Keywords Abstract
"A collaborative project experience in an architectural framework, working with Open Source applications and physical computing." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.

Nowadays, thanks to the telecommunication revolution and therefore the massive spread of Internet, we have seen the come up of international architectural offices with branches located in different continent, working in a collaborative fashion, surpassing physical and time frontiers. At the same time, the multidisciplinary work between designers, architects, engineers, programmers and even biologist, between others, have been taking place in the new network society. All transformations also supported by the arising of FOSS (Free Open Source Software) and the virtual communities behind them, which allow the creation of non-traditional or specific software, the association between disciplines, and also, the formation of meeting scenarios for a mixture of individuals coming up with multiple motivation to coexist in collaborative environment. Furthermore, it is possible to argue that Open Source applications are also the reflection of a social movement, based on the open creation and exchange of information and knowledge. Do the appeared of FOSS compel us to re-think our working and teaching methods? Do they allow new modes of organizing and collaborating inside our architectural practices?. This paper would like to address these questions, by presenting the results of the “Experience Design” course, which by implementing teaching methods based on Open Source principles and cutting-edge tools, seeks to approach students to these new “way of do”, knowledge and methodologies, and overall, focus them on the science behind the computer. This paper describes the “Experience Design” course, in which architectural graduate students of Universidad Diego Portales (Chile), put for first time their hands on the creation of interactive interfaces. By acquiring basic knowledge of programming and physical computing, students built in a collaborative way a responsive physical installation. The course use as applications “Processing” and “Arduino”. The first one is an Open Source programming language and environment for users who want to program images, animation, and interactions. It has a visual context and serve as a software sketchbook and professional production tool. Processing is a project initiated by Ben Fry and Casey Reas, at the MIT Media Lab (www.processing.org). The second is an Open Source electronics prototyping platform based on flexible, easy-to-use hardware and software. Arduino has a microcontroller (programmed with Processing language) which can sense the environment by receiving input from a variety of sensors and can affect its surroundings by controlling lights, motors, and other actuators (www.arduino.cc). Both environments shared a growing community of people working in related projects and extending useful assistance for beginners. In this paper it is presented the current state of the pilot course and some of the initials results collected during the process. Students and teacher’s debates and evaluations of the experience have been exposed. Together with a critical evaluation in relation to the accomplishment of the effort of place together different disciplines in one collaborative project akin, architecture, design, programming and electronic. Finally, futures modifications of the course are discussed, together with consideration to take in account at the moment of bring Open Source and programming culture into the student curriculum.

"A Fachada Inclinada Na Arquitetura Moderna Brasileira: Uma Análise Com A Gramática Da Forma." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"A free SIG for evaluating the compatibility of a landscape and an incinerator." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. This research, which is just at its start, has been preliminary concentrated on the localization of a solid waste incinerator in the vicinities of a city - and in particular on finding the necessary data, rather than in the development of a new application.
"A Imagem Fotogenia E A Imagem Digital Na Fotografia De Jeff Wall." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"A Marca De Uma Empresa/instituição Na Web: Desenvolvendo Uma Interface Institucional Utilizando Padrões De Usabilidade E Ferramentas Livres." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"A study about facades from historical brazilian town using shape grammar." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. Shape grammars have been used in architecture for analysis and synthesis - in the first case, mainly for the characterization of styles and in the later for the generation of novel compositions. The present research proposes the use of shape grammars for establishing guidelines for the requalification of historical areas that have lost their original characteristics due to improper renovations. The use of shape grammars proposed here starts with the definition of a set of rules for characterizing the original style of an area. Based on these rules, the main characteristics of the area are confirmed, such as siting, proportions between walls and openings in the façades, overall dimensions constraints, and so on. Next, the rules of the grammar are transformed, to allow the use of contemporary building materials, as well as the incorporation of contemporary living styles in the new design. Rules must take into account two cases: original buildings that have been inadequately transformed, and buildings that have been completely torn down and will replace been completely replaced by new constructions. Both cases need to be harmonious with the remaining original buildings, however without simply copying the existing style. In both cases, rules have been used to establish the guidelines for the renovations, which resulted in modern urban environments that resemble the original historical sites in terms of spatial relations and proportions. They also create an appropriate environment for the observations of the preserved original buildings, which would otherwise look like aliens in a completely transformed neighborhood. The latter case is very common in most Brazilian cities, especially in the case of São Paulo, where houses from the late 1800´s and early 1900´s are flanked by high rise apartment buildings. In order to develop and test the proposed method, a study will be carried out in a small Brazilian town called Monte Alegre do Sul. The town was chosen because its original urban morphology, developed in the XIXth century, is still relatively well preserved, although part of the original façades have been transformed. The objective of the research is to develop a shape grammar to set guidelines for the re-adaptation of the already renovated façades and reconstruction of other ones in Monte Alegre do Sul.
"An Update on the Virtual Reconstruction of Synagogues in the City of Vienna." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. This paper describes the reconstruction work in progress on Viennese Synagogues. The related project activities started in 1998, and all major temples have been reconstructed since then. The paper outlines the utilization of this research work in the form of a city guide, thus potentially reaching a wider audience. Furthermore, the idea to present the information in such a context led to a specific processing and delivery format.
"Aplicación De Técnicas De Iluminación Para Obtención De Cuencas Visuales En Estudios De Impacto Ambiental." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Architectural Brand valuations through a tag-based learning machine." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. Brand is a set of associations related to an object from a particular source (Libai 2008). Such an object can be a product, person or service. Architecture is both service and product. However architectural Branding has never been clearly defined. This probably happens due to the lack of tools to measure the architectural Brand. This paper explores a direction to evaluate the architectural Brand by using computational methods in order to offer a better understanding regarding the awareness, reputation and prominence of the architectural firm. The methodology is based on case studies in which the brands of different types of architectural firms are analyzed, measured and compared to each other through a two-part process: a. the development of one tool to statistically measure the architectural Brand and b. the interpretation of the results of the measurements. a. Learning machine In order to make these brand measurements within a specific group of people or images, this paper develops an interactive tool that uses an image database. The tool constitutes a learning machine; it makes a hypothetic hierarchical categorization of the image database into + and – using an initial sample and it proposes to the user the first image of the list; finally, the user validates the image by confirming or not the machine’s guess. In this image database, each image is described as an array of attributes (tags). Tags can be generated either by the architectural firm itself or can emerge by users. b. Evaluation of results This interactive, user-friendly tool is drawing a user’s preference by proposing similar images from the database based on a learning process from the user input (initial sample and feedback); alternatively, it can be used as a questionnaire for quantitative research. Moreover, this tool categorizes photos of similar content. This research focuses on the following issues as parameters of the effectiveness of the process: o Simplicity of the database organization through computation. o Top-down Vs. Bottom-up tagging of works/ images mechanism. o Future use of the image database. o Transformation of the image database while becoming larger. o “Market” segmentation or not. o Combination of the tool with other Brand measurement tools. o Combination of the tool with other image databases. The outcome of this approach can provide an analysis and metric of the brand strength of different architectural firms. Furthermore, it can help architectural firms to understand better how they are perceived by others in order to improve their brand image and associations.
"Arquitectura Biodigital." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"As Implicações Da Realidade Virtual Na Prática De Projeto: Aspectos Ergonômicos De Ambientes Imersivos Virtuais Interativos." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.

