Keywords Abstract
"A Strategic Product for the Territorial Management: Sigit Tamare." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 235-238. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. Beyond its proposed objectives, implementing the Tamare Geographical and Territorial Information System represents a strategic experience for the involved institutions: Zulia´s University Architecture and Design Faculty, PDVSA the State owned petroleum Company; and municipal authorities from the East Coast. These project with participation the petroleum industry and Zulia University, highlights the significance of close interinstitutional and intergovernmental collaboration. The presentation, after a brief reference to objectives, describes characteristics and theoretical development of the system, and emphasizes the implementation phase, designed in three steps, and the participation of each one of the involved institutions. The conclusions establish the reasons why this project is considered to be a strategic product resulting from the joint effort and coordination of different organizations. The benefits obtained by each, including the Tamare Urban Community, represent an achievement for local urban management, within the Venezuelan decentralization process, that widely justifies the joint effort and continuity of this project.
"About the Need of Stopping in the Road: the Fruitful Pause in a Fertile Course." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 93-97. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. Our burdened end of the century seems to demand vertiginous progress, without pauses, frequently without even asking where this course leads. What is most important is to go further, is not to be left behind. In this view, computer science offers more alternatives in less time. However, its greatest risk is to make us covet more, without even trying to inquire what is its value or sense. After working in some researches on generation of forms, we were specially attracted by some of them. Instead of going further in the study of the new generative methods available, we decided to make a pause to look back at those forms we had already obtained. We decided to use computer instruments to understand more deeply forms that we apparently knew. This technology offered us the possibility of visualizing extraordinary forms, of exploring multiple series of curves hidden in their surface. By means of this work, we promote the need of making a pause in our work, in order to try to know intensively the object of our troubles and inquiries, giving it the indispensable time to enjoy it completely.
"About The Need Of Stopping In The Road: The Fruitful Pause In A Fertile Course." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 93-97. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Amor Infiniti/horror Vacuii: Resolving Architecture Beyond The Planck Length." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 19-24. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Amor Infiniti/Horror Vacuii: Resolving Architecture Beyond the Planck Length ()." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 19-24. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. If one were to presume that every major shift in the perception and representational modes of architecture has its mirror in what is made, then we should be able to divine and critique the implications of making architecture through information technologies. We are only now beginning to enter speculations of what can possibly be made as a direct result of these systems. Already, the representation of digital space is undergoing a fundamental transition: From the highly precise facsimile of traditional Euclidean geometry, that we currently use in most CAD and modelling software to the visual interpretation of dense data arrays, as is emerging in GIS (Global Information Systems). This shift from a Vectorial world to a bitmap world is perhaps the most challenging to our historical and perhaps necessary assumption that Euclidean geometry , such as proportion and projection, is at the heart of making architecture. Does this shift imply an ultimately fatal divorce from the Vitruvian tradition of architecture through geometry or is it re-directing the interaction between computers and architecture into perhaps a more appropriate and creative realm of opportunity? This paper hopes to address these questions in the forum of a theoretical and historical discussion focused on the representation of architecture and making. Some current experimental digital work by the author will accompany this presentation and paper.
"An Educational Experience on the Incorporation of the use of Computing in the Teaching/Learning of Form." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 349-351. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. In this work an experience pilot is presented based on the study of the transformations of the teaching-learning process referred to the visual communication, specifically in the didactic units referred to the bi- and three-dimensional form, proposing to the student as an informatical user like a new alternative to the conventional form.
"Analysis Of A Collaborative Computer Based Design Experience." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 491-495. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Analysis of a Collaborative Computer Based Design Experience." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 491-495. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. The design experience referred to in this paper deals with the creative process for developing the pre-design of a new building for the Architecture and Urbanism Department of the Federal University of Santa Catarina / Brazil. The methodological proposition was to develop the design in a collaborative way and to try to use computers from the very beginning of the process. A tri-dimensional computer model was constructed on the sketch phase. Plans, sections and views were generated from this unique 3D model in order to assist development of ideas, coordination and visualization. As soon as the design alterations were defined, the 3D model was updated in order to generate automatic new drawing documents. Due to the number of design team components (8 people) and the high level of design complexity, constant hardcopies were necessary to ease designer’s participation in the idea propositions during meetings.
"Anthropic Cyberspace: Defining Eletronic Space From First Principles." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 56-62. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Anthropic Cyberspace: Defining Eletronic Space from First Principles." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 56-62. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. This paper proposes principles for the design of human-centered, anthropic cyberspaces. Starting with a brief examination of our cognitive use of space, it suggests that we address cyberspace as an extension of our mental space. The paper procedes with twelve concepts based on scientific and cultural observations with respect to individual cognition and social interaction. These concepts are general - not specific to any culture or technology in the accompanying arguments the author expands on these concepts illustrating them with examples taken from conventional and electronic media, space and cyberspace the author hopes with these conjectures to begin a discussion on the anthropology of space and its emulation.
"Archidata: A Hypermedia Tool For Architecture." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 496-500. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"ArchiDATA: a Hypermedia Tool for Architecture." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 496-500. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. Design is a cooperative activity at several levels. At one level, clients, architects, financiers, and construction engineers and contractors, all play important roles in creating the design for the building. At another level, the design team may contain architects, interior and landscape designers, lighting experts, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning experts, etc. At a third level, individual architects cooperate with computer-based design tools in creating portions of a complex design. This paper describes an ongoing project called ArchiDATA, in which we are developing a computational Case-Based Design Aid (CBDA) for architectural design. This project, which is collaboration between cognitive scientists and architectural researchers, builds on an artificial intelligence paradigm called case-based reasoning and work in post-occupancy evaluation and other case study research in architecture.
"Architecture And Hyperdocument: Data Shaping Space." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 462-465. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Architecture and Hyperdocument: Data Shaping Space." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 462-465. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. The computer interface can't convey the hole experience of walking through a city or a building. Nevertheless, the complexity of all the aspects involved in those threedimensional spaces can be better understood through the non-linearity of the hyperdocument. Each dweller of a city and a building has many layers of relationship with both. The sequence and the extent each observer explores the space is unique. It’s not totally apprehended in a first visit. As the observer knows better that space, his experience changes. A similar situation takes place in a multimedia application. Hence, it's possible to build an analogy between the architectonic or urban structure and a hyperdocument navigation structure. We can also state that the computer is critical to create paths of architectural information through space and time. The 3D model of a city is a powerful basis to structure the hyperdocument navigation. The city can be viewed in separate parts or layers of information. One investigates the city through different aspects of its configuration and explores it in different scales and levels of detail. The images generated from this 3D model can be combined with video, photo, sound and text, organizing the information which gives form to the city. The navigation through this information, addresses the citty by its economy, housing, religion, politics, leisure, projects, symbolic buildings, and other aspects. This paper will discuss these issues through the experiments of the research done at the School of Architecture and Urbanism of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. The research group at the "Laboratory of Urban Analysis and Digital Representation" in PROURB (Graduate Program of Urbanism) analyses the city and its buildings using CD-ROMs and websites.
"Argentine History of Visual Communication Design in CD-Rom." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 416-419. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. Objective: Using images resulting from the theoretical analysis to produce multimedia images with the incorporation of the time factor, with the aid of an author tool such as Macromedia Director 5.0 and 6.0 - which makes the WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get) design possible, this enables the development of an intuitive system in the process of multimedia composition. Director 5.0/6.0 supports a writing language called "lingo" the use of the language by means of sentences composes the syntax that coordinates and compiles digital files of various sizes about the historical topic dealt with. // Topic: Recording the design work and the performance of a personality who was a paradigm of the historical time in which he carried out his work in a 650 Mb CD-Rom unit.
"Argentine History Of Visual Communication Design In CD-Rom." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 416-419. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Before The Digital Design Studio." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 247-252. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Before the Digital Design Studio." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 247-252. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. This paper contains some observations which derive from our work as Studio Professors . In the last years, studios are in a transition phase with the progressive introduction of computers in later stages of the design process. The initiative generally belongs to students rather than to studio masters, since the former are aware that a knowledge of CAD systems will make them able to get work in architects offices. It is the first few Studios that will guide the student in forming a conception of what is architecture . Therefore, we have observer more attentively the way in which he establishes his first competence as a designer. We believe it is useful to clarify design training before we can integrate computers into it. The ways we all learn to design and which we transmit in the Studio were obviously created a long time ago, when Architecture became a subject taught in Schools, no longer a craft to be acquired under a master. The conception of architecture that the student forms in his mind is largely dependent on a long tradition of Beaux-Arts training which survives (under different forms) in Modern Architecture. The methods he or she acquires will become the basis of his creative design process also in professional life. Computer programmes are designed to adapt into the stages of this design process simply as time saving tools. We are interested in finding out how they can become an active part in the creative process and how to control this integration in teaching. Therefore, our work deals mainly with the tradition of the Studio and the conditioning it produces. The next step will be to explore the possiblities and restrictions that will inevitably issue from the introduction of new media.
"Carbon Pencil, Brush And Mouse, Three Tools In The Learning Process Of New University Art Designers." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 420-425. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Carbon Pencil, Brush and Mouse, Three Tools in the Learning Process of New University Art Designers." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 420-425. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. This article develops the introduction of computer technologies in the fine arts environment the use of these new tools, sharing the process of creation and interacting at the same level with older technics, breaks the myth of technology and tries to reach the right place according to current or modern advances. As an introduction, it explains the insertion in the current courses of study of the "computer languages area", its implementation, present situation and future stages. An important point we have developed is the teaching methodology, to solve the transition of those who, challenging their investigations in different areas, like fire arts, graphic arts, film or video, need the support of computers. The first steps consist in designing sample courses, which allow the measurement of results, the definition of concepts like extension, capacities, teaching hours and the most important, a methodology to share the enthusiasm of creation with the difficulties of learning a new technique it is necessary to discover limits, to avoid easy results as a creative tool one of the most important problems we have faced is the necessity of coordinating the process of creation with the individual time of a plastic artist, finding the right way that allows the integration of all the group, minimizing desertion and losing of motivation. Two years later, the first results in the field of digital image investigations and assistance in form design. Volume as a challenge and solutions supported in techniques of modeling in 3D (experiences of modeling a virtual volume from a revolution profile, its particular facts and the parallelism with potter's lathe the handling of image as the most important element, as an work of art itself, but also as a support in the transmission of knowledge (design of a CD as a tool for the department of embryology of medical school with the participation of people from the medical school, engineering school and school of fine arts). Time as a variable, movement, animation and its techniques, multimedia (design of short videos for the 150th anniversary of the Republic University). Conclusions, good hits, adjustments, new areas to include, problems to solve, the way of facing a constantly evolving technology.
"Changes For The Visual Representation Of The World - Transfer From The Analogical To The Digital." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 45-51. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Changes for the Visual Representation of the World - Transfer from the Analogical to the Digital." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 45-51. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. This research work deals with the changes of paradigms as treated by architecture. These changes result from the loss of values of ontological dimensions accepted so far. The analysis addresses the understanding of these changes pushing our logic towards an attempt to apprehend the new dynamics and parameters that have invaded our disciplinary field. In the design process, different logical projections derived from a combination of traditional representational methods and updated technical resources (analogic and digital) have been tried. Technical resources have always conditioned the ways of conceiving, practicing and experiencing art and architecture, it is on this basis that we seek to find out how different modeling techniques have modified the relationship between reality and its representations. Thus the central topic of our thesis is "transfer from the analogic to the digital". We have developed a chronological analysis of the evolution of images and we have seen how each period depends on the main material vector of transmission, which modifies the perception of space and time. Within this iconographic analysis, we reflected on which the rules that connect architecture and the different ways of representation and production are and we were able to show how new technological resources condition the way we conceive architecture today. In our opinion, the best way to understand the nature of digital means is the implementation of a methodology that ranges between direct and critical dialogue and manual and digital ways of production. The designed was applied on a "centre of contemporary art". This allowed experimentation in the treatment of general and particular issues arising from the process of means interaction.
"Computer Aided Animation In Architecture: Analysis Of Use And The Views Of The Profession." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 109-114. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Computer Aided Animation in Architecture: Analysis of Use and the Views of the Profession." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 109-114. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. A traditional way to present three-dimensional representations of architectural design has been through the use of manually drawn perspective drawings. The perspective representation assists in the comprehension of the forms and spaces, but is difficult to manually generate. The computer revolution made perspectives much easier to generate and led to a dramatically increased use of three-dimensional representation as a presentation technique. We are just now seeing substantial uses of animation as a communication and presentation tool in architecture. This paper documents the results of two surveys of the architectural profession that sought to discover the current and near future intentions for the use of computer animation. Our belief is that current levels of computer animation use are low, but that many firms intend to start using animation both as a design and presentation tool. In early 1998 we conducted a survey of the uses of computer animation by architectural firms. We posited a set of 14 related hypotheses. This paper represents the tabulated results from 82 completed surveys out of 620 requests. While some level of confidence can be obtained from this sample size, we are publishing in the hope of encouraging continued response to the survey.
"Computer Daylight Simulation Systems: an Experimental Evaluation." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 115-120. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. This paper investigates Daylight Simulation Systems in computer visualization programs. Computer visualization has provided qualitative appearance in architectural presentation. There are two aspects, one objective and another subjective, that should be considered in lighting simulation. The objective aspect is concerned with accurate prediction of daylight levels. The subjective aspect is associated with the evaluation of lighting quality. The objective aspect of lighting has often been neglected by visualization designers during the process of simulation. The relevant concepts of lighting to ensure accurate simulation techniques have been defined in order to highlight and resolve the dilemma of accurate lighting visualization. The interactive relationship between material simulation and lighting simulation has also been investigated. In addition, there is a discussion to determine how realistic and artistic the current approaches on lighting simulation are for architectural design presentation. This paper has attempted to provide guidance for the future development of visualization programs and information on innovative ways to accommodate computer visualization for architectural usage and needs.
"Computer Daylight Simulation Systems: An Experimental Evaluation." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 115-120. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Computer Programs and Design Processes in the Construction of Architectural Knowledge." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 165-170. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. The works studies aspects of design strategies and computer graphics programs, and it presents possibilities of using computer to aid architectural conception. It envolves three area knowledgement situating the subject at the compass of the design teaching, considering the impact of the computing technology expertise architectural. It establishes a conceptual correspondense developed by the theoric discussion, amongst the analogies and sucessives aproximations it also focuses operatives categories of the architectural design and computers operator. It results the configuration of images and concepts which preexist in the designs procedures. The works also aproaches relations of object representation and architectural design. It makes a relation-ship between graphics categories and architecture to unable studies base on concepts of design theory and its connection with the computer program. It generates matrix of knowledgement, refered to the theory of architectural composition, extracting expertise able to sugest analogies with the computer programs, which operators use to describe and represent the architectural object and decision making during the design process.
"Conceicao Lagoon - Florianópolis - Ilha of Santa Catarina Island: a Landscape in Transformation II." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 157-160. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. This work presents the study and applied assays (or simulation tests) about the ordination of urban space in the region of Lagoa da Conceição. In the region pressures placed by the growth of urban area and urban network system are in contact conflict with a fragile ecosystem, and with a sustainable development based on tourism. Analysis procedures exploited different forms of Space Syntax trying to examine effects of spatial structure in relation to movement patterns of pedestrians and vehicles. This methodology allowed the comprehension of relation between spatial configuration, transport and soil use, and reveled the interdependence and performance of built space within the restrict regional scale (Lagoa da Conceição) and the total urban structure of the island. This understanding is not limited to the present. Is also includes the study of historic urban evolution, and simulation of existing projects for the future, being an important tool to support project decision process. Consequently, the obtained results bring a new approach for the problem, which makes possible the synthesis of design proposals verifying its implications and consequences.
"Cúpulas Telefónicas - Mobiliario Urbano, Diseño Industrial Aplicado A Una Empresa De Servicios." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 426-429. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Cyberspace: New Forms of Social Interaction ." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 253-258. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. The cyberspace becomes into news forms of communication that transform and expand interaction among men. The objective of our reflection is to understand how space-time relations are changed by the new technologies of communication and information. The starting point of this analysis is the historic dimension of production, interaction and appropriation of space-time processes, proceeding in the se of solving their contemporary forms defined by the growing technology of daily life. It is possible to notice how communication expands the interaction among companies, institutions and society because processes and procedures are publicized, reducing the disorder and uncertain. It is a way of making social complexities more accessible, more clear, being easier read by individuals so they are able to lead with the complex of opportunities and responsibilities that compound the social system. The fundamental constitution of cybernetic spaces is on its capacity of make accessible the processes of communication and information which expand the interaction eliminating intermediaries. The condition of material localization dissolves itself to give place tommunicative interaction. The essential of the question can be stated in the theory that explains that social practices are the result of a cognitive system. That statement send us to the heart of analysis over the importance of comprehending as a moment that precede the action. When societies can be read through a union of knowledge condensed all along their social and cultural development. The development of new technologies of communication and information make nations capable to produce, accumulate diffuse knowledge, conducting to an action of intelligent individuals who write the social development.
"Cyberspace: New Forms Of Social Interaction." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 253-258. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Design Based On Vr-Modeling Of Enviromental Conditions." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 126-129. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Design Thinking Proces and New Paradigms of Graphic Expression." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 68-73. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.

