Keywords Abstract
"A Computer Solar Analysis Tool for the Design and Manufacturing of Complex Architectural Envelopes: EvSurf." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 105-109. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. Heat flows (gains or losses) in a building are affected by solar radiation, internal gains and temperature differences. A prototype of a tool that evaluates solar radiation on building envelopes has been developed as an applet to run on the Internet. This tool analyses the relationship of the solar position with the surfaces of complex envelopes by evaluating the potential amount of direct solar radiation that each surface section receives as a function of the angle of each surface with the sun for specific days and latitudes. A fitness function rates the overall performance of the proposed building envelope at specific hours or whole days, permitting to compare alternatives. Because of its characteristics, this tool is a Very Simple Design tool that works interactively with the user during the design process helping to design solar responsive building envelopes.
"A Computer Solar Analysis Tool for the Design and Manufacturing of Complex Architectural Envelopes: EvSurf." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 105-109. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"A descrição da forma e da aparência do objeto arquitetônico por meios informáticos no contexto de ensino: uma análise de transposição didática." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 35-38. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"A multimedia interface for the architectural design communication." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 193-197. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

The purpose of this work is the development of a Digital Learning Material that helps the process of understanding complex concepts, specifically architectural projects. In order to optimize the comprehension of architectural projects new materials can be developed based on multimedia technology. This technology mix different sorts of messages in one single interface, stimulating students in different ways. As an architectural project has many different information to be tansmittd and assimilated, multimedia technology is a good way to organize all of them to comunicate in an efficient way. All these concepts are applied in a proposal for a multimedia learning material: a prototype about an “Architectural Project”.

"A pedagogical strategy for courses of digital modeling and rendering in schools of Architecture: the case study of the Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 228-231. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

This work aims to relate the methodology that have been applied on the third module of the course “Computação Aplicada à Arquitetura” at Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo of the Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie as a contribution to the debate about pedagogical strategies of the informatics courses in schools of architecture focused in digital models and rendering techniques as a support to the development of the themes proposed in parallel in the Design Studio classes.

"A Possible Greek Vision of Geometric Realism in Architectural Images." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 268-271. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

The vision of a reality that is individual and personal. Along the history we see as the different towns they build their cities and their temples with different morphologies and in a different establishment way; but the question is: As they decided their construction? Starting from that law?The Greeks already discovered certain mechanisms of the vision in the century IV B.C This posture on the visual sense made that optic illusions have been analyzed for then to be used with premeditation in theconstruction of certain temples and its location. The departure hypothesis is centered in 2 (two)-investigation levels: 1. The definition of Illusion of Hering (optic illusions) and their with the realism in architectural image2. The analysis of the electronic scale models based on the geometry proyectual.

"A representação gráfica digital no processo educativo para construção e avaliação do ambiente: O "Espacio de fluxos" e o caráter tópico dos Infocentros, numa análise através de Castells (The rise of network society)." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"Activity strategy for the learning motivation in the Graphic Design course." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 248-251. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

The Graphic Design students of Universidade Tuiuti do Paraná demanded a more motivating teaching metodology. The learning process should be more efficient and the students should participate more in proposed activities. In order to maximize learning, some activities that simulated the real professional life were created. The leaning process was idealized to bring real experience. Students were guided to produce and manage the creation process, in order to make the academic exercise similar to real life. Allthe students were involved in a pedagogical dinamic, in which teorical concepts were sistematically studied in specific time to support practical activities.

"Architectonic Development and Applicability of Virtual Menus in VRML." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 199-202. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

The Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML), has allowed extend all of its resources and possibilities for Architectural Applications under the same Virtual Reality’s technology platform. In order to take advantages of its possibilities, this resource focus on exposes the development and application of virtual menus in VRML and Java Script as a first step for the creation of Synthetic Environment Laboratory in the faculty of Architecture and Design of University of Zulia, Venezuela. It presents in short, how algorithms were defined to design the menus, the use of a program in Visual Basic that permit addition of virtual menus toany WRL file, without any programming approach, as well as specific samples of applicability of the menus developed in a VRMLenvironment and how they are included in a methodological model of architectural design.

"Architectonic Implications of the Nature of the Digital Atmosphere." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 142-145. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

Architectural Implications of the Nature of Making in Digital Environments There exists an a-priori relationship between the basic structural constrains of an environment and the types of construction that may evolve there. For instance, the inexorable laws of nature have caused architecture to develop as a physical, stable, containing and inert object. Hence there are good reasons to study how cyberspace with its different ontological foundations may define the architecture to be built there. This examination may be best accomplished by concentrating in how what is structurally unique to the cyber impacts architectural design This paper investigates the ontology of construction in cyberspace by analyzing ordinary digital laws that defy reality. The findings both challenge our traditional conceptions of architecture and guide us toward totally unprecedented design potentials. The goal is to begin building a fundamental theory of architectural space, design and construction applicable to cyberspace.

"Architectural Content System - ACS Internet Based Support for Architectural Planning Proceses." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 121-123. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. As building projects become increasingly more complex, the number of project participants increases as does their spatial distribution. An effective decentralised work process and co-operation is of increasing importance. The global computer network, the internet, has great potential and recent times have seen the development of a variety of techniques in this field. The project proposal described here is based upon this approach and also takes it a step further. A specific analysis of the subject and the subsequent identification of potential approaches formed the basis for an architectural application that brings the architect in contact with other project participants using the internet as a powerful yet simple and easy to use medium.
"Architectural Content System - ACS Internet Based Support for Architectural Planning Proceses." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 121-123. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

As building projects become increasingly more complex, the number of project participants increases as does their spatial distribution. An effective decentralised work process and co-operation is of increasing importance. The global computer network, the internet, has great potential and recent times have seen the development of a variety of techniques in this field.

The project proposal described here is based upon this approach and also takes it a step further. A specific analysis of the subject and the subsequent identification of potential approaches formed the basis for an architectural application that brings the architect in contact with other project participants using the internet as a powerful yet simple and easy to use medium.

"As Interferências das Redes Digitais no Cotidiano da Cidade: uma leitura pelo cinema." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 287-288. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"Assessment of the Impact of Digital-Manual Media Types on the Basic Design Capabilities of Architects: a Proposed Framework and Directive Measures." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 275-276. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

The research attempts to defi ne and classify the design capabilities of architects into a basic framework. This defi nition will be useful in understanding and determining the types and nature of impact introduced by digital and manual media used during architecturaldesign process. The research consists of three parts. The First part reviews the main stages, tasks and activities of the architectural design process. The second part builds the proposed framework of design capabilities relating them to the specifi c tasks and activities conductedby the architect along the design process. The third part proposes some useful measures as to how to make use of the proposed framework in assessing the impact of media on the design capabilities of architects.

