategy followed by the team was to utilize parametric models as a mean to materialize driving variables of the project into unexpected geometries to be deployed in different public spaces in Santiago. Context, time scale and available technology resulted in a non-obvious combination of advanced digital design and fabrication techniques and low-cost mass-produced materials.
"Morphological envelopes simulation: a software and the architect in the typological speculation." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. In the contemporaneous context of the Brazilian city production, the design stage called “viability study” evolves from an architectural expertise activity to a exploration’s routine of urban lots constructive potential. In this universe, the Graphics Simulation of Building Regime tool intends to supply the computational support lack verified among the city producing agents, helping to overcome the stage of rustic and manual work that characterizes the viability studies and feed the debate about the importance of the designer and his customized solutions. In order to do that, the information are mapped to a graphic representation that facilitates the user interpretation.
"Multi-modal simulation for urban mobility analysis: an approach based on a model of behaviour and infrastructure-related anomalies." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This paper presents a distributed simulation system for urban scenarios where infrastructure anomalies are common, such as those present in Latin-American cities. A microscopic-based model has been developed in order to represent the behavioural characteristics of the different mobility actors in a discrete lattice. The visualization component allows an interactive and immersive experience of the simulation results, providing a detailed point of view (focus) in the global environment (context). It is possible to empower the users’ interaction through devices for control and navigation of the data visualization.
"Mutation of Architecture, from Analogical to Digital." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The combined experience of GIDCAD (Group of Research and Teaching in Applied Computer Design), and LabPra (Laboratory of Architectural Project), pretends to analyze the newest points of view concerning architecture and to mull around the evolution from the traditional to the digital project, incorporating theory to help decode the mutation of Architecture. The goal is to evaluate the changes caused by architecture’s design and communication from the incorporation of digital technologies, and to check its progress and behavior in the Virtual Community to the service of the discipline’s teaching.
"Network Action Research Red I(a) and Web 2.0 - a case study and intervention on interface design." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. We are presenting a joint study between Buenos Aires and Mar del Plata University of website Red I (a). The study refers to interfaces design, usability conditions and the link with Web 2.0. The aim of the network is to strengthen and support, in the Argentine and Latin American contexts, twinning and development of shared exploratory experiences, with different types of institutions involved in design development and self management. The study analyzes and evaluates the interface redesign criteria and complements it with a thoughtful review on the site development.
"New Interfaces, new scenarios. Vroom n.0:Vroom n.0: the emerging potential of collaborative 3D web platforms." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009.

What sort of interfaces will allow, in the future, to manage the evolution of information and knowledge generation? What new scenarios would emerge in contemporary architecture when the access to a multidimensional architectural database is open and it is written and visited by anyone, anywhere in earth? Internet evolution is fast and unpredictable, propelling deep changes at different levels of our society. Spinoffs, unexpected outcomes are result of those changes, unfolding uncertain, unstable scenarios. This paper discusses the question of what could be the way to organize the process of registering, documenting and online publishing, native digital, three-dimensional content of Architecture, assuming the critical issue of information integration.

"O Uso de Modelagem Generativa para Representaçào de Modulações de Alvenarias em Ferramentas BIM." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. One approach to perform the design for production of masonry with BIM tools is to explicitly represent the wall elements. However, this strategy decreases the application performance because of model complexity. Generative Modeling is a modeling paradigm aimed at defining rules and applying them for generating models. The masonry block placement is associated with a set of rules, making the use of generative modeling a viable solution to implicitly represent the blocks. This paper presents some preliminary results of our research on investigating if Generative Modeling can help in the representation of masonry modulation and for the proposal of a shape grammar for representing its basic elements.
"Ortophoto creation for damage map production ." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The present work integrates the ongoing Master Degree Research Project entitled "Damage Map Representation and Pathology Database (Cronidas) Creation". This paper aims to discuss the search for alternatives in the development of a map of damages to be applied on historical buildings in order to assist preservation and restoration projects. Orthophotos of the facades and of the internal walls of buildings will be produced; once generated, these images are vectorized and transformed in drawings which represent the pathologies, in other words, the damage map. The research the following softwares: PhotoModeler®Pro5 for the generation of the orthophotos, Photoshop®CS3 for image treatment, and AutoCAD®2008 for tracing the relevant areas.