The objective of this work is to discuss some applications of Virtual Reality (VR) in the field of Ergonomics and Architecture, and how these applications can contribute to facilitate the conception of architectural projects, the designing of technical systems as well as the user-designer interface. Virtual Reality through the Immersion Environment of Low Technology can also facilitate the conception of project that provide clients with an easier handling, thus reducing recurrent user’s manual consult and consequently making use more comfortable.

Through virtual reality a support to the designer in the interface with the costumer is expected, providing the first with a better explanation of his idea to the last. Under the perspective of the designer VR could be used as an excellent teaching tool, since it allows the interaction with certain aspects (complexes ones) of the project that are difficult to be translated into ordinary terms. It is believed that VR could be a valuable and useful tool in the conception of new technical systems because could avoid waste and rework, thus saving money and time because any setback in the stage of design means waste of time and money – changes in the design phase may result in a partial or even complete destruction of the system.

The aim of the study is also to assess the conception of products with regard to the costs of maintenance and repair – as it is the case of some automobiles – which you it is necessary to destroy some components in order to fix others. This increases the costs of maintenance. It is expected that Virtual Reality may be helpful to support designers and professionals who work with maintenance to solve problems related to mounting, dismounting and maintenance of machines due to the possibility of visualizing objects in 3D and from different angles.

"Assessment of Participation and Interaction in LMS MOODLE." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 164-167. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.

Learning Management Systems (LMS) embody spaces that combine Virtual Classrooms, learning communities, repositories of educational resources and communication devices. The use by faculty members and students, in a campus containing the schools of Architecture, Design and Geography, of Open Source LMS MOODLE, during the years 2005-2006, was assessed. An analysis of the Digital Vestiges, the metadata in the logs database, distinguished between the levels of informative and communicational interaction. The results draw attention to a trend, similar to previous measurements in Latin America, of more use of ICT educational resources for informational purposes than communicational interactions between teachers and students.

"Bbc_Metrópole - Interface Interativa." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Ciberarquitectura Educativa. La Experiencia De Isla Videa En Second Life." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Ciudades Virtuales - Experiencias Múltiples." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. This paper exposes a distance teaching experience about the multiplicity of urban possibilities in virtual systems. Through team works and international collaborators making information gathering, collective visits to virtual environments, videoconferences on urban simulation and creation of ideal models of cities. In order to give a learning approach to students on new technologies applied in urban situations, by interactive process targeted to meaningful knowledge and depth skills. The activities carried on encouraged an open discussion between the students about concepts and alternatives of urban living in the internet age. Appealing to individual memory and local references, as well as advanced experiences and technological resources. Such demonstrate that urban reality goes beyond material and formal situation, and it is closely linked to collective and personal existence. So virtual cities can be understand as a mirror of real cities, or as new digital environments, or a combination of both situations. The methodologies set about work on virtual cities provokes in the students the feeling to live diverse possibilities, more than a proposal developed on time. Therefore this learning action on new urban possibilities and simulation systems became a multiple experience of technological tools, as well as digital environments and social activities.
"Computing and Manipulation in Design - a Pedagogical Experience Using Symmetry." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. The concept of symmetry has been usually restricted to bilateral symmetry, though in an extended sense it refers to any isometric transformation that maintains a certain shape invariant. Groups of operations such as translation, rotation, reflection and combinations of these originate patterns classified by modern mathematics as point groups, friezes and wallpapers (March and Steadman, 1974). This extended notion represents a tool for the recognition and reproduction of patterns, a primal aspect of the perception, comprehension and description of everything that we see. Another aspect of this process is the perception of shapes, primary and emergent. Primary shapes are the ones explicitly represented and emergent shapes are the ones implicit in the others (Gero and Yan, 1994). Some groups of shapes known as Semantic Shapes are especially meaningful in architecture, expressing visual features so as symmetry, rhythm, movement and balance. The extended understanding of the concept of symmetry might improve the development of cognitive abilities concerning the creation, recognition and meaning of forms and shapes, aspects of visual reasoning involved in the design process. This paper discusses the development of a pedagogical experience concerned with the application of the concept of symmetry in the creative generation of forms using computational tools and manipulation. The experience has been carried out since 1995 with 3rd year architectural design students. For the exploration of compositions based on symmetry operations with computational support we followed a method developed by Celani (2003) comprising the automatic generation and update of symmetry patterns using AutoCAD. The exercises with computational support were combined with other different exercises in each semester. The first approach combined the creation of two-dimensional patterns to their application and to their modeling into three-dimensions. The second approach combined the work with computational support with work with physical models and mirrors and the analysis of the created patterns. And the third approach combined the computational tasks with work with two-dimensional physical shapes and mirrors. The student’s work was analyzed under aspects such as Discretion/ Continuity –the creation of isolated groups of shapes or continuous overlapped patterns; Generation of Meta-Shapes –the emergence of new shapes from the geometrical relation between the generative shape and the structure of the symmetrical arrangement; Modes of Representation –the visual aspects of the generative shape such as color and shading; Visual Reasoning –the derivation of 3D compositions from 2D patterns by their progressive analysis and recognition; Conscious Interaction –the simultaneous creation and analysis of symmetry compositions, whether with computational support or with physical shapes and mirrors. The combined work with computational support and with physical models and mirrors enhanced the students understanding on the extended concept of symmetry. The conscious creation and analysis of the patterns also stimulated the student’s understanding over the different semantic possibilities involved in the exploration of forms and shapes in two or three dimensions. The method allowed the development of both syntactic and semantic aspects of visual reasoning, enhancing the students’ visual repertoire. This constitutes an important strategy in the building of the cognitive abilities used in the architectural design process.
"Comunicação.dwg." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Comunicación Visual Digital Educativa En La Formación De Estudiantes De Diseño Gráfico. Propuesta Metodológica De Planificación Estratégica." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.

The emergence of digital instructional materials has come to impose bigger requirements on design as educational visual communication. It demands the graphic designer to perform complex tasks that require, on one hand, applying theoretical fundaments of strategic planning to the learner's interactions, and on the other, to interact in interdisciplinary teams for the development of his projects. This work explored whether students of graphic design at Universidad del Bío-Bío, Chile, when taught with a Theoretical-Methodological Strategy of Educational Digital Design, were able to acquire these two interaction competentes simultaneously. The experience is framed in the qualitative approach under the Action Research Methodology through the Case Study and Observation methods. Results point to the need to prioritize, or emphasize, digital design theory over software manipulation skills in the formation of graphic designers, preparing them to assemble interdisciplinary teams in this area. Likewise, the Strategy has been successfully assimilated by students, which opens the possibility of adding it to the standard graphic design curriculum. This would enable students to apply strategic planning skills not only to instructional content design, but also to their behavior in interdisciplinary teams. Due to its attributes, this Methodological Strategy can in principle constitute a model for replicable action, and with it, a contribution to the knowledge of educational digital visual communication. This would require, however, a longer implementation time for it to be assimilated as a metacognitive competence.