"Assessment of the Impact of Digital-Manual Media Types on the Basic Design Capabilities of Architects: A Proposed Framework and Directive Measures ." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 275-276. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"Auto-Generative Urban Interventions: a Study of the Relationship between Building Form Generation and Urban Context Mapping ." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 297-298. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. This project documents the progress of research developed to explore the unique relationship between building form and urban context with the application of a novel auto-generative modeling process incorporated into a speculative design methodology. The techniques and parameters for the project are reviewed relative to key concepts of D’Arcy Thompson’s dynamic “theory of transformation” and the development of the auto-generative modeling process. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the set of exchanges between the urban context (field of influence) and the formation of the building intervention that were subsequently mappedthrough a series of diagramming studies. Specific issues explored in the project focus on Thompson’s descriptive analysis of form as a “diagram of forces” and his use of flexible, deformable topological Cartesian nets (Method of Coordinates) to subject the stasis of geometric types to dynamic transformation. Some preliminary interpretations of the project results are evaluated through studies of the generative schemes deployed in different urban situations. The initial results of the study are demonstrated with a resultant schematic building design for a modest scaled intervention in the city of Miami.
"Auto-Generative Urban Interventions: A Study of the Relationship between Building Form Generation and Urban Context Mapping." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 297-298. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. This project documents the progress of research developed to explore the unique relationship between building form and urban context with the application of a novel auto-generative modeling process incorporated into a speculative design methodology. The techniques and parameters for the project are reviewed relative to key concepts of D’Arcy Thompson’s dynamic “theory of transformation” and the development of the auto-generative modeling process. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the set of exchanges between the urban context (field of influence) and the formation of the building intervention that were subsequently mapped through a series of diagramming studies. Specific issues explored in the project focus on Thompson’s descriptive analysis of form as a “diagram of forces” and his use of flexible, deformable topological Cartesian nets (Method of Coordinates) to subject the stasis of geometric types to dynamic transformation. Some preliminary interpretations of the project results are evaluated through studies of the generative schemes deployed in different urban situations. The initial results of the study are demonstrated with a resultant schematic building design for a modest scaled intervention in the city of Miam.
"Avaliação de Estratégia para o Ensino de Desenho de Projeto." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 232-235. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"CAD - the Creative Side - an Educational experiment that Aims at Changing Students Attitude in the Use of Computer-Aided Design." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 218-221. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. The present paper describes an innovative design education system tried out at two different architecture schools in Brazil, with opposite approaches to the use of CAD. The experimental courses had two main goals: (1) to explore the use of logical operations in design, such as symmetry, recursion, parameterization, and combinatorial analysis, and (2) to apply these techniques with the use of the computers, using CAD not only as a representational tool, but rather as an explorative, customizable and programmable design aide for the creative process. The experiments resulted in a number of interesting compositions, design projects and programs, and assessment questionnaires revealed a real change in students’ attitude towards the use of CAD in architecture.
"CAD - The Creative Side - An Educational experiment that Aims at Changing Students' Attitude in the Use of Computer-Aided Design." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 218-221. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"CAD/CAM Methods in Support of Historic Preservation: a Case Study of the Freeman House by Frank Lloyd Wright." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 52-54. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. Preservationists have an impressive array of digital tools to aid them in documentation and analysis of historic structures. The tools range from near photo-realistic renderings to demonstrate what a “restored” building might have looked like at one specifi c time in history to complex chemical analysis of paint chips and pigments to geographic information systems used as management tools for historic prop er ties. Computer-aided design / computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) is set of important digital aids in historic preservation efforts. This paper presents a case study of the use of CAD/CAM in support of an effort to restore a textile block house designed by Frank Lloyd Wright. CAD/CAM methods are being employed to help produce a new mold so that new textile blocks can be manufactured that match the existing blocks. An existing textile block mold was digitally scanned, digitally mirrored and edited, and will be fabricated from an aluminum billet to replace a mold that no longer exists. Although seemingly a simple process and well within current technological abilities, the work proved substantially more challenging that initially imagined.
"CAD/CAM Methods in Support of Historic Preservation: A Case Study of the Freeman House by Frank Lloyd Wright." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 52-54. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"Computation in the Transition between the Secondary School to the University and from the University to the Office of Architecture." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 245-247. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

This paper makes reference to the actual and potential development of computer applications in the field of architectural education. In particular, we address issues of infrastructure, faculty and curriculum. At the same time, the paper outlines relationships between prevailing tendencies both in high schools as well as professional offices. In this way we manage to present a consistent vision in which academia and profession articulate IT resources responding to their own agendas. This analysis is illustrated bymeans of the actual conditions under which the School of Architecture at Texas A&M University operates. The paper ends making reference to the challenge of globalization in academia and the profession in the 21st century.

"Computer graphics and academic research: representing the city icons." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 84-86. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

This paper has the objective to expose ideas about the signification of computer graphics in an academic research environment. Those ideas and their consequent work methodologies were developed from experiences with 3d modeling related to the work produced within the research group LAURD, meaning Digital Representation and Urban Analysis Laboratory, which dedicates itself to research the potentialities of those tools in order to explore new possibilities of analysis and studies representations about architectural icons and their insertion in the urban environment. Along this process, could be developed some methodological concepts which conducted the elaboration of 3d models of LAURD’s main study case – the Health and Education Ministry building, also known as Gustavo Capanema Palace. In this paper will be explained the methodologies developed from those concepts, and the consequent results of the 3d model made with them.

"Conception of Urban Space - Simulators Supporting Planning Work." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 87-90. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. Experimenting with “space”, joint exploring solution possibilities with all those concerned and the anticipation of the future involving as little risks as possible are important functions of space-related simulation contributing to increasing of knowledge, decision-finding and communication throughout the planning process. Questions as to conception of urban space, the modeling of urban volume and urban design, the improvement of spatial match (“fit”) and workability regarding utilization (”fitness for use”) call for suited simulators supporting planning work. All planning phases of urban-spatial planning processes are to benefit thereby: understanding is promoted, spatial characteristics developed, preservation- and renewal priorities are deduced, variants are conceived, spatial impact analysis of spatial ideas and graphic communication are to act as basis fordecision-finding. The present contribution also discusses the application possibilities of the “CAVE” (space with threedimensional image projections) as planning tool. The following questions are to be covered: qualitative and quantitative aspects of modeling of urban space, planning benefits arising from differing “levels of details” (LOD’s), “navigation in” and “interaction with urban spaces”, testing in line with requirements and examples of planning practice as well as current research- and development needs.
"Conception of Urban Space: Simulators Supporting Planning Work." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 87-90. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. This project documents the progress of research developed to explore the unique relationship between building form and urban context with the application of a novel auto-generative modeling process incorporated into a speculative design methodology. The techniques and parameters for the project are reviewed relative to key concepts of D’Arcy Thompson’s dynamic “theory of transformation” and the development of the auto-generative modeling process. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the set of exchanges between the urban context (field of influence) and the formation of the building intervention that were subsequently mapped through a series of diagramming studies. Specific issues explored in the project focus on Thompson’s descriptive analysis of form as a “diagram of forces” and his use of flexible, deformable topological Cartesian nets (Method of Coordinates) to subject the stasis of geometric types to dynamic transformation. Some preliminary interpretations of the project results are evaluated through studies of the generative schemes deployed in different urban situations. The initial results of the study are demonstrated with a resultant schematic building design for a modest scaled intervention in the city of Miam
"Constructing and Reconstructing the City: the Glasgow Experience." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 94-96. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. This paper describes and illustrates three very different uses of Information and Computing Technology (ICT) to represent, interpret and provide access to the city of Glasgow, Scotland’s largest city. The first application is a web-based three dimensional model of the city centre comprising the topography of the landform, the road and river networks and around 10,000 individual buildings. The model provides the interface to a number of different databases and search engines help the user explor the city. The second application is a recently completed CD-ROM illustrating, from an aerial perspective, the growth of the city from pre-historic times to the present. It comprises 230 images, 140,000 words of text, 5 video clips and 35 sound clips. The third application is to create a web-based massive archive of images (around 10,000) and historical events, personalities, objects and themes that can be updated and enlarged inexpensively and made available on-line to the widest possible audience.
"Constructing and Reconstructing the City: The Glasgow Experience." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 94-96. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

This paper describes and illustrates three very different uses of Information and Computing Technology (ICT) to represent, interpret and provide access to the city of Glasgow, Scotland’s largest city.

The first application is a web-based three dimensional model of the city centre comprising the topography of the landform, the road and river networks and around 10,000 individual buildings. The model provides the interface to a number of different databases and search engines help the user explor the city. The second application is a recently completed CD-ROM illustrating, from an aerial perspective, the growth of the city from pre-historic times to the present. It comprises 230 images, 140,000 words of text, 5 video clips and 35 sound clips. The third application is to create a web-based massive archive of images (around 10,000) and historical events, personalities, objects and themes that can be updated and enlarged inexpensively and made available on-line to the widest possible audience.

"Context, Practice and Technique in the Development of a Creative Curriculum." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 39-42. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. This paper explores ideas in relation to the design and delivery of a university level curriculum aimed at producing computer artists. Theessential principle is that the organisation of the film industry is a useful paradigm, and that the paradigm can be used as a tool in the designand delivery of this kind of curriculum. The education of graduates destined for the “new media” industries is complex. A particular problemis to achieve balance between development of technological skills on the one hand and artistic and creative development on the other. The challenge for educators is that many students are motivated by acquiring technical expertise and may not realise the importance of artistic and creative development. Comparisons with the world of film are used to address the problem of balance. The background to this approach is discussed and some preliminary results, in terms of student attitudinal change, are described.
"Context, Practice and Technique in the Development of a Creative Curriculum." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 39-42. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

This paper explores ideas in relation to the design and delivery of a university level curriculum aimed at producing computer artists. The essential principle is that the organisation of the film industry is a useful paradigm, and that the paradigm can be used as a tool in the design and delivery of this kind of curriculum. The education of graduates destined for the “new media” industries is complex. A particular problem is to achieve balance between development of technological skills on the one hand and artistic and creative development on the other. The challenge for educators is that many students are motivated by acquiring technical expertise and may not realise the importance of artistic and creative development. Comparisons with the world of film are used to address the problem of balance. The background to this approach is discussed and some preliminary results, in terms of student attitudinal change, are described.