"Parametric Modeling in Architecture:strategies to materializing complex shapes." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This research investigates the relation between parametric modeling (PM) and digital fabrication (DF) of complex shapes in architecture. The complexity involving the recent designs in architecture has demanded new procedures, as much during the conception as to make possible its construction. Thus, the PM and the DF have allowed architects and engineers conceiving, detailing and constructing complex structures with more precision and faster. In this paper, the author contributes for a discussion in this field, still incipient in Brazil, particularly in the process of PM teach-learning.
"Patterns and Conventions in the Use of Rhinoscripting." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Two exhibits made evident that complex shapes generated through scripts are the attention focus of both educators and professionals. These projects did not start with traditional representation conventions (front view, plan and cross section) but with biological, geometrical or mathematical references, where patterns are recurrent. Using scripts it is possible to write and represent possibilities; blogs allow the publication of the results. In this context, a blog was created (2008) to publish methods and subjects extracted from workshops and manuals featuring rhinoscripting. During a year more than 57000 users accessed; the results of this documentation are hereby presented.
"Physical and virtual models as tool in teaching architecture design: an experience report." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This paper reports the visit at Architectural Association, School of Architecture in London. That experience has enabled better understanding of technological tools, parametric design, virtual and physical prototyping application in the design process and how these models allow changes in the teaching dynamics method. This is an observation work which aims to identify changes in teaching design methods. This research helps to create an international scenario of modeling aided design process.
"PIX: an analysis about interactive facades." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The article seeks to approach the stages and procedures of PIX.Nomads design process and its production, carried out by the research group Nomads.usp, at the University of São Paulo. The project will emphasize how these steps are integrated and contain different features, because it is an interactive object. Will also expected reflect on how the working practices occur, that meets professionals from different areas of knowledge for the construction of an object on the basis of these concepts that comprise the interactive architecture.
"Popular dwelling chromaticism - an analogy between colors and musical notes." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The colour is a protagonist in the perception phenomenon. This article shows a method to paint popular houses, based on an analogy between colours and musical notes. The colour palette is obtained by mixing chalk to a popular pigment (pó xadrez) and then establishing equivalence between these colours and a musical scale. The chromaticism is performed according to various generative criteria, one of which adopts the plant as a piano roll, proposing each unit to be painted in the colour of its corresponding note, showing that creative solutions can be achieved including colour modular coordination principles in the design process.
"Preservation and Management of Cultural Heritage: the contribuition Heritage Information System." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The present article aims to discuss the application of the digital technologies in the preservation and management of cultural heritage development. The GIS is used by the international agencies heritage like UNESCO. The GIS applications that are largely applied in built cultural heritage are internationally known as Heritage Information System – HIS. In HIS, the space configuration of the historical sites is represented by a map or for a DTM, with the quantitative and qualitative attributes, 3D geometric models and hypermedia products. Their visualization are enriched by techniques of virtual reality and published in the web.
"Program and Design in the Digital Age." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The essay is based on thesis of doctorate whose argument is delineated in the embroidery frame of the notion of ‘program’. The term ‘program’, includes in its meaning computational program and program of architecture. It is conspired by the different instances of design nature where “program” and design interact. It equates the digital phenomenon from the different natures that can assume the concept of “program” as software and as architecture program. It analyzes the interaction designer, ‘program”, image and information in the digital design. Considers the experimentation as form to exceed the limitations imposed for the rules programmed in the ‘programs’.
"Rapid SmartCode Modeling - Procedural Modeling for Urban Environments ." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This paper presents an image-driven method to rapidly generate 3D digital urban models for presentation in a real-time Virtual Reality (VR) environment. Several computational tools and methods are developed in order to give the end user the ability to transform a single 2D image into a realistically textured and rendered a 3D urban model. Using this method, city models based on SmartCode, a template for planning and urban design, are generated and presented in a VR visualization tool. The methods to generate VR city models including inputs, process, output, and pipeline are explained. One generated 3D city model is demonstrated in the results section.
