Keywords Abstract
"A 3D, interactive, multilayered, web-enabled model as a tool for multiple sets of end user groups: a case study and end user analysis." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 392-396. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This research undertakes a case study involving focus groups of potential end users, to identify how a successful digital tool could be created using new and emerging technologies, to accommodate the multiple needs of these end users. 2005 saw the completion of a research paper, which proposed that a single, 3 dimensional digital model of a city forming a core for many different information systems, is a better approach to the needs of the city than many individual models optimised for each information system. The case for the single 3D model was evaluated through the research, development, delivery and analysis of a prototype 3 Dimensional model of Wellington City, New Zealand, presenting different ‘views’ of information in Wellington: a rendered visualisation in an animated “walkthrough”; the impact of planning constraints on daylight; interactive “plots” of property values. The development and delivery of the prototype model was analysed in regards to how complex, costly and time consuming it may be to exploit one base model for several purposes; and also therefore how beneficial, affordable and potentially successful a single model may be. The prototype model was created to test the idea, and therefore provided conclusions based on a limited feasibility analysis - with four potential information layers modelled and two potential delivery methods tested. The prototype model and user analysis results were presented in a research report that suggested further research and development of a single model could be very beneficial: Positive feedback from potential end users and data providers, and examples of potential data mining opportunities forming the basis of the need for continued research. 2006 sees the research continue as an 18 month research project in conjunction with an industry partner, Terralink International, (http://www.terralink.co.nz/). Terralink International Limited provides GIS and mapping solutions which according to their web site: “enable better business management.” The company maintains a national resource of “imagery, cartography, and spatial databases” and provides consultancy services linking these to company databases through GIS systems. The research investigates the potential for 3 dimensional, interactive, multilayered models to enhance delivery of information to multiple end user groups. The research method uses functional prototypes in end-user focus group workshops. These workshops, consisting of a combination of presentations, hands on interactive examples, group discussions, and individual feedback surveys, aim to establish how a tool might best be developed to communicate to a wide range of end users. The means of delivery whether a stand alone tool or web-based is a key element of the user group workshop assessment process. Note: The submission of the prototype tool (via video or interactive media) would greatly increase the effectiveness of the research presentation. Ability to include such media would be greatly appreciated.
"A Constraint-Based Building Bulk Design Support." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 278-282. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. We introduce an architecture practice-oriented implementation strategy of constraint-based methods called BDS (Building Bulk Design Support) to supporting bulk analysis during the architectural programming phase. We examine the optmization problem of site coverage and building massing according to a set of standard planning and zoning regulations, and try a problem solving approach based on the paradigm of constraint satisfaction problems. The case study, which is focused on the paticipatory planning of very low-income dwellings within the Latin American context, serves as testbed for a prototypical application of the adopted methodology. The BDS constitutes a novel approach on computer-aided bulk analysis, regarding this particularly relevant context of application. In the case of participatively planned low-income housing projects, efficiency regarding time and cost of planning directly affects dwellers’ quality of life, whereas elementary programming tasks such as bulk analysis lack appropriate state-of-the-art technological support. Traditional architectural planning methods demand a large domain-specific knowledge base and skillful planners. A planning process, which is mainly driven by the formulation of planning-relevant constraints and sets of solution alternatives, suggests to avoid architects’ traditional procedure of: 1. Create an (yet not necessarily valid) instance of the eventual design solution by directly choosing specific values for its shape parameters. 2. Evaluate its validity by confronting the designed model to a set of applicable constraints, which have to be satisfied. Instead, the constraint-based design methodology poses a search procedure that operates in a space of pertinent constraint sets. A computer-aided interactive search procedure to find more valid design solution alternatives in less time and with less effort is particularly qualified to supply efficient support for participatory planning activities carried out between dwellers and planners. The set of solutions for a building-bulk design problem is constrained by both a large complex system of planning and zoning regulations and the geometry of the eventual design solution itself. Given a considerable amount of such regulations, a regular size geometric constraint satisfaction system proved to be capable of providing a highly efficient, interactive modeling and evaluation tool for the formulation in real time of valid solution alternatives for an ordinary building-bulk design problem. A BDS implementation will constitute one system module of a larger integrated system model called Esther. A BDS tool shall interact with other functional modules, like e.g. the FLS (Floor plan Layout Support), which also uses constraint-based design methods.
"A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 465-469. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
"Alternatives of Design: 3D Interactive Virtual Site to "Las Americas Virtual Design Studio"." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 47-51. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. Alternatives of Design is a course that aims to prepare architects from the Master Studies Department of Computing in Architecture (LUZ), in two ways: first, by expanding their perspective about potentialities of using new virtual reality technologies in architecture, and second, by qualifying them to apply this acquired theoretical knowledge in their professional environment, The goal of this research is to describe the products of the course Alternatives of Design 2005, which include: a methodology of designing to the cyberspace by using VRML and Java Script, in order to achieve a proposal of a Site to "Las Americas Virtual Design Studio". This site is projected as a digital manager to interactive simulation in multiuser virtual worlds, specifically to virtual architectonical workshops, With this proposal, it is possible to integrate many users, in real time, from different locations on the same virtual world in Internet.
"America's Virtual studio: Analysis, Synthesis and Proposal for develop an interactive multi-user environment." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 105-109. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. As the title suggests, this paper makes an attempt to provide a factual analysis and synthesis of the activities that the Tex-Mex Virtual Design Studio, and later the Las Americas Virtual Design Studio, have been implementing since September of 1996, The objective of this attempt is to provide a framework for the formulation of a new conceptual and instrumental profile for future implementations of our virtual design studios. With such a purpose the paper outlines the importance of virtual design studios in the framework of opening design education to distance education methodologies and argues in favor of their further utilization for addressing issues of globalization in architecture and design education. This argument is followed by a quick description of current practices within the Las Americas Virtual Design Studio and sets the stage for a detailed description of how multi-user interactive environments may further support interaction within virtual design studios.
"An experience in e-learning modality for the learning in architecture. New practices and actors in the digital world." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 147-152. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. As members of the Network ALFA-T-GAMEL3: Teaching computer Graphics And MultimEdia, LifeLongLearning, focused on the “Management of university outreach services”, and making use of the new digital technologies and to the instruction and pedagogic methods related to e-learning modality, the International Seminar “Digital Image and Sound.” has been organized, thus materializing a Pilot Course comprising four subjects and six workshops. For our course: “Digital Representation of Architecture”, an investigation was conducted about the transformations of teaching in the digital world for the learning of Architecture, focusing on the practices and players involved in this modality, as well as on the technologies involved in the coordination and distribution of knowledge. The main objectives of the paper were: revalorization of the format adopted by the practices related to the teaching/learning process in e-l, the contribution of the different “players” and the possibilities of the LMS as support platforms in the virtual campus.
"Archinet-MetaUniversity: Alfa Project on Phase 3 for Transversal Integration." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 52-55. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. Archinet Meta-University: Alfa-Project Phase three for transversal integration, According to the call for papers for Sigradi 2006, this work seeks the dissemination of the actions that have been developed in the first year of the Alfa-Project Meta University, Phase 3. This phase consists of the interchange of students and professors. We present a sample of the teaching/learning experiences, leaving aside the formal and bureaucratic aspects of the program. The use of CAD, digital media and multimedia resources in the student projects and research is an important factor for the success of the experience-The network includes eight schools of architecture: Strathclyde in Scotland; Seville in Spain; Sint- Lucas in Brussels, Belgium and TU/E in Eindhoven, Netherlands and four Latin American Schools: Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Universidad de Belgrano in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Echeverria Institute in Havana, Cuba and the PU.Catholic University in Santiago, Chile.
"Architectural design learning in a digital world." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 210-214. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. The background of this paper goes back to the yer 2000 when its autor realizad an investigation in the architecture workshops. In that same year she finished her master's thesis about the design process and continued with investigations observing the influence of the computer use in the process. The main goal of the paper is to determine if the digital mediums take an important role between the connection of knowledges, actitudes and habilites for the architectonic design. The methodology used for the data collection was trough participant observations, interviews and cuasiexperiments. The paper shows how the student takes elements from the knowledges, actitudes and habilities, and connects them to realize constructions of new schemes of knowledge in the architectonic design process; the use of old and new tools to design and how it influences the outcome is observed.
"Architectural Design Teaching - Digital or Handcrafted?" In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 236-240. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006.
"Architectural drawing with digital media: the actual architectural expression." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 200-204. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. The Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism of the Ricardo Palma University incorporated more than 15 years ago the obligatory course of Drawing by Computer. Since then, and in view of the technological advances and the exigencies of the market, the lectures have been modified from those that traditionally used manual means. There are many lectures that use digital means in the Faculty, the present investigation tries to show to the objectives and methodology used in these lectures. The Faculty has the area of Communications; this area includes three courses for the education of Computer Drawing, 2D, 3D and virtual presentations. We have for example, inside the area of communications, the different modifications that have suffered the drawing courses, in the technology area, the courses of Environmental Technology, and in the area of workshops, the appearance of a virtual workshop that is carried out entirely with the employment of the digital technology.
"Architecture as human phenotypic extension - an approach based on computational explorations." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 56-60. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. The study describes some of the aspects tackled within a current Ph.D. research where architectural applications of constructive, structural and organization processes existing in biological systems are considered. The present information processing capacity of computers and the specific software development have allowed creating a bridge between two holistic nature disciplines: architecture and biology. The crossover between those disciplines entails a methodological paradigm change towards a new one based on the dynamical aspects of forms and compositions. Recent studies about artificial-natural intelligence (Hawkins, 2004) and developmental-evolutionary biology (Maturana, 2004) have added fundamental knowledge about the role of the analogy in the creative process and the relationship between forms and functions. The dimensions and restrictions of the Evo-Devo concepts are analyzed, developed and tested by software that combines parametric geometries, L-systems (Lindenmayer, 1990), shape-grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1971) and evolutionary algorithms (Holland, 1975) as a way of testing new architectural solutions within computable environments. It is pondered Lamarck´s (1744-1829) and Weismann (1834-1914) theoretical approaches to evolution where can be found significant opposing views. Lamarck´s theory assumes that an individual effort towards a specific evolutionary goal can cause change to descendents. On the other hand, Weismann defended that the germ cells are not affected by anything the body learns or any ability it acquires during its life, and cannot pass this information on to the next generation; this is called the Weismann barrier. Lamarck’s widely rejected theory has recently found a new place in artificial and natural intelligence researches as a valid explanation to some aspects of the human knowledge evolution phenomena, that is, the deliberate change of paradigms in the intentional research of solutions. As well as the analogy between genetics and architecture (Estévez and Shu, 2000) is useful in order to understand and program emergent complexity phenomena (Hopfield, 1982) for architectural solutions, also the consideration of architecture as a product of a human extended phenotype can help us to understand better its cultural dimension.