"Creative Individuals or Creative Situations? a Computational Model of Creativity Based on Social Influence." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 31-34. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. Computers can be used as a key research tool because they allow us to do things that have been difficult or unfeasible in the past. This potential could facilitate discussion of ideas in new ways. This paper presents preliminary findings of a computational model that may contribute to extend our –presently limited – understanding of creative phenomena in design. As part of an extensive modelling effort, it offers initial insights that may shift the current focus in individual creativity to a more extensive view where the situations within which designers operate play a key role in the occurrence and definition of creativity.
"Creative Individuals or Creative Situations? A Computational Model of Creativity Based on Social Influence." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 31-34. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"Database." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 204-207. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

This paper is a theoretical essay on the installation database. database is an electronic reading device that deals with the inversed functionality of three technologies: a printer, a video-camera and a database. Consequently, it raises issues about the erasure of text, the act of reading in real time (i.e., listening to a printed text), and physical databases. We challenge theidea of databases as non-linear and digital structures, and printers as output devices as well as information recorders. The installation deals with the opposition between presence vs. absence, recording vs. erasing, memory vs. forgetfulness, present vs. continuous time, and reading vs. listening. These concepts are connected with the idea of present time as a time that is always passing by.

"Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 133-139. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.

"Del CAD Al Proyecto De Titulación: Hacia Una Linea Coherente De Estudios De Computación Aplicada Al Diseño." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 285-286. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"Design Process Simulation in Design Computing Teaching: the Evolution and Assessment of the Efficacy of a Hybrid Problem-Based Approach." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 236-239. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. Teaching Design Computing in the context of a design task is an idea derived from the problem based learning, PBL, movement. However, a PBL curriculum has rarely been implemented in architectural education, let alone in Design Computing education. The development and implementation of a feasible PBL Design Computing curriculum is described in this paper. The idea of teaching design computing through design-based approaches has been increasingly adopted over the past 15 years. However, most of the resulting experiments have been limited to specific courses within larger programmes. This approach has rarely affected a dedicated design computing curriculum. We describe here a post-graduate programme that has been structured around a specific design project through a set of courses in which the emphasis falls on the needs of the design process rather than on software categories. We also describe the preliminary results of the assessment carried out to verify the efficiency of theadopted approach and developed model.
"Design Process Simulation in Design Computing Teaching: The Evolution and Assessment of the Efficacy of an Hybrid Problem-Based Approach ." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 236-239. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"Desplazamiento Visual De La Ciudad De Concepción." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 79-81. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. This proposal presents a personal experience in plastic arts, that through a reflexive, theorical and visual process pretends to deal with the problem of the new visuality of the city of Concepción and how changes define a new perception of the city and the condition our policy of view. We establish the need of setting up a re-reading and re-view of the consecutive displacements and changes of this city and, in an utopic individual and colectiva way, to cartography the lost community.
"Diagrams, modeling and rapid prototyping: interface between the design process of form and topology." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 261-262. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. This project in progress is part of the architectonic form design investigation fi eld, from simultaneous increment of topology This project in progress is part of the architectonic form design investigation fi eld, from simultaneous increment of topology as theoretic and operative tool and of computer modeling process and rapid prototyping of objects as medium for design/ as theoretic and operative tool and of computer modeling process and rapid prototyping of objects as medium for design/ representation.
"Digital exploration of MESP projects: the search for the Brazilian Modernism footprints." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 75-78. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

This paper aims to demonstrate how the design process analysis of an important architectural icon of the city of Rio de Janeiro – the Ministry of Education and Public Health, MESP – allows the understanding of how the decisions taken during the design process synthesizes a way those involved in the project see the world, through an architectural artifact. This research presents, through 3D models, grouped in a hyperdocument, the project of that important Brazilian Modern Architecture icon. The 3D models were critical to the hypothesis development. They were a powerful tool to compare the different design versions while allowing projects with originally different forms of representation could be examined side by side from several equal point of views. Another important aspect of the investigation is the use of hyperdocument, through links of several document formats in an interactive way, to present the analysis.

"Digital File of Art of the University City: Degree Experience in Architecture." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 240-244. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

This article describes the experiences in the teorical – practical course “Computer Asisted Design – Level II” in the Architecture career, offer by the LTAD - FAU – UCV. We gave as models to the students of our course real art works, located and visitable in the universiy campus, offering the construction of detailed digital files of them, that will be publish in Internet. Files that can be use in the inventary and conservation of those art works. Important exercise if we consider that this art works are part of theUNESCO Human Cultural Patrimony (http://www.unesco.org). We want that our University asumes this iniciative as integral part of the inventary, conservation and divulgation of the art works integrated to the buildings in the UCV Campus.

"Digital Patrimony and 3D Parametric Models." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 299-300. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

This paper shows the results of 3-D modelling carried out on works of great architectural value. This case corresponds to the building system of Villa Victoria Cultural Center, Mar del Plata, Argentina. The building of a 3-D Digital Model implies the operations of geometric modelling by using Parametric CAD systems in this case, and to the operations of visual modelling in all respects. The analysis focused on three aspects: the morphological aspect, which comprises the visualization and the analysis of the model shapes; the constructional aspect, which deals with the component elements of the model ; and the realistic aspect, where shapes are complemented with appearence by incorporating materialization features which relate to the perception of the finished model.

"Distorted Eye." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 261-263. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. The paper is a brief analysis and presentation of computational visual effects as they may relate to our understanding of space and the depicted object. Euclidean and non- Euclidean projective geometries can be applied, altered, and visualized through computer systems.
"Distorted Eye." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 261-263. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. The paper is a brief analysis and presentation of computational visual effects as they may relate to our understanding of space and the depicted object. Euclidean and non- Euclidean projective geometries can be applied, altered, and visualized through computer systems.
"Documentary Database: Texts, Graphs, Videos and Sound for online-consultation on the Internet." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 124-128. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

The possibility to query from Internet a database, in a direct way and by means of a navigator (browser) type like Netscape The possibility to query from Internet a database, in a direct way and by means of a navigator (browser) type like Netscape or Explorer; that allows to consult a group of information formed by texts, graphics, video and sound; opens an immense or Explorer; that allows to consult a group of information formed by texts, graphics, video and sound; opens an immense panorama for the popularization of the multimedia information banks, which would be limited in another way to consultations panorama for the popularization of the multimedia information banks, which would be limited in another way to consultations for a reduced number of users from a local network (Intranet). for a reduced number of users from a local network (Intranet).The exponential growth of users and Internet sites make indispensable to manage this type of resources to be able to The exponential growth of users and Internet sites make indispensable to manage this type of resources to be able to embrace potential users’ groups distributed in the whole planet. Most of the users that navigate in Internet make it through embrace potential users’ groups distributed in the whole planet. Most of the users that navigate in Internet make it through hyperlinks , not requiring a special training. The database manager in this case 4th Dimension, takes charge of negotiate hyperlinks , not requiring a special training. The database manager in this case 4th Dimension, takes charge of negotiatethe consultations to the database and to transform the forms to code HTML (HiperText Marked Languaje) in a transparent the consultations to the database and to transform the forms to code HTML (HiperText Marked Languaje) in a transparent way, so that the user doesn’t have to learn how to manage new tools. way, so that the user doesn’t have to learn how to manage new tools. What is presented here is a development example that allows to understand the different components from a on-line What is presented here is a development example that allows to understand the different components from a on-line consultation system through the Internet. consultation system through the Internet.