"Representation, Project and Construction. News paradigms from computer design." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Analyzing different moments that follow all steps related with tasks where the word “project” appears, we can highlight the importance of geometry to transmit an idea and also to allow that something could be done, fabricate or build. “To project” acquire not just the idea to premeditate the future, but also a chain that link a normally lineal path that start with the “idea” and finish with a “product”. The news methods that came from digital technologies applied in architecture and design blur this concept, using the same CAD data to represent and to build.
"Representations of place and territory in virtual heritage applications." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The reassessment of the concept of space under the light of related notions of territory and place, that is, space to which meaning has been added by individuals or institutions, shows that user engagement in virtual heritage applications could be improved by the representation of these symbolic aspects of space.
"Rethinking Eiermann's Horten Tile - a new structuralism?" In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The structural idea of a universal structure that is valuable for different situations gets new power through new design and manufacturing methods. Genetic evolutionary algorithms can find pheno-typical solutions based on capable geno-typical structures. These design systems need to transform abstract architectural requirements into geometric parameters. In a studio students were asked to apply this structural idea to the redesign of the Eiermann’s Horten façade.
"Scanning Three-dimensional Objects: a Case Study." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The present research is an exploratory study about medium-range 3D-scanning technologies for architectural applications. Its purpose was to gather information that will subside the future acquisition of a 3D-scanning equipment for the Laboratory for Automation and Prototyping for Architecture and Construction, LAPAC, at the University of Campinas (UNICAMP). In order to test some of these technologies, some experiments were carried out. Museum sculptures were digitized and the results were 3D-printed. Preliminary results show that accurate technologies are still very expensive, but there are some alternative, more accessible technologies, based on photogrammetry, which can lead to fairly good results.
"Shape Grammar and City of Music of Rio de Janeiro." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This paper shows how the use of shape grammars can be used to analyze of the new shapes of architecture by the case study of the project of the City of Music of Rio de Janeiro from Christian Portzamparc.
"Splendours Virtual, Real Alternatives." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Methods for parametric design and virtual modeling have reached a remarkable degree of development, but their separation from real construction is increasing. Fuller's Dymaxion Bathroom failed, around 1930, due to union opposition. The restaurant Georges (Paris, 2000) designed by MacFarlante and Jakob had to be built, like other recent projects, by a boat manufacturing company. We are at an unprecedented crossroads. It is proposed that part of the current research design would be redirected, although it seems unfeasible, to the reorganization of the construction industry.
"Storyboarding and Animatics in Architectural Education." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This paper discusses the issues involved with the introduction of the storyboard and the animatic in a design studio exercise. Storyboards - sketches used in film planning -, and the animatic - basically a moving storyboard - allow the student to understand space within in the context of a narrative. The purpose of the exercise was to enable the expression of subjectively experienced space in an early stage of urban context analysis. Differently than the traditional approach to animation which results a camera traveling through a path, the exercise approached animation from the perspective of the stories about the place.
"Structural Steel Design and Construction using an Integrated System based on CAD and Internet." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The steel construction industry should also benefit from collaborative work advantages developed according to concurrent engineering concepts i.e. integrated system for design and planning. This paper presents an integrated system centred on the use of the Internet as the communication medium, a central database, a data model, using a well-known protocol for the communication of the various involved programs, and also presents the development of a system architecture prototype for integrating its various satellite modules. The central database uses concepts developed for the CIS/2 protocol, conceived for the CIMsteel project, that incorporated ideas of segments of the steel construction industry.
"Teaching digital fabrication in the post-industrial era." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The creation process of a product is a work of immersion and concentration, and is, seldom linear. A primary concept most likely will undergo modifications during the process. In what concerns teaching, a great number of Brazilian higher education institutions act exclusively on the formation of students as specialists in the creation of primary concepts. As for the process of refining an idea, as in prototype production and observation, this phase will only be learned and understood on the job market. Nowadays, new methodologies for digital fabrication put into evidence other strategies resulting from post-industrial production.