It is undeniable that infotechnology has brought significant changes into architectural representation. Whether these changes has altered design conception proccess or are only media matters, is a discussion concerned with the role of graphic expression in architects designs. Is it just a language, or a design thinking tool, fully engaged with the formal solution? Thus, the investigation of the role of represententional systems in the design thinking proccess and the analysis of their intrinsic relationship will approach traditional methods facing the widespread use of Computer Aided Design. There are polemics about the issue: on the one hand, seductive simulations and a plethora of rendering choices available, on the other hand, impersonal expression, to name a few arguments for and against CAD use. Computers have not replaced the straight reciprocity between the acts of conceiving and drawing, between mind and image, which results in manual sketches, quite effective in embodying a design idea. Yet, we have to admit that manipulating complex forms such as Gehry's Guggenheim Museum quickly would not be feasible before CAD advent. We have been faced with new paradigms challenging the graphic expression of architects and urban designers. Besides the consequences of this new reality to design thinking, a crucial point to be stressed at this discussion is the possibility of achieving a balance between the cherished mind-hand intimacy and the available technological resources. 

"Design Thinking Process And New Paradigms Of Graphic Expression." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 68-73. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Design-Based on VR-Modeling of Environemntal Conditions." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 126-129. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. The research on CAD has been looking for a long time a creative contribution to architectural design, including recently the use of virtual-reality as an immersive modeling system, but without much practical results. However, contemporary architecture is increasingly including digital characteristics based more on cultural influences than on the use of electronic tools. This shows an evolution of the discipline in relation to digital media and apparently distant from environmental concerns. But the works and reflexions reveal a common convergence in the role of body in architecture as a pivot between virtual and local dimension of design. Based on that relationship we propose to take advantage of virtual-reality for modeling environmental conditions of the location in order to guide architectural design, using for example the potential of representing characteristics not visible in reality or to simulate time cycles. Sun displacement, wind direction, temperature ranges, topography and landscape are specific conditions in design that define energy consumption and human comfort. Such characteristics can establish optimal shapes crossing the different variables with timelines. VR-modeling and interactive control allow an spatial evaluation of environmentally efficient forms. That is showed through an exercise of housing in different locations of Chile. This merger between digital media and ecological concerns represents a crossing of contemporary cultural trends to motivate exploration of new geometries, supported on the potential of technology and on sustainable human development
"Designing by Simulation." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 25-30. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. This article evaluates ‘simulation’ as a contributing factor in architectural design. While computers enhance simulation, they have yet to transform the art of architecture. A partial explanation is found at the extremes of design processes: Gaudí’s Sagrada Família Cathedral of Barcelona is an empiricist’s culminating achievement -- faith expressed in stone. By contrast, SOM’s Sear’s Tower of Chicago is the modernist monument to rational process -- (financial) faith engineered in steel and glass. Gaudí employed an understanding of the heritage of stone and masonry to fashion his design while SOM used precise relationships of mathematics and steel. However, the designs in both the Sear’s Tower and Sagrada Família are restricted by the solutions inherent in the methods. In contrast, student designs often have no inherent approach to building. While the solution may appear to be evident, the method must often be invented; this is potentially more costly and complex than the design itself. This issue is not new to computers, but its hyper--reality is potentially more complex and disruptive. In evaluating the role of computer simulation in architectural design, this article employs two methods: 1.) Exoskeletal design: A limited collection of connected plates is formed and designed through warping, bending and forming. Reference architect Buckminster Fuller. 2.) Endoskeletal design: Curtain wall construction is taken to its minimalist extreme, using pure structure and membrane. Reference artist Christo.
"Designing By Simulation." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 25-30. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Development of the Web Site of the Department of Histology and Embriologiy." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 376-378. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. The computers changed in dramatic form the way in which the information spreads. The low cost of the personal computers, along with the development of Internet allows that the educative community is interconnected, with limitless access to the information what increases the administrative productivity , and modifying the process of education-learning in one interactive colaborative and, focused in the student. In our Department we have a Web site in construction that includes the following pages: a main one, with the presentation of the Department and links to: a) historical aspects of the discipline and biography of outstanding Professors; b)visitors Professors ; c) investigation; d) publications; e) colaborative and independent projects; f) courses and examinations; g) AIH; h) autoevaluation for students; i) email addresses; j) project: study of embryo malformations.
"Didactic Innovation. Digitalization of a practical exercises whose Central Issue is the Organization of Form in Bidimensional Space and the Introduction to the Textile Design." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 285-288. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. The projectual disciplines must respond with some grade of originality to a approached problem. In order to products of design be creative must be implemented a creative process of design and also from the teaching. The essence of creativity are the variations over a subject. A pedagogic way for this, is the one to recognise, individualise and represent the problem attributes, building upon them an "exploration space", to analyse and create new combinatorial alternatives or restructuring of the problem. The digital media incorporation as a new proyectual environment approaches the interactivity not only of the combinatorial variables, but, also to the hypermedia's. Both the digital documents, as the creative process, have a "no linear" or a "net" structure, that allows the construction of a himself way, self-managemented into this structure. The interactivity makes possible to work, as the divergent thought does, in a "polydirectional" field, that stimulates the fluency, the flexibility and the originality. The new- media's, used as didactic tool, open to "action", allow the students to convert them in "co- author", together professors, about themself learning process. >From this educational conception and its potential enrichment with the hypermedia, we are designing a project of digitising of an exercise to our didactic proposal and its later application into the course with our students.
"Digital Code of the City of Buenos Aires." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 209-212. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.