"Consecuencias De La Aplicación De Los Medios Digitales Y Multimediales Para La Enseñanza De La Arquitectura." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Criação Colaborativa E Visualização Da Informação: Confluências No Domínio Do Webdesign." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Criação De Modelos Virtuais: Estudo De Caso Com Softwares Livres." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"D.O.S. Designers on Spot: Communication processes and Learning actions." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. D.O.S. Designers on Spot: Communication processes and Learning actions This paper introduces some concepts that have been studied at D.O.S. project as part of the learning and communication actions. These concepts are relevant to the project as they brought to the team some improvements about design experiences based on network communication, as well as some reflections done by designers and researchers in different parts of the world. The project proposed by our research group is part of growing demands for experiments able to explore the Advanced Internet for fast transferring large packages of content. The activities are divided in two different instances: one is called exploratory research and aims to identify enrichments that a collaborative practice would add to the design process and to the production of interactive prototypes as well. The other one is related to remote learning strategies. It aims at investigating new methods of collective design and prototyping of objects with integrated media, and the diffusion of these techniques and methods in classroom environments, as a teaching strategy. Following are three different aspects about design experiences. The first one, called communication processes, presents a panoramic view about different ways the participants of a remote design session can share information. It targets to point and to systematize design actions by exploring transversal characteristics among designers, teams and the resulting objects. In order to achieve it, we have to understand some relations between remote communication and design processes, which explore issues in the project phases of conception, production and interaction. This exploration is part of the search for a conceptual scope for the D.O.S. project development, with an emphasis on the communication specificities between remote designers and the design process. The second one, learning action processes, introduces some issues about academic teaching and learning of design through remote and collaborative media. The third one, Virtual Design Studio (VDS), is related to the previous and aims to present a specific kind of remote design sessions targeting to create strategies to use new communication and information technologies (ICT) on remote project instances. The teaching of Architecture and Design is, above all, multidisciplinary – this means that it is not limited to the knowledge of one field of activity but, by a wide range of subjects from different areas - including Computing. The introduction of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) in the project process is commonly associated to the final stages, and not to the creation. The contribution of the digital environment is provided for the use of various software, which are not restricted to those responsible for graphical representation: programs responsible for the organization of data in tables, for example, enable monitoring developments with clarity. The multidisciplinary consideration supports new variables in the process of design, working quickly and accurately on the possibilities, which modifies the agency of decisions and management tasks.
"Da Representação Multimidial Às Interfaces Tangíveis No Ensino De Arquitetura." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Desarrollo De Un Simulador En Tiempo Real Para La Evacuación En Medios E Infraestructuras De Transporte Ferroviario." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Diagramas E Eventos: O Espaço E A Forma Em Mutação." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Digital Fabrication Production System Theory: Towards an Integrated Environment for Design and Production of Assemblies." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. A Digital Fabrication Production System (DFPS) is a concept describing a set of processes, tools, and resources that will be able to produce an artifact according to a design, fast, cheap, and easy, independently of location. A DFPS project is a complex assembly of custom parts that is delivered by a network of fabrication and assembly processes. This network is called the value chain. The workflow concept of a DFPS is the following: begin design process with a custom geometric form; decompose it into constructible parts; send the part files for fabrication to various locations; transport all parts at the construction site at the right time; finally, assemble the final artifact. Conceptually it means that based on a well structured value chain we could build anything we want, at anyplace, at controllable cost and quality. The goals of a DFPS are the following: custom shapes, controllable lead time, controllable quality, controllable cost, easiness of fabrication, and easiness of assembly. Simply stated this means to build any form, anywhere, accurately, cheap, fast, and easy. Unfortunately, the reality with current Digital Fabrication (DF) projects is rather disappointing: They take more time than what was planned, they get more expensive than what was expected, they involve great risk and uncertainty, and finally they are too complex to plan, understand, and manage. Moreover, most of these problems are discovered during production when it is already late for correction. However, there is currently no systematic approach to evaluate difficulty of production of DF projects in Architecture. Most of current risk assessment methods are based on experience gathered from previous similar cases. But it is the premise of mass customization that projects can be radically different. Assembly incompatibilities are currently addressed by building physical mockups. But physical mockups cause a significant loss in both time and cost. All these problems suggest that an introduction of a DFPS for mass customization in architecture needs first an integrated theory of assembly and management control. Evaluating feasibility of a DF project has two main problems: first, how to evaluate assemblability of the design; second, how to evaluate performance of the value chain. Assemblability is a system’s structure problem, while performance is a system’s dynamics problem. Structure of systems has been studied in the field of Systems Engineering by Network Analysis methods such as the Design Structure Matrix (DSM) (Steward 1981), and the liaison graph (Whitney 2004), while dynamics of systems have been studied by System Dynamics (Forrester 1961). Can we define a formal method to evaluate the difficulty of production of an artifact if we know the artifact’s design and the production system’s structure? This paper formulates Attribute Process Methodology (APM); a method for assessing feasibility of a DFPS project that combines Network Analysis to evaluate assemblability of the design with System Dynamics to evaluate performance of the value chain.
"Digital reconstruction of the "Ingenio San Isidro de los Destiladeros"." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Dinâmica Entre Atividades De Ensino, Pesquisa E Extensão Para A Produção De Modelos Digitais De Interesse Histórico E Arquitetônico." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. This work describes the dynamic established between research, extension, and educational activities to produce three dimensional digital models of architectural objects of historic interest in a collaborative way. By making modeling methodologies available through extension courses both distance and face to face, a system of production of the models is established. This production is accompanied by the register and analysis of each process, through the structure of conceptual maps. These registers have allowed the identification of new modeling methodologies, promoting the re-structuring and/or broadening of the practice of teaching in graduation, post-graduation and extension courses. The refer to making modeling methodologies based on the use of free software available and to the constitution of a collection of digital models available on the INTERNET, which may subside their application in the different areas of knowledge such as Architecture, History and Tourism.
"Diseñando Identidad Pais: Desde Lo Ancestral." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Diseño De Heurísticas De Usabilidad Y Casos De Sitios Web Sobre Gestión E Industrias Culturales." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"El Scripting Como Estrategia De Diseño: Una Experiencia Pedagógica." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. This paper presents our vision of Scripting as a technique to be included in the process of architectural design. This vision not only shares our experience as research architects, but also from the experience of a workshop that we conducted recently. We affirm that the incursion of this technique benefits the architect in his creative process, both by automating modeling processes, and by making possibly the emergent generation of complex but controlled geometries, in response to the new paradigms of architecture and design with rational processes. We discuss the results of this short educational experience with interesting achievements and the potential significance of teaching this technique in the architecture and design disciplines.
"Electronic Art and Second Order Cybernetic: from Art in Process to Process in Art." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. The goal of the paper presented below is to discuss partial results of a research which has been financed by the state sponsored agency FAPESP since 2007. Inserted in the research line Design Process, it aims to analyse connections between design process in electronic art and architecture, concerning the creation of mixed media spatialities, as well as present how each field can get the benefits from this analyses. Based on Grounded Theory methodology, a method of qualitative research which aims to understand “reality” from the meanings attributed by people for their experiences, the research has been started collecting data from bibliographical references, interviews with media artists, theoreticians and curators of electronic art and visits to media labs. Interviews and visits of media centers were taken in Europe while the researcher was as an exchange student in the Interface Culture Department in Kunstuniversität Linz, from March to September of 2008. By crossing data collected from the interviews and visits, with the cybernetic social system theory by Niklas Luhmann, and the discussion of an example of mixed media spatiality creation in the art field, this paper analyses how creative processes in digital era depends on different interdisciplinary relationships and how collaborative approaches are needed nowadays in the arts and architectural areas, seeing that artworks are always being influenced by their respective specific “mediality”. The aim of this paper is to discuss the relevance of the use of the cybernetic theory in digital culture, when concepts like participation, interaction and communication are some of the keywords, towards a “collective and distributed authorship”, and their reflects in the contemporary spatiality. The special interest in the comparison of art experience and second order cybernetics as a reference to architecture field is one of the findings of the paper. And, concerning the practical implication, due to cybernetics’ constant questioning of viability, adaptability and recursion, it should be able to point some ways to architects and artists´ works, especially if we consider that they never work in “ideal” conditions.
"Enseñando Diseño Generativo: Una Experiencia Didáctica." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Enseñar Arquitectura En El Mundo Actual: Nuevo Perfil De Enseñanza Y Aprendizaje En El Entorno Digital." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Esboços Na Era Digital - Uma Discussão Sobre As Mudanças Na Metodologia De Projeto Arquitetônico." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. This article aims to establish a discussion on two issues: primarily on the importance of sketches in the architects’ cognitive process; in a second moment, tools that allow the interaction between traditional and digital media will be presented.
"Evaluación De Participación E Interacción En Lms Moodle." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Experiencias Pedagógicas Aplicadas En La Enseñanza Del Diseño Industrial: Base De Datos Digital Para La Difusión Interna Y Externa De Los Nuevos Productos Planteados Por Los Proyectos De Títulación." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Expresión Gráfica En El Diseño De Pilas De Combustible Pemfc." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Formación De Tutores E Implementación Del Campus Virtual Para La Enseñanza De La Arquitectura En Modalidad E-Learning." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"From physical models to immersive collaborative environments: testing the best way for homeless people to visualise and negotiate spaces." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. This paper describes an experiment to investigate the best way for lay people to use representation to visualise and negotiate space. It was motivated by our observations in workshops for digital inclusion in the context of a housing project for a homeless association. Computers were used to make it easier for the community to understand and change the spaces in real time. The first workshops proved that our approach was efficient as an exercise but not certainly effective concerning the understanding of spatial qualities. So we have designed an experiment to compare the usability of different media in participatory design processes. For that we have adapted the ‘Usability’ methodology, which is fully described in the paper. We started with three main questions. The first concerned the effectiveness of different media to represent spatial quality; the second concerned the best way for novices to approach space, whether by refurbishing a pre-existing space or by starting from the scratch; and the third concerned the effectiveness of negotiation by means of discourse and by means of or action. We also had two main hypothesis: one coming from research on digital environments and stereo visualisation, indicating that the more people feel immersed in the represented environment the more they are able to correlate it with physical space; and the other coming from our own observations in the participatory design workshops, in which the collective decision-making was manipulated by those people with more advanced communication skills who use their ability in an authoritative way regardless of the relevance of what they have to say. This paper describes the whole experiment, which was an exercise of spatial negotiation in 5 versions. In the first version we provided fixed digital views of a room in plan and axonometry; for another two versions we provided a physical model of the room in 1:10 scale, with some pieces of the existing furniture in different scales. This was done to check if people were just playing with a puzzle or actually grasping the correspondence between representation and the object or the space represented. One version proposes refurbishment and the other starts from the scratch. And the last two versions repeated the same task made with the physical model, but this time using a 3D interactive digital model. People were required not only to organise the furniture in the space but also to build a full scale cardboard structure and organise the real furniture reproducing their proposed model. Their comments on the spaces they had built confronted with what they had imaged when working with the model has enabled us to compare the different models, as also the different ways of negotiating spaces. This paper describes this experiment in detail concluding that 3D digital interactive models are far more effective than physical models and 2D drawings; when negotiation happens by means of action it provides more creative results than when the discoursive practice prevails; people are more creative when they start something from scratch, though they spend more time. The results of this experiment led us to formulate a new hypothesis leading to the development of an immersive collaborative environment using stereoscopy.
"Geometric modeling in the early stages of learning practice architectural design." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 434-438. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.