"Architecture, data and form: a first instrumental approach." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 268-272. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. The production of forms via iterative computational processes allows designers to operate on datasets that would be to large to be managed via traditional analog methods. This fact opens the door to new aesthetic and formal experimentation as well as attempts to reference or influence large scale phenomena such as geographical or network based sitatuations. This document presents the results of a series of investigations into the creation of algorithmic and parametric methods or instruments that could inform architectural practice. The work was done by the authors within the Masters of Architecture Program of the Catholic University of Chile.
"Between digital and analogue graphic: Methodology in architects development." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 195-199. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. From the beginning of the new millennium, the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism of the Ricardo Palma University, it's convinced that it requires to adapt itself to the constant technological changes, it has seen necessary the updating of its Curricular Plan, the same one that from year 2000 has suffered modifications to fulfill the demands that the society demands. This research attempt to establish the new profile of the architect, as well as a new curricular structure and the academic principles and foundations that the Faculty for the development of architects. The objectives of each academic area are emphasized, in special of the Area of workshops, teaching methodology that identifies the formation of Architects in the Ricardo Palma University.
"Campus without borders: Digital Mediains the process of a trans-national education." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 219-223. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This paper describes a sustainable strategy for the implementation of instructional content mediated by digital networks. This strategy has been launched as an initiative under the name “Campus Unlimited”. The Campus Unlimited Project calls for the development of instructional content within a nested system. In that system content providers produce content that can be delivered as an isolated lecture, These lectures can be compiled with other lectures and delivered as courses. Few of these specialized courses can be compiled into certificate programs, and certificate programs can be nested as elective courses within master and doctoral degree programs. In terms of implementation, this paper also describes the technical environment in which content providers, usually professors, produce content in digital format that is ready for distribution through the networks. Finally, the paper draws conclusions on the learning outcomes of this implementation and looks into its potential future development.
"CNC Timber Framing - Innovative Applications of Digital Wood Fabrication Technology." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 304-307. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. The discourse on depleting natural resources and compromised environments have led to extended research on sustainable designs methods, building practices and materials. Beyond the actual performance of building products and components, research on sustainable building increasingly focuses on the long-term effects of the production, application and life cycle of building materials on the natural environment, human inhabitation and quality of life. Computer aided manufacturing technologies play a significant role not only in the transformation of design and building methods, but also in an extended discourse on cultural development. Globally available technologies connect the design and building process to a broad range of long-term ecological factors by creating a correlation between "the emergent political, economical and social processes and … architectural techniques, geometries and organization." Through this interrelationship to economy and culture, technology and its applications are also directly related to notions of place and territory as well as to fundamental ideas of ecology. The collaborative research and design study for an outdoor theater roof structure at the University of British Columbia Malcolm Knapp Research Forest at Maple Ridge, B.C., Canada, focuses on the use of digital media in prefabrication and material optimization. By utilizing small square section timber and minimizing the use of alienating connectors the research on the wood roof structure illustrates the potential of a design culture that seeks innovation in a broader understanding of ecology routed in regional culture, environmental conditions, economy and tradition. Labor intensive manufacturing techniques are redefined aided by computer controlled machines and virtual modeling of complex geometries is translated into simple operations. The result is a more sensible and accurate response to the place’s demands. In order to generate innovative design interventions that make a constructive long-term contribution to the preservation, maintenance and evolution of the environment, design needs to be based on a comprehensive understanding of its context and the distinctive qualities of the materials used. Following the example of the outdoor roof structure, this paper aims to define innovative design as work that resonates at the intersection of the fields of technology, material science, manufacturing processes, techniques of assembly and context that constitute the expanded context or complex ecology that projects need to engage. It is in design research studies like for the outdoor theater roof structure with focus on CNC wood fabrication technologies that the common design and building discourse is put to question, boundaries are explored and expanded and the collective understanding is improved towards ecological design.
"Collaborative production for taught-learning materials for digital graphic with multidisciplinary contributions." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 117-121. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006.

For a contribution to problem solving processes at different areas, this paper presents the use of Digital Graphics as a knowledge object for a distance teaching/learning workshop. At the Learning Management System, different theoretical subjects with supporting tools were proposed, and exercises requiring collaborative work. An specific didactic situation using available technologies at Internet for 3D modelling, combined with satellite images and geographic information program was proposed. The final works were then shared by a 3D models repository. As a complement of this experience and in relation with their professional work, every student proposed a new didactic situation including Learning Objects, sharing them with the others members of the group, through conceptual maps built up in a co-operative way.

"Communitarian interfaces_Collaborative constructions." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 70-74. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This paper aims at examining some issues related to the conception of interfaces whose structures work at anchoring local based community networks. It points out that the countless variables that should be considered when structuring these interfaces connect offline collaborative activities, an aspect usually forgotten in this practice. It tries to denote and propose some theoretical tools which can be an aid in the task to bring offline collaborative activities near the constitution of virtual communities place based. This paper is regarded as part of researches which aim at building a wider theoretical understanding of the constitution of hybrid and virtual spaces, and also the implications of ICT Information and Communication Technologies in daily life, taking place at Nomads. usp Center for Interactive Studies - at the Department of Architeture and Urbanism of the Engeneering School of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo.
"Conceptual maps creation from an architectural design base." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 312-315. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This work was done in continuity to the research of a tool named “kaleidoscope” conceived to organize references to the architectural project by the association of images to concepts. The concepts index the images and are organized in concept libraries. In this part of our work, we are using some methods to create seven concept libraries. We have used the last three years final graduation projects of our students as a source of investigation, trying to form these libraries.
"Controlled Unpredictability: Constraining Stochastic Search as a Form-Finding Method for Architectural Design." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 263-267. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. Provided with a strict set of rules a computer program can perform the role of a simple designer. Taking advantage of a computer’s processing power, it can also provide an unlimited number of variations in the form while following a given set of constraints. This paper delineates a model for interrelating a rule-based system based on purely architectural considerations with non-deterministic computational procedures in order to provide controlled variations and constrained unpredictability. The experimental model consists of a verisimilar architectural problem, the design of a residential tower with a strict program of 200 units of different types in a given site. Following the interpretation of the program, a set of rules is defined by considering architectural concerns such as lighting, dimensions, circulations, etc. These rules are then encoded in a program that generates form in an unsupervised manner by means of a stochastic search algorithm. Once the program generates a design it’s evaluated, and the parameters on the constraints are adjusted in order to produce a new design. This paper presents a description of the architectural problem and of the rule building process, images and descriptions of three different towers produced, and the code for the stochastic-search algorithm used for generating the form. The succesful evolution of the experiments show how in a computation-oriented design process the interpretation of the problem and the rule setting process play a major role in the production of meaningful form, outlining the shifting role of human designers from form-makers to rule-builders in a computation-oriented design endeavour.
"Creation of informatics curricula for the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism at the University of Chile." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 110-113. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. The purpose of this is survey is focused on exploration ans expantion student technological skill boundariesand personal growth as an artistand designer. The main topics are emphasized with diverse graphic tools and computing techniques providingenhancement of visual and creative dexterity, assessment, simulationand the support necessary for visual and verval communication and collaboration. Finished projects will be peer critiqued.
"Creative Collaborations." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 27-29. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. The teaching of design is typically an individual process. Theories of learning, imperatives of assessmentand traditional teaching models set individual tasks that are intendedto lead to individual submissions. With attitudes of training and instruction, the focus is typically on skill acquisition and demonstration of such skills through successful completion of project tasks.The context of studio teaching, however, is one that is immensely powerful and makes a substantial contribution to the intellectual approaches to comprehending our realities and, more importantly, our futures. In this paper I will focus on three aspects of studio that warrant attention, among the many that demand it, especially as digital media and environments, beyond tools, are pervasive in design. This paper will consider the importance of studio education as the context for design education from the aspects of design as asocial act, design as an expert act, design as an engagement of data.
"Descriptive study of pedagogical practices mediated by digital technologies in school of architecture and design, associated to the good education." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 191-194. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. It is presented a descriptive type study link to the documentary investigation. It is considers to understand, interpretate and critically reconstruct the present practices of proyectual education in studio of school of architecture and design of the region in virtual surroundings, tie to good education. It was used the Burbules & Callister (2001) new emergent postecnocratic approach. It is boarded from the perspective of the authors, in its natural scenes, in its all complexity and its implicances. One worked with a quanti-qualitative methodology, where revision techniques, analysis, evaluation and interpretation of documental textual and visual materials from primary sources were integrated. One has been based on the selection of exposed works in Sigradi congresses, since its creation in 1997 to the present, with extended and updated versions of the authors. As conclusions are recognized professors that show expertise and disciplinar control, that develop investigation tasks tie to the education practices, that incorporate technologies valuating limitations and advantages, and that has recognized the multiple implicit effects in the technologically mediated practices.
"Design for the development: a growing point of view." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 61-65. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006.

This approach intends to develop a consulting capacity in design and technological management for the sustainable growth, supporting local communities with specific resources. In the development of the technological knowledge transfer, the acritical applications, under the cover of paradigms of technological globalization that give their back to the local contexts, and of the irrelevant pedagogical routines, dissociate the technology from its social meaning. In our research approach, the transfer experience is the unit of analysis which under observation relocates and redefines technique in the context of sustainable local development, uncovering its relations with society. In this work, we will show one experience that explain the contribution of design to sustainable development, experiences that specially reveal the need to count with criteria and indicators of technological performance in participative and inclusive scenarios.

"Design Process Taxonomy: Notes on Design Theories, Methods and Instruments ." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 30-37. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This presentation argues that the concepts of “tools” and “material”, in relation to it use in contemporary architectural design education, can be understood as “instruments” within design processes. The difference between them relies on, its design knowledge abstraction levels, and its mechanisms to capture, manipulate and produce design knowledge. In addition, an initial exploration of Distributed Cognition concept, in order to redefine the use of instruments in design process as Cognitive Instruments, is presented. Furthermore, a more comprehensive framework for design knowledge is presented, including a specific examination of design instruments an its role indesign processes. In the conclusions possible effects derived from the use of “instruments” in design processes are explored.
"Design processes: Using computing animations for interactive furniture conception." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 321-324. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This article explores the use of graphical animations in the process of furniture design. The proposals are part of the Kómuniká’tór Project (www.eesc.usp.br/nomads/ kom.htm) that investigates the insertion of media in dwelling furniture. The objective is to describe the process of creation and use of these animations pointing how this methodology has been relevant for visualizing potentials and limitations of the proposals explored in the project. Two consultations through focus groups had been carried through, the first one with potentially users and the second one with professionals of design, communication and architecture domains. The technique of animations appears as a valid method for a first contact between the proposed object with its possible user.