As a result of an agreement signed between the urban planning secretary depending on the Buenos Aires government and the Buenos Aires University, a software was developed. It has enough capacity to store, update and transmit the regulations that guide the development of Buenos Aires City. This application was materialized using graphic interfaces, what encourage the construction of a highly friendly program. It was constructed having the WWW in mind, to admit the consults and bring up to date in a distance environment.

"Digital Constructions of Art Works: a Method for Exploring Four Dimensions." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 259-263. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. To animate is to give life or motion to an object. In this study, the method for exploring in four dimensions was the use of animation in a three dimensional model; the objects were well known paintings or drawings. Although architectural studies were encouraged, a range of paintings was chosen and different intentions about the role of animation were investigated.
"Digital Constructions Of Art Works: A Method For Exploring Four Dimensions." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 259-263. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Digital Floripa - CD-ROM of the City." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 399-403. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. The graduation course of Architecture and Urbanism of the Federal University of Santa Catarina makes use of informatic tecnology in several teaching and research activities. This technology supports initial data proccessing, analysis, evaluations, simulations, and project development both in architecture and urban fields. Aiming to stimulate and improve the use of computer techniques in graduation courses, the INFOARQ group, belonging to the 'LABMICRO' developed the project 'Digital Floripa'. This project is an CD image data basis, with digital aerophotographs Florianópolis’ city taken, from the aerophotogrametric data of 1994. This project aims to facilitate image's access to teachers, students and researchers, to allow use of photos and scales, and to make possible the development of new alternatives interventions. A navegator program called 'DIGITAL INDEX'supports the user in the image's search and creates a same graphic interface. This project also acts as basis for research development wich aims to analyse and develop tutorial proceedures to access the utilization of the data images basis.
"Digital Floripa - CD-ROM of the City." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 399-403. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Digital Inventory of the Architectural and Urban Patrimony of Mar del Plata." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 458-461. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. Assisting to the urgent necessity of documenting buildings, urban and rural spaces of our district and keeping in mind that, this patrimonial values represent a considerable proportion of the creative and constructive effort of the pioneers of this region and of our memory and identity, you urgent restitution the report of the examples that are still conserved. As well as the reconstruction, in the cases that it was necessary, of the missing patrimony that still stays in the collective memory. The construction of the digital inventory outlines, in a principle; to divide to the city in sectors of different urban-architectural importance the hills of. Santa Cecilia Stala Maris and Divino Rostro, those that still conserve numerous examples of architecture of the past, are an example of it. This documentation is carried out from the entity of culture of the municipality of the district of general Pueyrredón, in function of the activity developed in the area of patrimonial preservation. In what concerns to this work, previous antecedents don't exist in our means, being this the first time that is intruded in the land of the digital graph applied to the investigation and historical documentation.
"Digital Simulation And Inferential Systems." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 87-92. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Digital Simulation and Inferential Systems." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 87-92. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. From the perspective of logic and epistemological formalizations, the processes for data elaboration relate reasoning schemes to inferential operations which enable the building, understanding and setting of criteria for knowledge validation in a complex sequence. Cognitive operations do not belong exclusively to the field of discourse thinking,' they also apply to the field of perception. Specially in the area of images, there exist inferences which are expressed and operated through other media. A particular aspect is the one of digital simulation and the links established with inferential systems. Although they are not the same thing, since simulation is a cognitive methodology, both are based on similar logic principles. It is obviously necessary to build budget or referential frameworks to support practices deriving from the graphic/digital culture. Thus, they could act as judgement instruments in order to analyze and recognize changes in project, space, morphological and expressive paradigms, and to overcome the instrumental and reductionist bias usually found in the development of these practices. The present work is oriented in this direction, studying relations established among digital simulation, inferential systems, cognitive elaboration and scientific knowledge validation. We aim at exploring and researching into the affinity, links and differences between simulation and analogic-abductive inferential systems so as to characterize: 1.) The concept of digital simulation, not only due to its strong reproductive power but to its inherent referential, cognitive and poetic functions. 2.) The nature of replacing actions projected by simulation with respect to reality in order to produce a representative act the innovative and creative power of simulation, directed both to the past and the future. 3.) The dimensions of prevision and interpretation where simulation develops its theoretical and empirical attitudes and the idea that simulation derives from the combination of hypothesis and experimentation.
"Dirty Hands On The Keyboard: In Search Of Less Aseptic Computer Graphics Teaching For Art and Design." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 13-18. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Dirty Hands on the Keyboard: in Search of Less Aseptic Computer Graphics Teaching for Art and Design." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 13-18. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. In recent decades our society has witnessed a level of technological development that has not been matched by that of educational development. Far from the forefront in the process of social change, education has been trailing behind transformations occurring in industrial sectors, passively and sluggishly assimilating their technological innovations. Worse yet, educators have taken the technology and logic of innovations deriving predominantly from industry and attempted to transpose them directly into the classroom, without either analyzing them in terms of demands from the educational context or adjusting them to the specificities of the teaching/learning process. In the 1970s - marked by the effervescence of Educational Technology - society witnessed the extensive proliferation of audio-visual resources for use in education, yet with limited development in teaching theories and educational methods and procedures. In the 1980s, when Computers in Education emerged as a new area, the discussion focused predominantly on the issue of how the available computer technology could be used in the school, rather than tackling the question of how it could be developed in such a way as to meet the needs of the educational proposal. What, then, will the educational legacy of the 1990s be? In this article we focus on the issue from the perspective of undergraduate and graduate courses in Arts and Design. Computer Graphics slowly but surely has gained ground and consolidated as part of the Art & Design curricula in recent years, but in most cases as a subject in the curriculum that is not linked to the others. Computers are usually allocated in special laboratories, inside and outside Departments, but invariably isolated from the dust, clay, varnish, and paint and other wastes, materials, and odors impregnating - and characterizing - other labs in Arts and Design courses.In spite of its isolation, computer technology coexists with centuries-old practices and traditions in Art & Design courses. This interesting meeting of tradition and innovation has led to daring educational ideas and experiments in the Arts and Design which have had a ripple effect in other fields of knowledge. We analyze these issues focusing on the pioneering experience of the Núcleo de Arte Eletrônica – a multidisciplinary space at the Arts Department at PUC-Rio, where undergraduate and graduate students of technological and human areas meet to think, discuss, create and produce Art & Design projects, and which constitutes a locus for the oxygenation of learning and for preparing students to face the challenges of an interdisciplinary and interconnected society.
"Do Intelligent Objects Need Programmed Users?" In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 52-55. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Do Intelligent Objects Need Programmed Users?" In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 52-55. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. Intelligent objects for daily use offer greater advantages than electromechanical products. However, they need a user whose life is more methodical, programmed and predictable. As de number of services offered in such products increase, their restrictions in their flexibility of use arise. Finally, users adapt themselves to habits that these objects suggest (for better) or prescribe (for worse). However, a paradox exists. What is controversial for a standard user: the increasing passivity justified in the eternal pursuit of comfort, for a disabled person means achieving independence and autonomy. In order to accomplish the revolutionary equity that computer science claims, the possibility of being excluded for economic reasons should not exist. If not, it will increase the fracture between coexistent realities in the same territory. For these reasons, assuming the risk of being considered naive and idealist, we believe that in order to build a better future it is necessary to promote policies that guarantee the access to new technologies for people with low economic means. Together with the consciousness users gain -related to product selection-, it would break the premature discouragement that the markets try to impose, resigning us to an unjustified idea of weakness and submission.
"Documentation and Patrimony. the Digital Era: a Channel for Memory Recovery." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 451-457. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.

The end of the millennium with its new digital technology is contributing important tools to the area of documentation and historical patrimony those of us who support the preservation of memories think that a very important way of personalizing and strengthening our identity is to provide to those who inhabit the city with heightened awareness towards the values of our past. The revitalization requires that the patrimony in itself be valued. At the same time, it necessitates the preparation of a great amount of information utilizing cataloguing, research databases, and other materials be accessible to all citizens. This piece of work shares the different digital data base experiences that are being developed in the CEDODAL foundation art and latinamerican architecture (center for documentation), which is under the direction of the architect Ramon Gutierrez, a research services organization, and diverse higher education institutions (universities). Four bases are introduced, each with different thought and criterion structures in the definition of fields as well as in their dynamic visualizations. Each of them possesses great quantities of digital images, blue prints, and texts. In three of those bases, the data is the output from teams of researchers in different topics through special arrangements with Santa Fe's provincial water), Fonart, and city government. At the same time, the CEDODAL catalogues its documentaries with great quantities of photographic information, blue prints, research passages, and a library.

"Documentation And Patrimony. The Digital Era: A Channel For Memory Recovery." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 451-457. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"ECPAS. Spaces of Concentrated Control of Simultaneous Action." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 137-140. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.

The simultaneous action punctual control spaces, its species and its degrees of freedom are defined. It is proved that all of them follow the same parametric equation. A particular study of trifocus is made and the sections of the trifocoide are established the topological space where are the points that are at the minimal distance to other any three points of the plane is founded. It is proved that any ECPAS curve with coplanar focus has any number of spatial focus if this number is a multiple of the number of focus in its plane and in particular that the spatial ellipse focus are on his conjugated hyperbola.

"Electronic Interactive Atlas of Histology and Embriology (AIH)." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 369-371. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. The technology allows to center the educative process in the student. The development of the multimedia systems and Internet facilitated this change, being tools that they make possible to create an atmosphere of interactive and colaborative learning. The remote education promotes three kinds of interactions: faculty-student, students to each other and students with other dynamic electronic resources. The Histology and the Embryology are based on the study of images. We are developing to an electronic atlas of histology and embryology with pictures of histologic material captured with a digital camera and an optical microscope. The pictures (resizables and with explanatory text) are classified by tissues or systems with optative access pages and a Link to an autoevaluation multiple option type test . There is a link to an English version. The AIH makes possible an immediate access of the images and autotesting acquired knowledgements.
"Envisioning An Urban Space That Integrates Architecture Into An Information Oriented Society." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 197-200. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Envisioning an Urban space that Integrates Architecture into an Information Oriented Society." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 197-200. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. There is an assumption that architecture can provide an evocative vision of an artificial environment using digitalized and wireless communication technology. It is a ideal based on perception of virtual space, where distance is minimized through the continual process of breaking barriers in none visible planes. It is domain of mind, in which the object becomes real by individual choice. It is conceived in a plane known as virtual space or cyber space. Marcos Novak describes it as "space created as habitat for our imagination". I approach the topic trying to establish a connection between the boundaries of virtual space and real space through architecture. These are the objectives of my inquiry: 1) To explore an architectural form in a media of non-concrete space. Space created by a negative space (empty space, residual space, loading space). 2) To define a new technology that marks the beginning of a real virtual environment accessible to everybody. Proposing the idea of socialization through the architecture and revitalizing negative spaces comprehended as valuable public places. 3) Identification and representation of sources that make possible telecommunication technology in an enclosed space. Prototype of a new communicational platform re-interpreted by cyber space, digital images, high-speed data, mobile Internet and application based on Intranets, extranets and mobile multimedia.
"Evaluation of Spatial Perception in Virtual Environments." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 145-148. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.

