Keywords Abstract
"A creative curriculum: Putting technology in its place." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 218-220. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

The accessibility of 3D Modelling software presents challenges in the delivery of education aimed at developing creativity. Despite opening up innovative avenues of artistic possibility, computer technologies are essentially two-dimensional, hard to master and may restrict creativity itself. This paper describes a curriculum designed to develop creativity within an Electronic Arts programme. A student-centred, experiential learning approach was taken, which challenged students to set personal objectives within set project constraints. Formal critique sessions allowed students to develop a critical perspective. Conclusions are drawn as to the applicability of the approach to other non-artistic areas.

"A Creative Curriculum: Putting Technology in its Place." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 218-220. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.
"A New Estrategy for Courses of Introduction to Computing as Applied to Schools of Architecture." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 195-197. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. This work presents the methodology applied in nowadays in the introductory course of Computação Aplicada à Arquitetura of the Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie of São Paulo, Brazil. Reflecting about the old methodology and realizing the changes on the students profile during the last decade, the methodology used today has been structured considering that the most new students of universities already know how to apply informatics resources to do their daily tasks and specially to the students of architecture the informatics resources must be seen like a way to do their tasks and not like the aim of their knowledge.
"A New Methodology of Support for Visualization in Technical Graphics and Descriptive Geometry." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 201-203. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

This work presents an experiment on the use of new computer graphics, virtual reality and Internet to help students of Technical Drawing and Descriptive Geometry courses at the University of Brasilia, Brazil. After some trials of teaching with the help of CAD and 3D modelling software, when developed an animated and interactive web-site. The idea behind the creation of the site was to avoid the book metaphor, i.e., to put figures and text for the student to read, but take advantage of the animation and interaction resources of current computers. It is not a distance course, but only a site to complement classes and help visualization. The site can be seen at www.desenho.hpg.com.br.

"A Proposal of a Multi-user Artistic System." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 234-236. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. Kennetic World is an artistic research aiming to create a multi-user interface for cyberspace. It creates a telematic presence allowing the internet users to communicate with others, using their whole body in virtual environments - virtual worlds - changing permanently and also avatars, among other ways to establish dialogues. It may be characterized an open work of art.
"An Approach to Computing in the Teaching/Learning Proces in Architectural Project Design." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 207-209. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. This article seeks to disclose part of the results obtained with the development of the master dissertation. (DUARTE [2], 2000) The several approach forms between the computers and the process teaching/learning of architectural design were investigated in this work, standing out, close moment the edict of MEC that regulated the introduction of the computers in the architecture schools in Brazil. Ten Brazilian schools of architecture were researched, through questionnaires and visits, in which four approach forms were detected, that were understood more deeply with a study of cases, highlighting: methods, supports, components and the teaching process and the design process built by the student.
"And in all this, Where is the Design? the Illusion of the Content or the Content of the Illusion." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 22-24. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

The illusion of the contents or the contents of the illusion. Our sensory universe is stimulated before a growing and unstoppable manifestation of visual communications in which a language complexity is noticed, where with too much frequency is observed an unpunished use of “ pyrotechnics and visual artifices “ for a quite dissimilar audience between which are some to be eager for noise and others of superficial sensations. When analyzing habitually good part of the production of the present design we found associate the adjectives experimental, transgressor, postmodern, fashion, funny and unstructured. The perplexity appears when analyzing those productions we only found that the order of the design is so chaotic and that he is so insubstantial, that surely it has some relation with the crisis of the language and of the content.

"Application of an Algorithm for Recognition of Enclosures to a CAD System for the Stone Industry." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 98-102. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. Precise recognition and numbering of the pieces to be cut is necessary in the production process of the stone processing industry. The measures (diminished, should there be any joints), material, finish, thickness and any works to be carried out on the sides of each piece, must be detailed in the instruction cards. Several mistakes usually occur during this process which cause waste of time and material. To overcome this a graphical application program has been designed which will automate the process as far as possible. Its core is an algorithm for the automatical recognition of polygons complete with other applications to guarantee the coherence and uniqueness of this information.
"Application of Digital Graphic Tools in the Development of Regional Urbanism: the Experience of the Laboratory of Urban Studies." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 325-327. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

Today it is known that the knowledge and the territory administration requires a modern systems of calculation that spatially order and processes this information. For this, the Laboratory of Urban Studies (LUS), is dedicated to the study of the space distribution phenomenon, by means of computational graph technology. The present work has the objective to present the LUS experience in the application of two tools of digital graph to the urban regional development: using the Systems of Geographical Information (SGI) in the integral evaluation of natural risks in the city of Concepción and the application of Animation 3D in the design of “Avenida Los Plátanos” in the University of Bío-Bío.

"Approaches Towards an (Urban) Space-Related Quality Management." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 331-333. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.
"Approaches towards an (urban) space-related quality management." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 331-333. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. “Space-related modeling and simulation“ are to act as central working means for “(urban) space-related quality management“, assisting planning and design processes with its possibilities and contributing to comprehensibility and awareness of planning measures for all those involved in the planning process. The main emphasis of this work is dedicated to the description of elements concerning planning methods grouped as “key activities“ in line with a “space-related quality management“ around the “conception of building-up and urban volume, resp.“, as well as to the support the space-related production of models and simulation furnish.
"Architectonic Simulacrum within Reach." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 148-150. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. Since middle ‘90’s, the outbreak of 3d hardware acceleration devices for PC software, has facilitated a great evolvement in what is known as “Role Play Games” (RPG) – within the entertainment software industry. This development has produced such a phenomenon that surpassed all expectations. Through the game “engine” tools, virtual spaces can be achieved according to an editor’s criterium. Thus, a varied range of uses in different research fields are permitted. It is possible to build architectural simulations with high degree of realism an interactivity by means of ‘levels editors’ found in most of this games.
"Bicycle "Ida":Development of an Urban Bicycle." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 260-261. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. The project “IDA Bicycle” proposes the virtual study and exploration of the use of digital technologies in the virtual development of an urban bike without the construction of three-dimensional physical models. With the use of graphic platforms and adequate software for each stage of the project it was possible to study new configurations for the object. The new systems of design and simulation of reality makes possible the careful study of aesthetic forms and aerodynamics of the bike. It was also possible to carryout tests that analyzed the structural quality of the object.
"Center of Arts and Cutting Edge Spectacles." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 243-245. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. The proposed topic was the realisation of a “Centre of Arts and Shows of Vanguard”, for a city of regional culture. This centre is an institution destinated to give a service that is born as an answer to social necessities, in which the art, the shows and the information are the main characters. Our proposal has as objectives: · To use and to promote the electronic and computer means as tool for the cultural production and to allow their later sample. · To re value the culture promoted by the mean’s artists. · To introduce the architecture in the digital environment, “Cultural Mediatic Workshop.” The computer science and the technological instruments employment as tool, already very used by a growing number of artists at international level, mark an important evolution in the panorama of the art and the contemporary graphic representation.
"Change of Paradigm and Artistic Interactivity. the New Digital Means." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 240-242. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. Interactivity is a form in which the human being expands the self . Traditional causality contains a logic of previsible reactions; another type of causality takes place in virtual space. Digital art-works made for the Net have only a variable essence . A proposal promotes an answer and increases the meaning.Time in development is a key contributor to the process of interactivity in digital art-works, articulated with a non-forcible space. Hubert Reeves found out that the increase of interactions implies an enlargement of creativity in the universe. This is an argument to support interactivity in the digitalised creative intervention.
"Chronicle Of The City." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 322-324. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.
"Chronicle of the city." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 322-324. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. The great cities of all continents have a remarkable story to tell about their social, economic, industrial, cultural and architectural evolution. This paper gives an insight into an ambitious project to construct a 2000 year historical chronicle of Glasgow – the city at the heart of the Industrial Revolution in Northern Europe. The multimedia document which holds the chronicle draws from a huge range of paperbased resources and pulls together contributions from experts in many disparate fields. A significant characteristic of the chronicle is the use of “place” in the telling of the story. This has been achieved by sophisticated merging of artistic impressions, digital terrain modelling and aerial photography.
"City Art: a Virtual-Digital Project." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 248-250. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. “Art city” is focus in analizing the traditional process of urban plan - using the highest tecnology - to propose an urban plan of the ocupation in the real and virtual space. The timing and space has transformed during this new way of representation. Allow the exposition of the elements in differents years and cultures , the change of objects and process, to receive and transmit information. Doesn’t represent a specific place; the elaboration depend the way we realize and how we deal with the propsing and inside the struture of navegation
"Colaborative Studio for Architecture and Urbanism Digital Simulation." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 124-126. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