This work invests on delimitation of a Geometric Modeling study program directed to students at the initial stages of Architecture. It is considered that the studies promote a qualified control of the form based on recognition of parameters which define it, moreover it also allows the enlargement of the students geometric vocabulary, important to the architectural design activities. In this way, the program advances on the appropriation of new concepts which surround the investigations on architectural design processes, such as the concept of shape grammar. Observing analysis and architectural composition practices based on such concept, contents of geometric modeling which are already being used in the context of post-graduation are identified to be transposed to the graduation context, along with the initial teaching practices of architectural design. The results refer to making the didactic material available, these materials have the objective of building references for the development of design practice which explore the reflection about the processes of creation and composition of architectural form in their geometric aspects.

"Geosaúde - Sistemas De Informações Geográficas Na Prefeitura Municipal De Niterói." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. The use of GIS become popular from the 80s, with the development of the first commercial software dedicated to this area. Over the past few years, this universe has gained new strength with the development of various Open Source initiatives. The development of software using GIS by the Secretary of Urban Development and Control of Niterói seeded to create tools to respond to two primary needs in the current administration. First, assist in decision-making for urban and health planning, focusing on the actions of the administration where the presence of public engagement becomes more urgent. Secondarily, bring to the citizens, access of basic information about the village, giving the capacity, to identify their home, street or neighborhood and have the largest possible set of data of the local urban legal rules..
"Gerencia Cad, Gestión De Proyectos Y Gestión De Rrhh. ¿integración Imposible?" In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. There are models that facilitate an efecttive projects management and there are others models for the management (HR-M) of the human resources, thats mean the participants in the projects processes (design, analysis, planning, control and others). The Project Management (PM) and the Computer Aided Design (CAD) are present in undergraduate and postgraduate programs for architects, but it is common that CADs programs are oriented to the “tools for digital graphics” more than to the processes that the use of CADs tools generates. This approach is the focus of CAD Management (CAD-M). The CAD-M, PM and HR-M, with the leadership common component that content, not always are analyzed with a systemic overview and oftenly the “cuantitative” aspects of the resources are attended over the “cualitative” ones. Neverless, applying CAD-M not always is a guarantee for a proactive participation and/or a suscessful project. What factors might/should manage for a major/proactive participation of the HR in the CAD-M processes? Is the leadership determinant in the HR-M in CAD processes? Diferent models for CAD-M, PM and HR-M are presented/discussed (PMBOK-PMI, People CMM, Appreciative Inquiry) arriving to conclusions and some topics are submitted, valid for under/postgraduate programs, with the later adecuations to every context and organizations characteristics. These reflexions permit to afirm that CADs tools “themselves” and the management models, separatly, not conduce to succesful results. The processes should be manage and should manage in the right way with the necessary integration among CADs tools and the management models. This integration is not impossible.
"Global Visualisation Engines - Issues for Urban Landscape Planning Participation Processes." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. Traditional planning processes use two-dimensional drawings, plans, sections, elevations and artists, impressions to communicate design intent to interested parties. Three-dimensional computer visualisation technologies that support the planning process raise institutional and organisational challenges as their perceived benefits are considered.  Virtual Reality (VR) models add interactivity and immersiveness to landscape visualisations but require appropriate technical input and management. This paper explores two main themes. Firstly, how interactive 3D computer simulations of planning proposals can be adopted to successfully improve the traditional process. It reports on a pilot study to examine how architects, clients, planning officers and university researchers have worked together to systematically examine and analyse this changing process. It reports on issues concerned with ownership of city models, the roles and the compatibility, accuracy and remote sharing of urban data. Secondly, we explore the emerging theme of web-based GIS applications and their impact on architectural visualisation. The process of placing urban data onto Google Earth was tested and the resulting issues emerging with this software, including IT and data management and accuracy issues for suitable architectural visualisation are discussed. The study also reports and offers an overview of placing accurate urban landscape data onto Google Earth and a discussion of using this method for online public participation and communicating technical building information.
"Gulliver in the land of Generative Design." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. The current trend in architectural design towards architectural computing has been treated both from a philosophical standing point and as an operational systems’ problem, in a quest for explications which could at last break ground for a more broad development and adoption of design tools. As Kostas Terzidis (2007) puts it, the intuitiveness that architects have put on so high a pedestal seems to be the central issue to be dealt with by both views. There seems to be no apparent shortcut toward the reconciliation between traditional practice and new media and most certainly it is not only a problem of interface design, but one of design method clarification and reinterpretation of those methods into computing systems. Furthermore, there’s no doubt left as to whether computing systems can generate such new patterns as to impact our own understanding of architecture. But even if computer algorithms can make possible the exploration of abstract alternatives to an abstract initial idea, as in Mathematica and Processing, the issue of relating abstract and geometric representations of human centered architecture lays in the hands of architects, programmers or, better yet, architect-programmers. What seems now to be the relevant change is that architectural design might escape from the traditional sequence embedded in the need – program – design iterations – solution timeline, substituted by a web of interactions among differing experimental paths, in which even the identification of needs is to be informed by computing. It is interesting to note that the computational approach to architectural design has been praised for the formal fluidity of bubbles and Bezier shapes it entails and for the overcoming of functionalist and serialization typical of modern architecture. That approach betrays a high degree of canonic fascination with the tools of the trade and very little connection to the day to day chores of building design. On the other hand, shall our new tools and toys open up new ways of thinking and designing our built landscape? What educational issues surface if we are to foster wider use of the existing technologies and simultaneously address the need to overtake mass construction? Is mass customization the answer for the dead end modern architecture has led us to? Can we let go the humanist approach begun in Renascence and culminated in Modernism or shall we review that approach in view of algorithmic architecture? Let us step back in time to 1726 when Swift’s ‘Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World by Lemuel Gulliver’ was first published. In Swift’s fierce critic of what seemed to him the most outrageous ideas, he conceived a strange machine devised to automatically write books and poetry, in much the same generative fashion that now, three centuries later, we begin to cherish. “Every one knew how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences; whereas by his contrivance, the most ignorant person at a reasonable charge, and with a little bodily labour, may write books in philosophy, poetry, politicks, law, mathematics and theology, without the least assistance from genius or study. He then led me to the frame, about the sides whereof all his pupils stood in ranks. It was twenty foot square, placed in the middle of the room. The superficies was composed of several bits of wood, about the bigness of a dye, but some larger than others. They were all linked together by slender wires. These bits of wood were covered on every square with paper pasted on them; and, on these papers were written all the words of their language in their several moods, tenses, and declensions, but without any order. The professor then desired me to observe, for he was going to set his engine at work. The pupils at his command took each of them hold of an iron handle, whereof there were forty fixed round the edges of the frame; and giving them a sudden turn, the whole disposition of words was entirely changed. He then commanded six and thirty of the lads to read the several lines softly as they appeared upon the frame; and where they found three or four words together that might make part of a sentence, they dictated to the four remaining boys who were scribes. This work was repeated three or four times, and at every turn the engine was so contrived, that the words shifted into new places, as the square bits of wood moved upside down.” (Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels, A Voyage to Balnibarbi) What astonishing forecast did Swift show in that narrative that, in spite of the underlying incredulity and irony, still clarifies our surprise when faced to what might seem to some of us just an abandonment of all that architects and designers have cherished: creativeness and inventiveness. Yet, we could argue that such a radical shift in paradigm occurred once when master builders left the construction ground and took seat at drafting boards. The whole body of design and construction knowledge was split into what now seem to us just specialties undertaken by more and more isolated professionals. That shift entailed new forms of representation and prediction which now each and all architects take for granted. Also, Cartesian space representation turned out to be the main instrument for professional practice, even if one can argue that it is not more than the unfolding of stone carving techniques that master builders and guilds were so fond of. Enter computing and all its unfolding, i.e. DNA coding, fractal geometry, generative computing, nonlinear dynamics, pattern generation and cellular automata, as a whole new chapter in science, and compare that to conical perspective, descriptive and analytical geometry and calculus, and an image begins to form, delineating a separation between architect and digital designer. In previous works, we have tried approaching the issues regarding architects education in a more consensual way. But it seems now that the whole curricular corpus might be changed as well. The very foundations upon which we prepare future professionals shall change, not only in College, but in High School as well. In this paper, we delve further into the disconnect between current curricula and digital design practices and suggest new disciplinary grounds for a new architectural education.
"Hacia Un Modelo De Taller De Diseño En Modalidad Blended." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Hybrid Art > Synthesized Architecture." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. This paper investigates possible intersections between some contemporary artistic modalities and architectural practice. At first, it describes and discusses different uses of art in architectural history. Through the analyzes of Le Corbusier’s artistic and architectural practices, it observes the limits of looking at art as only ‘inspiration’ for architectural form and points to the necessity of surpassing this formal approach. More than bringing pictorial ‘inspiration’, art, as a experimental field, can change our architectural procedures and approaches - a much richer and powerful addition to the development of architecture. It discusses then, the confluence of architecture, information and communication technologies. Very commonly present in our contemporary life, not only on the making of architecture – computer drawings and modeling of extravagant buildings – nor in ‘automated rooms’ of the millionaire’s houses. Televisions, telephones and computers leave the walls of our houses “with as many holes as a Swiss cheese”, as Flusser has pointed. The architecture has historically manipulated the way people interact, but this interaction now has been greatly changed by new technologies. Since is inevitable to think the contemporary world without them, it is extreme urgent that architects start dealing with this whole universe in a creative way. Important changes in architecture occur after professionals start to research and experiment with different artistic medias, not limiting their visions to painting and sculpture. The main hypothesis of this paper is that the experiments with new media art can bring the field of architecture closer to information and communication technologies. This confluence can only take form when architects rise questions about technology based interaction and automation during their creative process, embodying these concepts into the architecture repertoire. An educational experience was conducted in 2007 at UFMG Architecture School, in Brazil, with the intention of this activity was to allow students to research creatively with both information technology and architecture. The students’ goal was to create site-specific interventions on the school building, using physical and digital devices. Finally, the paper contextualizes this experience with the discussion above exposed. Concluding with an exposition of the potentialities of some contemporary art modalities (specially the hybrid ones) in qualifying architectural practices.
"Imagem E Pesquisa Bluesky No Design." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.

The creation process in design can be artificially divided in two stages: an initial stage called Metaproject, which generates concepts, visions and scenarios, and the Project itself (Celaschi, 2007). This investigation aims to discuss some design strategies for the Metaproject stage focusing in the so called blue sky research. The blue sky research searches and organizes stimuli (in many different formats) aiming to obtain indications of what could be some possible scenarios for the construction of answers to design problems. We work with lateral thinking, visual thinking and analogical reasoning to try to identify how visual images are part of this creative strategy. Finally, we hope to find new elements to contribute for the theorizing of this methodology.