"Design with robotic/domotic in interior spaces." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 288-292. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. The aim of the present study is to present the experience of the teaching of interior design together with domotics in a workshop of 5th year of the Architecture School at the National University of Cordoba, Argentina. A practice of Inner Space Design is carried out in a place of the City of Cordoba; this space is refunctionalized into a commercial space. The students design spaces and develop equipment to optimize this space so as to give an answer to commercial and image needs, design tendencies and the high technology required by the domotics. We discuss the advantages of representation in 3D and the performance of animation for both adjusting the design and checking domotics application. We intend to propose objectives and useful and necessary tools in the teaching of design with front-kine technology for both the concretion of spaces and objects and their representation.
"Digital Design Pedagogy - Basic Design - CADCAM Space Box Exploration." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 127-130. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This proposed paper will highlight the work of a “pre-architecture” graduate student’s work produced in a “Digital Design II” course in Spring 06. This student has a bachelor’s degree in Architectural Technologies and hopes to attend a “professional” degree program in architecture after completing our Master of Science degree program. The student entered our “pre / post-professional” graduate program as a means of learning more about design, technology and architecture. This provided a rare opportunity to do “research” in the area of digital technology in the early formative phases of a new architecture / design students development. The student chose to study “shadows” as a means of design inquiry. The primary focus of the work was the study of various “4” x 4” x 4” “space-cubes.” The student was given various “design” constraints, and “transformative” operations for the study of positive-negative space relationships, light+shadows, and surface as a means of gaining in-sight to form. The CADCAM tools proved to be empowering for the student’s exploration and learning. With the recent emergence of both more user-friendly hardware and software, we are seeing a paradigm shift in design “ideation.” This is attributed to the evolving human-computer-interface (HCI) that now allows a fluidic means of creative design ideation, digital representation and physical making. Computing technology is now infusing early conceptual design ideation and allowing designers, and form, to follow their ideas. The argument will be supported with primary evidence generated in our pedagogy and research that has shown the visualization and representational power of emerging 2D and 3D CADCAM tools. This paper will analyze the basic “digital design” process used by the writer’s student. Architectural form concepts, heretofore, impossible to model and represent, are now possible due to CADCAM. Emerging designers are integrating “digital thinking” in their fundamental conceptualization of form. These creative free-forms are only feasible for translation to tectonic form using digital design-make techniques. CADCAM tools are empowering designers for form exploration and design creativity. Current computing technology is now infusing the creative design process; the computer is becoming a design “partner” with the designer and is changing form and architecture; thus, we are now seeing unprecedented design-make creativity in architecture.
"Digital Fabrication: photo realistic digital models on mapping and quantifing the pathologies in restoration design." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 341-345. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This article is about the experience in the use of digital threedimensional models as an auxiliary tool in the phase of diagnosis on an architecture project of restoration. At first it deals with the importance and the methodology usually used in development of those projects. After telling about an experience that urged to look for new solutions, it was made a first exercise searching a new tool. It had about positive points the fact of being modeled quickly, to have made possible a clear vision of the pathologies and for being easily manipulable, providing a dynamic visualization of the construction. Another experience looked for the possibilities of analysis and quantification of damages in a photorealistic model. Afterwards analyzing the different potentials and restrictions of each accomplished experiment, this work looks for point out news ways that can be followed.
"Digital Storytelling: "Memory.... Sarajevo, my personal story"." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 337-340. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. “It was a fresh summer night, sky deprived of stars, and hardly any signs of life. After hours of waiting, well passed midnight, they finally allowed us to enter. I couldn’t see or hear much, except movements of those in front of me, but judging by intense scent of mildew and worm-like smell of earth, I realized my mile long underground adventure had begun. There was no looking back, only the brave steps ahead into my new, and hopefully, safe and fruitful future.” [ from diary95 ] Just like many teens around the world, I too kept a journal. It began with playful thoughts of a teenage girl, living in Sarajevo, enjoying life. On my fifteenth birthday, those carefree moments were soon replaced with brutal facts of life under siege: Sarajevo and its citizens had been surrounded by the Serbs who took over all the roads leading in and out of the city. Three years later, I was weeks away from graduating high school, and instead of getting excited, I wondered about my future…”Yesterday was awesome -- we had both electricity and water for eight straight hours…hooray!! You could see the lights miles away…the entire city was awake, making pies and bread, washing clothes, watching movies.” [ from diary93 ] Was I going to spend the rest of my life anticipating the restricted electric and water timetable? Would I wake up the next day to see all my family alive? Would I ever have a chance to fulfill my dreams? This project captures the process of [re]tracing steps of my personal journey of leaving Sarajevo to come to the United States and [re]constructing memories as a sequence of spatial events using the artifacts and the text from my war journals. The intent of my project is to define that line between the old and the new, and intertwine and merge its current condition with the facts and memories from the past. Although there was never a permanent “Berlin-wall-like” divider, the natural contours of the river and invisible screens of the snipers served as impermeable walls and divided the city for four years. The implied boundary seemed to be more powerful than the massiveness of the concrete barricades. Is it possible to re-condition something [building, space, soul] to be and feel the same when it had been destroyed and deeply scarred on the inside? Instead of placing banal memorials engraved with the bare facts, how can we make a tribute to a series of events—a time period that changed the fabric of the city—in a more three-dimensional experience? How can we integrate digital phenomenon in the process of the post-war reconstruction to re-trace the past while creating necessary advanced improvements for the new contemporary society? The impact that social conditions have on architecture, art, culture, and ultimately, people can be told in a universal language – digital storytelling, containing pieces of history and personal memories to create representations of time and space of the past, present or future.
"Digital TENT (Technological Environment for Negotiated Topology)." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 346-349. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This article approaches the social use of digital immersive environments in two different realms. One aiming at the digital training of self-builders involved in participatory design of affordable housing and the other dealing with experimental connection of lowincome communities (favelas) placed at different geographic locations. It first describes the specific digital immersive environment called Digital TENT, developed at IBPA/LAGEAR, which aims to investigate the production of space by means of bodily engagement with images within the perspective of the experience rather than that of the spectacle. Subsequently, it discusses the conceptual basis of the TENT (Technological Environment for Negotiated Topology) as opposed to the CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment), This discussion is deepened into a critique of the visual representation of space opposed to the possibility of dynamic creation of environments that only happen in present time with peoples' interaction, Such a critique, associated with two social experiences carried out by IBPA/ LAGEAR, leads to the conclusion that the Digital TENT is effective for both supporting visualization processes and spatial negotiation in participatory design, and also as a place for enhancing the very experience.
"Dry-In House: a Mass Customized Affordable House for New Orleans." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 359-362. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. Dry-in house is a mass customized affordable housing system proposed for the reconstruction of New Orleans. The dry-in House gets the owner back to their home site quickly while providing the infrastructure an occupant needs (shelter, water, electricity). The owner is supplied with an inhabitable shell that is customizable before it is fabricated as well as onsite as the project is “fitted out” over time. The key concept is to allow families to participate in the design of their customized homes and to get people back to their home sites as quickly as possible and to give them the opportunity to finish and further customize their home over time. The project addresses inefficiencies and redundancies in emergency housing currently provided by FEMA. Primarily the dry-in House as its name implies provides a timely dried-in space which doubles as a customized infrastructure for the reconstruction of homes and neighborhoods. The project is designed to meet the $59,000 life cycle cost of the presently provided temporary housing, the notorious “FEMA Trailer”. However, the Dry-in House provides a solution that: a) Is permanent rather than temporary. The house will be finished and further customized over time rather than disposed of. b) Reoccupies the owner’s home site rather than a “FEMA ghetto” keeping the community together and functioning. c) Is mass customized rather than mass-standardized allowing the owner to have input on the design of their home. The design is a “starter home” rather than an inflexible and over-determined solution. This also has the benefit of giving variation to the reconstruction of New Orleans as opposed to the monotony of mass-production. d) Allows the owners to further customize their home over time with additional exterior finishes and the subdivision and fit out of the interior. By utilizing plate truss technology and associated parametric modeling software, highly customized trusses can be engineered and fabricated at no additional cost as compared to off-the-shelf trusses. This mass customization technology is employed to create the building section of each individual’s house. The truss is not used in its typical manner, spanning over the house; rather, it is extruded in section to form the house itself (roof, wall, and floor). Dry-in House exploits this building technology to quickly rebuild communities in a sensible manner. It allows for an increased speed of design and construction and most importantly it involves the owner in this process. The process has other benefits like reducing waste not only because it replaces the FEMA trailer which is expensive and disposable but also since the components are prefabricated there is more precision and also quality. The Dry-in House allows the owner-designer to “draw” the section of their new home providing them with a unique design and a sense of belonging and security. The design of the section of the house also provides them with spatial configurations customized relative to site conditions, program etc... Because of the narrow lot configuration of New Orleans, the design maximizes the roof as a source for natural ventilation and light for the interior of the house. In addition, the house is one room deep providing cross ventilation in all rooms minimizing reliance on artificial mechanical systems. The timely and efficient off site fabrication of building sections facilitate larger concentrations of volunteers on site at one time, thereby promoting a greater collective spirit among the community and volunteer workforce, a therapeutic event for the community as they participate in the rebuilding of their homes and city. With individualized building sections arriving on site, the construction process is imagined to be more akin to a barn raising, making possible the drying in of multiple houses in less than one day.
"Emerging design - a Digital platform for a Students Association." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 87-89. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. Diseño Emergente is a design management project that seeks the creation of associative networks between Chilean design students. As the result of a dissociative design academy, the project identifies the need to develop such networks, allowing the exposure of the many perspectives on design education that exist in the country. Using Information Technologies, Diseño Emergente delivers On-line Portfolios and Discussion Forums for design students, encouraging the exchange of knowledge, critique and commentary. The goal is to make each of the more than fifty design school's strengths and weaknesses visible to the design community, Developed by students, for students, Diseño Emergente is an active participant in the conception and planning of student-related design events, promoting the work of the future professional. Diseño Emergente seeks to consolidate itself as a non-profit NGO, capable of looking after the student- body's interests in relation to design academy and professional organizations.