"El Experimento Architecto-go.com." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 283-284. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"El nuevo proyectar cibernético-digital y El nuevo proyectar ecológico-medioambiental." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 10-13. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. "Genetic architectures”, not only like a metaphorical name. New materials and new tools give a new architecture. Up to now the human being had to conform with acting only at the superficial level of objects. Now, it’s possible to think further away and descend to actions at the molecular level, influencing on genetic design and on programming chains which are then developed by themselves as artificial computing elements and natural live elements. It’s time to apply all these to architecture, when these can become an integrating part of architecture. These should include an advanced contemporary architecture versus (and basing itself on) the use of the computer as a mere substitute of manual drafts while improving pintoresque ecology: “the new cibernetic-digital architectural design & the new ecological-environmental architectural design”. Not building in the nature, building with the nature, building the nature self. The utopy of today is the reality of tomorrow.
"Elaboração de superfícies topográficas em ambiente CAD." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 291-292. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"Ensayos Sobre El Futuro - Una Visión En Perspectiva Sobre América Latina." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 4-5. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"Entre Mnemo e Locus: arquitetura de espaços virtuais, construção de espaços mentais ." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 277-278. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"Escarpment Study in a Virtual Flow Environment a Comparative Analysis of a Single Building Type Modeled in Varying Topological Situations ." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 167-171. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. This paper documents the progress of research to investigate the integration of 3-dimensional computational modeling techniques into wind mitigation analysis and design for building structures located in high wind prone areas. Some of the basic mechanics and theoretical concepts of fluid flow and wind pressure as well as their translation into design criteria for structural analysis and design are reviewed, followed by a discussion of a detailed Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) application case study for asimulated “3-second gust” hurricane force wind flow over a low rectangular building located in a coastal region of south Florida. The case study project models the wind flow behavior and pressure distribution over the building structure when situated in three varying conditions within a single terrain exposure category. The simulations include three-dimensional modeling of the building type constructed (1) on-grade in a flat coastal area, (2) above grade with the building elevated on structural columns, and (3) ongradedownwind of an escarpment. The techniques and parameters for development of the simulations are discussed and some preliminary interpretations of the results are evaluated by comparing their predictions to existing experimental and analytical data, with special attention paid to the numerical methods outlined in the American Society of Civil Engineers, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE 7-98.
"Escarpment Study in a Virtual Flow Environment A Comparative Analysis of a Single Building Type Modeled in Varying Topological Situations." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 167-171. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. As building projects become increasingly more complex, the number of project participants increases as does their spatial distribution. An effective decentralised work process and co-operation is of increasing importance. The global computer network, the internet, has great potential and recent times have seen the development of a variety of techniques in this field. The project proposal described here is based upon this approach and also takes it a step further. A specific analysis of the subject and the subsequent identification of potential approaches formed the basis for an architectural application that brings the architect in contact with other project participants using the internet as a powerful yet simple and easy to use medium.
"Experience in Digitalization Processes of Architectural Design: Study Case of Space Modeling, Independent University of Aguascalientes." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 252-256. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

This project has been based in an experience that took time in the years 1999 and 2000 where a group of 13 students of the Architectonic Design Masters in the U.A.A. were submitted to a project that consisted in register their Architectonic Design Processing during a year with the main purpose of having the most complete material possible to be used as material for different research projects. At the end of the architectonic project the students scanned all the graphics and ordered them in the format that was established by the group using ACDSee32 as the program, which resulted very simple to manage and permitted to order the graphics and write comments to them as it was thought. The result obtained was 12 ordered texts by seven segments pefectly identifi ed and with easy manage for any investigation that you want to realice with them, in fact today exist two fi nished investigations that were realized with this information added to one formal investigation and some informal in process.

"Historical Analysis of Building - (Re)Construction in Olivette Park, USA." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 63-66. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. From 1959 to 1990, East St. Louis, Illinois deteriorated from an “All-American City” to a national symbol of urban blight. Located on the Mississippi River, the East St. Louis of today faces severe economic, social, and environmental problems. Nearly onequarter of the city’s work force is unemployed and about 40 percent of families are living below the poverty level. But East St. Louis was not always a distressed community. With strong ties to St. Louis and the surrounding region, East St. Louis onceflourished as the country’s second busiest railroad hub. Powerful economic and socio-political forces, as well as unfortunate historical circumstance, propelled the city into a downward spiral that drastically decreased the quality of life in East St. Louis. This paper presents the digital re-construction of the buildings and the analyses of the historical aspects of the housing construction and types in this area. Furthermore, it reports the survey and assessment of the quality of building stocks based on therevitalization plan that will provide some guidelines and suggestions for improvement, stability, and future needs.
"Historical Analysis of Building - (Re)Construction in Olivette Park, USA." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 63-66. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. As building projects become increasingly more complex, the number of project participants increases as does their spatial distribution. An effective decentralised work process and co-operation is of increasing importance. The global computer network, the internet, has great potential and recent times have seen the development of a variety of techniques in this field. The project proposal described here is based upon this approach and also takes it a step further. A specific analysis of the subject and the subsequent identification of potential approaches formed the basis for an architectural application that brings the architect in contact with other project participants using the internet as a powerful yet simple and easy to use medium.
"Hyper medial Systems and thematic decentralized." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 190-192. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

Hipermedia lead to a non- linear organization of information, where the user decides the path to follow and the relations among the different information blocks. They constitute starting points for establishing both social and sin gu lar “sense genealogies”. Sense production by means of mutimedia access and the resignifying of information correspond, within the Theory of Science Didactics, to the concept of thematic decentering. This concept refers to fl exibility and transference modes, opposed toseg men ta tion and which enable to explore, approach and relate different topics and complexities. It is supposed to generate more cultivated individuals by broadly linking science, technology and art. Within this theoretic frame work, the work presents the de vel op ment of a hipermedium on the Villa Victoria Cultural Center, which aims at a didactic treat ment of cultural spaces as object of knowl edge.

"Hyper medial Systems, Size effects of the nodes and number of bonds." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 186-189. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

A Hypermedia system is, morphologically speaking, an information structure which organizes a set of elements of alphanumeric and graphic nature as a web. This enables a multidimensional access from specific interests. One of the most widespread hypermedia applications is within the field of education. There should be validation criteria which contribute to systematize and direct design processes for didactic hypermedia. This work aims at becoming a contribution by analyzing the relations and effects produced by the number of links and node sizes on some basic didactic uses; particularly, within information search, learning and attitude towards hypermedia. From the results obtained, we propose guidelines for the design of didactic Web Sites and CD Rom.

"Iluminação arquitetônica em ambiente computacional - ferramentas de projeto aplicadas ao ensino." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 295-296. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"Interactive system for analysis of the circle and ellipse affinity relations." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 258-260. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. This paper will try to establish a dialogue between the process of rational geometric construction and the intuitive process of discovering shapes. This will involve: a geometric principle that works as a geometric generation law and two interactive macros. The geometric principle is the affinity between circles and ellipses. The macros, developed in VisualLisp languagefor AutoCAD, allow the students to construct 3D abstract structures. In order to provide support for the student in the task of analysing the 3D structures a methodology has been established to classify shapes giving each one an alphanumeric string. The string reflects the transformation order during the creation of each spacial structure. With the aid of interactivity it is intended that this exercise in discovering space creates a tension allowing the rational and intuitive states of mind overlap.
"Interphase Design - Methodology of Approach to the building of Virtual Environments." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 175-179. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

The project we are presenting is based on our professional experience in virtual interface design of multimedia, in CD-ROM and Web format, which has been developed in our design workshops. Our project methodology has one common basis: The metaphorical and conceptual argument for the creation of virtual environments is supported by the observation of the physical environment of human beings and the objects that surround them.The research we have carried out is aimed at establishing a project methodology for interface design based on the hypothesis that observation and knowledge of the relationship between man and environment (architectural and urban), man and object (literacy and symbolic representation) is the basis for the design of recognizable virtual environments. These are functional, representative and efficient elements for the achievement of communicative objectives of such virtual environments. The project reference that supports our research is the outcome of academic and professional project analysis. These projectswill support the demonstration of the suggested methodology which, in the course of the presentation, will be applied to a project to be developed and whose metaphorical basis is the city of Valparaiso.The objective is to use the urban environment as a metaphorical argument for the design of a virtual environment for the Cultural and Historical Registry of Literature, Plastic Arts and Chilean Architecture where Valparaiso has served as reference, source of inspiration and object of study. Together with the methodological project, we will present the instruments that have been created for reference analyis with the purpose of interface design and in order to facilitate a mechanism to evaluate interface design projects.