"Imagen Urbana. Fotografía Interactiva E Imágenes Semi-Inmersivas." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. The traditional relation among photographs and drawing relates the study, the representation and the proyectualidad of settings and landscapes of cities, with a history of the urban image and its methods of elaboration. Since the lineal perspectives and the camera obscura of the vedutistas Italian of the 18th century; passing for the cylindrical panorama of the 19th century; the photographic collage of the vanguards of the 20th century and the contemporary resources of the digital photography, a continuity of the urban graphic speech is built oscillating: of the totality to the fragment, of the lineal conical perspective to the digital collage and of the images two-dimensional to the interactive and semi-immersive 3D image. With the potentiality that suggests the use of the digital photography for the relevamiento, study and proyectación of urban fragments an application developed is described partly in a Workshop International of the Universita di Bologna and a proposal of didactic methodology based on the reconstruction vectorial three-dimensional from spherical panorama 360º.
"Imagens Do Ambiente Construído – De Alberti Ao Mundo Virtual." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Implementando A Fabricação Digital E A Prototipagem Rápida Em Cursos De Arquitetura: Dificuldades E Realidades." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Indagación De La Forma En La Experimentación Interdisciplinar A Partir De La Creación Musical, Ensayos Virtuales Y Concreción Material." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Instalação 2048 - Arquitetura Relacional: Um Experimento De Projeção E Interface Tangível." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Internet Y Dinámica De Redes: Un Caso Del Ámbito Académico En El Campo Del Diseño Para El Desarrollo Local." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"La Normalizacion Del Dibujo Cad En La Produccion De Documentacion Tecnica De Arquitectura Y Construccion: El Caso Chileno." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Laboratórios Híbridos Para Uma Educação Arquitetônica Compartilhada." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Microarquitectura - Equipo Domotizado Para Consulta En Librería." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Modelagem De Ambientes Virtuais Usando Software Livre." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Modelagem Geométrica Nos Estágios Iniciais De Aprendizagem Da Prática Projetual De Arquitetura." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. This work invests on delimitation of a Geometric Modeling study program directed to students at the initial stages of Architecture. It is considered that the studies promote a qualified control of the form based on recognition of parameters which define it, moreover it also allows the enlargement of the students geometric vocabulary, important to the architectural design activities. In this way, the program advances on the appropriation of new concepts which surround the investigations on architectural design processes, such as the concept of form grammar. Observing analysis and architectural composition practices based on such concept, contents of geometric modeling which are already being used in the context of post-graduation are identified to be transposed to the graduation context, along with the initial teaching practices of architectural design. The results refer to making the didactic material available, these materials have the objective of building references for the development of design practice which explore the reflection about the processes of creation and composition of architectural form in their geometric aspects.
"Modelagem Geométrica Nos Estágios Iniciais De Aprendizagem Da Prática Projetual Em Arquitetura." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.

This work invests on delimitation of a Geometric Modeling study program directed to students at the initial stages of Architecture. It is considered that the studies promote a qualified control of the form based on recognition of parameters which define it, moreover it also allows the enlargement of the students geometric vocabulary, important to the architectural design activities. In this way, the program advances on the appropriation of new concepts which surround the investigations on architectural design processes, such as the concept of shape grammar. Observing analysis and architectural composition practices based on such concept, contents of geometric modeling which are already being used in the context of post-graduation are identified to be transposed to the graduation context, along with the initial teaching practices of architectural design. The results refer to making the didactic material available, these materials have the objective of building references for the development of design practice which explore the reflection about the processes of creation and composition of architectural form in their geometric aspects.

"Modelagem Tridimensional Com Geometria Construtiva De Sólidos." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Multimedia En El Proceso De Enseñanza Aprendizaje De La Tecnología Textil." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Nuevas Estrategias Para Enseñar Y Aprender Mediante La Aplicación De Tic Y Scd." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"O Uso De Cortadora A Laser Na Fabricação Digital De Maquetes Físicas." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Panoramas Multi-Layer E Computação Gráfica: Uma ‘Outra’ Interpretação Para A História Urbana." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Patrimônio Cultural Em Ambientes Imersivos Colaborativos: A Experiência Do Projeto Aivits." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. About the actual technological environment based in digital midia, this paper is willing to discuss the potencial of the use of the so called Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in preservation of the cultural heritage and the development of the contemporary collective memory. Iniciated from the master thesis Memory and Cultural Heritage in virtual environments, developed at the Program of Pos Graduation in Architecture and Urbanism at the Engineering School of São Carlos (EESC-USP), pretend to specifically analyse experiences of visualization and modelling virtual cultural goods with historical value in hybrid environments ( physical-digital). Afterwards, will be presented the research project AIVITS – Virtual Imersive Environment of Low Technology, developed at Federal university of Minas Gerais (UFMG), that fig
"Personalización Masiva En La Vivienda Social Chilena." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Portafolio Integrado Aplicado A La Gestión Para El Proceso De Enseñanza – Aprendizaje De La Arquitectura." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Primeiros Resultados Dos Testes Sobre A Eficácia Do Uso De Multimídia Interativa Para O Ensino De Representação Arquitetônica." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Processo Criativo Em Projetos Interativos: O Exemplo Do Projeto Pix Sob O Olhar Da Cibernética De Segunda Ordem." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Processos Colaborativos Na Construção Do Conhecimento Urbano: A Interface Gráfica Digital Do Projeto Viva Centro – Cidade De Niterói." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. This paper presents the process of collaborative development of the graphical interface that will disclose the urban interventions proposed by the city of Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, for the requalification of its central area known as Viva Centro Project, wich covers about twenty projects in areas of historic city center. Developed at the School of Architecture and Urbanism of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro by a team of teachers, researchers and graduate students, the Viva Centro interface will present a digital graphic system that unifies the various interventions proposed by the City, that will use it for public disclosure of these initiatives. Walking through city's graphic representation at different levels, from its regional context to the details of each project, this approach synthesizes in a spatialized interface these interventions, whose original diversity prevents the compreehension as parts of a single system of urban projects.
"Protótipos Rápidos De Superfícies Complexas Em Arquitetura: Comparação Entre Os Processos Fdm E 3D Printer." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Proyecto Alfaiib: Reflexiones Interculturales Y Conclusiones De La Integración Transversal." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.

In this presentation we will show how CAD has evolved in studio teaching, from being a new tool that allows for the creation of unexpected shapes, towards the status of a "naturalized" tool to gather, share and analyse information in a reduced time lapse.

In large part, these tools make easier and more adapted to real situations the concepts of sustainablility and heritage which constitute a necessary frame for a responsible design process, both in learning context and in real professional practice.Thus, more time is freed for the students to undertake the creative stages of their work.

We hope to show, using the example of an international workshop that took place in Santiago de Chile under the sponsorship of an Alfa-program earlier this year, how the contradiction between digital tools and traditional design methods has been largely overcome. As a part of a continuing research project centered in studio teaching, this example points to what we believe is the right direction for the integration and assimilation of digital tools into the design process.