The 3D environments created by computers can be used as a powerful simulation tool for architecture, especially with inmersive devices, but it is necessary to know properly their spatial characteristics to use it effectively. It is also important to consider their possibilities in communication networks and their implications in contemporary architecture. For this reason, the goal of this research is to evaluate the perception of virtual architectonic spaces in relation to the perception of real architectonic spaces. This research is based on the comparison of experiences of university students in a real space (Entrance Hall of Faculty of Economy) and in the same space modeled by a computer. The evaluation considers tests with stereoscopic helmets and interactive navigation, making questionnaires to characterize the sensation of dimensions, relationships and time for an specific activity. The measuring of real and virtual spaces are made through references (furniture, textures, etc.) or by proportional relations between height, width and depth, in different patterns. The experience also reveals mental schemes to perceive the dimension of architectonic space and the orientation in a real and virtual environment. Besides, the research allows to relate the different levels of complexity and information with the understanding of real architectonic space and modeled space.

"Evaluation Of Spatial Perception In Virtual Environments." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 145-148. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Evolutionary Design Tools For Mass-Customisation." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 152-156. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Evolutionary Design Tools for Mass-Customisation." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 152-156. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. This paper describes an instance of the author’s ongoing research in the field of Generative Design. The work is based on the premise that computer-aided design (CAD) should evolve beyond its current limitation of one-way interaction, and become a dynamic, intelligent, multi-user environment that encourages creativity and actively supports the evolution of individual, mass-customised designs which exhibit common features. The understanding of fundamental shape-forming processes in nature inspires us to move beyond the existing CAD paradigms and re-examine the way we can benefit from the computers in design. We can use this knowledge to create a new generation of computer-based design tools which use evolutionary search algorithms to generate create a common family of individual designs optimised according to particular criteria, while supporting our design intuition. The author explores this idea by illustrating a research project between the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Deakin University (Australia). The project implements a multi-user oriented design tool for evolutionary design, which was tailored to produce a simple object such as door handle. The paper first gives a short historical and philosophical to the work, then describes the technical and algorithmic requirements, and implementation of the system. It concludes by describing an experiment in which the system was used on a "live" test group of people to generate individual, mass-customised designs.
"Experiments On Morphing Systems." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 149-151. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Experiments on Morphing Systems." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 149-151. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. This paper presents recent experiments on 3D morphing of buildings. A genealogical tree is created out of cross-morphing buildings showing their children and grandchildren. The resulting children-buildings share characteristics of the formal properties of their parents. There are two methods used here to morph buildings: face-to-face mapping and object-to-object mapping. All morphed buildings are shown as real-time animation. A series of experiments will be presented. Some experiments investigate the implementation of architecture or art theories. For example, how would it look like to morph a Hedjuk building into a Le Corbusier building? How would the resulting child look like in a cubist world? Or how would a building look like as it is extrapolated beyond its target and instead of lines and points it is represented as letters and colors? The computer system that was developed by the author for this paper is called "zhapes" and is a Java-based 3D-experimentation system. It resides at the address http://www.cda.ucla.edu/caad/java/x/formProj2/formB.html where it can be downloaded for explorations.
"Facilitating Conceptual Change: Computers, Cognitive Processes And Architecture." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 275-279. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Facilitating Conceptual Change: Computers, Cognitive Processes and Architecture." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 275-279. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. Computers have gained universal acceptance as tools that designers use. However, computers are often not used to advance the design process but just to make drawings. Many architectural schools still focus on a production orientation which puts the highest value on information management, precise representations and drafting enhancements. Mostly, computer education is limited with button pushing and training manuals. It is the contention of the author that students in Design Studio courses can benefit greatly from computer based educational pedagogy designed to provide them with experiences they currently do not possess. In particular, little time in the computer courses (outside lectures) is spent applying concepts and features of digital tools in design studio environment. In architecture, computers cannot be simply defined as a presentation and production tools. As a cognitive tool, computers provide designers with intelligible and effective representational tools of thought and communication, changes the syntactic structure of design. Consequently, the conceptual structure of computers impacts the conceptual structure of the design project, fosters the analytical processes and facilitates conceptual changes. This paper describes the use of computers in a first year architectural design studio. It attempts to address the importance of developing a design process that is redefined by the use of computing, integrating concept and perception. Furthermore, it describes the theoretical foundations and the underlying cognitive processes that contribute designers' conceptual development.
"Formal Alternatives Through Ludic Process Applied To Tessellation." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 101-108. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Formal Alternatives Through Ludic Process Applied to Tessellation ." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 101-108. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. The digital graphic systems development is evident during the alternative generation process, especially when the component objects are linked to a geometric base by modulation. In this sense, the tiling modular characteristics are used as geometric support which modulation or internal divisions contain material forms (objects in 3D) immaterial forms (spaces in 3D). That is to say that each tiling module can be projected or not in 3D. The way to do this consists of applying it not only as two-dimensional support but also as operational structure by means of operations of pure translation, in 3D. It is applied to architectural themes which systemic parts or components sectors admit repetitions of units (dwelling buildings, schools, offices, hotels, etc.) in plan floor levels and in elevation as well. When programmatic and morphological requirements are solved groups are organized conforming systems in two or three dimensions. In the alternative generation stage it is tried to avoid conditioning and restrictions developing a ludic process of "piling up tiles" simple concepts stimulating creativity for the production of innovating architectonic forms. Creative ideas can arise from the game playing with 3D forms. This paper attempts to show a manner to generate unusual architectural forms that, otherwise, within a traditional design process might not be found. Some architectural examples developed with this ludic procedure are presented.
"GIS and the Investigation of the Environmental Heritage." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 219-224. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. This paper presents an investigation on the architectural, natural, and cultural resources in the southern part of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, according to their historical or environmental value, identifying natural and cultural elements known and valued by local communities, regardless their experts’ classification. Resources are identified by means of geographical information systems, combined with field information. The area comprises the coastal strip and the plains located in the last frontier of the Brazilian territory and the water system dominated by the lakes Patos, Mangueira and Mirim. The inventory of the environmental, sociocultural and economic heritage provides the necessary insight for issuing new development alternatives based on local resources. Research activities will include: the ellaboration of general and thematic maps, based on LANDSAT 5 [bands 3, 4 and 5] images; aerial photographs; DSG/SGE and municipal maps [scales 1:250.000, 1:50.000 and 1:25.000]; field work for the recognition of remarkable elements; interviews with residents for assessing their perception of local values; and community and institutional statements. These informations, comprising the elements valued by their architectural and urban quality, historical relevance and environmental significance, organised in a database, will provide contextual guidelines for the planning of a tourist route. This route, delineated by the preservation, recovery and use of representative local resources, valued as expressions of a native culture, evocates the initial occupation of the gaúcho territory, and may be touristically promoted as "The Gaúcho’s Way". The project also aims at showing the potential offered by GIS for identifying and evaluating specific spatial characteristics.
"GIS and the Investigation of the Environmental Heritage." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 219-224. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Gráfica Digital, Experiencia Estética Y Diseno." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 446-448. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Hypermedia for the Tachinf of Render 14 AutoCad." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 280-284. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. Hypermedia applications in education have grown very much and are nowadays available in a great variety of titles covering a major extension of topics. However most of these applications have not gathered too much pedagogic embodiment and when they do have it, it is rather nearly to the intuitive level than based on one or more pedagogic theories. This paper's objective is to provide a practical view of hypermedia directed to teaching which has formed the development basis of a prototype for teaching render in Autocad 14. The several stages' view of developing an hypermedia were considered in the process of the prototype's creation such as the theme's definition, the staffs composition, the metaphor's choice, and the pedagogic model are discussed in details, as well as the several stages that should be followed since the proposals beginning until the product's final distribution. The chosen metaphor is the one of an art study having in mind the meaning of the word "render" being "the artistic representation of a model" once defined the metaphor, the screen's graphical part were developed accordingly.
"Image and Shape: Two Distinct Approaches." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 410-415. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. This paper is the result of two researches done at the district of Campeche, Florianópolis, by the Grupo PET/ARQ/UFSC/CAPES. Different aspects and conceptual approaches were used to study the spatial attributes of this district located in the Southern part of Santa Catarina Island. The readings and analysis of two researches were based on graphic pistures builded with the use of Corel 7.0 e AutoCadR14. The first research – "Urban Development in the Island of Santa Catarina: Public Space Study"- examined the urban structures of Campeche based on the Spatial Syntax Theory developed by Hillier and Hanson (1984) that relates form and social appropriation of public spaces. The second research – "Topoceptive Characterisation of Campeche: The Image of a Locality in Expansion in the Island of Santa Catarina" -, based on the methodology developed by Kohlsdorf (1996) and also on the visual analysis proposed by Lynch (1960), identified characteristics of this locality with the specific goal of selecting attributes that contributed to the ideas of the place its population held. The paper consists of an initial exercise of linking these two methods in order to test the complementarity of their analytical tools. Exemplifying the analytical procedures undertaken in the two approaches, the readings done - global (of the locality as a whole) and partial (from parts of the settlement) - are presented and compared.
"Image And Shape: Two Distinct Approaches." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 410-415. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Infographic: Its Incorporation and Relativity in Architectural Design Process." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 313-318. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. This paper is about an architectural design workshop regularly held at a public university in Santa Fe, Argentina. The class is about 150 students large, with different informatic capabilities and hardware facilities. The design problem of the workshop, which is one year long, is the relationship between architectural project and the construction of the urbanity. This implies both a physical intervention and a cultural expression. Pedagogy seeks students to overcome individualism, characteristic that is hardly induced by PCs, making a socialized design experience. A complementary and simultaneous use of graphic and infographic data is one of the main criteria of the workshop. The idea is to look for students to reach a wide vision by means of the use of different representation systems and means of information. Digital graphic is introduced early in the design process as an electronic model of urban context. It is considered as a one among many other graphic resources and is used together with ordinary models, geometric drawings, aerial and regular photography and hand made sketches. This paper relates the results that have been obtained when students were asked to make an analytic and sensitive approach to the relationship site - urban situation. This relationship has a great importance for the workshop since its goal is to make students to understand the the value of designing in and for the city.
"Infographic: Its Incorporation And Relativity In Architectural Design Process." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 313-318. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Integration and Application of Technologies CAD in a Regional Reality - Methodological and Formative Experience in Industrial Design and Products Development." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 295-297. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.