"Empathy over distance: Wearables as tools for augmenting Remote Emotional Connection." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 66-69. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. Mainstream communication modes emphasise network speed, connection access, resolution, portability, and aesthetic design as primary to the success of their products. Within this vision a three by four centimetre screen and high resolution display are deemed adequate to emulate the intensities and complexities of face-to-face connection with loved ones. They allow us to ‘be there with you’ from wherever we might be. Yet interpersonal communication is a massively complex phenomenon. It involves a plethora of micro-activities which occur at a physical, physiological, and psychological level allowing us to recognise at a cellular scale intention, motive and emotional authenticity. Our conscious and non-conscious involvement in spatially collocated communication is substantial due to these myriad channels of real-time bi-directional information transfer. While contemporary communications technologies have the capacity to mediate our relationships, they fall short of encouraging the richness of spatially co-present interaction. The research discussed in this paper investigates the potential expansion of remote connection when electronically enhanced apparel is incorporated into the communications mix. Rather than pursuing the manifold functionalities of traditional communications media the garments discussed focus solely on the goal of enhancing empathy between physically distant individuals. This paper reports on the development and testing of a range of garments that conduct presence information between remotely located people. The garments sense, process, transmit and receive the heartbeat wavelength (ECG). They are enabled with ECG sensors, signal processing equipment, small vibration motors, and radio transceivers which allow users to ‘feel’ the heartbeat of a remote friend/lover/relative as vibration through their garment. The prototypes aim to enrich the remote communications experience through reintroducing an embodied, tactile dimension that is present in face-to-face communication. A range of user testing trials will be discussed which have been undertaken to assess the impact of the garments at a conscious and a non-conscious level. Conscious experiences were gauged through qualitative testing, by way of interviews and unsolicited written reactions, which have provided a range of engaging emotional responses. Non-conscious physiological reactions were assessed by recording ECG throughout user-testing periods. This data has been processed using HRV (heart rate variability) analysis software, running on MatLab. Preliminary results suggest that users have strong conscious and non-conscious reactions to the experience of wearing the prototype garments. The paper will describe the data processing techniques and findings of the user testing trials. The development of biosignal sensing garments has raised a range of issues including: innovative potentials for embedded peripheral awareness media; the expansion of the classical body to incorporate remotely sensed information; the issue of data semantics and the development of intensely personal non-verbal languages; and the issue of corporeal privacy when one’s biological information is exposed for potential download. They also bring into question how our bodily experiences might change when we incorporate remote sensory systems.
"Establishing CAD standards - Regional discipline." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 316-320. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006.
"Evaluation of Formative Processes by means the Digital Files." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 187-190. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. The vertiginous advance of the digital technologies of our days this demanding to who we are devoted to the formation of professionals, to be in alert constant regarding the form of learning of the new generations of students that enter in our classrooms, by the light of the new teaching contexts and learning that are characterized by the integration of these new technologies and the unavoidable protagonism of their participants.
"Event: architecture and art in the era of mediatized experience." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 456-460. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. The field of this text is the problematization, by the philosophic concept of event, of the basis of the artistic and architectural practices amplied by digital means inside the contemporary cultural context. One can delineate a field composed in one side, by the philosophical concepts and, in other side, by the current senses in the cultural sphere – oscillating between them, emerge the senses in architecture and art. The event as an unforeseeable and not programmable rupture, central to the philosophies of Gilles Deleuze and Alain Badiou, is a critic concept to the contemporary context habited by programmed and prescribed events of performance. The emergence of effective evental sites, promoting rupture with the contemporary performing quotidian, is the main challenge to the digital and hybrid artistic/architectural practices, based in operations of regulated (un)foreseeability.
"Evolutionary Algorithms for Supple Design Systems." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 273-277. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. The study uses a repetitive rule of geometric and arithmetical expression, cradle in the movement of the horse in the chess, as displacement continued within a well-known field. Each jump is an iteration of the algorithm, and does that a gene initiator mute, varying its genetic information in its chromosome. This Evolutionary Algorithm is used like an explorer of the space, which tends to move according to a pre-established atmosphere in the programming. The Evolutionary Algorithm imitates the biological evolution as strategy to solve design problems. Its unexpected answers and without direct intervention of a designer, is a family of forms with small variations among them, where each member is a possible solution to the problem. The Generative Calculation depends on its rules, and in this sense he is as genuine as the behaviour of any natural biological system.
"Foundations for a Constraint-Based Floor Plan Layout Support in Participatory Planning of Low-Income Housing." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 283-287. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. We introduce the foundations of a novel approach that deals with constraint-based design methods to supporting participatory planning processes of low-income dwellings. We examine the space allocation problem inside the architectural domain on the basis of graph theory and combinatorics, providing a concise mathematical background for an implementation strategy called FLS (Floor plan Layout Support), which is analyzed here for the first time regarding this particular context of application. The philosophy underlying a design method that is mainly driven by the formulation of distinct constraints suggests to avoid the traditional procedure of first to create a yet not necessarily valid instance of the eventual design solution by directly choosing specific parameter values of its shape, and later on to evaluate its validity by confronting the designed model to a set of applicable constraints. Instead, constraint-based design poses a search procedure that operates in a space of planning-relevant constraint sets. The FLS methodology integrates some few principles of constraint-based automated reasoning with high user interactivity, into a design environment where as much dwellers as planners can collaboratively work in solving spatial organization problems of housing projects. The FLS model of application makes use of a combination of dweller-specified constraints, planning and zoning regulations, and a small library of modular space units. Constraint-based design ! methods are particularly capable of supplying efficient support for the collaborative involvement of dwellers into the architectural programming process of her/his own home. Mainly, because dwellers themselves tend to describe their space need and design intentions as a set of constraints on room quantity, space utilization, circulation system, allocation of available furniture, available budget, construction time, and so forth. The goal is to achieve an integrated tool for finding and modelling topologically valid solutions for floor plan layout alternatives, by combining user-driven interactive procedures with automatic search and generative processes. Thus, several design alternatives can be explored in less time and with less effort than using mainstream procedures of architectural practice. A FLS implementation will constitute one system module of a larger integrated system model called Esther. A FLS tool shall interact with other functional modules, like e.g. the BDS (Building Bulk Design Support), which also uses constraint-based design methods. A preliminary procedural model for the FLS was tested on Chile’s official social housing standards (Chilean Building Code – OGUC. Art. 6.4.1) which are very similar to most Latin American housing programs currently in operation.
"From Ars mnemonic to Ars generative: a critical review about the architectural production in a glocal time." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 308-311. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. The aim of this article is to show the complementarity and actuality of the use of design methods as Mnemonic Structures, Cybernetic and Complexity, for the conception of virtual, mixed or concrete knowledge spaces. The ideas presented in this article inscribe themselves in a larger questioning about the relation of architectural design process and digital culture, discussed in our research group nomads.usp [Center for Interactive Living Studies, http://www.eesc. usp.br/nomads].
"From the art event to the spectator." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 434-437. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. Contemporaneus art constructs its own space: interactive, multiple, eidetic, heterogenous, discontinuous and subjective: essence, forms and idea of a heterotopic at the same time atopic space, that arises at the moment of the intelligible apprehension of the work. This work sets out to study the cyberperption of that space from the spectator, for whom the history is the sum of histories narrated by the space, the scenery, choreography, dances, illumination, music, sounds, songs, word, performance, gestures etc., for which sets out the analysis from the perceived, analyzed and interpreted images by the spectator. It will be implemented from Body automatical Body resistant of Yacov Sharir (2004), using the qualitative research method, where the speaker meaning is introduced: the creator intentionality of those spaces, but is inescapable who arises the “interpretation” from the observer.
"Geometrical Guidelines to Aid the Design of Floor Plants of Residential Buildings." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 243-247. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This paper discusses the basic principles of a geometric method to aid the design process of residential buildings. It makes part of the initial phases of a research whose aim is to develop a computer system to aid the sketching and evaluation of floor plant design of multi-storied residential buildings. The fundamental idea of the research is the existence of some basic patterns of floor plants that reflect the designer’s mental models in this category of building. The models are regarding the usage of the space such as forms and dimensions, the elements for the circulation and the external skins. During the design process, architects work on each one of these models to generate the sketches of the floor plant layout. Generally, the layout of an apartment in multi-storied buildings depends basically on the internal dynamics of the users without the complex relationship with the neighborhood environment as in the case of houses. In this way, it would be easier to identify, to organize and to associate the mental models of multi-storied buildings on geometric basis, which, in their turns, might be effectively used as inputs for the layout planning of new design. By applying the geometric basis, the architects may reduce the universe of feasible alternatives into a small group of heuristic solutions that can be described by using few simple guidelines. In addition to this, the geometric bases of the existing buildings might be used to build a knowledge-based system to aid the architectural design. The objective of this paper is to show some initial results of the research obtained from a survey and the case studies of form, dimensions and topology of existing buildings. To limit the scope of the discussion, only residential buildings with two to three bedrooms are considered. At first, a survey of plants of residential buildings with two and three bedrooms, in Brazil, is carried out. In the next step, the dimensions, shape, external skin perimeter, circulation system and accessibility are analyzed. Finally, typical topologies of the building are investigated.
"Hybrid[s]: new pedagogical applications for designing our evolving spatial environment." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 131-136. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. The continual emergence of new informational and technological systems has impacted our cultural landscape. As society continues to evolve, we are becoming more connected to virtual systems that impact our spatial environment. The awareness and understanding of these invisible forces requires new curricular pedagogies in architectural education. This paper will document an ongoing course that was developed to research new methodologies for working with haptic environments and informational systems. Utilizing a high performance-computing center, students in the class are developing new adaptive intelligent spatial systems that engage a multiplicity of scales. They researched environments for PDA’s (Personal Data Assistance), I-Pods, cellular phones, GPS (Guidance Positioning Systems) and a new immersive virtual dome environment. The goal of the class was to reevaluate how architectural practice in the future will encompass a more holistic approach to both physical and virtual spatial development.
"Hypertext inscription: writing as image in contemporary visual creation." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 411-414. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This paper discusses the creative imagination by the speech’s presence on the contemporary projects of art/design. Nowadays the digital era has shattered limits of the space and the user’s perception in a mix between images and texts, built by numeric language, witnessing possible new ways of writing as image. Considering on the duality between verbal and visual, some post-modern artists/projectors are redeeming the germinal quality of image from the alphabet. They use video and electronic technology incorporating the word written in their creation process. In this sense, Gaston Bachelard’s ideas on the philosophy of image and imagination could be helpful to understand that process. At first, looking through the representations accomplished by the artists gesture in their constructions. Afterwards, how those visual poetics explore the word on video project and electronic way as experimentation and on the creation project process.
"I+D_Digital ideas in contemporary architecture." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 258-262. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. Based on study of recent projects develop by reputed architectural firms, this paper reviews the role of digital techniques in the conception of design, describing mainly the proposals for Philarmonic Orchestra of Copenhagen by Jean Nouvel and the Harbour of Tenerife by Herzog and De Meuron, Both projects state innovative architectural concepts with diverse graphic resources. Digital media is not used as a specific tool, but as an integrated repertoire related to design issues, Image processing, photo-collages, 3D modelling, renderings, colored layouts and graphic sequences are applied to explore novelty shapes, spatial qualities, functional arrangements and constructive strategies. In these cases computer technologies are participating in design generation supporting overall architectural creativity. In order to benefit from new design media that approach express the relevance of firms' culture related to innovation and development (I+D).