"Proyecto Portafolio Moodle Para Escuela De Diseño." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Questions of graphic standardization in the teaching of Computer Aided Architectural Drawing." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. In this paper I want to present some considerations about graphic standards applied to CAD drawing and object of teaching in I Faculty of Architecture of Polytechnic of Turin. They concern both the specific formats of CAD’s software (as the layers, the file naming…) and the relationship between Italian and European Graphic Standards (UNI and ISO) and CAD systems of representation about the line thicknesses, the text styles and dimensions, the scales, the material renditions… Aim of the research is to introduce the students of the first year of Architecture to the problems of drawing standards applied to the architectural design. With regard to layer standards were analyzed in particular the “AIA CAD Layer Guidelines” related to the “University of Kansas Layer Standard”. Starting from these two sources I have synthesized the format of an architectural scale drawing (1:200-1:50) in a limited number of layers, useful for beginners both in architecture and in CAD. With regard, for example, to material renditions, were compared the “Basic conventions for representing areas on cuts and sections”, proposed by UNI ISO, with the hatches offered by software, and were selected and customized the most useful in architectural drawing. The results of this work, partial and continuously updated, consist of a series of proposals oriented to optimize the students’ method of CAD drawing, complying with the existent graphic standards.
"Realidad Aumentada Sobre Web Y Video En Tiempo Real: Plataforma De Trabajo Colaborativo Para Asistir Al Diseño Arquitectónico." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Reduzindo Diferenças E Fronteiras Através De Novas Tecnologias E Metodologias De Ensino De Projeto Na América Latina." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.

The use of Internet into the studios and sustainable design can significantly improve the architect education, particularly in Latin American universities. This paper describes an experience of a third year design studio oriented towards a Brazilian competition for a Solar Decathlon house. Solar Decathlon is a college competition to design, construct and operate a sun powered house. The need for interdisciplinary collaboration and search for required information for the competition was critical for a noteworthy change in the design studio process. Through a virtual learning environment students discussed with various researchers, displayed their analysis and collected information for the course. Instead of physical libraries, most information was available at the Internet. This is a meaningful fact towards reducing the gap between Latin American students and their colleagues from the wealthiest universities. In addition to that the experience proved to be effective towards the search for new learning paradigms for the future architect education.