The experience to present is begun and developed during the academic year 1998, together to the course of IV pupils level of the Industrial Design career in the Universidad del Bío-Bío, labor that I have continued assuming during the present year, with a new youths generation. We have accomplished our academic work taking as original of study and base, the industrial and economic situation of the VIII Region, context in the one which we outline and we commit our needs formative as well as methodological to the teaching of the discipline of the Industrial Design. Consequently, we have defined a high-priority factor among pupils and teachers to reach the objectives and activities program of the course, the one which envisages first of all a commitment of attitude and integrative reflection among our academic activity and the territorial human context in the one which we inhabit. In Chile the activity of the industrial designer, his knowledge and by so much his capacity of producing innovation, it has been something practically unknown in the industrial productive area. However, the current national development challenges and the search by widening our markets, they have created and established a conscience of the fact that the Chilean industrial product must have a modern and effective competitiveness if wants be made participates in segments of the international marketing. It is in this new vision where the design provides in decisive form to consider and add a commercial and cultural value in our products. To the university corresponds the role of transmitting the knowledge generated in his classrooms toward the society, for thus to promote a development in the widest sense of the word. Under this prism the small and median regional industry in their various areas, have not integrated in the national arrangement in what concerns to the design and development of new and integral products. The design and the innovation as motor concept for a competitiveness and permanency in new markets, it has not entered yet in the entrepreneurial culture. If we want to save this situation, it is necessary that the regional entrepreneur knows the importance of the Design with new models development and examples of application, through concrete cases and with demands, that serve of base to demonstrate that the alliance among Designer and Industry, opens new perspectives of growth upon offering innovation and value added factors as new competitiveness tools. Today the communication and the managing of the information is a strategic weapon, to the moment of making changes in a social dynamics, so much at local level as global. It is with this look that our efforts and objective are centered in forming to our pupils with an integration speech and direct application toward the industrial community of our region, using the communication and the technological information as a tool validates and effective to solve the receipt in the visualization of our projects, designs and solutions of products. As complement to the development of the proposed topic will be exhibited a series of projects accomplished by the pupils for some regional industries, in which the three dimensional modeling and the use of programs vectoriales demonstrate the efficiency of communication and comprehension of the proposals, its complexity and constructive possibilities.

"Integration and Application of Technologies CAD in a Regional Reality - Methodological and Formative Experience in Industrial Design and Products Development." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 295-297. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. The experience to present is begun and developed during the academic year 1998, together to the course of IV pupils level of the Industrial Design career in the Universidad del Bío-Bío, labor that I have continued assuming during the present year, with a new youths generation. We have accomplished our academic work taking as original of study and base, the industrial and economic situation of the VIII Region, context in the one which we outline and we commit our needs formative as well as methodological to the teaching of the discipline of the Industrial Design. Consequently, we have defined a high-priority factor among pupils and teachers to reach the objectives and activities program of the course, the one which envisages first of all a commitment of attitude and integrative reflection among our academic activity and the territorial human context in the one which we inhabit. In Chile the activity of the industrial designer, his knowledge and by so much his capacity of producing innovation, it has been something practically unknown in the industrial productive area. However, the current national development challenges and the search by widening our markets, they have created and established a conscience of the fact that the Chilean industrial product must have a modern and effective competitiveness if wants be made participates in segments of the international marketing. It is in this new vision where the design provides in decisive form to consider and add a commercial and cultural value in our products. To the university corresponds the role of transmitting the knowledge generated in his classrooms toward the society, for thus to promote a development in the widest sense of the word. Under this prism the small and median regional industry in their various areas, have not integrated in the national arrangement in what concerns to the design and development of new and integral products. The design and the innovation as motor concept for a competitiveness and permanency in new markets, it has not entered yet in the entrepreneurial culture. If we want to save this situation, it is necessary that the regional entrepreneur knows the importance of the Design with new models development and examples of application, through concrete cases and with demands, that serve of base to demonstrate that the alliance among Designer and Industry, opens new perspectives of growth upon offering innovation and value added factors as new competitiveness tools. Today the communication and the managing of the information is a strategic weapon, to the moment of making changes in a social dynamics, so much at local level as global. It is with this look that our efforts and objective are centered in forming to our pupils with an integration speech and direct application toward the industrial community of our region, using the communication and the technological information as a tool validates and effective to solve the receipt in the visualization of our projects, designs and solutions of products. As complement to the development of the proposed topic will be exhibited a series of projects accomplished by the pupils for some regional industries, in which the three dimensional modeling and the use of programs vectoriales demonstrate the efficiency of communication and comprehension of the proposals, its complexity and constructive possibilities.
"Integration of Digital Media in the Teaching of Architectural Design. Tracks of an Experimental Studio." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 289-294. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. This paper presents the searching of new building modes for the knowledge of design in curriculum workshops at Facultad de Arquitectura, Diseno y Urbanismo of the Universidad Nacional del Litoral the proposed “research action” program articulates longitudinally in the three cycles of the career, understanding architecture as metaknowledge within a new paradigm of subjectivity, complexity and multidimensionality. In other words, it is recognized a new scenery tending to modify didactic relations. This experimental field looks for conscientious equilibrium between “written culture/audiovisual culture”, and “analog instruments/digital media”. We focus our interest on the “machine interacting with and for men”, looking for harmonious synthesis through a new way of thinking, to allow “real progress”. For turning this idea into action, we organized an alternative and plural team-work in architecture. We called it “experimental workshop”. In this first level the students worked. On a preliminary plan of a “kindergarden”. They developed a divergent process through the 3D simulations (using the software 3DS MAX v2), scale models and sensible sketches. For conclusions, the paper addresses the characteristics of the pedagogic model used and the results achieved.
"La Red Digital De Investigación Las Américas: Una Herramienta De Colaboración." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 384-388. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Laberinto: Una Biblioteca Para La Virtualidad. Reflexiones Y Acontecimientos En El Cyberespacio." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 83-86. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Labyrinth: a Library for Virtuality. Reflections and Events in Cyberspace." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 83-86. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. This project investigates in the limits of the word like only means of structuring of the thought, before the appearance of new paradigms: the multimedias and the ciber-space that have transformed so much the language written as the architectural one causing unpublished situations: 1.) The transformation of a concrete container to other virtual. 2.) The transformation of the design object, of one static material to another that is a process. 3.) The transformation in the traditional ways of thinking (reversible as the formal logic of the mathematics) to new imaginarys epistemologicals. // These non alone events have caused changes in the forms of to know and to communicate the reality but rather the same one suffers a dilation process. We present for their exploration, a road synthesized in some hypotheses that were elaborated with reason of the International Competition of ACADIA 1998: 1.) The new communication systems (cibercomunication) they generate a new territory that should be colonized. This territory this conformed by objects related by infinite bonds (hipertext). 2.) The topographical form is not lineal and sequential, this it is multidirectional and multiradial. The phenomenon of the blow-up and the dilation are the mechanisms with those that the new objects are generated. 3.) These related fields generate interstitial empty spaces where it appears the desire. The interstice like existential space.
"Lagoa Da Conceicao - Florianópolis - Ilha De Santa Catarina: Uma Paisagem Em Transformacao Ii." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 157-160. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Media Interaction in the Design Proces." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 35-44. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. Integrating computers in architectural design means to negotiate between centuries-old analog design methods and the new digital systems of production. The difficulty lies in the underdeveloped state of the necessary methods, techniques, and theories to relate traditional and new media. Recent investigations on the use of multiple iterations between manual and electronic systems to advance architectural work show promising results. However, these experiments have not yet either developed a theoretical base that connects their procedures to a larger conceptual framework nor been sufficiently cross-referenced and third party tested to conform a reliable knowledge base.
"Media Interaction In The Design Proces." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 35-44. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Modelo Virtual Abierto De La Ciudad De San Juan." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 470-474. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Multimedia Systems Applied to Architecture and its Knowledge Base." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 186-191. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.

This text makes a careful description of a great part of the components of the vocabulary of architecture and their syntax. It's structured in two parts, one textual and the other graphic. Due to the acknowledged contribution of the author on the subject of description of vocabulary of the elements of architecture and the research and development works that are entered upon in the master in computer graphics in the informatic field, it was proposed the development of an interactive system that allowed by means of links to connect the different parts of text and their respective graphics. Having as a basis the idiomatic equivalent term in Spanish and English, carried out in another research work, it was considered the possibility to link the text in these two languages besides the original one, french. That's why we've decided to propose the navigation through numeric text and images. This navigation has been already inferred from the reading of the text as intended from the author's that was why our task has been the interpretation of this intention and its translation in an informatic system. The product presented in this work is limited to having designed a methodology and showing its performance with some terms and images, able to make evident the sketch of our idea. The work is made out of the description of the following phases: 1.) Design of its interface; 2.) Compilation and classification of images compilation and classification of text; 3.) Coordination of textual and graphic elements; 4.) Programming of events in the interactive system.