Cooperative Atelier of Digital Simulation is a teaching proposal in that information technologies will be used intensively in the process of architectural design, particularly computer technologies for habitat simulation. In the first learning group, a experimental one - that should begin in the semester 2001.2, the computer will be used as an instrument for modeling, information management (spatial or not), making presentations, evaluation of alternatives and taking decisions, as well as for communication between the students’ teams and teachers of FAUFBA and, of other institutions that come to be integrating the project. The computer technologies could stand for the development of cooperative works. This paper synthesizes the proposal of creation of an optional discipline for students of Architecture and Urbanism.

"Color Use in Solid Modeling." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 57-59. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.
"Color use in solid modeling." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 57-59. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. In computer modeling color selection usually determines the success of a visual message; color contrast is at the heart of graphic composition. Johannes Itten has said that there are but seven ways in which colors contrast. A course at Clemson University explores color in combination with architectural solid modeling; this paper is based on experiences from this class.
"Color, Form and Cinetics." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 171-172. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. “Color, Shape and Movement” is a course for Architecture, Design and Arts students of the Universidad Finis Terrae. The course is developed as a computer based experimentation laboratory whose objective is to give the students a perception of color and shape in a dynamic environment, with movement, direction and speed, in a search of a different perspective from those given in the traditional colour courses. This means of expression confirms the computer as another form of creative and artistic language.
"Compendium and Documentation Around the Other." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 251-253. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. This visual proposal based on traditional disciplines of Arts such as drawing, ceramics, photography digitally treated and transformed with expressive intentions approximated to the philosophic literary concept of ¨ La Otredad ¨, know as a manifestation which some authors describe as ¨ the presence of an absence or called the Great Other...., this which says death ¨ plans an approximation to the emotion activated by the perception in front to images, forms and textures in environs full of humidity temporally and some times paradoxically altered interiors by the non clear activity of human beings and collections that are ¨recorded as Compendiums or Documentation by an unknown photographer of a parallel and apocriphal reality made real by the digital possibilities¨.
Kuenstle, Michael W.. "Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Wind Engineering for the Design of Building Structures in Wind Hazard Prone Areas." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 67-70. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.
"Contributions in the Search of the Influence of the Light in the Realism of the Architectural Image." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 60-63. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

The real world is very complex, there are textures, gradients of colors, shades and reflections that are difficult to represent in the computer . Investigation : The realism and real image / Two algorithms of illumination (radiosity ,ray tracing) / Commercial programs that allow me to generate synthesis images.

"Creative Behavior in the Production of Virtual Architecture." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 183-185. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

This investigation is because of the necessity to understand the Creative Act in Architecture. Objectives: 1.- To observe the Creative Personality in the production of Virtual Architecture related to informatic systems. 2.- Conditioning the Creative Environment for Virtual Architecture Production 3.- Analyze the Creative Process of Architectonic design produces between informatic Systems. 4.- Verify the Creative Product in Virtual Architecture. The students look for new ways to get new forms in their designs. In present time we design the architectonic objects by three dimensions in the computer itis a virtual reality. We say Virtual Architecture. “The manis Creative Environment always will be attend to raise its talent or geniality with anyone tolls to be used “.

"Designing the Invisible." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 254-256. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. The topic of this thesis project is the design, construction and experimentation of digital environments. The project intends to contribute to the evolution of cyberspace by investigating what can be particular expressions of the virtual universe. Cyberspace has a different essence from physical space and therefore it needs a different conceptualization and a new design strategy. The main goal of this project is to exploit the qualities, properties and characteristics that are unique to cyberspace. To reach this experimental study of cyberspace, I use physiological data in numerical format, as the building material to design, build and transform digital spaces.
"Developing An Interactive Urban Model Prototype." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 300-303. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.
"Developing an interactive urban model prototype." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 300-303. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. The application of new digital media provides a methodology for reconstructing and analyzing certain architectural elements from the past. In this paper, a research project is described to develop a prototype system to represent and manipulate information in urban settings. In general, our research is aimed at developing a prototype urban database model and Philadelphia is chosen as a case study. An emphasis is placed on identification, categorization and representation of information in a way that is useful for urban researchers for analysis.
"Digital Culture, Communication and Society." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 28-30. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

The customary crisis that affects the countries of the region (Latin and Central America) has obliged architects and designers, by need or by affinity, to occupy other professional and educational fields that not necessarily were envisaged in the traditional curricular systems of schools of architecture and design. The so called “design disciplines” are those careers related to “architecture, urbanism and design” and the “associated disciplines” are referred to general culture and the human environment. “Digital culture” is the operative and conceptual tool, common to both type of disciplines that adapt it contents to the new models of “communication” that proposes the contemporary “society”.