"Immersive Mappings in Audio/Video and Installation." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 451-455. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. Architecture, spaces, cities… are not static but rather dynamic and ever changing entities. The city, which is composed of activities, interactions, patterns of use, changes, is dynamic and temporal. As James Corner states in The Agency of Mapping: Speculation, Critique and Invention; “The experiences of space cannot be separated from the events that happen in it” (1). Mapping practices, which have evolved from the experiential to the pictorial to the mathematical and abstract, more often have failed to combine these various important aspects which describe a place. Michel de Certeau in Walking the City argues that the plan-like image of a city as seen from above is nothing else but a “viewpoint… a picture, whose condition of possibility is an oblivion and a misunderstanding of practices”. He argues for the experience of wandering through the city as a “process of appropriation of the topographical system” (2). In my work and the work of my students, the audio/video camera has been employed as a medium with which to combine the various characteristics that make up place. It has been important to be both immersed as well as removed, to be both realistic and abstract, to be picturesque and analytical. In addition, we have experimented with the merging of two vocabularies: that of architectural drawing and that of moving image as a way to rediscover both vocabularies and as a way to achieve readings of place that are both qualitative and quantitative. In this essay, various mappings and notations of cities done through the exploitation of the audio/video camera as a mapping medium will be introduced.
"Integrating Computation in Foundation Design Instruction." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 166-170. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. The paper outlines notions suitable for the introduction of computation at the first stages of design education. An exercise, based on a housing competition sponsored by the Habitat For Humanity in Boston, Massachusetts, is presented. The educational objective of the paper is to offer an elementary case of how computation can be used in designing from scratch, in the architectural studio. Shape grammar formalism, analogue, and CAD tools are combined in this effort.
"Integration between architectural design and bidding through CAD software." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 373-376. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. Propose: Costs are a major issue in low-cost housing projects. Traditional project process uses estimated cost studies and comparative methods in initial phases, but the cost itself is elaborated only at the end phases, generating significant re-working and changes in specifications and drawings. Is desirable to use tools that possibility more integration between costs and architectural projects. Some CAD software already offers these tools, but they are not use by architects. This work intention is search in these tools the integration between costs and architectural projects. Methods: To use software Vectorworks in a low-cost housing project, Residential Serra Verde; incorporate cost aspects at initial phase by parameterization of 3D model; analysis of cost and project results. Findings: validation of cost estimative with the utilization of tested procedures. Value: developing a simple methodology of cost estimation and integration with architectural project.
"Integration of digital and traditional instructional media for morphological studies in Industrial Design." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 176-180. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This paper describes an educational project in the area of Morphology in Industrial Design, traversed by Digital Media in three different situations: in explanations, in the generation of shapes and in communication and feedback. This project is just an example of a long and nutritious relation between these areas of knowledge. The didactical sequence describes the ways in which virtual and traditional resources are combined through educational activities. Finally, the main outcomes of this experience are explained, concluding that professional, research and educational practices become part of the same inquiry, tightly linked by digital media. In this association they enable remarkable and challenging explorations on morphology.
"Interactive experience for the transcription amid music and architectural shape." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 420-424. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. The digital technology and the integration of knowledge between musicians and architects it’s presented as a unique platform to explore and give a new meaning to the bonds between Music and Architecture. The presentation describes the experience and the results of creative process that link a group of music and architecture students and teachers for a hypermedia composition. The processes are orientated to the simultaneous construction of products from two approaches: from music to the form (plastic or visual), and vice versa. The exploration begins from musical assignments and it’s limited to two types of situations and creative bonds with digital technology: • Independent actions of the subject-musician and subject-architect. • Conjoint actions of both subjects. // The conclusions allow to evaluate the degree of measurability of the process taken care and possible derivations of the particular interpretations of them in each situation.
"Interactive Multimedia in architectural design teaching." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 171-175. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006.
"Interfaces or places for communitarian dialogue." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 75-79. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This paper intends to present the methodological incursions of a research in progress, which targets to map and systematize graphic computational interfaces developed and implemented through projects that have as main objective the creation of networks and interaction virtual environment for place-based communities. Activities and data systematization as well as bibliographic revision overlap consistent methodological parameters. It also intends to present some of the preliminaries studies of the research, through comparative readings among examples collected and gathered in a data base. This work is part of Nomads,usp, Center for Interactive Studies of the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil, that studies and produces criteria to rethink nowadays spaces design, considering its recent history, the transformations occurred in families groups, and their behavior tendencies.
"Irreversible Architecture_ Time and Complexity." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 90-94. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This paper aims at discussing how computational environments could give support to complex approaches of architectural design process. Focusing on generative design, the main goal is to allow the perception of architecture more as system than as object: form, structure and organization as emergences in non-linear, autoorganizational processes. It involves the interaction of a vast universe of factors and flows that performs as attractors or repellers for the architecture-systems evolution in time. The ideas presented here are results of the Master Research in Architecture and Complex Thought of Clarissa Ribeiro, and are part of a larger questioning about the relation of architectural design process and digital culture, discussed in our research group Nomads.USP [Center for Interactive Living Studies, http://www.eesc. usp. br/nomads].
"Krma, a Multiuser virtual reality space for teaching." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 228-231. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006.
"Learning from the movie: Formal codes and narrative strategies in a video installation." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 415-419. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. Architectural animations often evidence limitations when trying to get across our design intensions in terms of the experiencing of a place. When architects design a space, they propose not only geometry and space functionality, All in all, any architectural design implies a way of experiencing the space. But how can we communicate it? Narrative films developed - in the last century - communication conventions that allow the audience to feel transported to the time and place of the movie. However, architects have barely introduced these conventions into their animations. The objective of this paper is to review two examples - a scene on a film and a video installation- that could help architects to use film codes creatively in when communicating the experiencing of a place.
"Learning in silence." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 84-86. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006.
"Light and Form in Design - a Computational Approach." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 254-257. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. Shape perception is strongly influenced by the reciprocal relation between light and form. Computational applications can increase the number of design alternatives taking into account possible variations in the relation between light and form. The aim of this study is to discuss a pedagogical experience carried out with 5th semester architectural students, based on a series of exercises prior to the term project. The exercises were concerned with the relation between light and form from an aesthetical point of view and should be understood as examples for the use of computers as tools to creatively accelerate the process of design and learning. The paper is divided in five parts. The first one describes the conceptual background for the exercises, a descriptive method for the identification of light effects in architectural objects based on ideas of shape emergence. The exercises’ methodology is explained in the second part, referring to the use of computational applications in 3-dimensional modeling, material and light simulation. The methodology includes different phases: –creation of bi-dimensional compositions according to symmetry operations; –creation of a minimal living space assigning functions to spaces originated from the former composition; –analysis of the impact of light on the form and spaces created; –alteration of form and materials creating new light effects considering the functions related to the spaces. The exercises alternate work in computational environment in two and three dimensions with the use of mockups, lamps and photography. In the third part the results –student’s design steps– are described. In the fourth part the results are analyzed and some conclusions are outlined in the fifth and last part. The use of emergent forms combined with computational tools has proved to be an effective way to achieve an accelerated understanding of the impact of light on forms as demonstrated by the evolution of the students work during the term and by their final results concerning the term project.
"Living ways: Design processes of a hybrid spatiality." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 405-407. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This paper presents some habitation architectural projects designed by architects in different parts of the world, considering concepts originated from Virtuality domain. The brief and introductory analysis proposed hereby is part of undegoing studies at the Nomads. usp Center for Interactive Living Studies (www.eesc.usp.br/nomads), of the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
"Mapping the City in Movement: the Car as an A/V Apparatus." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 397-400. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. “…our experience of the city, and hence our response to architecture, is almost exclusively conducted through the medium of the automobile: the car defines our space whether we are driving, being driven or avoiding being driven over. The car has been an integral part of metropolitan life for so long that it has become part of the urban fabric.” Jonathan Bell, Carchitecture. This DVD presents a series of audio/video mappings of the city in movement - an organizational condition which is derived from our car culture, a culture in movement. In these studies the digital audio/video camera, a device which allows us to explicitly record movement and change in time, is used as an investigative tool and as an extension of our bodies in order to observe, capture and measure otherwise imperceptible moments of our moving and fast paced experience of place. The projects are from a seminar/studio entitled A/V Mappings and Notations. This research looks at the merging of moving image and more conventional drawing to create maps which read physical and ephemeral conditions of place in an experiential and analytical manner. The importance of The Car as an A/V Apparatus studies is that they allow us to uncover characteristics of place that are particular to the infrastructure of our car cities and most importantly to the experience of inhabiting the transitory spaces of these cities in movement. The projects which will be presented extend the human body into the city via the car as an audio/video apparatus, an instrument for reading and measuring the city in movement. The documents are choreographed as sections through the city in which the section cut (the line drawn) is the trajectory of driving/drawing. In the making of these full-scale life size drawings, cameras are mounted to the car prior to driving. The location(s) of camera(s) are determined by the specifics of each investigation. What is choreographed is the set up of the car as an audio/video apparatus and of the trajectory of driving. The apparatus itself, the body/car/camera, in its trajectory captures, studies, measures, draws/drives. This as an extension of the human body allows us to detach ourselves from the dominance of our vision and to more objectively discover aspects of place as related to our movement and corporeal experience and otherwise hidden from our perception. In addition and more importantly as body/car/camera, the apparatus captures the city at the scale of driving (corpor/car) a scale which expands our body into the scale of a larger space of great distances, movements, speeds, and durations. The discoveries that these mappings reveal inform us of the potential for more specifically intervening in these cities with proposals which engage these two drastically different yet intricately connected scales. A Cross-Section (version 1) 00:46, (version 2) 00:46 Signals and Maneuvers Car and City 03:15 Gear Shift / Tangent City 02:30 Automoscope 01:30 Mapping a Small City 01:59 Gas Up Mapping: Mapping in Time 03:56 Inter[sur]face 02:30 This is a series of videos/ a paper can also be developed, a sample video is ready to send
"Metodologyc search for a cartographic actualization with alternative technologies: a case study." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 368-372. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This paper presents an experiment using digital photogrammetry for the restitution of urban forms, using precise and low cost techniques, an alternative solution for the cartographic actualization of cities. The technique uses digital cameras (non-metric), with resolution compatible with the precision and scale required for the products. This process simplifies the acquisition of the photos, that can be taken by different places: in the ground, in the top of high buildings or by small airplanes or ultralights, in opposition of the traditional image acquisition method, done by costly aerial photogrammetric flights, realized by specialized companies.