"Invisible cities - an interpretative construction." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 91-93. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. Crear una imagen virtual digital colectiva, de una de las 57 ciudades descrito por Italo Calvino en el libro” Las ciudades invisibles “. Imaginar la ciudad y superar su concepto geográfico. Hacer-la un elemento aglutinadotes de las experiencias y sentimientos humanos, una fuente inagotable en transformación. Permitir una creación personal y colectiva, a través de los elementos que son al mismo tiempo descriptivos e imaginativos, que hace o no parte del mundo real, nosotros reportamos al mundo de los sueños, de la factura, lugares dónde todo es posible.Una invitación para sentir y entender sin la prisa, analizando los detalles como en una obra de arte. Un espacio digital que hace posible un diálogo no sólo en el campo del discurso pero también de la mirada, de crear, de hacer, de dividir y de comprensión. El pasaje para una nueva forma de la interacción, dónde los cambios acontecen libre e independientemente,sin la dirección de flujos, derribando las barreras espacio-tempo.Una búsqueda poética que tomará forma a través de la construcción de un mundo, compuesto por los elementos como: la luz, el sonido, las imágenes, las animaciones, objetan 2D y 3D, textos y videos. Estará disponible en el sitio”Ciudad arte” (www.cidadearte.com.br)
"La importancia del Diseño Industrial en el equipo para la enseñanza experimental de ciencias." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 293-294. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"Mandalas and Fractals: Nature Morphologies." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 212-215. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

The research on the different morphological representations of Nature throughout History is only a general analysis of forms. In this case, the concepts of mandala and fractals will be found in different productions distant from one another both in time and culture. In the relationship between Art and Geometry, the mandala stands out as a way of representing nature, the one and the multiple, diversity and unity; a study of its manifestations in astrological calendars, in the rose windows of the Gothic cathedrals and the Tibetan images. The Theory of Fractals, in its differences from the Euclidean concept of dimension, will lead us to an interpretation of the “among”, the fractional, the sinuous, a continuos manifestation in nature itself; besides, bearing in mind the internal homothety, a pythagorical concept of the harmony of forms. A general look into the different modalities of representation of the same subject. The act of thinking, the reasoning on a process of geometrization on which man has always placed himself; an attempt to understand as well as to imitate what surrounds him.

"Measuring the Information Content of Architectural Plans." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 155-158. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. This paper describes and develops a preliminary approach to the measurement of the information content of two-dimensional design drawings. We utilise a general method for extracting information from an encoded string of symbols as a canonical representation of architectural plans. The information content of each drawing or set of drawings is determined by measuring its entropy. We present two classes of qualitative representation of shape and space. The first uses a qualitative representation of the outline of shapes in the drawing. The second uses a qualitative representation of the spaces described in the drawing. We describe the preliminary implementation of the method to a time-evolution of two formally described design styles, Romanesque and Gothic cathedral plans.
"Measuring the Information Content of Architectural Plans." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 155-158. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"MINGA; Análisis de la animación en arquitectura." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 281-282. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"Modelado Tridimensional y Realización de Imágenes Fotorrealísticas para nuestra Tesis de Grado de Arquitectura." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 279-280. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"Modeling and Rendering Virtual Architecture by Using Fisheye-Panorama-Based Images and Lightings in HDR-Quality." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 172-174. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

We use digitally made spherical panoramas as background for vr visualisation in architectural sceneries instead of stitched photographs (fisheye-based or serical-mirror-based). For this reason we had the idea to develop the first fisheye-based digitalscanning panorama-camera together with the manufacturer Spheron. The ultimate step in reaching optimal quality not only as a background but also as a source of lighting the background-image is taken as a HDR-image. The high-dynamic-range-technology was developed by the Californian scientist Paul Devebec. High dynamic photographs contain a broader range of information between the very bright zones down to the very dark zones - a lot more than “normal” photographs (digital and analogue), which are named LDR (low dynamic range in comparison to HDR). Some software-products in the field of cad-visualisation in virtual and augmented reality already enable the use of HDR-images and open a new field of controlling daylight and artificial light simulations with photographed backgrounds instaed of synthetic ones. The combination of digitally produced (scanned) spericalimages together with the use of HDR open a wide range of new implementation in the field of architecture, especially in combining synthetic elements in existing buildings, e.g. new interior elements in an existing historical museum).

"Modeling and Rendering Virtual Architecture by Using Fisheye-Panorama-Based Images and Lightings in HDR-Quality." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 172-174. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. As building projects become increasingly more complex, the number of project participants increases as does their spatial distribution. An effective decentralised work process and co-operation is of increasing importance. The global computer network, the internet, has great potential and recent times have seen the development of a variety of techniques in this field. The project proposal described here is based upon this approach and also takes it a step further. A specific analysis of the subject and the subsequent identification of potential approaches formed the basis for an architectural application that brings the architect in contact with other project participants using the internet as a powerful yet simple and easy to use medium.
"Modeling of Activities." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 151-154. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

Despite increasing interest in the functionality and humanization of architecture, scarcely the occupation of buildings are studied and it lacks methods to represent activities in the spaces. By this reason, it proposes a system such integrates simulation of processes and virtual modeling software, to program the behavior of tri-dimensional characters based on the probabilistic evolution of events, testing this approach in the study of emergency services of hospitals. It describes the procedure developed and reflections about temporal representation, demonstrating that modeling of activities allows to suggest functional and spatial improvements.

"Modelos Tridimensionais - Uma Proposta Pedagógica." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 225-227. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

O presente trabalho é o relato da segunda etapa de implantação de uma estratégia pedagógica para o ensino de computação gráfi ca aplicada no curso de graduação em arquitetura e urbanismo da Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo da Universidade de Brasília. A primeira etapa, relatada nos Anais do V SIGraDi, trata da experiência da disciplina introdutória Computação Gráfi ca Aplicada à Arquitetura e Urbanismo 1 e, esta, da disciplina de seqüência Computação Gráfi ca Aplicada à Arquitetura e Urbanismo 2, que tem como cerne os modelos tridimensionais digitais, sua produção e acabamento.

O objetivo é apresentar uma maneira de transmitir conteúdos para a apreensão da ferramenta computador, vinculando-a às etapas de um projeto de arquitetura e urbanismo, tornando-a mais associativa e relacional, deixando de ser apenas treinamento nos comandos dos softwares adotados.

"Modular Architecture Based on the Theory of Policubos." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 264-267. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

Modular Architecture refers to the design of any system composed of separated components that can be connected together preserving proportional and dimensional relationships. The beauty of modular architecture is that it is possible to replace or add any component (a module) without affecting the rest of the system. A polycube is a set of unit cubes joined in such a way that each face of the cube is either completely joined to another or completely free of any join. A polycube is a 3D generalization of polyominoes, which consist in a set of squared unit modules joined by their sides. This paper shows how, from the volumetric and modular character of polycubes, it is possible to set correspondences with 3D forms of architectural use, being a very powerful sustain in assisted design processes. The main purposes are:- to be used as creative triggers in the realization of architectural designs- to enlarge the possibilities of CAAD systems exploring modular complex groupings- to develop a simplified procedure of teaching-learning architectural forms.

"New Expectations: City Modeling in the Internet Age." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 97-100. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. The first part of this paper tries to give an overview over the different aspects of city modeling. After a short history on city models the paper starts with a categorization of the different “types” of city models. We try to explain the various aspects involved in the creation of a city model and the problem of maintaining a city model. Then the paper shows the example of two computer models of parts of the same European city which have been created in two different ways. The first version of this computer model tries to use as many automatic or semi automatic procedures as possible to create the model. In the paper examples of these differentprocedures are given - from the automatic creation of the buildings itself, its roofs, and the surrounding terrain to the automatic cleaning of texture photos of the façade. The second version shows a model, which has been done with just a few automatic procedures and a lot of human effort (mainly students). The paper describes the limitation of both techniques and tries to give an outlook towards the combination of these methods. We will also show the importance of internet techniques in the use and presentation of computer city models.
"New Expectations: City Modeling in the Internet Age." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 97-100. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"Next Generation Immersive Visualization Environments." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 163-166. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

This paper describes the initial development of next generation high performance, flexible, relatively inexpensive, spatially immersive visualization environments. The systems being developed have configurations utilizing polyhedral display surfaces with large numbers of identical modular components and networked visual computer clusters. For the most part, the computer clusters are created using off the shelf, relatively inexpensive, commodity items. Current and near-future technologies and computational economics allow the development of better and more cost effective spatially immersive visualization systems. These systems promise better approximations to the ideal surrounding sphericaldisplay surface that presents very high resolution real-time wrap-around views of very complex data. The focus of this work is on exploring and evaluating this new class of systems to determine their practicality and effectiveness.