"Digital Graphic Design: a Proposal of Electronic Editorial Design." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 265-267. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. Editorial design has changed its traditional support and it has to use the new digital means. This support provides its own characteristics and limitations in its double function: producer, reproducer. A new way of addressing the visual text, a receptive model reader and a frequent image user, made the authors think of the way of controlling variables related to the digital support capacity to access through different channels to the user’s perceptual field and in this way to catch and keep his interest. Likewise the authors tried to prove the efficiency in controlling independent variables variables in design of informative, persuasive and educational texts.
"Digital Graphics as a Discipline inj Architecture." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 216-217. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. Although we are already in the new millennium, some architects still doubt about the discipline introduction of the Digital Graph in architects development. For that reason, it is important to put forward some reflections in the sigradi, that collaborate to establish and spread the digital graph as a disciplinary area of teaching architecture. The Digital Graph included in the University of Architecture and postgraduation, collaborates from the biginning in the discipline development, as long as it trains and teaches the new way of architecture representation and prefiguration that arise from the introduction of new tools.
"Digital Management of Urban Rosario." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 307-310. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. This project is aimed at developing an instrument to reach the city-net multidimensionality (flux /real-space) of Rosario city in Argentina. Both, an integral view and the view of the different information layers of the urban net are required. We decided the used of computers to determine a digital dynamic model. The tool proposed has to be useful not only in search and urban survey but also as a design instrument, to pre-view the urban interventions. Simultaneously this tool is needed to evaluate the urban project’s impact in the city through the passing time as well as to communicate future projects to government and to community all.
"Drawing and CAD: Strategies and Questions." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 92-94. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

Drawings are pre-figurative media for designers, though they are neither objective nor equivalent to what they represent. The progressive use of computer-graphics in the area of Morphology for Industrial Design does not eliminate hand-made renderings but it broadens the communication tools available. Each mode, and even its combination, has potentials and restrictions that make it suitable for different moments of the design process. Designis greatest wealth lies in the integration -not in the dissolution- of what is different, so CADis images should not be the only ones to appear. What fascinates at first sight, tires if endlessly repeated.

"Efectos E Influencias De La Presencia De La Imagen En Las Lecturas - Multidimensionales De Sistemas Hipermedias." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 13-18. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.
"Effects and Influences of the Presence of Images in the Multidimentional Reading of Hypermedia Systems." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 16-18. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. Hypermedia Systems (HS) have deeply modified the methods for organizing and recovering information with respect to most traditional transmission methods; they are radically changing the experiences of reading, communication, comprehension and learning. This work aims at showing the results of a study on the consequences and the relationship between the presence of image and the positive attitudes generated in learning processes within HS multidimensional readings. We set to demonstrate that the presence of images, particularly digital images, has a positive influence on the singular construction of hypermedia narratives; first, from their appeal and then by facilitating the thematic decentering and the access to conceptualization. From these results, we propose guidelines to be applied in didactic HS designs.
"Effects of the Hypermedial Generation in the Architectonic Form." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 282-284. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. Incorporation of digital image in proyectual process have been not substitutive of traditional practices, but interacts with them, producing hipermedial proceedings of morphologic generation. Present work explains the methodology used to measurement and evaluation about changes on form produced by this proceedings, and results obtained. Present study was made from an laboratory experimental design, with several proceedings, both traditional (composition and invention) and hipermedial, comparing their results. Conclusion allows affirm that form passes from being understood as structure, to be perceived as image, and critics its material condition.
"El Poder De Transformación De Los Medios Digitales." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 10-12. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.
"Elements Within an Architecture of Cyberspace." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 139-141. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. In detail this paper evaluates the technological reality of the potential emergence of a 3D cyberspace. This paper assesses the technology from today’s VRML and Web3D tools to Virtual Reality over gigabits networks. The thesis of this paper is that the technology is very fragmented which will continue for many upcoming years. This evidence suggests that a more compelling vision for the future does not include an ubiquitous cyberspace but a more mixed reality. One that is concurrent: analog and digital. The conclusion of this paper is that this should have implications to how architects and designers should look at the digital phenomena and cyberspace. The digital space should not be viewed as a holistic space but more as part of a more imperfect transition between media and spaces.
"Evaluation of a Methodology for the Teaching of Descriptive Geometry." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 204-206. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

The purpose of this paper is to point out the most relevant aspects of an experience which gathers research processes and teaching practices at a University level, activities in which the authors hereof have been involved for many years. Even though this question has already been widely discussed – being its analysis extremely broad and varied – it is still quite interesting. This issue deals with the incorporation of new technologies in the teaching and learning processes and in the case of this specific experience, it refers to its trial implementation in the classroom.