"Teaching Generative Design: a Learning Experience." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Este trabajo describe el seminario de Diseño Generativo ofrecido en el programa de posgrado en el área de Arquitectura y Construcción en la Universidad de Campinas en el primer semestre de 2008. El curso tuvo como objetivo introducir el tema de los métodos sistemáticos de generación de alternativas de diseño, como base para el desarrollo de sistemas de CAAD. El método pedagógico del curso estuvo compuesto por presentaciones teóricas, lecturas, discusiones, y ejercicios prácticos. Los sistemas generativos más conocidos fueron categorizados en dos grandes grupos: el de combinaciones de elementos (como la enumeración sistemática de combinaciones y los algoritmos genéticos) y el de los sistemas basados en reglas (como los fractales y la gramática de formas). Además de constituirse en una oportunidad para proponer una categorización de los principales sistemas generativos, el curso también permitió que se hiciera una reflexión sobre la importancia de la introducción de los sistemas generativos y de las técnicas de programación en los cursos de pre-grado y pos-grado.
"Teaching of Projetive Geometry in Architecture and Urbanism Courses, at age of CAD/BIM." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The evolution of the graphical representation of the architecture with the development of procedures for computer-aided designs is causing a shift in the way of thinking about architecture. Traditionally, the teaching of descriptive geometry that allows architects in training cognition full three-dimensional space. Changing this tradition, today we have the construction of the projective drawing by computer, CAD or BIM. We aim to question the way to teach courses in the projective geometry of architecture and urbanism in the face of profound changes in knowledge and representation of the form established by computer graphics technology with CAD and BIM.
"Teaching project with new media." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This paper aims to develop a reflection about the methodology of design project education mediated by new medias, analyzing the intervention of a digital environment in the design projectual students. From a critical evaluation of the desires of faculty and students of the Course of Architecture and Urbanism, Federal University of Ceará, examines the possibilities of establishing new methodologies and technologies into teaching practices of the studio project. Through the reflections encouraged, this paper seeks to underscore the importance of awareness against the anachronism of the technological education of Architecture and Urbanism in most of the schools in Brazil.
"TetraScript: an Integrated System to Maximize the Natural Light in a Confined Space." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The purpose of this research is to develop a process capable of optimizing the capture of light in a circumscribed space, using a responsive system of skylights. Research is focused on the design of irregular dome-like pavilion spaces but the envisioned process might be applied to other functional, formal, and spatial typologies. A process based on scripting generates a matrix of components based on geographic situation, and sun orientation. The integration of conception and fabrication with digital tools (CAD-CAM) enabled the construction of this non standard, parametric geometry, diminishing the costs of production, allowing personalization and assuring global sustainability.
"The "active" reception - from opera aperta to work in process." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This paper discusses the contemporary context of arts movements towards the receiver, seeking its activation. It demarcates two strands of art developments in the sixties, propositions for participation and interfaces for interaction. The Oiticica´s Parangolés and the Glynn´s Performative Ecologies are discussed under this point of view.
"The "Wind Tunnel" - a Design Exercise Based in Animation Techniques." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The objective of the present research was to study the use of animation techniques as a tool for the design process. The study started with a literature review about the different possible applications of animation techniques in architectural design. Four main categories of applications were found: (1) space representation and “walk through”, (2) simulation of articulated elements and kinetic structures, (3) visualization and analysis of functional aspects of the buildings, such as circulation and fire escape, and finally (4) the generation of novel shapes. The second part of the research consisted of a design exercise in which animation techniques were used to generate a shape. For this purpose a wind simulator was used in 3DMAX. Next, Paracloud software was used to automatically generate a rib structure that allowed to produce a scale model of the shape with a laser cutter.
"The application of finite element modeling in the design of reinforced concrete shell." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This report examines the application of physical models and digital ones as tools in the design of reinforced concrete shells. The development of computational processes and consequently the process of analyzing the structure as the finite element method allows more complex forms to be applied in architectural projects. The research demonstrates the potential of this tool, through the analysis of contemporary projects such as the “Memorial da America Latina” of Oscar Niemeyer, with modeling of the structure in ANSYS.