"Next Generation Immersive Visualization Environments." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 163-166. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"Open, Self Organising Repository for Scientific Information Exchange." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 116-120. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. In the paper-based world, CAAD-associations, such as SIGRADI, and scientific publishers aim at getting the right people together and for making sure their work gets distributed to their peers. Electronic networks, such as the Internet, are providing scientists with the means to pursue those activities on their own. In this paper we present the goals of an EU project called SciX (Scientific information eXchange). The goal of is this project is to analyze the business processes of scientific publishing, to invent new publication models and through a series of pilots to demonstrate how this should work. In the envisioned scenarios, professional associations such as SIGRADI play an important role.
"Open, Self Organising Repository for Scientific Information Exchange." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 116-120. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"Participatory Design in Collaborative Virtual Environments." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 159-162. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. This paper re-establishes the theoretical framework for participatory design evolved in the late sixties and early seventies as part of the movement towards a more explicit design methodology and attempts an explanation of why the concept failed to gain commitment from the architectural and urban design professionals. The issue of user participation in the processes of building and urban design is enjoying renewed attention following its relative neglect over the last 20 years due, in large measure, to significant advances in emerging information technologies, particularly multimedia, virtual reality and internettechnologies. This paper then gives an account of two significant and relevant developments in the evolution of the application of informationtechnologies with which the authors have been engaged. These are:a responsive and interactive interface to wholly immersive and realistic virtual reality representations of proposed buildings and urban neighbourhoods. an intuitive and platform-independent VR modelling environment allowing collaborative evolution of the scheme from withinthe virtual world. The efficacy of these IT developments is tested in the context of a design exercise in which three designers, from distributedlocations and using different computer platforms, collaboratively design an Information Centre from within the virtual world.
"Participatory Design in Collaborative Virtual Environments." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 159-162. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

This paper re-establishes the theoretical framework for participatory design evolved in the late sixties and early seventies as part of the movement towards a more explicit design methodology and attempts an explanation of why the concept failed to gain commitment from the architectural and urban design professionals. The issue of user participation in the processes of building and urban design is enjoying renewed attention following its relative neglect over the last 20 years due, in large measure, to significant advances in emerging information technologies, particularly multimedia, virtual reality and internet technologies.

This paper then gives an account of two significant and relevant developments in the evolution of the application of information technologies with which the authors have been engaged. These are: a responsive and interactive interface to wholly immersive and realistic virtual reality representations of proposed buildings and urban neighbourhoods. an intuitive and platform-independent VR modelling environment allowing collaborative evolution of the scheme from within the virtual world.

The efficacy of these IT developments is tested in the context of a design exercise in which three designers, from distributed locations and using different computer platforms, collaboratively design an Information Centre from within the virtual world.

"Physical and Digital Media Strategies For Exploring "Imagined" Realities of Space, Skin and Light." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 24-27. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

This paper will discuss an unconventional methodology for using physical and digital media strategies interchangeably in a tightly structured framework for the integration of environmental control systems (ECS) principles into a third year design studio. An eight-step methodology enabled architectural explorations of rich tactile and luminous engagement. The principles that provide the foundation for these integrative strategies between a design studio and building technology course, spring from a systematic approach that follows the tradition of the Bauhaus principles (e.g., Albers, Moholy-Nagy, Kandinsky and Kepes) of craftsmanship and visual perception.

A series of intense short workshops focused on day lighting, electric lighting, and skin vocabulary to lead students to consider these components as part of their form-making inspiration.

Examples of student work and their feedback on this methodology process will show how the exercises were linked to allow for a clear design progression.

"Physical and Digital Media Strategies for Exploring 'Imagined' Realities of Space, Skin and Light." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 24-27. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. This paper will discuss an unconventional methodology for using physical and digital media strategies interchangeably in a tightly structured framework for the integration of environmental control systems (ECS) principles into a third year design studio. An eight-step methodology enabled architectural explorations of rich tactile and luminous engagement. The principles that provide the foundation for these integrative strategies between a design studio and building technology course, spring from a systematic approach that follows the tradition of the Bauhaus principles (e.g., Albers, Moholy-Nagy, Kandinsky and Kepes) of craftsmanship and visual perception.A series of intense short workshops focused on day lighting, electric lighting, and skin vocabulary to lead students to consider these components as part of their form-making inspiration. Examples of student work and their feedback on this methodology process will show how the exercises were linked to allow for a clear design progression.
"Potentials and Pitfalls: Case Studies on Including 3D Modeling in a Traditional Arts and Letters Course ." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 222-224. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. Reconstructions of ancient and modern places, whether concrete or virtual, embody dynamic and varied relationships to the physical remains they represent. Further, they are situated in a complex, fluid dialectic between the modern moment in which the reconstruction is attempted and the previous time when the buildings or spaces were actually, originally created.In this paper, we are exploring the theoretical, pedagogical and practical issues raised by implanting these sorts of reconstructions in the context of an undergraduate, arts and letters university course. In particular, we will examine one aspect of this practice relevant to all facets of the use of reconstructions in teaching: communicating the nature of the evidence onwhich reconstructions are based.
"Potentials and Pitfalls: Case Studies on Including 3D Modeling in a Traditional Arts and Letters Course." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 222-224. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. Reconstructions of ancient and modern places, whether concrete or virtual, embody dynamic and varied relationships to the physical remains they represent. Further, they are situated in a complex, fluid dialectic between the modern moment in which the reconstruction is attempted and the previous time when the buildings or spaces were actually, originally created.In this paper, we are exploring the theoretical, pedagogical and practical issues raised by implanting these sorts of reconstructions in the context of an undergraduate, arts and letters university course. In particular, we will examine one aspect of this practice relevant to all facets of the use of reconstructions in teaching: communicating the nature of the evidence onwhich reconstructions are based.
"Predicting the Past, Remembering the Future." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 3-Feb. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. Charlas Magistrales 2There never has been such an exciting moment in time in the extraordinary 30 year history of our subject area, as NOW,when the philosophical theoretical and practical issues of virtuality are taking centre stage.The PastThere have, of course, been other defining moments during these exciting 30 years:• the first algorithms for generating building layouts (circa 1965).• the first use of Computer graphics for building appraisal (circa 1966).• the first integrated package for building performance appraisal (circa 1972).• the first computer generated perspective drawings (circa 1973).• the first robust drafting systems (circa 1975).• the first dynamic energy models (circa 1982).• the first photorealistic colour imaging (circa 1986).• the first animations (circa 1988)• the first multimedia systems (circa 1995), and• the first convincing demonstrations of virtual reality (circa 1996).Whereas the CAAD community has been hugely inventive in the development of ICT applications to building design, it hasbeen woefully remiss in its attempts to evaluate the contribution of those developments to the quality of the built environmentor to the efficiency of the design process. In the absence of any real evidence, one can only conjecture regarding the realbenefits which fall, it is suggested, under the following headings:• Verisimilitude: The extraordinary quality of still and animated images of the formal qualities of the interiors and exteriorsof individual buildings and of whole neighborhoods must surely give great comfort to practitioners and their clients thatwhat is intended, formally, is what will be delivered, i.e. WYSIWYG - what you see is what you get.• Sustainability: The power of «first-principle» models of the dynamic energetic behaviour of buildings in response tochanging diurnal and seasonal conditions has the potential to save millions of dollars and dramatically to reduce thedamaging environmental pollution created by badly designed and managed buildings.• Productivity: CAD is now a multi-billion dollar business which offers design decision support systems which operate,effectively, across continents, time-zones, professions and companies.• Communication: Multi-media technology - cheap to deliver but high in value - is changing the way in which we canexplain and understand the past and, envisage and anticipate the future; virtual past and virtual future!MacromyopiaThe late John Lansdown offered the view, in his wonderfully prophetic way, that ...”the future will be just like the past, onlymore so...”So what can we expect the extraordinary trajectory of our subject area to be?To have any chance of being accurate we have to have an understanding of the phenomenon of macromyopia: thephenomenon exhibitted by society of greatly exaggerating the immediate short-term impact of new technologies (particularlythe information technologies) but, more importantly, seriously underestimating their sustained long-term impacts - socially,economically and intellectually . Examples of flawed predictions regarding the the future application of information technologiesinclude:• The British Government in 1880 declined to support the idea of a national telephonic system, backed by the argumentthat there were sufficient small boys in the countryside to run with messages.• Alexander Bell was modest enough to say that: «I am not boasting or exaggerating but I believe, one day, there will bea telephone in every American city».• Tom Watson, in 1943 said: «I think there is a world market for about 5 computers».• In 1977, Ken Olssop of Digital said: «There is no reason for any individuals to have a computer in their home».The FutureJust as the ascent of woman/man-kind can be attributed to her/his capacity to discover amplifiers of the modest humancapability, so we shall discover how best to exploit our most important amplifier - that of the intellect. The more we know themore we can figure; the more we can figure the more we understand; the more we understand the more we can appraise;the more we can appraise the more we can decide; the more we can decide the more we can act; the more we can act themore we can shape; and the more we can shape, the better the chance that we can leave for future generations a trulysustainable built environment which is fit-for-purpose, cost-beneficial, environmentally friendly and culturally significactCentral to this aspiration will be our understanding of the relationship between real and virtual worlds and how to moveeffortlessly between them. We need to be able to design, from within the virtual world, environments which may be real ormay remain virtual or, perhaps, be part real and part virtual.What is certain is that the next 30 years will be every bit as exciting and challenging as the first 30 years.
"Predicting the Past, Remembering the Future." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 2-3. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. There never has been such an exciting moment in time in the extraordinary 30 year history of our subject area, as NOW, when the philosophical theoretical and practical issues of virtuality are taking centre stage.
"Proyectación Híbrida. Reflexiones en torno a Experiencias Docentes en el Pregrado de Arquitectura (2000 – 2002)." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 301-302. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"Re- Presentations: Media Inquiries Regarding Architecture." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 14-18. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. Within the framework of architectural practice as well as the academy, media supported worldwide interdependence and transient cultural waves are essential forces activating the current globalization phenomenon. Schools that have always engaged themselves in international dialogue, are now increasingly immersed in the rapidly developing media arena andglobal information networks. In this paper I propose a theoretical and pedagogical framework in which the concept of migration provides a useful model with which to investigate the transitory natures permeating cultures. These involve not only the literal moving from one physical world into another, but also the more abstract - from that of the so called “real” world into that of the “virtual.” Through what I call re-presentations an experimental studio was conducted at the Universidad Nacional del Litoral in Santa Fe, Argentina involving multi-cultures ( the USA and Argentina) and multi-disciplines ( film/video and architecture). The conclusion suggests however, that such re-presentations posit paradoxical questions.
"Re- Presentations: Media Inquiries Regarding Architecture." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 14-18. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