"Regraf. Software Interactivo Para La Enseñanza-Aprendizaje De La Representación Gráfica En La Carrera De Arquitectura." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Rosario, views on the integral revitalization of a cultural heritage." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. This work shows the study of the methods and techniques for the development of a virtual vision VRML 3D included in an "Digitally-integrated knowledge base" with interactive interphases of a significantly revitalized fragment of a central area of the city of Rosario, Province of Santa Fé, Argentina, that includes an emblematic heritage for the Argentineans: the National Monument to the Flag. Digital models that partly allow the development of a hypothesis of integration between the digitized information and information technology—new digital proximity— to the effects of being able to investigate the generation of multimedia database that includes three-dimensional and dynamic models of the mentioned type, in this case, urban, architectonic, and cultural heritage. Different views and research on heritage have been developing. Nevertheless, the use of these new 3D non-immersive technologies and inter-phases are opening a new field of vision and understanding of the subject.
"Sistema De Difusión De Resultados De Investigación Y Desarrollo (I+D): Una Propuesta A Través De La Web." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Sistema De Gestión De Contenido En Taller De Arquitectura, Basado En Herramientas Web 2.0 De Libre Acceso." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Sistema De Simulação Interativa De Regimes Urbanísticos." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Study of digital morphing tools during the design process - Application of freeware software and of tools in commercial products as well as their integration in AutoCAD." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. This research work examines methods of experimental designing with CAAD in a CAD laboratory with architecture students as the testing persons. Thereby the main focus is on the early phase of finding forms, in which different techniques with digital media are tried out in the didactic architectural design lessons. In these work have been traced the influences of the media employed on the design processes and combined the approaches of current CAAD research with aspects from classic design theory. For mathematical rules of proportion, atmospheric influence factors and analogy concepts in architecture, I have developed design methods which have been applied and verified in several series of seminars. (Kirschner, U.: 2000, Thesis, a CAAD supported architectural design teaching, Hamburg, school of arts). Previous experimental exercises showed that morphological sequences of modeling are effective sources for playful designing processes. In the current work these approaches are enhanced and supplemented by different morphological architectural concepts for creating shapes. For this purpose 2D based software like Morphit, Winmorph and other freeware were used. Whereas in the further development of this design technique we used 3D freeware morphing programs like zhu3D or Blender. The resulting morphological shapes were imported in CAD and refined. Ideally the morphing tool is integrated in the modeling environment of the standard software AutoCAD. A digital city model is the starting basis of the design process to guarantee the reference to the reality. The applied design didactic is predicated on the theories of Bernhard Hoesli. The act of designing viewed as „waiting for a good idea“ is, according to him, unteachable; students should, in contrast, learn to judge the „the force of an idea“. On the subject of morphology a form-generating method in the pre-design phase has been tested. Starting from urban-planning lines on an area map, two simple geometric initial images were produced which were merged by means of morphing software. Selected images from this film sequence were extruded with CAAD to produce solid models as sectional drawings. The high motivation of the students and the quality of the design results produced with these simple morphing techniques were the reason for the integration of the artistic and scientific software into the creative shape modeling process with the computer. The students learned in addition to the „bottom up “and „ top down” new design methods. In the presentation the properties and benefits of the morphing tools are presented in tables and are analyzed with regard to the architectural shape generating in an urban context. A catalogue of criteria with the following topics was developed: user friendliness, the ability of integrating the tools or as the case may be the import of data into a CAD environment, the artistic aspects in terms of the flexibility of shape generating as well as the evaluation of the aesthetic consideration of shapes.
"Teaching Architectural Design through Computer Modeling, Rendering and Digital Fabrication." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. The paper examines the process of introducing the rudiments of architectural design and computation through computer modeling, rendering and digital fabrication. The scope of the paper is educational. The context of the paper is the teaching of an introductory course to Design Computing. Computational concepts from the digital modeling, rendering and fabrication techniques developed for the course, as well as the students’ response, are discussed in the paper.
"Technologies for interactive displays." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. This paper aims to discuss the possibilities of interactive displays in architecture´s design, the article starts discussing how the computational methods transformed the way of thinking architecture. Then are presented and analyzed some technologies that can be built into the workshop of the project architecture, among them: opaque and LCD tablets, chambers of immersion, whiteboards and interactive screens and equipment´s of tangible digital information (Tangible Bits). It appears that the trend of technological innovations is a mix of traditional and digital, facilitating the manipulation and production of drawings by architects through direct touch, some of the technologies are already considered viable, providing low cost and good results during the practice of design.
"Tecnologias Computacionais De Auxilio Ao Projeto De Edificações: Potencialidades Versus Dificuldades De Implantação." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"The wind tunnel - an exercise in design based on techniques of animation." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. The objective of the present research was to study the use of animation techniques as a tool for the design process. The study started with a literature review about the different possible applications of animation techniques in architectural design. Four main categories of applications were found: (1) space representation and “walk through”, (2) simulation of articulated elements and kinetic structures, (3) visualization and analysis of functional aspects of the buildings, such as circulation and fire escape, and finally (4) the generation of novel shapes. The second part of the research consisted of a design exercise in which animation techniques were used to generate a shape. For this purpose a wind simulator was used in 3DMAX. Next, Paracloud software was used to automatically generate a rib structure that allowed to produce a scale model of the shape with a laser cutter.
Nardelli, Eduardo. "To Bim Or Not To Bim: No Limiar Da Transição Entre O Espetáculo E A Solução." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. This paper points out about the challenges of the transition from CADD to CAAD, specially focusing the BIM – Building Information Modeling technology, putting the question: is this technology the best way to improve the routine in traditional design studios? Describing the current crisis which is happening in the realm of architecture in Brazil because the deep changes in methodology paradigms that BIM causes, the paper talks about its consequence in the schools of architecture, concluding for the urgency on updating their curricula and structures, considering the statement of Ranulph Glanville (2008), about “models of” and “models for”. Supported by this statement the paper concludes that even in digital era, a clay model of an object may be a better tool in the very beginning of conceptual stage than a profoundly detailed model that BIM technology made possible.