"Evaluation of the Use of Computer Simulation for Artificial Illumination Projects." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 95-97. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. This paper tries to evaluate the quantitative e qualitative aspects of the uses of the computational simulation for the analysis of enclosed environments light designs, and its feasibility in teaching in Architectural and Urbanism courses. The importance of this paper is associated with the determining of the illumination levels and its effects. Simulations were made with the Lightscape software in a specific room and their results were compared with the experimental measurements taken in that place. From this comparison it was possible to make the analysis of the software characteristics and to evaluate the advantages or disadvantages of its uses. The results confirm its feasibility as a tool for illumination simulation and its adequate uses in the teaching of environmental comfort. The good correlation achieved in visual effects derived from the lighting design and also the information of values related to illuminance and luminance for the simulated space support this affirmative.
"Exploration of New Forms of Expression of New Identities in Textile Design." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 262-264. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. The textile surface is a support to express symbolically trought the sings repetition our cultural diversity. Into the frame of a workshop, we propose ourself to review our didactic topics to generate a new teaching- lerarning strategy to the Textile Design. We put forward to take “fragments” of this cultutal diversity, to make it autonomous and starting from it occasional profile because of the whole break, to recognize the geometry and language itself, the interrupted connections, to be allowed to overflow and, in a symbiosis with the new digital medias, to generate a new speech of identity in textile design.
"FICCIONES.EXE: New Interactive Narratives: Practical Experience with Students of the Degree in Graphical Design, University of Uruguay." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 156-158. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. Traditional narrative systems, such as literature, the cinema and the television, keep a linear design when developing a story, due to their own characteristics. Multimedia offers the possibility of developing a new narrative language. Multimedia fiction is based on the idea of working on a new medium, taking the previous ones as a starting point. In this new medium, the decisions taken by the user, will enable him to create his own version of the story. Work done in this field, have attempted to investigate and go deeper into these concepts.
"From 3-D Modeling to the Industrial Prototype." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 77-79. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. From 3D modeling to industrial prototype Industrial Design first year students (UNLP), led by designers Esteban Curcio and Gonzalo Perera, presented OGU coffee table in the avant-garde furniture category in Salao Design Movelsul (Brasil, 1998). Description: As an extracurricular activity, students had to deal with production variables related in particular to automated technologies and its effect on product design, completing each piece 3D digital modeling and following the whole process from manufacturing through diffusion and marketing. Technologies: Models for aluminum smelting: CAD / CAM / CNC; Glass: CNC cut with diamond milling cutter; 1020 steel: Computerized laser cut.
"GESTARCAD, an Application for the Design and Simulation of Networks of Fluids, Programmed in the Autocad Environment Using Active Objects X in 6,0 Vb." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 54-56. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. In this paper, the programming methodology and the results obtained in the development of the GestarCAD simulation application as web as flow net design are presented. As a graphic interface AutoCAD is used, programming the application in Visual Basic 6.0 and using the objects Active X implemented by the latest versions of AutoCAD. In this way, both data input and plotting of results can be carried out from an AutoCAD environment.
"In Search for a Fractal Sense." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 237-239. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. Fractals, in connection with the Theory of Catastrophes and Chaos, present the possibility of different model for a methodology of the investigation of the current culture. In this sense, the cultural field, taken as a modificable system, allows us a new interpretation of emergent cultural phenomena: artistic, scientific and philosophical works, which interact within the intellectual field, throught a rhizomatic network where the sense of fractals in found in every scale in a constant fusion and metamorphosis between the Arts, Sience and Philosophy.
"Incorporation of Digital Media in the Teaching of a Traditional Design Studio." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 176-178. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. This is a research project in progress sponsored by the Universidad de Belgrano; it is to be completed by the end of 2001. The work comprises the observation of design processes done by students using manual and digital means following the same phases (study of the context and program, parti alternatives, fixation of a general scheme, formal and material development). Each of these phases is tackled by students according to their preferences, availability of equipment and degree of training in the use of digital media. An evident drawback for students is that the possiblities of testing design alternatives are reduced because of low expertise in representation. It is our intention to develop know-how about the use of this mixture of media in the most appropriate way for a design assignment, like the one we have for the use of graphic representations, study models, etc. We should be able to describe in detail the relations between traditional and digital representation considering both as means for reaching a more complete knowledge of the object we are designing. Thus we can evaluate the possibilities of articulation between both systems and the best way to exploit these relations for didactical ends.
"Infocenter Specialized in Architecture and Design." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 120-123. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. This paper relates any experiences on the creation of a digital information center about architecture, urban planning, and graphic design in Zulia University (Maracaibo, Venezuela). Guidelines are detailed, also activities and achievements of this “info center”, and technical specifications about their equipments, their two kinds of storage (centralized and distributed) for their two access ways (telemetric access by http also simple intranet access by MS Windows Terminal Server). Compilation, classification, and presentation methods of multimedia information are explained in order to evaluate current limitations and future potentialities of this digital center.
"Information Society: Acts and Domination." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 25-27. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. The central question in this paper is understand the new social forms of interaction in the society of information . The objective is to comprehend and establish an analytical line of thinking that can orient the comprehension about the new forms of numerical space constitution. The language of the net is metaphorical and the question is what does the information really means. The knowledge is quickly transferred through the fluxes, and is transforming people and processes bringing action possibilities. They constitute techniques that can expand the capacity of society to conquest freedom and interrupt domination relations, or they can work exactly as the contrary serving as domination instruments.
"Innovative Three-Dimensional Forms: Architecture Based on the Theory of Knots." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 89-91. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. The theory of knots is a branch of mathematics that is in charge of studying the topological behaviour of lineal entities configuring forms in three-dimensional space. Starting from their spatial character it is possible to establish correspondences with three-dimensional forms of architectural use, constituting a stimulative tool of creativity. The objectives of this work consist on analysing how to enlarge the possibilities of computers aided architectural design (CAAD) from the theory of knots, classifying forms of knots of architectural use and developing a design procedure of architectural shapes, emphasizing concepts of structure, path and form.
"Integrated Planning Support System For Low-Income Housing." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 113-116. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.
"Integrated planning support system for low-income housing." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 113-116. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. This article describes our current research focused at the development of an integrated planning support system for the low-income housing production, using as exploration field the participative-planning strategies, particularly implemented by the progressive housing program in Concepción, Chile. Setting our sights on the implementation of modern IT (Information Technology) into architectural field to support the entire planning process, it will be exposed the general deficiencies, diverse IT-tools, their combination possibilities and their practical contribution in order to prove the feasibility of a computer-aided system within a new concept of housing planning.
"Interactive Web System with Pseudo-Three-Dimensional Catalogue of Places and Video in Real Time." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 104-106. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

It has been designed and developed a system Web that has video in real time and an interactive product catalogue based on pseudo-three-dimensional models, that is to say, models that they pretend to be three-dimensional, but that in fact do not have geometry 3D properly in the memory, but of an appropriate composition according to the case of geometry 2D (image or any graph), that allows to see the model from several points of view and to consult additional information (weight, material, dimensions, etc.). They have been analyzed and proven the different formats from transmission of video and audio by Internet, studying all its parameters, until finding the optimal ones for this server. In comparison with the use of format VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) used commonly to put models 3D in the Web, this system that we have devised presents like advantages the low time of load, the high precision of the views of the object and the low cost of maintenance of the Web. On the other hand, one does not have the infinity of views and facility of manipulation of the VRML.

"Intgeractive Navegation Through Virtual Scenes of Great Dimensions." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 165-168. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. The use of virtual models in architecture has grown steadily in the last decade. 2D, 21/2, 3D and 4D are labels that resume this recent history and that refer to models that can be inspected in a programmed or an interactive mode. But in the case of 4D models this distinction, trivial in the previous cases, implies technical and conceptual issues that are quite relevant to the architectural world. This paper touches these issues in relation with a big model, including large areas of Barcelona, that is being developped at the Laboratorio de Modelado Virtual de la Ciudad and that has already atracted the attention of the public authorities as it allows an interactive approach to new projects inserted in the existing buidings of the city.
"Magazine Protótipo Design: Promotion and Publication of a New Magazine Model." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 257-259. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

The magazine “Protótipo Design” proposes the exploration of cyberspace in the construction of a virtual design magazine capable of using coherently the resources offered by the new media and employing adequately the existing languages. The magazine works its interface with the intention of always offering new possibilities in the navigation analogies in order to edify the cyberspace with a unique form, not delimited by wore down analogies with the impressed magazines. Another preoccupation that moves the magazine is the investigation of the use of the Internet as a more economic form of publishing the theoretical and practical researches in design.

"Manufacturing Digital Architecture." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 278-281. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. This paper addresses recent digital technological advances in design and fabrication and the unprecedented opportunities they created for architectural practices by allowing design, fabrication and construction of very complex forms that were until recently very difficult and expensive to design, produce, and assemble using traditional construction technologies. The paper also addresses the development of repetitive non-standardized building systems through digitally controlled variation and serial differentiation, i.e. mass-customization, in contrast to the industrial-age paradigms of prefabrication and mass production.
"Manufacturing Digital Architectures." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 278-281. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.
"Marco Antonio de la Parra as Narrator and Writer. Monography in Multimedia." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 268-270. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

The analysis of Marco Antonio de la Parra’s novels and essays from the discourse perspective, is the contents of an interdisciplinary work for modernizing and improving communicative possibilities of universitary thesis through multimedia. For the multimedia design, the main and most recent digital creating software for the graphic treatment of texts and images were analised, then the navigation system and screens were designed, difining backgrounds, texts, audio and video, besides buttons and hits. Results permit: 1. To present the contents in an easy access and transportation support, reducing production costs. 2. The offering of three communication supports: written text, audio and video. 3. Ostensibly improves universitary thesis and seminars quality.