"The artistic behavior and the technology in the methodology of project of contemporary architects study of case of an interface: Frank O. Gehry." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Frank Gehry is a notable contemporary architect. His work method, that it mixes technology and architecture involves varied instruments as the outline and the drawing, the physical model and the tool computacional and it makes possible the execution of architectural objects with specific characteristics. The artistic influences suffered in the beginning of the career, decades of 60 and 70, they were considerable in his way of to notice and to conceive the architecture. Their purposes differ of the ones of most of the architects for if they relate with an artist's concerns: the form as middle of expression.
"The city as a street system: a street description for a city ontology." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The street system is an important component of the city ontology created for a generative urban design tool and should be able to integrate the many visions or interpretations that designers or other urban design agents may have about streets. This paper describes several characteristics of the street system, with its components organized into object classes which are the shape sets of algebras used by a generation module to generate street network representations that can be assessed by a GIS platform.
"The computer graphics and urban design: Barcelona Cerdà  Plan and competition "Bairro Novo - 2004" - Sào Paulo city." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Facing the reality of the new computer technologies, we have discussed the role of the computer (and software) in the creative process of the architectural project. This study aims to identify the contribution of these technology resources in the urban design, through comparison between the winning proposal of the competition "Bairro Novo"(São Paulo city - 2004) and Barcelona Plan by Idelfonso Cerdà, 1859. Although these two urban projects, distant in time and space, have conceptual similarities, they differ in their graphical representations. This paper also aims to investigate how these new technologies influenced the creative process of the Bairro Novo urban project.
"The graphical interface for a pattern fitting software in garment industry." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This article deals with the issue of pattern fitting and it is divided into two parts. The first part presents a developed software for rectangle fitting (regular items). The second part is intended to evaluate the usability of a garment industry commercial software that performs the pattern fitting for irregular items. From the assessment carried out and based on the initial software presented here, the interface and the features of new software applied to pattern fitting for irregular items will be developed.
"The image transmutation for icono-digital environment." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The present paper has as objective to study the tools of transposition of the image - bases icono-graphs for icono-digital environment - and the potentiality of cultural collections for sensorial visitation, propose in the form of semi or total immersion exhibition. It is known that, with the evolution of digital reproduction processes, communication interfaces in the cyberspace and representation means in Virtual Reality (VR), Augment Reality (AR), presume access of closed intellectual collections. This action facilities provides to the researchers and specialists to win time on obtaining more information.
"The impact of digital architecture design in the conception and management of dwelling environments." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. When technology moves forward, architecture changes with it: it changes the architecture methodology and it changes the architectural result. This paper discusses the variables involved, pointing the major constraints to the intensive use of ICT in the architectural process. It highlights the need to rethink the user’s involvement in the conception of the built environment, increasing it, and suggests new approaches to meet this need by using ICT and VR.
"The Influence of Frank Lloyd Wright on Joào Batista Vilanova Artigas - a Formal Analysis." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This study intends to propose a new use of the shape grammar: verify the influence of a certain architect’s language over another architect’s language. Some Brazilian modern architecture critics suggest the existence of an influence of Wright’s prairie houses over Artigas’ early work, but the methods used to reach to this conclusion are always empirical and not very objective. The present work aims to confirm this influence in a more rational manner, comparing Wright’s prairie houses grammar developed by Koning and Eizenberg (1981) to Artigas’ first phase grammar that will developed in this work.
"The learning process and use of digital tools by architects." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This paper aims to verify the use of the computer for architects and students in the design of architectural project, as has been in practice the use of CAD tools in the project aided by computer. It was noted that the architects and students, mostly, use basically CAD tools for to effective project documentation than to achieve the design project. Search data confirmed what is imagined initially, that respondents have real difficulties of to work with 3D CAD tools.