"Net-Based History Of Architecture." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 319-325. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Net-Based History of Architecture." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 319-325. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. History sequences in professional architecture programs must meet broad educational objectives. Inherent in an architect’s education is a tension between the rigorous consideration of important ideas in the history of architecture and the inspired implementation of these ideas in the design studio. A digital history course can bridge the education/training divide by making the study of history emulate the methods and strategies used in the architecture studio. Using a relational database and navigation software, we have developed a course in which students move through a digital environment of text, image, audio and video resources pertaining to broad historical categories in architecture. Charged with producing historical genealogies, students must incorporate current architectural and cultural concerns in their distillation of the history presented by the articles, surveys, manifestoes, photographs, drawings and interviews encountered online. The immersive multimedia environment uses hyperlinks as a structure, placing emphasis on the student’s role in navigation while increasing the possibilities for chance encounters in the material. The delivery of basic material having been accomplished independently by the student, class meetings are used for higher-level discussions of the issues that surface. The project is currently being implemented as a half-semester course in 20th century architecture for a small group of sophomore students in the professional Bachelor of Architecture program. The project’s pedagogical and technical aspects will be discussed with respect to this stage of its development.
"New Trends in Graphic Representation." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 501-506. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. In terms of graphic representation, architectural & urban study drawings present some fuzziness related to the multiplicity of scales, to the representation of the urban dynamic and to the means of communicating the contents of these studies for different publics, clearly divided among lay and specialists. Since the 16th century there have been certain stimulating propositions to this theme that have had an enormous, often unacknowleged, impact on the perception and construction of the built environment. Recent experiences in Rio, due to the series of urban projects that are being accomplished, is showing that some architecture offices are adopting new graphic trends in drawings conceived for preliminary studies, diagnoses and inventories. Due to the new possibilities offered by graphic computing they are developing, with diferent softwares, a sort of "patchwork” or "collage” and "sampling” technique for morphological analysis and representantion of places and buildings. This use of graphic computing, as an alternative to the usual realistic depictions that attempts to deal with prosaic simulations of an everyday experience, results in a different type of graphic expression that transcend literalism and appealls to the imagination of the general viewer. It is important to highlight that the analysis of these graphic solutions that attempts to turn visible design problems, could result in the development of new graphic tools that will help the creative design process.
"New Trends In Graphic Representation." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 501-506. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Nuevas Narrativas Interactivas - Experiencia Práctica Con Alumnos De La Licenciatura En Diseno Gráfico." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 443-445. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Object, Function and Operation of Computer Tools in the practice of Design by students, applied to the generation of Textile Design." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 430-433. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. Continuing with our investigation of application of the computer tool in the generation of Textile Design is that we center this work on the query about which, because and like they are carried out you practice them of representation using systems CAD in the generation of Textile Design, on the part of the students and the meaning that these they attribute to the use of this digital tool. The investigation of happiness is practiced it centers this way from its linking with these as alternative of pedagogic intervention, framed in the implementation particularities of you practice them proyects in the shop of Textile Design, with the objective of Knowing and Tipificar the different representation alternatives for the carried out students. The elected methodology for the present investigation is the qualitative logic, inside an interpretation focus, to describe and to interpret the meanings that the students grant to the use of the computer tool in their exercises proyects. For the process of obtaining of data, was carried out a flowing and open work, of interviews and permanent selection where you drain the sample according to the saturation approaches that settled down during the course of the same one, the analysis type it allowed us the conceptual comparisons, associated to strategies, by means of which we obtained the excellent information that finally will be processed and restored to the group for, if it considers it to him pertinent, become use material in the future.
"Ontología De La Red." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 63-67. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Ontology of the Network." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 63-67. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. Internet was born as a new technologic support, difference from analogous supports that shaped century xx masses' culture. Fragmentation, multiplicity, multidirectionality structure form systems foundational essence. Metaphor generated by rational thought, produce a wrong speech in the collective imaginary. Network is a long way from industrial notion,' of motorway information, to concentration a diagram that warrants security in a speed detriment. Internet is not defined by speed and instantiating values. Security and compatibility in information translation are the values that determine its configuration. Networks system organization is based on a functioning's diagram that industrial philosophy rejected as thought alternative. The most powerful intercommunication network between computer does not answer to the postindustrial line dynamism. In fact, it's alike to the labyrinthine space where Teseo emerged victorious, defeating Minotauro.
"Open Virtual Model of the City of San Juan." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 470-474. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. The purpose of the present work is to virtually rebuild the city of san juan that was completely destroyed by an earthquake in 1944. From an audiovisual, multimedial approach, it tries to be a contribution to the recovering of the collective memory. Through virtual reality techniques, a three dimensional model of the city central area has been built, as it was before the earthquake. It has been achieved a multidisciplinary, open model that sums up a great deal of information and allows: 1.) From a pedagogic approach: an opened window to new ways of knowledgement transmission, through visual virtual information. The virtual rebuilt has been reconsidered as a pedagogic and communicational tool; 2.) From a historic and morphologic approach: to obtain multiple readings and to revolution the way to manage categories in different analysis scales; 3.) In the future, the model would allow the possibility of an unlimited improvement by working in different scales. Furthermore it would allow to add information, an so to increase the research area or to go deeper into details not only in the phenomenological dimension of the objects but also in their logic significant dimension.
"Patterns For Volumetric Recognition - Guidelines For The Creation Of 3D-Models." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 171-175. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Patterns for Volumetric Recognition - Guidelines for the Creation of 3D-Models." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 171-175. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. This piece proposes new strategies and pedagogic methodologies applied to the recognition and study of the subjacent measurements of the architectural projects to be created. This proposal is the product of pedagogic experience, which stems from this instructional team of the department of tri-dimensional models of electronic models. This program constitutes an elective track for the architectural major at the college of architecture, design, and urbanism of the University of Buenos Aires and housed at the CAO center. One of the requirements that the students must complete, after doing research and analytical experimentation through the knowledge that they acquired through this course, is to practice the attained skills through exercises proposed by the department in this case, the student would be required to virtually rebuild a paradigmatic architectonic piece of several sample architects. Usually at this point, students experience some difficulties when they analyze the existing documents on the plants, views, picture, details, texts, etc., That they have obtained from magazines, books, and other sources. Afterwards, when they digitally begin to generate basic measurements of the architectural work to be modeled, they realize that there are great limitations in the comprehension of the tri-dimensional understanding of the work. This issue has brought us to investigate and develop proposals of volumetric understanding of patterns through examples of work already analyzed and digitalized tri-dimensionally in the department. Through a careful study of the existent documentation for that particular work, it is evaluated which would be the paths and basis to adopt through utilizing alternative technologies to arrive at a clear reconstruction of the projected architectural work, the study gets completed by implementing the proposal at the internet site http://www.datarq.fadu.uba.ar/catedra/dorcas
"PCD. an Assistant for the Development of Remote Courses for Internet." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 389-392. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. Internet is emerging as a leading technology for communication applications in the area of Educational Technology and Distance Education . A number of tools have been developed to help either the teachers in lecturing tasks, as well as the students in following them. PCD was created to bring together in the same environment the best of the existing products in the market. The present version offers these facilities: course assistant, html editor, a generator of automatic self assessment tasks, and a data base storage of the assessments for a later student control. The need of a friendly and powerful graphics interface was enforced during development, in order to simplify the dialog between the participants of the courses. In this paper these facilities are described, as well as current development areas.
"Positioning of Architectural Volumes by Means of Evolutionist Algorithms." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 176-181. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. Configurational studies involve the groups of elements fulfilling restrictions defined by the designer in Architectural design. According to its necessities and intentions, the planner distributes the components of the group in a certain tridimensional way, establishing a composition. This operative procedure implies a classification system according to typologies that respond to a bigger system, and this in turn to another, until the whole is obtained. From the beginning the pattern should satisfy form restrictions, as well as dimensional and positional restrictions for each part that conforms the whole. Functional requirements are attended for each object satisfying relationships of connectivity and adjacency among them. In this work the parts are restricted by their relative position to a central element. Evolutionary Algorithms (EA) are used to solve this type of problem. Using evolutionary metaphors they originate concepts such as "genes", "chromosomes", "mutation", "crosses” and " population " (among other), which come closer to one of the solutions looked for by the designer, under combinatory stochastic methods. The most appropriate use of EA corresponds to problems of complexity NP-completeness (for example, problems of generation of cases of composition), allowing an efficient although not exhaustive analysis. Applying this technique to the generation of architectural volumes, some obtained results are exemplified.
"Possibilities of the Computer for the Simulation of the Designer's Constructive Strategies." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 74-78. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. The dynamic analysis (prospective), of products and systems, it is a methodological resource of the design that allows synthetically, and with great economy of investigation resources and time, to put in evidence the tendencies in the evolution of the object. Finally, the design strategies are defined as postures in front of these tendencies of evolution of the significant variables in the cycle of the product. Having as theoretical context the theory of systems,we explored the dynamic analysis of products and systems, taking their evolution along a temporary series that embraces a complete cycle, from the birth of the object until their maturation in the period of saturation of the market. Starting from the analysis of the evolution of the diverse subsystems, and the conflicts among the world of the necessities, (as pressure exercised from the context), and the technical agreement, it shows the evolutionary dynamics,the underlying conflicts to the logic of the system for each product. They are revealed to the design like a cultural operation that should keep in mind the processes of transformation of the mental representations of the object whose evolution should respect certain rules for its as, clearly such as the well-known maya threshold, (most advanced, yet accepted).
"Possibilities Of The Computer For The Simulation Of The Designer's Constructive Strategies." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 74-78. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Relations-Based Drawing." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 121-125. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.

The paper describes the use of a graphic system based on regulating lines and their geometric relations as a qualitatively different medium for shape delineation and dynamic drawing manipulation. It demonstrates how the proposed relations-based approach to design can benefit designers by expanding their ability to speculate about possibilities through dynamic manipulation of the drawing's relational structure. The relational description of shapes is introduced as an explicit formulation of a strategy to form generation and creative discovery. Design begins by first laying out the interrelated regulating lines - its organizing framework. Shapes are then constructed by delineating underlying and intersecting regulating lines. By allowing some lines to control positions and orientations of other lines through geometric relations and dependencies, designers can structure the behaviour of the object being designed under future transformations. As design evolves, shapes depicting an evolving design concept can be manipulated and changed dynamically, thus permitting designers to efficiently explore many different options.

"Relations-Based Drawing." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 121-125. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Representation and management of Information in the Processes of Design and Production." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 342-346. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. The GIDCAD has a double objective: 1.) To be an answer to the needs of the professionals of the production of the built environment, who are confronted with the evolution of technologies. In particular, to those who are engaged with the computer tools associated with communication; 2.) To be an answer to the problems derived from urban transformation. In particular to those related with social demands and environmental quality.
"Río Digital." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 478-481. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. RioDigital is a text situated on new forms of expression of knowledge over the city. It is a written multimedia whose objective is to place in disposability for the society the complexity of urban space on its multiple historical determinations, of its space, social and cultural forms. It is a research over the potentials of digital art to express the processes of constitution of social forms and constructions of urban space. The motion of works was in the sense of using this language to reconstitute and vivify the history of Rio de Janeiro city in the XX century. The city is an ensemble of symbols that encounters the language in its best form of presentation. The research identified visual documents as films, photos and maps that made possible to reconstruct processes of transformation, worked through the use of digital images technology that allows expression and turns move perceptible the transmission of this history. The digital image is certainly a possibility to represent urban reality. Through movement, illumination of image and of writing it was possible to express to process of construction and reconstruction of space building and social changes. We understand that the condition of citizen is associated with the feeling of belonging, which urban process every time move complex and difficult to understand, that new technologies can through synthesis, connectivity and interactivity expand the capacity of indivils to know the city and act positively with it. It is an intention to amplify the sense of belonging and encourage the action of transform.
"Sistemas Multimediales Aplicados A La Arquitectura Y Su Conocimiento." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 186-191. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Sketching with Gestures: the 3D SketchMaker Project." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 141-144. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. The 3D SketchMaker Project has developed two prototypes for a gestural 3D sketching interface in a computer system to be used in the earliest phases of the design process. The goal of this ongoing research is to provide architects, and other designers involved in object conception, with a 3D gestural instrument that takes advantage of new virtual reality resources and is more natural than using the mouse, less difficult than learning complex software and less abstract than manipulating 2D entities on orthogonal projections. The focus of this project is on the input interface, taking into consideration two factors: First, for many architects and designers, one of the main reasons for not using 3D modeling from the very beginning of the design process is that both current computer hardware and software are hardly appropriate to do the spontaneous and quick drawings that are used to assist in conceptualizing their objects. Second, three-dimensional modeling packages use two-and-three dimensional elements, in a 3D environment, but usually employ 2D input devices that are not appropriate to work in 3D environments, such as mice or pen-and-tablets. The 3D SketchMaker was conceived to take advantage of a natural tendency most people have in using gesture as an aid to language when trying to describe the shape, form or volume of objects. The system is intended to assist or replace the first 2D drawing steps in the design process, generating rough 3D sketches that can be refined later. It is, in essence, a 3D modeling system (a prototype, at this time) directed to do sketching with hand movements and gestures in a virtual reality environment.
"Space Distribution of Architectural Elements." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 130-133. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. This paper treats of the management of the position of objects on the plane. At first sight problems related with planning objects on the plane appear to be quite trivial. Nevertheless a system able to manage the permutation of objects the one with respect to the others becomes a complex one when all the possible variations are taken into account. The operations to be performed include topological variations in a combinatorial process. Although the results of such a system could be of general design application in this paper only architectural problems are examined as examples. In the first part an outline of the system is presented. In the second part a computer program directed to produce graphical results is described together with some case studies.
"Space Syntax And The New Transportation System In The Santa Catarina Island." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 434-437. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.