"Material Presence: Spatial Potential." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 186-188. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.
"MESA: Modular Educating System For Architecture." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 221-223. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.
"Mesa: Modular educating System for architecture." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 221-223. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. Similar structures in world-wide architectural education enable a huge global database of teaching elements, filled with copyright-free multimedia-data (digital photographs and videos, 3D-cad-details, . . . ), used by teachers and students worldwide and at any time. This idea is not revolutionary, but the idea must be realised - so this congress will be a catalyst for distributing the idea and to encourage schools and teachers worldwide to feed the database, to use and to improve it!
"Modeling Techniques of Geo-Referenced Data Bases or Space." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 315-318. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. To model a database that stores geo-indexed data or space, a diversity of models exists in the literature. In this article the models will be studied proposed by Michael F. Worboys, Peter Milne and S. A. Roberts and will be represented using OMT (Object Modelling Technique) of Rumbaugh. The models will be evaluated following a methodology based on the existence of a ideal model of reference against the one which to be able to contrast them. The created ideal pattern will be constituted in a new model for the design of space databases OxO.
"Models: Form and Environment in Architecture." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 51-53. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. The work presents a research project in its first phase of implementation. The research project deals with the manufacturing of architectural models which use new technology, for thermal and lighting investigation and using one heliodon as means of building assessment. The models to be produced will be chosen from built examples of the Modern Architecture of the XX Century. Initially virtual models will be constructed and afterwards the models will be printed in 3D. Once the three dimensional models were built they will be examined in one heliodon to evaluate their thermal and light performance. Also the models will be used as means of calibrating the heliodon itself. Lately the models will be incorporate as building examples for projects museum.
"Multi-Media-Mirada / Conecta-Desconecta." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 246-247. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.
"Multi-Media-Watched / Connect-Disconnects." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 246-247. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. This work studies the creative process as information that must be recovered, redefined and recreated, using different multimedia tools. The Club de Grabado de Montevideo has made exploratory works combining images, texts and music in an apparently connectionless juxtaposition. For the text, we summoned contemporary national poets of different generations. And, we use digitally manipulated photographies and computer graphics that register, in the work, its creative process. This lead to a new dynamics in the way to read “virtual books”: it unfolds in a succession of “pages” in which each page constitutes a microcosm that finds unit in the diversity.
"Multimedia Didactics for training in Seismic Prevention." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 107-109. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

Today the multimedia technology offers us an undeveloped world of resources. But these resources are not didactic themselves; they depend on the way they are used. The management of new variables, such as interactivity, redundancy, will allow to reach a superior level in relation to that of the attraction/fascination, characteristic of the digital means. Under this conceptual base, an investigation project is developed with the objective of constructing a didactic multimedia, strongly determined by the characteristics of the topic SEISMIC PREVENTION, and guided specifically to the construction of preventive BEHAVIORS, before, during and after the occurrence of an earthquake.

"Musev2 - The Virtual Reality Application To Collect User Preference Data." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 162-164. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.
"MuseV2 - the virtual reality application to collect user preference data." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 162-164. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. In this research project, we are creating an AI environment that helps architects to identify user preferences through a Virtual Reality Interface. At the current stage of development, the project has resulted in a VR application – MuseV2 that allows users to instantly modify an architectural design. The distinctive feature of this application is that a space is considered as a base for all user modifications and as a connection between all design elements. To gather preference information, AI agents observe user-induced modifications in VR. The system that we envision should not become an automated design tool, but an adviser and viewer for novice users.
"Net-citizens, Net-Marginals and Outsiders." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 31-34. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

This work discusses the expanding use of the Internet in developing countries - a phenomenon that has gone hand-in-hand with rising rates of poverty, illiteracy and violence in these countries - and presents the project “Netizens, net-fringers and outsiders”, created by the author with the help of the Laboratório/Núcleo de Arte Eletrônica / PUC-Rio. We interviewed 120 people living in Rio de Janeiro regarding the use, applications and future of the Internet, and began to weave a network of identities, and a database of text, images and sounds, which originated an artistic and interactive work. In this article we discuss its aims, development and results.

"Obtaining a Degree as Architect within the Framework of Virtual Environments Design." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 159-161. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. In this paper I define my aproach to what a Degree Project in Architecture is, and study different ways of working in degree projects in the area of Computer Applications to Architecture. A brief study on the different approaches that may be used for this project is done, as good as defining the neccesary basis for implementing such Degree Project in the field of Virtual Buildings Desing in one of its many variations. I also explain one expirience in progress with a group of students who are working in their Degree Project in this area, in a completely experimental way.
"Patrimony. Its Visualization. Developments in Computing as a Tool for the Systematization of Information, Visualization and Consultations of the Urban and Architectural Patrimony." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 40-42. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

Two specific applications were developed in order to elaborate a database to consider the demands for the architectural and urbanistic patrimony inventory of Rosario, and to allow for the link with other city databases. One of these is to enter information and to make layers of different kinds of categories of buildings and groups of them. The other application facilitates the viewing and the performance of interrogations from different accesses. It is possible to visualize specific buildings with theirs details and to produce general maps showing different levels of information, such as buildings with patrimonial value that have definite degree of protection, or those belongs to the same category, etc, according to the special inquiry carried out.

"Pictoric or Scientific? the Activity of Generation of Synthetic Images in the Teaching Context." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 192-194. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

This work is restricted to the field of Graphics Representation in Architecture, analyzing the use of illumination models which are present at the software usually used for the development of images to describe the architectural objects. The differences between the real scene and the equivalences structured into the world of computer graphics related to the illumination models and light, are specially specified. This work analyses the categories of architectural problems associated to each of the available models; questions how this associations are included in architectural teaching context and studies how associated they are during the academic studies of the architect.

"Planning in the Tourist Industry and Tele-information." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 311-314. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. This paper explains an object-based geographic information system (GIS) developed for tourism planning on Maracaibo, Venezuela. In order to establish a better way to manipulate georeferenced data, this system is migrating its structure from a fouryears- old relational database, incorporating distributed storage on a comprehensive catalog. A combination of operating system, SQL server and Map server, is being implemented to substitute a static web site for a real-time application to easily manipulate maps through a web browser. This work not only creates answers to implementing urban information systems, also it will facilitate their incorporation on collaborative geographical networks in the entire world.
"Problem-Based learning in CAAD curriculum: the search for a feasible model." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 210-212. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. Problem-based learning as a teaching approach has been object of several experiments in CAAD education. However, we argue in this paper that such experiences have been limited to isolated courses within programmes, rarely affecting the whole CAAD curriculum. We identify as the cause of this gap the inherent contradictions between the traditional curriculum and the nature of design process. We then describe a PBL-oriented implementation of a post-grad CAAD curriculum which has as its major objective to better simulate a professional experience by inducing enforced recurrence along the programme’s structure.
"Problem-Based Learning In CAAD Curriculum: The Search For A Feasible Model." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 210-212. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.
"Projected space: characterizing the "cybrid architecture"." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 285-287. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. The “cybrid architecture” has been defined like integration of physical and digital spaces. Based on the capability of electronic media to generate virtual environments (cyberspaces) which could be related to buildings. However, theoretical studies and contemporary works reveal a more complex relationship between media and constructions. Expressed in architectural characteristics that constitutes a new spatial quality, named here projected space. Hence the paper argues that “cybrid architecture” is not technological, but is a modification of conventional architectural space due to cultural evolution.
"Projected Space: Characterizing the Cybrid Architecture." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 285-287. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.
"Pro_Tecture: Architectonic Instrumentation For The Uncovered Past." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 36-39. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.
"Pro_Tecture: Architectonic instrumentation for the uncovered past." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 36-39. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. Pro_tecture is a neologism made up of “protection” und “architecture”. Protecture thus stands for an architectonic instrumentation serving the protection of archeological finds required both on account of natural destruction and involvement of mankind endangering the present state of excavation. The immediate risk potential regarding excavated antiquity set the stage for thorough examination of protective architecture demonstrated at the excavation site “Ek Balam” (Yucatan, Mexico). Due to the prominent location in the middle of a tourist area and its both scientific and artistic importance a suited solution was to be developed making for means of protection as well as of adequate presentation of the design work. In the framework of this contribution the results of a corresponding design studio on “pro_tecture” in the context of “Ek Balam” will be presented.
"Real and Virtual Spaces Generated by Music." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 151-152. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