"Top down and bottom up - using BIM to merge these two design strategies." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. Our current research is focused on the optimization and evaluation of the architectural building design (gestalt), related and in balance to the inner organization of a building, the floorplan layout. This paper is focused on the impact of Space Layout Planning supported by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) applied to Architectural Design. We present an overview and wide description of the „architectural design“, the classical definition and methods; and its evolution in practice since the ICT tools impact of the last forty years. Definition such as space program, space relationships, space function are wide discussed to understand the phenomena of architectural layout design, the parameters, variables, constraints and goals of each design. Second we present the state of the art and the current techniques and approaches (optimization, generative systems, artificial intelligence, genetic algorithms, physically based modeling, etc), a classification structure is generated to visualize the areas of impact and use of each technique (different areas from architectural design). Finally we described a complete framework to research and develop our own methodologies based on a specific case of architectural design, the current CAD tools and the possible develop of new tools using the impact of BIM systems.
"Transferencia De Tecnología Para La Producción De Componentes Constructivos De Viviendas Chilenas." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Transfiguraciones Urbanas Y Arquitectónicas De La Avenida Rio Branco En Rio De Janeiro Y De La Avenida De Mayo En Buenos Aires En El Siglo Xx." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. It was developed a deep research on the two main avenues built at the beginning of 20th Century in Buenos Aires and Rio de Janeiro, as an expression of the urban symbolism needed by the local bourgeoisie, against the traditional colonial image of architecture and urbanism. Avenida de Mayo started at the end of 19th Century in Buenos Aires and inspired Avenida Central (now Rio Branco Avenue) in Rio de Janeiro, built in the first decade of 20th Century. Even the functional purpose and the aesthetic particularities of buildings are similar – under the French influence – but there are strong differences that lead to the perdurability of Avenida de Mayo and the loss of its original characteristics in Rio Branco Avenue from the Thirties on. In this work, with the help of various programs –MySql and Adobe Flash CS3 combined with 3D Papervision and PHP – it will be possible for users to learn about the evolution and transformations that took place in both Avenues, and also access the database of the Avenues and their buildings.
"Transformaciones En La Práctica Del Diseño Arquitectónico Con La Incorporación Del Cad." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Uploaded: Expanded Art Diagram 2008." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Vbscript En La Educación Del Arquitecto: Evaluación De Estrategias Y Métodos Para Superar Limitaciones Después De La Implementación." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008.
"Visual-Physical Grammars." In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. This paper introduces new visual-physical design grammars for the design and manufacture of building assembly systems that provide visually rich, culturally resonant design variations for housing. The building systems are intended to be tailored for particular cultures and communities by incorporating vernacular, decorative design into the assembly design. Two complementary areas of computational design research are brought together in this work: shape grammars and digital fabrication. The visual or graphic aspects of the research are explored through shape grammars. The physical design and manufacturing aspects are explored through advanced digital design and fabrication technologies and, in particular, build on recent work on mono-material assemblies with interlocking components that can be fabricated with CNC machines and assembled easily by hand on-site (Sass, 2007). This paper describes the initial, proof-of-concept stage of this work: the development of an automated, visual-physical grammar for an assembly system based on a vernacular language of Greek meander designs. A shape grammar for the two-dimensional Greek meander language (Knight, 1986) was translated into a three-dimensional assembly system. The components of the system are uniquely designed, concrete “meander bricks” (Figure 1). The components have integrated alignment features so that they can be easily fitted and locked together manually without binding materials. Components interlock horizontally to form courses, and courses interlock vertically in different ways to produce a visual variety of meander walls. The assembly components were prototyped at desktop scale with a layered manufacturing machine to test their appearance after assembly and their potential for design variations (Figure 2). Components were then evaluated as full-scale concrete objects for satisfaction of physical constraints related to concrete forming and component strength. The automated grammar (computer program) for this system generates assembly design variations with complete CAD/CAM data for fabrication of components formed from layered, CNC cut molds. Using the grammar, a full-scale mockup of a corner wall section was constructed to assess the structural, material, and aesthetic feasibility of the system, as well as ease of assembly. The results of this study demonstrate clearly the potentials for embedding visual properties in structural systems. They provide the foundations for further work on assembly systems for complete houses and other small-scale structures, and grammars to generate them. In the long-term, this research will lead to new solutions for economical, easily manufactured housing which is especially critical in developing countries and for post-disaster environments. These new housing solutions will not only provide shelter but will also support important cultural values through the integration of familiar visual design features. The use of inexpensive, portable digital design and fabrication technologies will allow local communities to be active, cooperative participants in the design and construction of their homes. Beyond the specific context of housing, visual-physical grammars have the potential to positively impact design and manufacture of designed artifacts at many scales, and in many domains, particularly for artifacts where visual aesthetics need to be considered jointly with physical or material requirements and design customization or variation is important.
"What is the state of digital architectural design?" In Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Havaná, Cuba: Ministerio de Educacion Superior, 2008. What is the state of digital architectural design? The ubiquity of the computer in architecture can be seen in the many computer based presentations from famous architectural practices. BIM (Building Information Modelling) is the key word and we can see implementations in very ambitious projects all over the world. Glossy magazines show the results of this kind of architecture and predict that this is the future of our profession. But when we go out into the “small world” (in Europe) and talk with architects in small firms, there is a very different reality – at least at the moment. Although they all agree that the computer is crucial for their work, it is a love/hate relationship for many them. Most still use the computer purely as a drafting device and AutoCAD is still the dominant tool. Although many of them agree with the statement that you can use the computer for design, only a minority really use the computer as a design tool in the early design stages. To find out more about the reality of the use of computers in design in “small town Europe” we have been undertaking two different kinds of research over the past 4 years. The first one is an educational experiment using first year’s students to find out about the different qualities of designing with and without the computer. The results have been presented at previous conferences and, since we are doing a last run of these experiments this year, we will update and finalise our findings in this paper. To make it comparable to previous years, we use largely the same settings using the same type of student (first year) and the same project/site. We will also be comparing the results for students designing ‘freestyle’ ie in the way that they want against the previous years controlled groups. The second strand of research we have followed is a survey amongst practitioners and some of the above statements came out of this survey. We did this survey using a web questionnaire and focused on a particular region of Europe. Although the numbers of participants for this survey were quite satisfying we are re-running the survey in a different region and country to see whether there are significant differences. The results of our research and our experience as teachers and architects leads us to the main question of how we can give recommendations on how to teach design the new generation of architects. In many aspects most of the teaching that is done in our faculties is still strictly divided into teaching design and teaching computer skills. The crucial question for architectural education are the implications of the ubiquity of the computer will have especially in the field of design. We will try to give some suggestions for these effects this could have on our teaching. In the long run, this is the only way to avoid some of the pitfalls and bring the benefits of computers in design to our small architectural firms. The paper will present a summary of the results of our research and try to propose an answer to the question: “What is the state of digital design in small town Europe?”