Within the framework of architectural practice as well as the academy, media supported worldwide interdependence and transient cultural waves are essential forces activating the current globalization phenomenon. Schools that have always engaged themselves in international dialogue, are now increasingly immersed in the rapidly developing media arena and global information networks.

In this paper I propose a theoretical and pedagogical framework in which the concept of migration provides a useful model with which to investigate the transitory natures permeating cultures. These involve not only the literal moving from one physical world into another, but also the more abstract - from that of the so called “real” world into that of the “virtual.” Through what I call re-presentations an experimental studio was conducted at the Universidad Nacional del Litoral in Santa Fe, Argentina involving multi-cultures ( the USA and Argentina) and multi-disciplines ( film/video and architecture). The conclusion suggests however, that such re-presentations posit paradoxical questions.

"Situated Computing: a New Paradigm for Design Computing." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 1. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. Computer usage in design has largely been in the areas of document production, 3D modelling and to a lesser extent in specialised design analysis and design synthesis tasks. This use of computers by designers has been based on well-defined practices that have their genesis in the scientific approach to knowledge. Just as knowledge is independent of its use and independent of its user, so computer programs are designed to be independent of their use and independent of their users. This talk presents a complementary paradigm based on the notions of situated cognition as the basis of the development of new kinds of computational design tools.Situated cognition holds that where are you and when you are there matters and that the state you are in affects what you do. The fundamental difference is between encoding all knowledge prior to its use to allowing the knowledge to be grounded in the interaction between the computational system and its environment. In addition to the concepts of situated cognition there is another important concept called constructive memory. Constructive memory changes our view of “memory” in acomputational system from being a thing in a place that can be accessed with the correct index to being a process that produces a “memory” when needed. Thus, memory is constructed as needed and becomes a function of both the question it is used to respond to and the situation within which it was asked. These concepts provide the foundation for the developmentof novel tools to support computer-aided designing. Examples of situated cognition and constructive memory will be presented. This will be followed by examples of situated design analysis and situated computational design creativity.
"Situated Computing: A New Paradigm for Design Computing." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

Computer usage in design has largely been in the areas of document production, 3D modelling and to a lesser extent in specialised design analysis and design synthesis tasks. This use of computers by designers has been based on well-defined practices that have their genesis in the scientific approach to knowledge. Just as knowledge is independent of its use and independent of its user, so computer programs are designed to be independent of their use and independent of their users. This talk presents a complementary paradigm based on the notions of situated cognition as the basis of the development of new kinds of computational design tools.

Situated cognition holds that where are you and when you are there matters and that the state you are in affects what you do. The fundamental difference is between encoding all knowledge prior to its use to allowing the knowledge to be grounded in the interaction between the computational system and its environment. In addition to the concepts of situated cognition there is another important concept called constructive memory. Constructive memory changes our view of “memory” in a computational system from being a thing in a place that can be accessed with the correct index to being a process that produces a “memory” when needed. Thus, memory is constructed as needed and becomes a function of both the question it is used to respond to and the situation within which it was asked. These concepts provide the foundation for the development of novel tools to support computer-aided designing.

Examples of situated cognition and constructive memory will be presented. This will be followed by examples of situated design analysis and situated computational design creativity

"Teatro Municial' in Rio de Janeiro: a representative reading of the city." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 67-70. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

The article is written on a work on Municipal Theater of Rio de Janeiro, it discuss mainly the concept of urban icon. We attempted to infer the aspects that made it as relevant as it is for the urban contest by the analysis of this meaningful architectonic element of this city. Furthermore, we also tried to elaborate, using graphic resources, a representative reading of the city based on it. The research resulted in a sequence of twenty two printed cards, which displays photographs, maps , charges drawings, newspaper articles and chronicles published in the period. Based on this work, a version for digital media is being developed as a site.

"Tecnologia e arte na sociedade do conhecimento ." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 208-211. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"The cycle, the line and the grid. Ways to approach towards a progressive education." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 47-50. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

The present situation of the educational procedures in Latin American countries are under a critical process of paradigmatic changes as a by product of the last connection with the industrial world and the first one of the “information society”. The design disciplines has been affected by this situation and started to be the main challenge for architects and designers in order to understand the potentialities of the new technologies avoiding to be used as simple “cliches”. Regarding digital technologies, the graduated and post graduated strategy for the new courses should be organized as flexible and open systems avoiding the “clip art” environment and the obsolete models of education. The “digital culture” combined with extensive procedures of “information technology” has defined an overwhelming expansion of “virtual services” (intangibles) in opposition of the “world of objects” (tangibles). Therefore we have been organized a new “digitaldesign”course at post graduated level comprising five careers (Architecture, Industrial, Graphic, Textil and Garment, and Imageand Sound Design) of our Faculty.

"The digital and empty atmosphere, and multiplicity." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 43-46. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

Although some authors sustain that postmodern culture, and particularly science, is in conflict with myths, from another perspective certain concepts, which come from philosophy, are still supporting cultural phenomenons that comes from new sciences, and particularly, from the new technological impact. The following concepts are brief comments about big themes, that will take us closer to delineating the actual cultural character, and to defining a few fundamental philosophical questions which are useful to the purposes of this article. The principal ideas of this paper come from applying philosophical concepts to the new design processes that involve digital media. After establishing the main hypothesis, the demonstration will be developed through the extensive explanation of concepts such as rhizome, emptiness and simulacra, and the characteristics that link them to digital environment, objects and processes.