This research work has as its main aim exploring a new digital designing process. This new way of creating spaces, known as ‘Architecture of data’ entails choosing any event of the everyday world, and through a process, generating either a real or virtual space. In this particular case, the chosen event is the music. Several melodies, some of them famous, others especially composed for this project, come to existence as original spaces. For each composition, many musical instruments are played, each of which is part of the final space. In doing so, new alternative designing processes emerge. This processes build non conventional spaces that might outline a whole new architecture. Different fields of knowledge, namely architecture, music, maths and computing sciences had to be brought together in order to achieve the present work.

"Recognition of Territory - Survey and Maping of Social and Space Elements." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 304-306. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. This paper examines the application of graphic technologies in spatial analysis and planning. Firstly it describes the method for organizing, selecting and analysing spatial resources. Secondly, it deals with registration techniques concerning the information collected. Emphasis is given to digital maps linking to elements selected through community based information. The possibility of instantaneous scale migration -from regional spaces to local particularities- provides a deeper knowledge of the spatial configuration. Finally, it argues that this technique, may provide: a comprehensive knowledge of reality; the public diffusion of socio-spatial information; a regional analysis based on the aggregation of local visions.
"Reflections on Computer Graphics Representation: the Teaching Experience Developed at the Universidade Gama Filho / Rio de Janeiro, Brazil." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 173-175. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

This paper shows the didactic experience of computer graphics teaching in the Architecture School of Gama Filho University, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Thinking about the potentiality those modern tools offer to Architecture understanding, we show some of the many possibilities of computer graphics teaching: from Architecture Theory and Architectural Form Study to Projectual Analisys and applications relate to Architectural Project.

"Research Seminar/Workshop on the Structure of Active Design Studios for Training and Research on Computer Aided Design." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 227-228. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

In a previous paper (SiGradi 2000) we presented a design approach based upon the architectural research that regarded digital technologies as a subordinated tool to architectural design. From that starting point and from various research experiences, we have re-oriented certain guidelines and latter developed specific techniques that can be used both for teaching and for the professional practice of architecture. Through the use of paradigmatic and hermeneutic techniques developed ad hoc, architectural projects are developed in a three-stage sequence: a) development of a narrative framework; b) analysis based on object oriented programming thechniques; and c) digital development of the preliminary design. We believe that the positive aspects of the inclusion of these idea-centered techniques to the digital realm unifies and extends the architectural knowledge and strengthens its conception.

"Six Years of Experience Between the Analogue and the Digital." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 179-182. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. This paper intends to contribute Architecture I Experimental Workshops for a basis of knowledge, coming up from experimenting and investigating on pedagogical strategies, during the last decades of technological media changes. A temporal cutting sustained by two specific situations is proposed. Students´ processes: Beginners in ´96 are thesists now and learning result are evaluated. Educators´ processes: An interdisciplinary group including different subjects and skills was formed. A “Preliminary Test” checking methodological instruments was considered. After having done appropiate changes, traditional design processes were compared with new ones in order to continue with the Investigating Program.
"Softerials: Digital Materiality and the Transformation Of Architecture." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 272-274. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.
"Softerials: digital materiality and the transformation of architecture." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 272-274. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. This paper presents the investigations into the nature of digital materiality by questioning the conventional notions of materiality. A critical framework of relationships between three digital materials (B-Rep Solids, Polynomial Surfaces and Isomorphic Polysurfaces) and three stages of design process (imagination, definition and construction) is proposed. The investigations are presented through exploratory student work.
"Structuring and restructuring memory in animation." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 142-144. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. Two issues are addressed in this digital design and analysis investigation: First, the device of sequential memory (accessed using animation) is employed in the construction and in the reading of audio-visual design messages. Second, threedimensional Design Diagrams, audio-visual ideograms, are structured as memory schematics that are intended to organize an architectural digital/physical design schema. The accompanying presentation employs Memory Diagrams in audiovisual sequences demonstrating a methodology of structuring and restructuring memory in animation.
"Structuring And Restructuring Memory In Animation." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 142-144. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.
"Studios via Internet: Evaluation of the Collaborative Experience of "Internet Studios Consortium"." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 110-112. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

This paper explores the pedagogical use of Internet in design-studio teaching in architectural education. The findings are based on a three-year experience working in semester long projects in which large numbers of participants (from 35 to 300 students) from Miami, Santiago, Valparaiso, Buenos Aires, Rosario, Maracaibo, Caracas and Guayaquil collaborated using the Internet in various format. The majority of the collaboration has been accomplished by using low-bandwidth Internet communication such as Web publishing, Chat, Web3D, RealPlayer, IP videoconferencing, CAD software, and other technologies such as ISDN broadcasting. New grants, obtained from Global Crossing, Cisco, and Lucent Technologies, from the Ampath project at FIU, Miami, is supporting a new series of experimentation with high-bandwidth technologies on the Internet2 Abilene Network.

"Systems of Modular Spaces. Possible Alternative of Generation." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 71-73. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

This work proposes a procedure to generate alternatives of Modular Space Systems based on the standard coordination Units of Modular Spaces according to circulatory rules. Design systems where components repetitions are admitted use this procedure, specially if frequent functional innovations are required. Once a typical situation is solved, it can be repeatedly combined under certain criteria with a global vision. The procedure is implemented on a CAD system and a demonstrative result is presented.

"Systems of Music Visualization." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 132-134. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

This article presents an analysis of the state-of-the-art of music visualization. A brief history of visual music and a generalized structure of modern system for visual music production are presented. Based on analysis and tests of the music visualization softwares for PC platform, one new architecture of the system is proposed. A programming and a control methods for the music visualization are developed.