"The materialization of the digital model in the education process." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The research presents the importance of the experimentations within education of architecture project. Since the studies for traditional and emergent ways with use them digital tools, it values the project inquiries in the simulations of the models in 3D. For many times, the digital model for being tangible cannot present a difficulty in the understanding of constructive details. As in the digital tools, more specifically BIM (Building Information Modeling) possess integrated standards complex. The necessity of the materialization becomes inevitable use of the Rapid Prototype (RP) that it is a technology that allows the materialization of the complex digital models facilitating to the tactile and percipient use for better understanding and taking of decision.
"The miniature city: the use of rapid prototyping techniques to make urban scale models. ." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The aim of the present paper is to describe a case study about the production of scale models of large urban areas with the use of digital prototyping techniques. Throughout the year 2008, the Laboratory for Automation and Prototyping in Architecture and Construction (LAPAC) was commissioned with the production of a scale model of the State University of Campinas´ campus. Laser-cutting and Selective Laser Sintering were used to produce the terrain and the buildings. The products that resulted from this research demonstrate that rapid prototyping processes are extremely helpful to produce scale models of large urban areas.
"The Online_communities project: hybrid spacialities under a social perspective." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This article intends to present the development and the results of an experience about the interlacing information and communication technologies on local communities carried out by the Online_communities project, developed between 2004 and 2008 in Cidade Tiradentes, district of São Paulo. It’s about the elaboration of a critical examination of one interpretation of this project, among many possible, which privileges, on one hand, the links of the different aspects it covers, highlighting its actions which are very distinct. On the other hand, it is about creating hybrid spaces in urban fragments, considering them as spaces constituted from communication insertion through computational systems in communities geographically referred.
"The panoramas multi-layer: a iconographic hyper document of the history within city of Rio de Janeiro." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This article intends to investigate the use of a Panorama multi-layer as a hyper document to broaden the understanding the history of the cities. We asume that a Panorama multi-layer, in this opportunity, can convey unusual interpretations with the add of important drawings and pictures made by the travelers wich arrived in Rio de Janjeiro in the beginning of 19th century. This paper aims to demonstrate new possibilities which can be added into the digital and interactive panoramas, and a new way to develop a iconographic hyper document in the central area within the city of Rio de Janeiro.
"The Processes in the Architecture of Peter Eisenman." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. In the dialectic formal Eisenman, the procedures for projecting initially start from the consideration of architectural form as a transformation of a solid geometric pre-existing. Subsequently, the form is timeless, decomposed into spatial entities, non-specific, requiring the intellectualization of the process as an alternative to emotion perception. From the eighties, mediated by computer resources, self-referentiality is the keynote of the representational process and architectural experience. The search houses poetic diagrams as procedures for projecting computer, tangent now the concept of trail’ Derrida responsible for the intelligibility and readability of architecture, sometimes grotesque, or a rationale that contains the irrational.
"THE PROCESSION' - Three-dimensional documentation of Rock Art in the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Documentation of rock art is generally made by drawing with a marker over a plastic film overlaid to the wall of the canyon or cave where it is found. Taking out the drawing printed in the film from the wall implies in loosing important data about its contour because the image became rectified; information about the relief of the documented figure are lost as well. We have used close range photogrammetry methodology to overcome this problem and, on the other hand, to preserve information about the relief of the picture itself, taking into account the fragility of the rock support.
"The State of Art of Communication and Information Technology and the current reality in architecture studios of Sào Paulo city." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This work presents a report of the actual penetration of digital technologies in the contemporary production in the São Paulo city architectural practice. The report identifies how much digital resources are employed in the practice in a State of the Art level as defined by Oxman (2006) in her theoretical framework.
"The use of 3D geometric models for teaching architecture and urban planning." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This research analyzes how schools of architecture in Brazil has responded to technological advances in the field of three-dimensional geometric modeling to support research activity and enhance education
"The Use of Computer in Teaching Design Architecture: critical analysis of the production of Seminars SIGraDI and PROJETAR." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009.