The paper reports an on-going research that aims at describing and analysing some of the syntactic characteristics of the urban space of Santa Catarina Island, in an attempt to evaluate its performance, more specifically its social and spatial integration and segregation. The research has been conducted with the aid of the Aximagic software, still in exam stage and not yet released to the public, a tool being developed by a group of researches of the Rio Grande do Sul Federal University and given up by Prof. Doctor Benamy Turkienicz. The software is part of a larger georeferenced program called CityZoom wich includes others tools to the comprehention of the urban morphology. This program works with graphic pictures in the inlet of data and also in the acquisition of results. The syntactic study of the Santa Catarina Island as a whole aims to obtain the comprehension of its global structure, relating it to the integrated public transportation system proposed to Florianópolis. These studies should allow an understanding of the impact the developments will have upon the urban morphology, and the new public transportation system.

"Space Syntax and the New Transportation System in the Santa Catarina Island." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 434-437. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. The paper reports an on-going research that aims at describing and analysing some of the syntactic characteristics of the urban space of Santa Catarina Island, in an attempt to evaluate its performance, more specifically its social and spatial integration and segregation. The research has been conducted with the aid of the Aximagic software, still in exam stage and not yet released to the public, a tool being developed by a group of researches of the Rio Grande do Sul Federal University and given up by Prof. Doctor Benamy Turkienicz. The software is part of a larger georeferenced program called CityZoom wich includes others tools to the comprehention of the urban morphology. This program works with graphic pictures in the inlet of data and also in the acquisition of results. The syntactic study of the Santa Catarina Island as a whole aims to obtain the comprehension of its global structure, relating it to the integrated public transportation system proposed to Florianópolis. These studies should allow an understanding of the impact the developments will have upon the urban morphology, and the new public transportation system.
"Telephone Cupolas - Urban Furniture, Industrial Design Applied to a Company of Services." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 426-409. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. By november 1996, the state telecomunication company called for a national booth design contest. The idea was to use the awarded design shortly as part of the renovation of the public phone service. Gruppo MDM won the design contest and was contracted to do the manufacture technical drawings and a prototype which was tested during 1997. By 1997, an international bid was held, including the awarded project. Gruppo MDM was contracted for the follow up of the manufacture process, including research of suppliers worldwide, materials arriving on time with the quality required, verifying local suppliers with deadlines and quality controlls according to the specifications.
"The "Teselas de Penrose" as Generators of Groups of Regular Architectural Forms." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 161-164. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. Considering plane tessellation as a creative trigger that contributes to modular form design, a procedure to group 2D shapes and architectural 3D forms is developed. The particular case studied in this article is about Penrose tilings, which tessellate no-periodically, admitting a covering of the plane without using a constant distance repetition pattern. Procedures and rules for geometric generation and fractalization are analyzed. A technique to generate aperiodic tilings is proposed, so they will be used as a geometric precise support for the insertion of architectural objects that follow predetermined dimensional patterns, looking for constructive standardization without restricting diversity of cases. Using digital techniques, linear and central structures of groupings are analyzed. Both typologies are exemplified in various abstraction levels.
"The Architect's Use of the Internet - Study of the Architectural Presentation Possibilities." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 363-368. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. The Internet media is opening new horizons in communication and representation in architecture. However, its use today is superficial, limited, and without creativity. This study will explore theories, methods and examples of how the virtual space of the Internet can be used in its full potential. That means to present ways of observing, understanding, interacting, and communicating the space without precedents in architecture. The existent presentations made by architects in the Internet are in general poor and static. Through the comparative analysis of two presentations of the same architectural space in the Internet and the use of state of the art technology in the Internet, this study will show innovations that will make the exploration of the architectural space more attractive, dynamic and interactive. The main issues will be on one hand, the improvement in the communication of the design through the use of the Internet, and on the other hand, the rise of the standards in the quality of the architectural presentations. This work will project possible implications of the Internet in architecture.
"The Architect's Use Of The Internet - Study Of The Architectural Presentation Possibilities." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 363-368. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"The Cadastral Information System and its Objectives." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 213-218. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. The solutions that allow us to attend the potential exigencies planned for a territorial administration, oblige us to establish an informatizated step, performed with a group of logical tools, supported in the corresponding data bases. This means to establish an Information System who integrates basic data to activities and own resources, being a fundamental aspect of these Systems their capacity to synthetisize the dinamic of phenomena that reflect and several parameters that are the base to analyse this. Urban and Rural real estates (cadastral register) are elementary territorial unities whose integration, complemented with structural elements of a localization area, constitute the continuous of spatial information with the most degree of resolution. Trying as "variables” all physical, economical and juridical circunstances, this continuous of information in transformed in an extraordinary and interesting product, which can be potentiate if we include the Geographic Information System (GIS) concept, resulting of adding digital cartographic data bases to attributes and literal characteristics of elements stored in alphanumeric ones. The reason of this article is to divulge the Territorial Information System set up in the Cadastral Office of the City Hall of Montevideo, based on GIS technology, emphatizying the utility it produces in so large applications as: to investigate land occupation and property distribution, to planify and optimize resources and services, to act as a fundamental support to elaborate thematic cartographies, to serve as a detailed and precise support for urbanism, service flows and territorial ordenation and all other products issued for the own implantation philosofy, constituted with an open structure where the mentioned Office isn’t the only user.
"The Cadastral Information System And Its Objectives." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 213-218. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"The Construction of a Geographic Information System for the "Conceicao" Lagoon: Possibilities and Challenges." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 203-208. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. This work intends to present the construction process of a Geographic Information System – GIS, for the "Lagoa da Conceição", in Florianópolis city, which aims to map urban uses of this region of the Santa Catarina Island. The focus is placed over the following aspects: 1.) Adopted proceedings to avoid the difficulties placed by lack of actual cartographic data in large scales. This problem common to several Brazilian cities dictated the need of mixing several sources of information to construct a geographical data base; 2.) The analytic results already obtained in the actual investigation stage based on the elaborated thematic maps over urban uses, and more specifically over tourism uses. Deepening of these analysis with inclusion of new data, and its utilization as a tool to verify new territorial interventions are also explored; 3.) The spreading and utilization possibilities of the information generated by system by different social sectors through Intranet and Internet technologies. The use of the technologies open up new perspectives regarding the interaction between these sectors in the use of geografical information, giving way to the construction of an unique data basis which might favored integrated decision making process in diverse filds of knowledge.
"The Digital City." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 438-442. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"The Digital City." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 438-442. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. Information-transfer and -management, quality of planning, efficiency in decision-finding and public relations make for the continuous challenges in space-related planning. The integration of the "computer" - an essential tool of modern times - throughout the process of urban and regional planning, particularly regarding city development is a present-day challenge. A "Computer Aided City Development" calls for modular structuring taking the specialized requirements of a up-to-date city development into account as well as integrating suited simulation techniques and media effectively in the planning process in line with the respective state of the art. The present research project was aimed at structuring modular fields of application for "Computer Aided City Development" on the basis of the general framework conditions of regional and urban planning and city development. Paying regard to the "ecological-dynamical" city development the pilot project "The Digital City" puts planning modules of "Computer Aided City Development" to use in a selected transection of the urban area of Vienna (area around UNO-City, Wagramer Straße). By means of a digital, three-dimensional work-as-executed model the urban-spatial development possibilities in variants can be subjected to a spatial discussion throughout workshops making interactive use of a high-speed graphic computer. Furthemore, this pilot project was also dedicated to trying new forms of cooperation between science and administration
"The Generation of Complex Spaces with Departure on Simple Rules as a Means for Stimulating the Three-Dimensional Imagination." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 298-300. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. The following report shows an exercise of research on design in order to explain the important growth and development obtained in an explorative application with analogical media, through the incorporation of technology of the digital media. The exercise was named "a priori space". This exercise was used during long time like some of the design exercises of research, developed on the institute of design, of the faculty of architecture of the Catholic University of Córdoba, leaded by César Naselli, architect.
"The Influence of Graphic Software in the Education of the Architect. Ideas Contained in the Representation Software. Pedagogic Strategy." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 307-309. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.

These report shows the result obtained by the application of an pedagogic strategy in order to teach how to use software of rendering like an instrument of design. Through the acknowledgement of certain kind of ideas contained in the instruments of representation, we made the parallel between these instruments and the software, in order to found other ideas contained on this.through the application of these ideas like the essence of certain kinds of exercises of design, the student is introduced in the world of the software of rendering, not only like an instrument of representation, but an instrument of design.

"The Issue of Modeling." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 182-185. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.

The modelization of an architectural fact, generated through a CAD program, doesn't have only the purpose of generating a virtual electronic, but a constructive scale model of geometric nature. It also implies, a conceptualization level and a posture in front of the pattern that makes thinking in other fields besides the formally constructive, such as: the descriptive and geometric patterns, the communicational and the symbolic pattern. We should understand the way the constructive thought is done the message of the model, either for the relationship with the environment and with the human scale, depends not only upon the author, but his elections will be intrinsically related with his cultural baggage, besides its geometric, graphical and technicians data. These databases condition the result of the model, for this reason we analyzed these relationships looking for a good handling of the cultural codes, to achieve a complete communication of the model. In these moments of the "global village", we should consider this problematic as a visceral topic of the architectural representation, to achieve an effective communication, among different cultures, of the models represented.