"Tesis: Arw. Pma.76/00 (Thesis: Arq.Pma.76/00)." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 13-15. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. Chaos and disorder are adjectives repeated ad nauseam in contemporary discussions on the City of Panama and its architecture. This study intends to find an order in this apparent chaos and chart the development of Panamanian Architecture during the last 25 years. Going beyond the expected list of every important building of the period, we offer a vision of Architecture as a blob generated by these milestones and that envelops them, moving and changing shape with time. This fluctuating form, which is the Architecture of Panama from 1976 to 2000, is generated by using a Style Vs. Time graph, a diagram that allows us to plot each building according to its “style”.
"The Analysis of Architectural Forms with departure on the Digital Generation of Surfaces. Ronchamp." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 295-298. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. Continuing with our research in free-form surface models, this paper proposes a methodology that analyzes the basic entities of architectural forms to generate virtual models with a high range of accuracy. We use NURBS technology because this kind of entities has very large characteristics of generation, transformation and modification in front of mesh’s entities. The complexity of free form models generation it can be reduced substantially, if an accurate analysis of the object allows define its basic entities. In the architectural surface generation, it is possible to define the required parameters to build complex models designed by architects. An experience with the three-dimensional modeling of Ronchamp chapel roof allows applies the proposed methodology.
"The Architecture of Data Representation. Architectonical Design Applied to the Visualization in Anestesiology." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 135-138. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

This paper presents the architectural process and products that are being employed in an ongoing multidisciplinary research in anesthesiology. The project’s goal is to develop a new data representation technology to visualize physiologic information in real time. Using physiologic data, 3-D objects are generated in digital space that represent physiologic changes and show functional relationships that aid in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of critical events. Preliminary testing results show statistically significant reduction in detection times. The research outcome, potential, and the NIH grant supporting the team’s scientific methods demonstrate the contributions that architecture offers to the growing field of data visualization.

"The Construction Industry in the Value Chain." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 288-290. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

In the ever-changing “new economy”, buildings are among the few capital goods that are actually left. The Construction Industry drives a very high level of resources, marking the paths of the economy. It is, however, a non-integrated process, with few or none sinergies and with a relatively ambiguous relationship with technology. Moreover, we architects have limited ourselves the role we play, concentrating more in representation than in the work as a whole. The proposal wants to conceive our work as a long-term Strategic Alliance between several actors around the building: Customers / Manufacturers / Vendors / Architects / Specialty Engineers / Builders / Contractors / Managers / Supporters / Users, and so on We are facing a historic opportunity to clarify the relationship of our Industry with technology, allowing it to gain its true dimension on this century. Besides, this will re-define the role of the architect in the Industry: we will evolve from designers, project-oriented, to be creators, owners and managers of “Virtual Buildings” that manage, coordinate and give value to the building as an integrated process, and co-exist with it along its lifecycle.

"The Creation of an Aiding Tool for the Early Stages of Architectural Design through an Open System of References." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 80-82. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. Using references is a standard practice during processes of design creation. Many researches think that it is possible to organize references through a computerized system. Reference has a potential knowledge and it is possible to transfer it to a new design situation. Our approach suggest that universe of references will not be exclusively cases of architectural precedents but also other elements. A computerized system which organizes these references and allows permits a visual, interactive and progressive navigation will encourage new design ideas.
"The Digital Color in the Design of Periodical Teselations." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 64-66. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

The present study of fundamentally exploratory type tries to examine the distribution of the color in the structures of repetition designed according to the Mathematical Theory of the Tessellations and inspired in the grafphic work of the artist holandes M.C.Escher. The results reached are product of the exercises pedagogicos carried out in the catedra of design of the color of the Design Workshop I, Universidad del Bío-Bío, among the years 1996 and 2000 to pursue a design graphic degree.

"The Digital Image Technology in Preliminary Architecture Studies." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 198-200. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. In this project we will demonstrate the possibilities and importance of the exploration of resources from the digital image rendering technology in the initial stage of architectonic designs (preliminary studies). The possibilities of the interaction between simplified models of computer aided designs and the representative drawings of the architect’s expression will be evaluated, showing the potential of these resources in the development of an idea, thus highlighting criteria as agility of the process and facility of interaction. The work will be developed through the analysis of design samples, where the interactive interfaces between drawings and drafts, the modeling of solids, 2D drawings and ‘real time’ animated representation will be demonstrated.
"The Integration of the Computation in the Teaching of Architecture." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 229-232. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. Which are the questions to ask about integration of computer science and teaching Architecture? The use of a new tool may enhance the production of the different representations of the architectural object. But the insertion of a tool demands questioning about his real possibilities of use. The traditional language of space is composed with the constructive language : plans, sections, perspective ,etc. ; but the computer software that is used to design gives the possibility to represent space in several forms : inmersion, dynamic process, parametric deformations. Here appears the question, what is the new language? Which is the way to get to the center of architectural thought, the space. The computer representations and the modification processes of models are new dynamics of design, this has to be considered in the teaching of Architecture.
"The Inter-Media Space." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 153-155. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. This paper explores the juxtaposition between architectonic space and virtual environments. It establishes the hypothesis that the intersection of virtual environments with our common life causes a break-up of time and space. Virtual environments are the last and most integral part of the technological revolution, becoming a parallel world, an unlimited extension of our limited world. The spatial and temporal juxtaposition of these two realities creates a new reality of being “inbetween”, it reveals the “inter-media”. This “inter-media” reality is the problem for architecture of our time, and it still lacks of responses.
"The Invaluable Contribution of the Pixel to the Urban Dynamic Analysis." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 328-330. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. Cities are growing out of control and with unforeseen complexity, with a lavish energy waste and an increasing life-quality loss. A possible approach to cope with these difficulties is the use of Urban Dynamic Analysis, a multidisciplinary body of knowledge allowing the holistic study of time-relationships between city structures and their related distinctive functions. A set of computer-aided tools is being developed following these guidelines. They are intended for the assessment of the behaviour of morphological layouts as regards to energy saving. Three such tools are described, using different pixel-counting approaches in order to simplify and facilitate their use.
"The Modeling and Simulation of a Power-Based Environment Tool of Architectural Redesign." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 83-85. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. The aim of this paper is to explore the potential of building simulation programs as an evaluation and redesign tool. The research work consisted on the evaluation of thermal comfort in three low cost houses situated on different climatic zones of Chile, in order to create a matrix of appropriate redesign strategies with an adequate analysis of cost and benefits. Conclusions stressed out that building simulations programs are a useful tool for evaluating building performance, but detailed programs are still unfriendly to use widely by architects.
"The Salvador Project: Interaction and Animation in the Urban Space Analysis." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 319-321. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

The project discussed here wants to investigate the use of multimedia as a tool to present and to analyze geographical information by making a interactive software for visualization and understanding of urban space of Salvador using thematic cartography, animations, remote sense images, photography and texts, allowing software user to build his personal cartographic visualization.