"Mnemo_Vírtus." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 429-433. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. Considering the contemporary recover of mnemonic techniques in the media art context, the present approach focuses on spatial questions related to the way the mixed realities environments are structured. The goal is to discuss how the traditional use of mnemonic structures can enrich the experience in mixed reality installations, structuring the interaction by organizing the access to the information and the connections in-be discussed in our research group Nomads.USP [Center for Interactive Living Studies, http://www.eesc.usp.br/nomads].
"Moodle base communication and collaboration didactic strategies in the implementation of the resources for Learning Process in the Design Studio." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 153-157. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006.
"Motion Design: a Digital Original ?" In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 232-235. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006.
"Multiple looks, or how to conceive a knowledge space for the city of Sào Carlos." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 377-380. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. The aim of the article is to present and analyse strategies for the conception of diverse computational interfaces designated to register and organize in an especially developed free software data-base, contends related to culture heritance of the city of São Carlos, situated in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Part of a large research in public Politics financed by FAPESP, the interface is configured as a database integrator of some centers, patrimonies architectural and museums. Preoccupied to keep alive the data base after the end of the project, it aims to propose activities together with the local community, to promote the preservation and the physical and virtual access to such patrimonies, contribute for the valuation of the traditional cultures, and strengthen the identity and belonging feeling, guaranteeing consequently the permanence of this patrimony for the future generations.
"Optimal Distribution of Architecture Programs with Multiple-constraint Genetic Algorithm." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 299-303. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. A genetic algorithm (GA) is a search technique for optimizing or solving a problem based on evolutionary biology, using terms and processes such as genomes, chromosomes, cross-over, mutation, or selection. The evolution starts from a population of completely random individuals and happens in generations. In each generation, the fitness of the whole population is evaluated, multiple individuals are stochastically selected from the current population (based on their fitness), modified (mutated or recombined) to form a new population, which becomes current in the next iteration of the algorithm. In architecture, GAs are of special interest mainly because of their ability to address a problem offering a multiplicity of possible solutions. Contrary to other algorithms where the objective is to accommodate a manually conceived diagram, GAs are emergent procedures that evolve over time through multiple attempt cycles (i.e. generations) and therefore offer a bottom-up approach to design. In addition, by using the computational power of computers they can resolve complex interactions between multiple factors and under multiple constraints offering solutions that occasionally surprise the designer. One of the main problems in architecture today is the quantity of the information and the level of complexity involved in most building projects. As globalization and economic development has started to arise at unprecedented levels, the need for large urban developments have become commonplace. Housing projects for a few hundreds to thousands of people have started to emerge over large urban areas. In such cases, the old paradigm for housing design was the development of high rises that served as stacking devices for multiple family housing units. Such a direction was unfortunately the only way to address excessive complexity using manual design skills mainly because it was simple to conceive but also simple to construct. The unfortunate nature of this approach lies rather in the uniformity, similarity, and invariability that these projects express in comparison to individuality, discreteness, and identity that human beings and families manifest. One of the main areas of complexity that could benefit architecture is in housing projects. In these projects there is a typology of residential units that need to be combined in various schemes that will fulfill multiple functional, environmental, and economic constraints. In this paper, the design of a 200-unit residential complex on a corner of two streets in an urban context was investigated as a case study. Recent advancement in tectonics and structural engineering enables the realization of buildings in mega scales and starts to introduce another layer of complexity into the building programs. Conventional design methods relying on the preconceived knowledge based approaches are no longer reliable. Beyond the certain quantitative factors and the complexity of the problems, search occasionally enters into the unpredictable domain of the human perception. Computational approaches to design allows us to go through thousands of iterations in a second and find the solution sets beyond the reach of designers’ intuitive search spaces. Genetic Algorithm can be a potential derivative for finding optimum design solution from indeterminate search spaces constrained by multi dimensional factors.
"Optimization in the Balance between the Production Effort of E-learning Tutorials and their related Learning Outcome." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 122-126. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This paper provides evidence on the level of media richness that may be cost effective in the development of e-learning tutorials for teaching and learning computer visualization techniques. For such a purpose the author provides an analysis of low-cost / high-impact media rich products, the effort and cost required in their development and the measurement of related learning outcomes. Circa twenty years of R&D of multimedia and hypermedia applications for instruction have demonstrated the benefits of communicating relevant information to learners using engaging media. Based on this evidence, this paper assumes that due to the cognitive style of design students, the instructional packages for learning computer techniques for design visualization that are rich in media content, tend to be more effective. Available visualization technologies make the development of e-learning tutorials feasible and apparently the logical way to implement our instructional packages. However the question in the development of e-learning tutorials becomes a more strategic one when we are called to reach a level of optimization between producing a package with a basic standard, namely; text & still-graphic based tutorials, or a state-of-the-art package that is based on video demonstrations (more than enough?) that can accommodate the students’ learning requirements and also our production costs. The costs include the human resources (instructor, producers, assistants and others) and the material resources (hardware and software, copies, and others) involved in the creation of the e-learning tutorials. The key question is: What is good enough, and what is clearly superfluous? In order to confirm our hypothesis and propose a relevant balance between media richness and learning effectiveness, this paper describes an experiment in the use of two different levels of media richness as used to deliver instructions on the production of computer animations for design visualization. The students recruited for this experiment were fairly familiarized with the use of 3D modeling concepts and software, but had no previous knowledge of the techniques included in the tutorials; in specific; camera animation procedures. The students, separated in two groups, used one of the two methods; then they proceeded to apply their newly acquired skills in the production of an animation without using the help of any external means. The assessment of results was based on the quality of the final product and the students’ performance in the recall of the production procedures. Finally an interview with the students was conducted on their perception of what was accomplished from a metacognitive point of view. The results were processed in order to establish comparisons between the different levels of achievement and the students’ metacognitive assessment of learning. These results have helped us to create a clear set of recommendations for the production of e-learning tutorials and their conditions for implementation. The most beneficial characteristics of the two tested methods in relation to type of information, choice of media, method of information delivery, flexibility of production/editorial tools,! and overall cost of production, will be transferred into the development of a more refined product to be tested at larger scale.
"Perception and Story in the animated architectural presentations." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 438-441. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This paper sets that in order to get a real sense in digital animations, it is requires to deal the representation and story like cinema do it, instead of only reproduction of moving images. Thus animated presentations of architectural projects should concentrate to tell main values and spatial qualities than technical information of building. The paper explains characteristics of cinematographic story, visual techniques and planning procedures. Remarking the search of narrative continuity and relationship to spectator’s imagination. Also it describes the experience to film a documentary of a real building in the city of Valparaiso and digital animations of same building. It discuses results of questionnaires taken to students about perception of architectural characteristics watching the documentary, simple animations and a animated presentation made with filmmaking concepts. This comparison showed a higher appraisal of architectural virtues than understanding of constructive characteristics, in digital media with narrative conditions.
"Pervasive computing: sistemas híbridos interativos [Pervasive computing: Interactive hybrid systems]." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 442-446. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This paper concerns the context of Mobile communication, specifically the interfaces named pervasive computing, and its interferences on the contemporaneous sociability. Not understanding the hybrid systems as a functional-technological question strictly, this paper presents some categories of analysis and artistic projects that reflect in some way the technology used. It proposes also experimentations on the relations human/human and human/machine. After a brief technical approach, the interaction design concept is presented as the theoretical fundament considered on the process of elaboration of those devices.
"Pret-à -Construire - an Educational Inquiry into Computer Aided Fabrication." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 162-165. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This paper aims to show and discuss the relevance of developing necessary strategies for reintegrating the concept of fabrication into the architectural design process. The discussion will be partly based on the outcome of a graduate architectural design studio conducted in Spring semester 2002-2003. The graduate studio was part of a series of exploratory studies conducted on the nature of architectural design process transformed by information technologies. Preceded by studios investigating cognition and representation, this last studio focused on the concept of fabrication. The overarching aim of the studio series was to put CAD and CAM in context both within the actual architectural design process and within architectural education. The last of this series, which will be discussed within the frame of this paper, has specifically focused on CAM and the concept of fabrication in architecture. In accordance with the nature of a design studio, the research was more methodological than technical. The studio derived its main inspiration from the constructional templates used in dressmaking, which can be considered as an initial model for mass customization. In this context, the recladding of Le Corbusier’s Maison Domino was given as the main design problem, along with several methodological constraints. The main constraint was to develop the design idea through constructional drawings instead of representational ones. The students were asked to develop their volumetric ideas through digital 3D CAD models while working out structural solutions on a physical 1/50 model of Maison Domino. There was also a material constraint for the model, where only specified types of non-structural paper could be used. At this stage, origami provided the working model for adding structural strength to sheet materials. The final outcome included the explanation of different surface generation strategies and preliminary design proposals for their subcomponents. The paper will discuss both the utilized methodology and the final outcome along the lines of the issues raised during the studio sessions, some of which could be decisive in the putting into context of CAD – CAM in architectural design process. One such issue is mass customization, that is, the mass production of different specific elements with the help of CAM technologies. Another issue is “open source” design, indicating the possibility of a do-it-yourself architecture, where architecture is coded as information, and its code can be subject to change by different designers. The final key issue is the direct utilization of constructional drawings in the preliminary design phase as opposed to representational ones, which aimed at reminding the designer the final phase of fabrication right from the beginning. Finally, the paper will also point at the problems faced during the conduct of the studio and discuss those in the context of promoting CAM for architectural design and production in countries where there is no actual utilization of these technologies for these purposes yet.
"Reasonable design of Layouts of Floor. a Methodology based on Tools related to Computer Science." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 293-298. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006.
"Rosario, Views on the Integral Revitalization of a Cultural Heritage." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This work shows the study of the methods and techniques for the development of a virtual vision VRML 3D included in an "Digitally-integrated knowledge base" with interactive interphases of a significantly revitalized fragment of a central area of the city of Rosario, Province of Santa Fé, Argentina, that includes an emblematic heritage for the Argentineans: the National Monument to the Flag. Digital models that partly allow the development of a hypothesis of integration between the digitized information and information technology - new digital proximity - to the effects of being able to investigate the generation of multimedia database that includes three-dimensional and dynamic models of the mentioned type, in this case, urban, architectonic, and cultural heritage. Different views and research on heritage have been developing. Nevertheless, the use of these new 3D non-immersive technologies and inter-phases are opening a new field of vision and understanding of the subject.
"Self learning, transversal integration and 3D design." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 80-83. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. The paper begins with some considerations about the historical evolution of parametric design methods in the advanced industry and their forecoming transference to the field of architecture. Following these considerations it is maintained that this transference will bring about a second revolution in the educational methodologies, more important than the first one, and that this will result in a clearer separation between conceptual knowledge and instrumental knowledge. The need to give a proper place to a growing sector of information and mechanical methods of learning in the academic world should lead to a an adequate integration of computer aided instruction, a broader collaboration between different departments and to e-learning methods established on a regular basis. In this context, an outline of a new experience of this kind, that will start next term in our school, is presented.