"The link between the Sketch and Tools of Modeled NURBS: the Representation of Surfaces of Double Curvature in Industrial Design." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 289-290. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

This poster shows a methodological approach developed at the School ofIndustrial Design (Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela) in order to achievethree objectives. Firstly, to assist future industrial designers to analyze and guide their ideas during the early stages of the design process with a sort of graphics, whose expressive precision is different to the metric one. Secondly, to help students to improve their graphic skills in order to communicate their ideas to others during the form creation phases of thedesign process. Thirdly, to promote the use of drawing as a way to define a link between hand drawing and modeling in CAD’s NURBS*. These aspects are especially relevant if we consider that such methodological links, although are frequently assumed by some design firms, they have been hardly visualized in the academic environment as part of the “teaching- learning” process.

"The new cyber-digital project and the new ecological-environmental project." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 13-Oct. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002. “Genetic architectures”, not only like a metaphorical name. New materials and new tools give a new architecture. Up to now the human being had to conform with acting only at the superficial level of objects. Now, it’s possible to think further away and descend to actions at the molecular level, influencing on genetic design and on programming chains which are then developed by themselves as artificial computing elements and natural live elements. It’s time to apply all these to architecture, when these can become an integrating part of architecture. These should include an advanced contemporary architecture versus (and basing itself on) the use of the computer as a mere substitute of manual drafts while improving pintoresque ecology: “the new cibernetic-digital architectural design & the new ecological-environmental architectural design”. Not building in the nature, building with the nature, building the nature self. The utopy of today is the reality of tomorrow.
"The Real, the virtual and the Internet in the Information Age." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 28-30. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

Over the last decade, advances in computer graphics plus the growing popularity of the Internet have incorporated the words reality and virtuality into our vocabulary, at the same time, making the distance between the words shorter. In this article, we discuss the two concepts - reality and virtuality - and analyze how this question has affected human communication, specially in the Web environment. This analysis will be used as a basis for research on the impact of “non-presence” in working relationships in a virtual environment, more specifically in the architecture and engineering areas where we find the Web being used as a communication tool for the development of collaborative design between groups involved with the design process of the built environment.

"The system "Kaléidoscope" for reference organization in architectural design." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 129-132. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

Our research focuses on how to create new types of computer tools, which aims to help early architectural design phase. Therefore we constructed a prototype named “kaleidoscope “. This system is based on the notion that architects use some external references as a strategy to construct new project ideas and that it is possible to organize this referential knowledge.This article presents four guide-lines which allowed the development of the first version of “kaleidoscope” system. As we succeed in broadening and deepening our knowledge - theoretical and empirical – about computers, wediscover that in large part their behavior is governed by simple general laws, that what appeared as complexity in the computer program was to a considerable extent complexity of the environment to which the program was seeking to adapt its behavior.

"Tilcara, from a "Usina" to a Museum: Recovery and Virtual Reconstruction of a Significant Industrial Architectonic Patrimony." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 71-74. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

This project introduces the recovery, value, and adaptation of a new way of utilizing an important patrimony of industrial arquitecture. The proposal involves the transformation of the hydraulic power plant of Tilcara, located in San Salvador de Jujuy, into a museum. This power plant was built in 1934 with the purpose of providing electrical power to the neighboring towns in the quebrada of Humahuaca, Argentina, and also highlight the scenery and enhance the surrounding architecture. Our goal is to share the findings of the research being conducted that supports the transformation of this turistic area. Additionally, this upholds the idea of blending the conservation of this landmark and the history of Tilcara as a twentieth century patrimony, which has additional archeological sites, such as the pucará and other places from colonial times in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. An agreement between CEDODAL (Latin America Center of Architecture), in Buenos Aires, and EJESA, in San Salvador de Jujuy, (both located in Argentina) is allowing the recovery of this masterpiece.

"Tool evaluation to measure the access to urban equipment: Concepcion's case." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 101-104. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

The paper explains the evaluation of an instrument, based on a GIS to asses the level of proximity of neighborhood locations to urban services and facilities. Starting from a selected set of these, circles are drawn on a city map with radii representing neighborhood access. The areas within the circles are identified as having a certain level of access. Neighborhood locations within the intersection of two or more of these circles are assigned increasing levels of access. The result is an “access map” atthe city level which represents the amount of services or “urban benefits” that a person can get from a specific neighborhood location. This map is then compared to population distribution and analyzed in terms of deficit of services and facilities.

"Virtual Center of Venezuelan Digital Art - Thesis Project on Architecture for the Cyberspace." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 180-183. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

This article talks about the development and presentation of our work of Degree Thesis, framed inside a Degree Theses restructuring process in the School of Architecture, in this case, emphasizing in virtual buildings design. The Virtual Centre of Venezuelan Digital Art project is a research and design project of a type of Arts Centre with cyberspace only presence specialized in the exhibition of Venezuelan digital art. The first part of it needed an information research, studies in the diverse ways in thatcomputers have being used for virtual museums design, the diverse focuses for the creation of this type of museums and the study of a museum model that adapts to the way this project were focused. When completing the theoretical basement, the individual proposals were developed. In general terms, the prospective results were achieved.

"Virtual Graphic Laboratories - New Role of the Experimentation in the Education of an Architect." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 146-150. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

New conceptions such as virtual environments for learning and virtual laboratories are beginning to configure an important body of knowledge and resources the benefits of which, once properly adapted and channeled to architectural formation should be incorporated to schools and faculties of architecture within an integrated optic seeking its most productive futureapplication. The purpose of the following work is to present an overview of advances, initiatives and resources currently under development in schools of architecture or related environments and, particularly, of those tools used as a basis for conducting virtual experiments in teaching and training regarding a future evaluation and orientation of such an activity within the different knowledge area The research actually underway is totally based upon resources and tools identified and available via the Internet-WWW

"Virtual Reality Modelling Language) “Urbamedia” Database Development of urban fragments of Argentinean and Latin cities utilizing the digital technology of VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language)." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 112-115. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

The proposal of “Urbamedia” is to undertake the development of a 3D virtual and interactive model of an historical area of the city of Buenos Aires. The selected zone is the “Mayo Avenue” including the “Mayo Square”; this project is financed by the National Agency of Scientific and Technological Development of Argentina and the University of Buenos Aires.We are presenting and experimental model of the “Mayo Square” that has been developed at ABACUS, Department of Architecture & Building Aids Computer Unit, University of Strathclyde UK. We are also looking to include histórical areas of three cities (Mar del Plata, Rosario and Santa Fe) and eventually other cities from Latin América. Due that ABACUS has a strong experience in city modelling plus the powerful software and hardware used there, we must develop a VRML customized menu to be adapted to our low cost PC equipment. The 3D model will be used mainly in urban design simulation procedures and the idea is to extend to other type of simulationsof the environmental parameters.

"Visiones de una Arquitectura virtual ." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 6-7. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.
"Visualizing the Non-Visual Nature of Architecture." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 19-23. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

During the last several years our architecture school has gone through the process of fully digitizing the studios. We, as faculty are learning much about the advantages and difficulties of teaching architectural design in this new electronic environment. This knowledge has been included in our development of a beginning design communications course that wefeel offers an important improvement in regards to our changing teaching situation. This paper presents one project from this course that introduces our students to the use of digital media for dealing with non-visual and subjective content — something contrary to what is usually associated with the teaching of digital graphics. We believe that this project breaks new ground for teaching and investigating the nature of computer graphics and through it into the very essence of our experience and understanding of architecture.

"Visualizing the Past. Case of the Great Temple of Mexico." In Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 55-62. SIGraDi. Caracaś, Venezuela: Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

Like Ernesto Cardenal, Planet Earth is almost to the point of drinking, smoking, buying and eating the same identical items. Sadly, culture is not on the menu. This is poignantly true when the term culture relates to the appreciation of how countries and cultures came to be. Even history classes taught in elementary schools worldwide have chosen to dedicate more time and energies to the study of the immediate present rather than presenting to young minds the formidable cultural wealth thatwe inherited from our ancestors. This paper documents research in the field of virtual reconstructions of the past. It makes the point that in order to truly develop the bases of a solid appreciation of cultural patrimonies, virtual reconstructions of the past have to incorporate a willingness to achieve higher digital modeling and rendering qualities. And, they have to be well integrated into history courses at all education levels and through a variety of means of communication. In other words, our ability to explore, to interpret and to appropriately use digital tools needs to aspire to greater and more penetrating abilities to reconstruct the past.As a case study, the paper presents the theoretical reconstruction of the Aztec Templo Mayor in Mexico (1). The presentation includes animated sections, visualizations and animations, and how a variety of digital approaches was used to grasp and appreciate the very significant architectural contributions of the early inhabitants of the Americas.