"The Spacial Potential of the "Spirolaterals" in Architecture." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 74-76. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. “Spirolaterals” (Odds, 1973) are mathematical entities created by drawing a set of lines, the first at a unit length, then each additional line increasing by a value of certain longitude while turning a constant or variable direction. (Krawczyk, 2000) The objective of this work is to propose the use of spirolaterals as a geometric support to produce preliminary alternatives for architectural layouts. A computation program is implemented to demonstrate the automatic production of spatial spirolaterals: spirospace, and images of results are exposed.
"The Third Eye: Metodology for the Training in Cognitive Visualization." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 213-215. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

The purpose of this paper is to show the results of a collaborative effort between faculty who are involved in teaching design communications in such a way as to develop the students’ cognitive visualization skills yet incorporating the computer as partner in this training. The paper describes what will be called “The Third Eye Method”, an alternative to traditional methods, which has been tested against traditional methods among freshman students. The findings suggest that computer usage is not in itself the source of the visualization problems that students appear to be having, but the solution to the problem.

"The Transformation Power of Digital Media." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 12-Oct. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. This paper proposes that the increasing weight of computer techniques in all the design operations is going to transform the way as design itself is defined. The discussion is organized around the concept of description as complementary concept of the definition of things. It is shown how descriptions can substitute for definitions when they include new elements, which transform the original concept. On that basis it is argued that the new description means can lead to transform the way as architecture itself is looked at.
"The Use of Simulation in the Analysis of the Flow of Patients in Health Systems." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 86-88. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. This paper presents the results of three research projects developed by the authors oriented to the use of simulation as a tool for process improvement at the emergency room and cancer treatment center of the Orlando Regional Health Care Systems Hospital in the USA. The results obtained showed that simulation is as powerful tool for reducing patients waiting time. A second phase of this study presents the idea of integrating simulation and virtual reality techniques. This methodology would allow to explore digitally new alternatives for architectonic design linked to the development of activities over time.
"The Virtual Restitution of One of the Buildings that Constitute the Surroundings of "Matriz" Square in Porto Alegre - an Example for the Study of the Square Urban Evolution." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 46-48. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. This work is a virtual reconstruction of a building called “Palácio Provisório”, that take place in Marechal Deodoro Square in Porto Alegre City, Brazil. It will be four virtual 3D model each of one representing a historical phase of the building. The objective of this work is to start studying the urban evolution of Marechal Deodoro Square by using graphical computation resources to reconstruct the various historical phases of the square. This study is a part of doctoral thesis of the author which is in development in the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia – Spain.
"The Web Site of the University of Buenos Aires: Institutional Image, Design and Implementation." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 127-130. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

The present work constitutes a description of the design and implementation process for the new University of Buenos Aires’s Internet Website. The developed stages and the establishment of the institutional subjects generated a system able to support the growth of a variable information structure. Our intention was to complement two instances: to represent the University like an institution and to incorporate services for the user. The dialogue between the two instances generated an architecture of information with an almost fixed content and another one totally variable, that allows the natural growth of the thematics and opens the doors towards the self-manage of content.

"Three-d maze: getting lost in virtual reality." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 145-147. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. Virtual Environments (VE) influence design processes increasingly. We investigate the outcome of creation, interpretation and communication of architectural design, by using a three-dimensional (3D) maze together with text-based communication in a series of collaborative design experiments. The goal of our study was to identify how designers use and communicate design ideas by using VEs versa conventional methods of two-dimensional representations such as paper and pen. We developed a 3D-maze tool and set-up a series of experiments, including navigation- and perception-challenges, transcription of design, remote communication between design partners and controlled observations. We discuss how architects collaborate with partners and communicate their proposals in VE compared to actions in paper environments.
"Three-D Maze: Getting Lost in Virtual Reality." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 145-147. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.
"Transforming language of architecture." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 275-277. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. Digital media fosters new spatial concepts and constructs in ways unconventional to the representational culture of architecture. Non-linear and simultaneous modes of expression, simulations, and construction of spatial and interactive experiences through simultaneous collective reception of images, can trigger technological, material and spatial concepts to be realized. My research and teaching encompass interdisciplinary processes, utilizing multi-dimensional, time-based disciplines to address spatial and temporal dynamics of movement through space. This body of work engaging interdisciplinary issues of interface between technological and theoretical discourses of architecture has become the means to develop and investigate pedagogic and didactic aspects of this hypothesis.
"Transforming Language of Architecture." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 275-277. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.
"Uma Reflexão Sobre Proposta Pedagógica Do Ensino Da Computação Gráfica No Curso De Arquitetura E Urbanismo." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 224-226. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.
"Under Construction: the Continuous Process of a Web Site Production." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 117-119. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

Permanently under construction, the website of the Nomads.usp - Center for Habitation and Ways of Living Studies, at the University of São Paulo, Brazil -, is a result of a collective effort that dismisses the usual figure of webmaster. The basic requirements of this experience are the maintenance of the system according to which all the researchers are editors of the website, the continuous upgrade of its content, and the continuous formation in the use of new software and technologies by the researchers. The point is, however, the recognition that we are working with a new medium for information exchange, which opens multiple possibilities of experimentations.

"Urban Icons: the City Revealed Through 3D Models." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 19-21. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. This paper presents reflections raised during the research carried out at the Graduate Program of Urban Design (PROURB) of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Our research group investigate the city of Rio de Janeiro through an analysis of its main architectural and urban icons using hypertext based on 3D models. The distinguished works by Walter Benjamin and Rem Koolhaas about Paris and New York are examined for their relationship to the theme. The Ministry of Education Building and its site analysis are presented as the prototype for the investigation of the city history in the XX Century.
"Virtual Design Studio, a Design Course Mediated by Computer." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 189-191. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

The creation of the discipline “Virtual Design Studio” (http://www.arq.ufmg.br/vds) in the course of Architecture, at the Architecture School of UFMG, had the objective of investigating the usage of new technologies of information in the architectural planning activities through the elaboration and development of an architectural project. The methodological implications of applying those technologies on both, the creative process and architectural expression, are also discussed. The description of the knowledge obtained by both, the technical/conceptual structuring and the practical development of the VDS itself, as well as its critical analysis, constitute the main object of this work.

"Virtual Model Applied to Adequacy Diagonosis: INPI Corporate Building (Rio de Janeiro - Brasil)." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 291-294. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001.

This paper presents a case study were computer aided graphic modelling was applied for environmental diagnostics of the INPI building at Rio de Janeiro. The research improved a walk-thought analysis in order to identify user conditions (ergonomics, layout, maintenance, security, etc.). Using CAD / PC, we developed a virtual model of the building and its workspaces, and both the results of diagnosis applied forms, updated plants and photos were organised in the virtual model, linked to a database containing tables with elements of the case study. This database is intended to support decisions in organisational planning, by query (SQL routines) on virtual model (CAD), providing graphically visualised answers and extracts of data search results.

"Works, Sites and City. Digital Infographics." In Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics, 43-45. SIGraDi. Concepcioń, Chile: Universidad de Bio Bio, 2001. We are proposing a graphic reconstruction of the condition of the significant fragments of Rosario Architecture and its history as a comparative sequence throughout the time in relation to the transformation of the site. We are looking forward to producing systematic documentation with multiple application using the CAD to generate an atlas: a platform that provides information. The redrawing of the buildings conditions proposes that the digital patrimony is transformed into a place of memory of the city architecture. Each building is entailed to possible presentations that this platform gives, generating a system always going on and never ending.