This work, tied with the research line Education of Architecture, has as objective to reflect on the use of the computer in the education of architecture design in Brazil from the literature review of articles related to the subject published by Brazilian authors in the annals of the seminars SIGraDI and PROJETAR, in the period from 2000 to 2006. The analysis focuses on two issues: (a) the theoretical foundations and practices related to the processes and ways of rapprochement between the computer and the teaching of design, (b) the use of terminology and concepts related to the theme,

"The Use of the 'Serial Plan' Technique with the Development of the Computer Graphic - a Teaching Experience." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This paper is about comparative didactic experiences where the “Serial plan Technique” defined by Wong (1998), was applied in 2001 and 2008 which computer resources from that time. In 2001 this technique was applied with the help of AutoCAD for generation of the planifications, but in 2008 the appliances of AutoCAd and Sketch Up were used for the virtual construction of objects. The quality of the results showed a didactic potential and an increasement in the possible creative rhythm, mainly because the facility of the three-dimensional virtual visualization and because the speed in the physical execution of the created project.
"Thinking time and space." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This paper compares the musical and architectural languages exploring the similarities between works related to Twelve-tone music and Descontruction. To do this, first looks at Opus 27 by Anton Webern whose goal was to explore the spatiality in the context of sound perception by using a topology based on a square matrix of twelve rows and columns. Next, compares these procedures to those adopted by Peter Eisenman to design the conceptual model Guardiola House (1988), demonstrating the affinity between spatial and temporal constructions in the works of these two authors.
"Transdiciplinary Research Strategies: Investigating the Transition of Peer2Peer Relational Systems from Digital to Real-time Environments." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The paper presents research and a case study investigating a series of events developed around Peer2Peer relational systems. The events emerged as a response to the identified needs forwarded by a post-graduate research group and evolved into information networks that serve an expanded, transdisciplinary community. The paper begins by reviewing a discussion model which integrated Peer2Peer relational principals within the event framework as a means of expanding transdisciplinary research and practice through peer networks, and concludes by considering the opportunities Peer2Peer relational systems offer to progress future university networks.
"Transition in spatial authorship: Towards a pluralistic modulation of space when designing in a voxel matrix." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. In the past, culture expressed through built environment has been confined to results generated by a single author or small team, but has rarely been considered in light of data produced by a society with various sociological backgrounds. The state of a society can, however, be represented by social data used as a transmitter of cultural identity. Voxel facades use data as a generator for defining space. This paper defines: voxel facades; explains how data are fed into the voxel facade, proposes ways in which data can be represented meaningfully; it evaluates the cultural design intervention and investigates results.
"Urban Wiki: an online urban design system." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009.

This research involves the framework and design of Urban Wiki, an online urban design system employing Wiki concept. The term Urban Wiki is created by the researchers; its concepts and methodology will be introduced and presented. Urban Wiki aims to creating a networking system of urban designs, enabling the collaborative work between users around the world. The presented system framework is created and tested by the researchers from two different locations in the world. The purpose of the research is to study how the users can share effectively designing/modeling large scale urban projects. An urban project of a village scale is used to demonstrate the potentials of Urban Wiki, presenting its functions and highlighting the possible uses in the urban area. Moreover, using the created models opens up various urban paths of designing, decision-making, and sharing. Techniques employed in the design of Urban Wiki can potentially be used to build up scalable, easily navigable and extensible models of large-scale entities.

"Urban-spatial Experiments with Digital City Models in a Multi-dimensional VR-Simulation Environment (Urban Experimental Lab)." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The main focus of the “Urban Experimental Lab” aims at the illustration of urban visions. Dealing with the subject city by covering past, present and future aspects will issue the programmatic approach. Equipped therewith the urban space of tomorrow is to be tackled experimentally and the spatial impact of concrete projects can be clearly visualized. The project Urban Experimental Lab represents the continuation of twenty years of experience with digital city models and experimental simulation environments for urban planning, relying on a wealth of experience accumulated in these fields. The paper describes the technical concept of the “Urban Experimental Lab” as well as desired research fields within urban planning, urban reconstruction and urban archeology and potential benefits.