"Soft Infinity - Pasive Disruption: Digital Models for Communication of Architectural Though." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 355-358. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This research studies the relationship between architectural language and thought, using digital models to communicate architectural concepts. It studies in particular two renowned buildings of contemporary architecture in Chile. A tower for insurance company in the downtown of the city of Concepcion, designed by architect Enrique Browne, well- known by his ecological approach. And offices for industry of timber boards close to the city of Arauco, designed by architect Jose Cruz Ovalle, whom applied sensitive background. Digital models of both buildings were developed to show different characteristic and parts. A group of students evaluate semantic interpretation of these digital models, when other evaluates same conditions with pictures of the buildings. The results showed high understanding of language, but low appreciation of meaning and thoughts, close to general values than particular approaches, supporting basic architectural concepts and use of diverse digital models.
"Sound Geometry: Brooklyn Bridge Park Concert Halls." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 325-329. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. Friedrich Schelling's famous quote, "Architecture is Frozen Music" attempted to find a relationship between the solidity of architecture and the intangibility of music in his era. While the Baroque, and subsequent Rococo, styles in architecture contain a plasticity and flow of ornament that seems to validate the statement, it does not go beyond purely surface characteristics. If we look at the purpose, goal and process of both music and architecture, finding clear relationships is difficult, though this does not deter architects from finding inspiration in music, and vice-versa.
"Space, Events and Urban Performance." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 333-336. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This report investigates different kinds of Urban Performance in Thames Path, South Bank of Thames River. Urban Performance is defined here as the expression or manifestation of different social groups in the city space regarding the appropriation of a specific place for its spatial practices. The Urban Performances are intrinsic to the cultural expression of the city and revealed through the spatial experience of both performer and spectator. The aim of this paper is to shed light on different kind of urban performances and how are they linked to spatial and syntactic properties of space. This topic is intrinsic in the space syntax theory due its fundamental relation between spatiality and human activity. The research method used were, direct observations by static snapshots and traces (related with human movement) and a survey of potential attractors, active facades and path widths. The results were overlaid with spatial analysis in terms of performers isovists and syntactic analysis through visibility graph. The findings show a strong relation between performers’ use of space and visibility in the urban area, and a high influence of the cultural attractions and public services that works as movement attractors. The discussion is developed through the research findings and theories of spatial experience putting forward varied interpretations related with the research topic and the selected site. The report concludes that the urban performances in Thames path is determined by the human co presence in the space, due to this strategic points chosen along the path by the performers are strongly related with the visual connections in the system. Furthermore, the attractors play an important role shaping the spatial experience and urban character of the studied area.
"Teaching parametric design in code and construction." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 158-161. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. Automated manufacturing processes with the ability to translate digital models into physical form promise both an increase in the complexity of what can be built, and through rapid prototyping, a possibility to experiment easily with tangible examples of the evolving design. The increasing literacy of designers in computer languages, on the other hand, offers a new range of techniques through which the models themselves might be generated. This paper reviews the results of an integrated parametric modelling and digital manufacturing workshop combining participants with a background in computer programming with those with a background in fabrication. Its aim was both to encourage collaboration in a domain that overlaps both backgrounds, as well as to explore the ways in which the two working methods naturally extend the boundaries of traditional parametric design. The types of projects chosen by the students, the working methods adopted and progress made will be discussed in light of future educational possibilities, and of the future direction of parametric tools themselves. Where standard CAD constructs isolated geometric primitives, parametric models allow the user to set up a hierarchy of relationships, deferring such details as specific dimension and sometimes quantity to a later point. Usually these are captured by a geometric schema. Many such relationships in real design however, can not be defined in terms of geometry alone. Logical operations, environmental effects such as lighting and air flow, the behaviour of people and the dynamic behaviour of materials are all essential design parameters that require other methods of definition, including the algorithm. It has been our position that the skills of the programmer are necessary in the future of design. Bentley’s Generative Components software was used as the primary vehicle for the workshop design projects. Built within the familiar Microstation framework, it enables the construction of a parametric model at a range of different interfaces, from purely graphic through to entirely code based, thus allowing the manipulation of such non-geometric, algorithmic relationships as described above. Two-dimensional laser cutting was the primary fabrication method, allowing for rapid manufacturing, and in some cases iterative physical testing. The two technologies have led in the workshop to working methods that extend the geometric schema: the first, by forcing an explicit understanding of design as procedural, and the second by encouraging physical experimentation and optimisation. The resulting projects have tended to focus on responsiveness to conditions either coded or incorporated into experimental loop. Examples will be discussed. While programming languages and geometry are universal in intent, their constraints on the design process were still notable. The default data structures of computer languages (in particular the rectangular array) replace one schema limitation with another. The indexing of data in this way is conceptually hard-wired into much of our thinking both in CAD and in code. Thankfully this can be overcome with a bit of programming, but the number of projects which have required this suggests that more intuitive, or spatial methods of data access might be developed in the future.
"Technology and communicational aspects in the pedagogy of info-design." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 181-186. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This text discuss the experience of transferring the preliminary results of a Research on Infodesign produced within the institutional frame of the Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Arquitectura, Diseño y Urbanismo (FADU-UBA), towards the undergraduate students attending the workshop Taller de Diseno Grafico (Pujol). This idea was based in the Research Project “The Infodesign in the production and presentation of knowledge. Development and application of a study case related to the Academic Research Networks”, conducted by Esteban Javier Rico and co-directed by Nicolás Pinkus. In the Research Team also collaborate Carolina Borrachia and Mariano Benassi. The experience made the students – as a requirement of the course- plan and generate infographics about several aspects of the Universidad de Buenos Aires. The students discovered and worked the communicational and representational challenges and problems of this specific field of the design.
"The built environment revisited digitally: an approach to 2D and 3D CAD teaching." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 215-218. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. There is a characteristic that distinguishes the School of Architecture at Oklahoma State University from other architecture schools in the United States and that is the absence of a design studio in the spring semester of the third year. Among the various classes the students are required to take during this time is ARCH 3253_computer applications in architecture defined in the School catalog as an “introduction to 2D and 3D computer CAD topics and their application in the design process.” The absence of a design studio has allowed [me] to morph an otherwise technically oriented course to a course that weaves the learning of the basic of various computer programs with research, writing, graphic and physical explorations. This paper exposes the pedagogy of the course alongside sample of students’ work during the spring 2006 semester and will disclose its future development as web and film technologies are introduced to the course. The introduction of the “forth dimension” to the course will both augment and foster alternative means of architectural communication by promoting multimodal representations and will respond to the personal observation that in spite of the essentially total use of the computer in the daily creative life of students and professionals alike, the architectural representation output has virtually remained unchanged [and for the most part unchallenged] since the time when pens, pencils, and papers were the media of choice. In addition to its pedagogical character, the paper will also share the personal explorations that triggered following one of the assignments and led to the development and realization of a graphic piece for one of the summer 2006 exhibits at the Scottsdale Museum of Contemporary Art in Scottsdale, Arizona and prompted the initial development of the design of a restaurant, also in Scottsdale, Arizona [in its schematic design phase at the time of the writing of this abstract].
"The City that never Existed: 3D Models of the City History." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 381-385. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. Through the evaluation of advantages and limitations of 3D historic city models, this paper aims to analyze the contribution of those tools to the city history representation. One should overcome limitations such as incomplete information, impediments to acknowledge hypotheses representations, intense labor requirements or difficulties to encourage a deep reflection. We identify some significant characteristics of those systems based on historical facts’ location in 3D models, different files association, dynamic databases and interaction, which should prevail over some of the limitations. Finally, we illustrate those issues through the system Rio-H that presents an alternative for historical narratives.
"The Holy Darkness: a Study of Light in Brihadeshvara Hindu Temple, in Tanjore, Tamilnadu, India (1010 AD)." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 425-428. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. The study investigates how religious principles govern the treatment of light/darkness in sacred monument. Specifically, a digitized daylight simulation is used in the analysis of Brihadeshvara Hindu Temple, built in 1010 AD in Tanjore, Tamilnadu, India. This sacred monument, listed as one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites, is an intriguing case study since the treatment of the 'holy light' in the temple is the treatment of the 'holy darkness'.In spite of the importance given to sun in ancient Hindu scriptures, natural light was used very sparsely in Hindu temples. According to Hindu religious belief, when a worshipper is in the presence of the divine, there should be nothing to distract his/her senses (including vision). Therefore, the innermost sanctum is shrouded in total darkness and the progression into the temple is a ritual movement where the devotee goes through the dynamic experience of the darkening spaces of the temple before reaching the dark sacred chamber (see Fig.1). The dictation of the Hindu faith to create this spiritual procession toward the 'holy darkness' is examined in the historic Brihadeshvara Temple by using Lightscape -- computerized lighting simulation software. To run the program, a 3-D CAD surface model of the temple was created and imported into Lightscape. Then the model was assigned materials and its openings and lighting systems were defined. The simulations were run on four interior horizontal (floor) and vertical (walls) surfaces, along four spaces of the procession in the temple. The simulation targeted three time frames: sunrise, sunset and at high noon on March 21st (the equinox). The location of Tanjore, India was used for light conditions. The Lightscape simulations used the process of radiosity to generate single frame daylight renderings along with light analysis of each surface. A lighting animation was then produced in Quick Time.The results of this analysis demonstrate that the average illumination values for specific surfaces of the temple along the procession sequence correspond to the schematic expectation depicted in Figure 1, i.e., a progressively decreased luminance towards the dark innermost chamber. Furthermore, the simulated values were compared to the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) standards, which recommend ranges of luminance for specific visual tasks and areas. The comparisons showed that the average luminance in the temple, from the illuminated entrance in the east to the darker chamber in the west, is lower than the IES standards for 'public places with dark surroundings' for 'short temporary visits'. Finally, a morphological analysis of the temple along accepted daylight design guidelines corroborated the previous findings. The multi-method investigation of the relationship of light and darkness, light and objects, and the designated light quality in the Brihadeshvara Temple demonstrates the strong influence of the specific dictum of Hinduism on the light/darkness treatment in the temple. The paper concludes that digitized media such as computerized daylight simulations can examine the significance of light/darkness in sacred monuments as a spiritual experience. This quantitative investigation can augment the qualitative studies in the field of historic sacred architecture.
"The Human Factor: Learning in the Digital World." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 224-227. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. The experimental subject “Pathological analysis and proposals of intervention in buildings” is born as a result of understanding that the lack of connectivity between the subjects of the architecture career is due to the absence of a scene that connect them. The objective of this subject was to share a space for the construction and generation of knowledge from the personal interest and the commitment with the solution of a real necessity. The specific thematic was the “intervention in existing buildings” and it worked with a designed methodology to generate technical files that allow the intervention founded on them. Software Photomodeler was used to elaborate the photogrammetric survey and the digital platform Moodle to administer all the information. The fundamental thing of this experience is the cross-sectional characteristic (by disciplines and ages), recognizing that to incorporate the digital knowledge to the development of the subject were key to obtain the feedback of the system formed by professors, assistants, monitors and students.