"The Mumoviar (Museum For Modeling Virtual Architecture) - A Proposal For A Research Theme." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 379-383. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"The MUMOVIAR (Museum for Modeling Virtual Architecture) - a Proposal for a Research Theme (The Mumoviar (For Museum Virtual Modeling Architecture) - to for Proposal to Research Theme)." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 379-383. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. One of the most interesting areas in the forefront of non-immersive virtual reality (VRML) applications to architecture is the one that concerns the design, construction and exploration of on-line multi-access worlds using the Internet-WWW. However, and despite the great proliferation of earlier single-access models built on VRML, attempts to collect, classify and provide accesibility that type of models has proved almost nil. On the other side, one of the architectural typologies that promises the greatest transformation potential in the virtual architecture area in cyberspace is the one that concerns virtual museums and galleries. This paper seeks to provide a bridge between the two aforementioned approaches by formulating a conceptual basis for the creation of a virtual, on-line, multi-access museum intended to house collections of VRML building models. Such models, initially shown at a conventional model scale, would be accessed by visitors through an interface intended to transport those visitors into the models’ environments, where changes in scale could provide navigation access to interior and exterior view of the building . Accordingly, the museum would act as a sort of "spaceport” toward different routes of exploration. This modelistic cascading seems to offer interesting possibilities as regards future virtual architecture applications.
"The Potential of the SIG 3D and the Interactive Urban Models." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 225-229. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. We are facing a constant growth in 3D GIS, and its interaction with CAD, VR and CG, influence each other more than ever. In this context, 3D urban models can interactively assist in any step of a decision making process. Urban planners can benefit from 3D urban models in a way never thought before. PC technology , free 3D interactive viewers and VRML offer low cost implementations. Data coming from cadastral updates in Argentina are an invaluable source of digital data and building height attributes are included on that. In that way, tabular or attribute data can be linked to 3D graphic data. Geographic Information Systems can add to these 3D urban models all the benefits of attribute data plus its spatial analysis capabilities. Queries of any kind, and links to hypertext, planning documents can enhance the information provided by this "virtual world". Finally, regarding communication aspects, Interactive design and decision making can be reached in a much easier way as 3D is better than 2D. If we consider that 3D urban models can easily be browsed in VRML we have then the enormous potential of collaborative design through internet and intranet.
"The Tde-ac: Digital Technology and Pedagogical Strategy." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 269-271. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. In 1995 the programming of a specialized, expert graphic software CA-TSD, began. The TSD acronym designates a graphic language derived from the theory of spatial delimitation, it systematizes all possibilities of selection and combination of flat and volumetric figures. It establishes necessary and sufficient morphic and tactic dimensions to account for all possible relationships of selection and combination. TSD proposes a syntactic reading of those formal, pure design operations underlying traditional representations. Tracings and complex configurations described by tree-hierarchical structures of simple configurations allow for a coherent syntactic analysis of the design structure of any object this will allow the construction of a pure design formula for the conscious and unconscious prefiguration operations of an artist or style in this presentation, we will use our proprietary CA-TSD software that will allow for fast verification of what's stated, including architecture and graphic design examples.
"The Use of Information Technology in the Redesign of the Teaching Practice." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 272-274. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. The accelerated rate of change that we live nowadays, demands professionals to develop new learning skills to cope with it the rampant development of information technology opens up new horizons and challenges in the way that a human being can be formed through education. In response to the technological progress and rapid rate of change, the Tecnológico de Monterrey System has redesigned its education model, focusing on learning rather than teaching. This means not only acquiring knowledge on theory and concepts, but also learning skills, attitudes, and values that make students be committed with their community & country needs. It also means to be competitive in their area of knowledge at the international level. A central element in the new educational strategy is the technological platform where the academic courses are developed. This platform helps students and professors to do a great deal of the course activities on a lap-top through the computer the interaction between students with students, or professor with students has increased. At the Tecnológico de Monterrey System the implantation of the educational strategy has meant the creation of training programs for teachers, and technological development & support to attend over 5,000 teachers and 70,000 students.
"Transformations in the Teaching/Learning Process of Descriptive Geometry with the Aplplication of Digital Media." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 347-348. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. The insert of the digital technologies in the atmosphere Áulico has left generalizing in a significant way. An example constitutes it the high percentage of students that they manifested general knowledge in the software handling in the introductory course of visual communication, as well as the voluntary presentation of practical works developed with digital means. The necessity of an answer to the requirements that arise of the students sinks to the certainty of a pedagogic compatibility among the matter to try and the teaching attended by the personal computer that would increase the Iconidad and the understanding of a topic of certain complexity like it is the geometry of the space. An educational program designed for the teaching of the Sistema Monge whose general characteristics were presented in the II Ibero-American Seminar of Digital Graph and that it will be applied as experience pilot in the course 2000, it will allow us to respond to the following queries: what place it will be given to the educational program in the formation process in connection with the other pedagogic means.
"Un Producto Estratégico Para La Gestión Territorial: Sigit Tamare." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 235-238. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Use of a Didactic Program for the Training of Developers, Architects, Engineers and Designers." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 352-356. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. For those questions of the specialisation, the Informaitc engineers develop applications of digital graphic destined to designers, users that, in general, ignore with the chore of developing applications. Also, most of the designers have to fight with applications that do not contemplate their necessities neither translates their expressive intentions with clarity. This reciprocal discussion may find an adequate solution in interdisciplinary work. The fecundity, and until the possibility, of the internal dialogue of these teams will depend, between other looks, of the quantity of common concepts that they possess. In this sense, we focused our educational task opposite the future engineers. We understand that, at the same time, the actual education of the designer, in whatever of their multiple looks, should contemplate the basic training (not instrumental but if conceptual) in questions related with the code of the applications that they use. This intellectual effort would enable the digital designer to investigate the topics of personalising their user applications (AutoCAD, CorelDraw, etc.). In this ground, we should greet the admission of the languages of visual code (Delphi, Visual [basic], etc.) that they permit a friendlier development of applications. Its goal is qualify them in order to develop applications of digital graphic, providing them concepts of space understanding and visual training for the production of IT applications of digital graphic.
"Utilización De Un Programa Didáctico Para La Formación De Desarrolladores, Arquitectos, Ingenieros Y Diseñadores." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 352-356. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Virtual Heritage: is There a Future for the Past?" In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 482-487. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. This paper attempts an overview of the contribution which emerging information technologies - viz CAD, Multimedia, Virtual Reality and the Internet - can make to the presentation, understanding and preservation of the rich architectural heritage which exists (pro-term) in almost every cultural context. In the UK, the growing interest in sites such as Stonehenge has, through the threat of greater physical presence, increasingly kept the public at bay - a curious paradox which Virtual Reality (VR) has the potential to address. Virtual Reality (-an overly used and underly understood term-) is an information technology which can provide a convincing experience of environments which: i) exist, but are too remote, costly or hazardous, to visit. ii) don't yet exist but are planned, such as architectural designs or urban plans. iii) never will exist, other than in the imagination. iv) existed in the past and are now threatened or already lost. // This paper has its focus on the latter category, i.e. what is now becoming known as Virtual Heritage (VH), but it puts VH in the context of the broader spectrum of simulated experiences of past, present and future environments of cultural significance. The paper draws largely on the work of ABACUS, the Architecture and Building Aids Computer Unit, Strathclyde. The examples of the application of IT to VH include: i) a virtual reality experience of Historic Scotland's premier historical site: Skara Brae, the most complete neolithic settlement in Northern Europe. ii) a multimedia CD-ROM featuring some 50 of the most wonderful interiors of Glasgow's architectural treasures. iii) a computer based archive of rare and normally inaccessible 17C and 18C drawings of Scottish buildings from three seminal sources. iv) a massive 3-D model of Glasgow (some 10,000 buildings located on the hilly terrain of the city), which is now accessible on the Internet. // The paper concludes with conjectures based on the examples given of how emerging information technologies can help secure a future for the past.
"Virtual Heritage: Is There A Future For The Past?" In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 482-487. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Virtual Reality in Architecture - the Present and the Future." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 79-82. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. During recent years, developments in the area of virtual reality and its applications in architecture have undergone a number of important transformations that point out the need of an updated revision and adjustment as regards its current situation status and also that which concerns its potentialities within a foreseeable future. This paper seeks to provide an ample vision about recent developments of VR in architectural applications and, also, about its potential developments within the settings provided by such imminent phenomena as the upcoming Internet II and its future impact on the three dimensional and multisensorial qualities of the information that will move within cyberspace in the next decades. The paper also comments on experiencies underway at the Laboratory of Advanced Techniques in Design, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Universidad Central de Venezuela in collaboration with the Laboratory of Computer Graphics, School of Computing, also at UCV, Caracas. Finally, a number of considerations and conjectures are dedicated to the new field of VR multi-access worlds and its potential to virtual architectural modeling in the Intenet-WWW.
"Virtual Tour Through Modern Architecture In Conception." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 475-477. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Virtual Tour Through Modern Architecture in Conception ." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 475-477. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. This paper describes the development of a project that was selected and sponsoured by the Regional Competition FONDART 1998 (Funds for the Development of Arts of the Regional Secretary of Education) that follows the aim of cultural diffusion. Towards the middle of the 30s, the city of Concepción developed an architecture distinctly colonial, neoclassical and eclectic. An earthquake in 1939 abruptly interrupted this scene, destroying the enterity of its most important buildings. The reconstruction of the city followed the manifestoes of Modern Architecture, consolidating the urban importance of buildings such us the Law Courts, the Railway Station and the Regional Government, that emerged as the new architectural and cultural heritage of the city. The project consisted on the modeling of eleven buildings of the modern architectural heritage, and on the generation of 42 virtual tours through the buildings that were finally edited on a 16' video. This video allows the spectator to make a virtual tour through the original modern heritage of the city, nowadays demolished, altered, and sometimes, even forgotten. This project pretends to widen the ways of comprehension of our cultural identity by using computer modelling and animation as a tool for the conservation of the architectural heritage; and creating a record that can be used as a reference and as an instrument of cultural difussion.
"Visualizacao De Informacoes Urbanas Atraves De Multimidia." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 239-243. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999.
"Visualization of Urban Information by Means of Multimedia." In III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 239-243. SIGraDi. Montevideó, Uruguay: Universidad de la República, 1999. Visualization is a tool that can aid understanding of phenomenon, process and spatial structures. Another important function is communication, in urban applications case, between planners, technicians, administrators, researchers and citizens. Recent technological development applied to visualization area increments analyze and interpretation capacity. The word visualization used here, is related with the use of computation for data exploration in a visual form, helping comprehension. It is a process of transformation of raw data in images, in information and visual communication. GIS and cartography precede computers. In it development GIS benefited from information technologies development and in this process emphasis goes from treatment of great amount of data to analyze of that data. Computer graphics make possible process and present visually great volume of data, thing that was not possible by conventional methods. Digital data are the key for the plain utilization of potential already available with geoprocessing technologies. Information that interest urban planners came from several sources and information technologies beside integration and manipulation permit visual analyze of spatial data in diverse aspects, from witch the most evident but not less effective a map, tool that let us correlate a great variety of qualitative and quantitative data, for organization, interpretation, presentation and communication. In digital cartographic basic elements of cartographic science were preserved, but through new products, each one execute one of the roles that traditional map plays in different ways. Database replace paper map as way of geographical information storage and cartographic visualization replaces a second role - understanding and explanation - that was satisfied by printed maps. Salvador is one of the most important brazilians metropolis. The project that we discuss have as targets construction of salvador database to permit understanding of urban space through use of thematic cartography. Several steps of project include data acquisition, database formation using data conversion and results visualization through interactive, hypermedia and thematic cartography.