"Use of Blogs in architectural education in the digital age." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The digital age provides us many interactive tools from which we can develop our knowledge. Most of them are used daily by students and have a great impact in their lives. In this context, blogs appear as a tool with a great potential for education since students are used to read them. This article describes the experience of the use of a blog (Blog da Pinna) focused on architecture, technology and innovation, to enhance education for architecture students. It also shows the evaluation of this use and reflects about the achievements.
"Use of Computer Technology as a Decision-Making Tool in Metal Structure Projects." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. A world of intense and quick changes has led the society to the Information and Knowledge Age. The use of information technologies leads to deep changes and new processes. Systems and organizations must be prepared for the growing amount and speed of information. The main objective of this work is the application of the computer simulation tools CAD/CAE to help decision-making in architecture and engineering projects, specifically metal structure projects. This work presents the application of the finite element method-based software Abaqus/CAE to analyze and propose possible project solutions to the case study of a metal structure which covers a food court in a shopping mall.
"Use of Information Technology and Communication in Heritage Education: a Cultural Experience." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This article presents the parcial results from an unfinished scientific interdisciplinary reseach project, conducted by the Federal University of Sergipe Museology and Architecture graduate programs, in relation to constructing a virtual environment themed after the patrimonial historic city of Laranjeiras, Sergipe.
"User's influence on the visual presentation of information on the web: the case of adaptive layout and layout s customization." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. Ahead of the digital environments expansion which follows the principles of the web 2.0, one can notice a growing opening for user's participation. The proposal of this research is to reflect on how this scenario of participation is strengthening a social structure capable of actively acting not only in the production of digital content, but also in the form of this content presentation. From a survey of cases and a theoretical review, this paper aims to analyze two different types of user’s influence on the visual dimension of web environments. One first - adaptive layout - based on the indirect user’s action and a second - layout’s customization - based on the direct user’s action.
"Virtual development and product visualization with database and 3D modeling." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This article presents a methodology for product virtual development using a developed database application and virtual reality technology VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) for final product visualization. To do that, information technology and communication in industry, virtual reality and computational resources for concept and prototyping are investigated. An example of product assembly is presented to illustrate the methodology proposed.
"VirtusCADE, a system for virtual design of products." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. The knowledge of latest technology that allows the development of competitive products in reduced times is crucial to guarantee a sustainable growth of the national industry. This work presents the development of a computational system for the Virtual Design of products, the VirtusCADE, which is a CAD/CAE interactive software (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Engineering). The VirtusCADE includes 3D geometric modeling of surfaces and solids and mesh generation. The system uses the parametric modeling of surfaces, including algorithms for determination of intersection between surfaces and for triangular mesh generation in trimmed parametric surfaces. The graphical interface is interactive and allows the direct real time manipulation of objects (lines, surfaces and solids) in 3D using the OpenGL technology. The system prioritizes the usability, implementing several graphic tools that facilitate the manipulation in 3D. The VirtusCADE contemplates the structural simulation through the Finite Element Method. The code architecture is based on oriented object programming, which allows great scaling capability for the implementation of new tools. This project has great applicability in numerical simulation of physical phenomena, such structural analysis of buildings, vehicles parts, with impact in the industries of civil construction, metal-mechanics, aerospatial, naval and automotive.
"VRML 3D modeling software for Web." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This work describes a software which is a VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) modeler based on Web and a learning object for this language. The modeler, developed using PHP, HTML and JavaScript, runs directly on a website and it is able to show the model and its VRML code during the creation process, and to record it on the user machine. The software developed is able to model primitive forms, as box, cylinder and sphere, and faceset surfaces, helping users to model 3D objects and to understand VRML syntax. The model material is chosen according to color and transparency.
"Why Architectural Program Today? ." In SIGraDi 2009: Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009. This study aims to contribute to the architectural history, theory and design research. As being part of the modern tradition, it is an enquiry into the epistemological consequences of program-based architectural design whose progenitors lie at the very idea of the modern movement. It aims to develop arguments at the continuation of the discussion of the program emerged in the 1960s. In the study, the main problem in the contemporary design and especially in the digital design that are caused by the disengagement from a convincing epistemological clarity is addressed via a review on program, and an additional introductory survey.