"The museums in the city and virtual conections." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 401-404. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This paper discusses contemporary issues framed through virtuality, as well as its consequences within urban design. It is a reseach aiming to demonstrate both the meanings involved in new global issues as well as the role of a virtual communication web interfering in representative and significance of urban issues.
"The Myth of Cyberspace: Towards a New Technopolis." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 41-44. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. Professor Madhu C. Dutta has worked professionally as an urban planner and architect and was an Assistant Professor of Architecture at the University of Texas at San Antonio before coming to Wentworth. She teaches a broad range of courses, from design studio and architectural history through digital media and advanced computer applications for architectural design. Some of her most significant works include a city-wide urban riverfront design project in Varanasi, India, and “Solar Sails” a renewable energy design for the U.S. Department of Energy competition (2000) for which she was awarded the second prize among 110 entries. She has presented her scholarly work at conferences in Asia, Europe, Latin America, and the U.S. Her research interests are eclectic; she has recently been exploring the expansion of our notions of architectural space to include hybridized and virtual milieus in the “new frontier” of digital architecture. Professor Dutta is deeply committed to the creative and performing arts as well. She studied and performed Indian classical dance for sixteen years. She holds a BArch from the Manipal Institute of Technology of Mangalore University, and a Master’s in Architecture, specializing in Urban Design, from the University of Texas at Austin.
"The use of graphic software and hardware on teaching drawing in Arts, Architecture and Design." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 137-141. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. Computer and graphic programmers use in Design Teaching leading to new ways of expressing and representing the language of drawing.
"Toward New Wall Systems: Lighter, Stronger, Versatile." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 248-253. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. Recent developments in digital technologies and smart materials have created new opportunities and are suggesting significant changes in the way we design and build architecture. Traditionally, however, there has always been a gap between the new technologies and their applications into other areas. Even though, most technological innovations hold the promise to transform the building industry and the architecture within, and although, there have been some limited attempts in this area recently; to date architecture has failed to utilize the vast amount of accumulated technological knowledge and innovations to significantly transform the industry. Consequently, the applications of new technologies to architecture remain remote and inadequate. One of the main reasons of this problem is economical. Architecture is still seen and operated as a sub-service to the Construction industry and it does not seem to be feasible to apply recent innovations in Building Technology area. Another reason lies at the heart of architectural education. Architectural education does not follow technological innovations (Watson 1997), and that “design and technology issues are trivialized by their segregation from one another” (Fernandez 2004). The final reason is practicality and this one is partially related to the previous reasons. The history of architecture is full of visions for revolutionizing building technology, ideas that failed to achieve commercial practicality. Although, there have been some adaptations in this area recently, the improvements in architecture reflect only incremental progress, not the significant discoveries needed to transform the industry. However, architectural innovations and movements have often been generated by the advances of building materials, such as the impact of steel in the last and reinforced concrete in this century. There have been some scattered attempts of the creation of new materials and systems but currently they are mainly used for limited remote applications and mostly for aesthetic purposes. We believe a new architectural material class is needed which will merge digital and material technologies, embedded in architectural spaces and play a significant role in the way we use and experience architecture. As a principle element of architecture, technology has allowed for the wall to become an increasingly dynamic component of the built environment. The traditional connotations and objectives related to the wall are being redefined: static becomes fluid, opaque becomes transparent, barrier becomes filter and boundary becomes borderless. Combining smart materials, intelligent systems, engineering, and art can create a component that does not just support and define but significantly enhances the architectural space. This paper presents an ongoing research project about the development of new class of architectural wall system by incorporating distributed sensors and macroelectronics directly into the building environment. This type of composite, which is a representative example of an even broader class of smart architectural material, has the potential to change the design and function of an architectural structure or living environment. As of today, this kind of composite does not exist. Once completed, this will be the first technology on its own. We believe this study will lay the fundamental groundwork for a new paradigm in surface engineering that may be of considerable significance in architecture, building and construction industry, and materials science.
"Towards a logical involvement of digital medias in the projective taught." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 142-146. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This work shows the development of a digital aids incorporation strategy for the improvement of teaching and learning in the areas of architecture, urbanism, design and geography. Its objective is to present a logical construction for the implementation of formative and computer-based support that allows the development and upkeep of cross-disciplinary and collaborative processes.
"Towards an interactive and continuous design process in architectural practice." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 95-99. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This paper investigates some possibilities of interactive design in architectural practices and presents an experiment using tools for increasing dialog with people connected to the project. The building is an Art Institute in a small city of 15,000 inhabitants at Minas Gerais State, Brazil, At first, the article describes the creation of the Institute, and the important role of the architect as someone who articulates different instances in the design process, and not just the design of the object. Then, this interactive design process is described and analysed, and some differences between "Participative Design" and "Interactive Design" are emphasized. The article concludes with a discussion about the change of architect's role, changing from "designer of products" to "designer of architectural interfaces".
"Urban Artefact: a poetic cinematographic approach about the urban heritage." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 461-464. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This research is done in the field of studies about the potential of imaginal images in the unveiling of the multiple space-time alternances which make up our urban experience and is supported by phenomenological perspective of the imagination and Bachelard's poetical image in the analysis of the director's filmography of Wim Wenders. Through this creator's intimate vision as well as from the acceptation of cinema as ontological matter of fascination originator, we will try to find nuances and values contained in the framing of the landscapes of those film cities, with the intention of opening new possibilities of a better understanding of the urban.
"Urban landscape, comparative strategies study of different geography researches, throughout the use of dynamical communication system." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This paper sets that in order to get a real sense in digital animations, it is requires to deal the representation and story like cinema do it, instead of only reproduction of moving images. Thus animated presentations of architectural projects should concentrate to tell main values and spatial qualities than technical information of building. The paper explains characteristics of cinematographic story, visual techniques and planning procedures. Remarking the search of narrative continuity and relationship to spectator’s imagination. Also it describes the experience to film a documentary of a real building in the city of Valparaiso and digital animations of same building. It discuses results of questionnaires taken to students about perception of architectural characteristics watching the documentary, simple animations and a animated presentation made with filmmaking concepts. This comparison showed a higher appraisal of architectural virtues than understanding of constructive characteristics, in digital media with narrative conditions.
"Urban simulation models (experience throughout a strategic game)." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 386-391. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. The experience considers the achievement of a course for architecture and geography. The research penetrates into an experimentation based on the Systems Theory and the Systems Dynamics, which helps to understand the structure and the dynamics of the city, as a set of complex systems. SimCity, a game of strategy that allows to design, to plan, and to manage the dynamics of a city, is used as software. The experience had as principal target, tackling formulae of didactic experimentation, which integrate, by the application of networks and systems, the complex relations that configures the city. The methodology had theoretical and experimental stages, plus the achievement of a simulation exercise. The experience had very good reception, as method for learning and for research, despite the strange that it seemed in the beginning. Also, it generated a big aptitude to realize good research questions, since the behavior of many variables was learned to visualize simultaneously.
"Virtual Design Studio - a study case." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 205-209. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This work aims to present an educational experiment in VDS – Virtual Design Studio at Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo da Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, São Paulo, Brasil, as part as the efforts of updating the Information and Communication Technologies – ICTs disciplines of this University. We describe some previous experiment on which we based this one and we detail the structure of our proposal analizing the results we’ve got.
"Virtual Environments and their Interconnectivity in the Web for the Urban Planning." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 350-354. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. Virtual Environments and their Interconnectivity in the Web for the Urban Planning. This work presents the creation of virtual environments based on the urban space of the Plaza Baralt in Maracaibo, Venezuela; in defined historical moments as study scenarios, using autonomous virtual agents. The selection of the scenarios is based in the analysis of the place in the present, and the study of multimedia material of the period 1920-2006. The main objective is developing virtual environments, incorporating the interconnectivity in the Web into a multi-user system, for the urban planning. Methodologically, it's divided into the following phases: 1) Data search; 2) Study of the social, cultural, religious and economical activities of the square; 3) Analysis of the urban space; 4) Virtual reconstruction of the scenarios in the present and in the period between 1900 - 1927; 5) VRML exporting ; 6) Characters' animation; 7) Integration of the models into a multi-user system; and 8) Web event for the presentation of the results.
"Virtual way s and participative interaction at the project: Choosing the right web platform format for the Chiloe program." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 100-104. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. The issue attempts an approach for evaluating 3 types of graphic format concerned with the use of real-time rendering for show architectural virtual environments, related to the work of urban and regional architectural projects proposed by the academic Chiloe Program, at Universidad de Chile. By measuring the frame rate, size of the required plug-ins, and acceleration performance of the render engine, the study focuses on dealing the better graphic format which become the main authoring tool for incorporate the interactive media representation of projects to the Chiloe Program's web site, in response to the high-demand on communicative interaction between the many skateholders that decision-making process need, and the low-end gear PC equipment founded in the Chiloe Island public access to Internet.
"Visualizing the City." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 23-26. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. In this lecture, I will describe the history of how cities have become the focus for visualization, for developing new ideas and tools as well as for demonstrating their wider applicability to design and policy-making processes. There are many variants on this theme of visualizing cities and I will attempt to set these in context as well as describing some of the challenges to the field which will dictate the research agenda in the coming years.
"Zoom-in, zoom-out: Architectonic scale and digital technology." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 447-450. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This paper expects to concur for the study of the relationship between technology, knowledge and representation. It is based on previous studies on architecture, art and technology on modernity and its development, as well as studies about scale in architectural design. In despite of the fact that scale can be technically considered indifferent for computer aided design, I wish to discuss how digital tools intercede in the process of clipping that selecting a specific scale eventually implies, sustaining that for architectural design, the concept of scale has to do both with representation and knowledge of reality.
"“The Empty Museum” - Use of an immersive VR room to experience the space inside a pre-Roman housing unit." In Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 363-367. SIGraDi. Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2006. This paper describes the use of a existing Virtual Reality installation developed by the authors named the Empty Museum that allows the users to walk physically into a virtual space. It is used in this case to explore a bronze age housing unit actually being excavated in the settlement of San Cibran de Las (Spain). The project involved a recreation of the architecture, domestic objects and characters related to the ancient Castro culture following an archaeological and historical point of view. The visitor explores the place by walking inside the kitchen of the house, examining several points of interest while triggering explanatory speeches related to what is displayed. The user can also watch the living in the settlement looking through the openings of the virtual building and interact with the virtual inhabitants of the house as he or she physically walks around them.