Keywords Abstract
"A Digital Technology for Design: the Tde-Ac." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 274-279. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. TDE is a graphic language capable of notation of pure design operations, which offers an alternative to Monge and Perspective drawing. This language which was perfected and developed by Claudio Guerri in the late 80's, is originated in the Theory of Spatial Delimitation of CÈsar Janello (1974-1984). From 1995 onwards, and within the framework of the UBACyT AR025 Project (1995-1997), a software in order to apply the TDE through computer technology started to be developed. This work is carried out within the framework of the research program SPATIAL SEMIOTICS-DESIGN THEORY of the FADU-UBA directed by Claudio Guerri, and is continued in the UBACyT AR01 4 Project (1998-2000) "TDE-AC. Graphic language. TDE computer assisted". The computer tool TDE-AC, adds to this graphic language the power of the processing speed and a certain autonomy of interpretation and execution of design operations, which enables to visualize results with a remarkable speed in relation with manual or intellectual work in front of the drawing table. Trough the amplified projection on the screens of the program the stage of development and effectivity of TDE-AC will be demonstrated.
"About the Current Possibilities of Computer Aided Architectural Instruction." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 146-153. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

This paper discusses the problems emerging from the fast process of transformation of CAD techniques related to their teaching. In the first part, the evolution of cultural trends under the pressure of globalization is connected with its effects on the University teaching. Next, the specific problems of architectural design concerning these cultural changes are presented followed by comments about their relation with the particular case of computer aided design. The last part of the paper is devoted to put together the themes discussed in the preceding parts as a basis to outline some alternative ways of CAD teaching.

"Analisis of the Evolution of the City by Means of Interactive Multimedia." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 316-323. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. The purpose of this work is the discussion of issues related to the use of interactive multimedia for the documentation of buildings and cities. These issues emerged from the analysis of the cities of Havana and Rio de Janeiro, as researched at PROURB, the Graduate Program of Urban Design of the School of Architecture and Urbanism, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Interactive multimedia applications have been developed through many years. Some areas presented mature works, other are still researching specific forms to employ the available resources of this new media. In this situation are the interpretations of buildings and cities, which still hasn't found a proper language for it's complexly and scale. Interactive multimedia has many resources which are adequate for buildings and cities' analysis and representation. Two questions may be considered crucial for the use of hyperdocuments in architecture and urban planning and design: the first allows us a glimpse of a technique which can document the bridge between the architectís space imagining and this space experienced by it's users. The second issue is the proximity between the role of the architect and those of the author of interactive multimedia.
"Aplicación De Un Metodo De Restitucion. Obtencion De Informacion Metrica Base." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 432-437. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.
"Archetypes As Precedent Of Virtual Architectures." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 32-35. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

Archetypes are psychological concepts described by the renowned Swiss psychologist Cari Jung. It is possible identify archetypal forms in eminent buildings of different regions and ages, recognizing archetypes as a multi-cultural liaison for various architectures. These concepts function as basic precedents of spatial design in different geographical and historical contexts. The emerging digital culture is establishing a plethora of virtual environments, through web-pages of the Internet, global TV, multimedia CD, video games and immersive devices. These virtual environments offer electronic activities and tools for architectural practice. In both senses, virtual architectures conforms to the visual and spatial characteristics of technologies. Thus, electronic capabilities establish digital habitats and references to contemporary architecture. Since virtual architectures are immaterial constructions, perceptual properties guide the spatial and formal design. In that sense, archetypes allow a basic vocabulary for the design of virtual architectures, linking them to cultural history and giving them a human orientation.

"Archetypes as Precedent of Virtual Architectures." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 32-35. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. Archetypes are psychological concepts described by the renowned Swiss psychologist Cari Jung. It is possible identify archetypal forms in eminent buildings of different regions and ages, recognizing archetypes as a multi-cultural liaison for various architectures. These concepts function as basic precedents of spatial design in different geographical and historical contexts. The emerging digital culture is establishing a plethora of virtual environments, through web-pages of the Internet, global TV, multimedia CD, video games and immersive devices. These virtual environments offer electronic activities and tools for architectural practice. In both senses, virtual architectures conforms to the visual and spatial characteristics of technologies. Thus, electronic capabilities establish digital habitats and references to contemporary architecture. Since virtual architectures are immaterial constructions, perceptual properties guide the spatial and formal design. In that sense, archetypes allow a basic vocabulary for the design of virtual architectures, linking them to cultural history and giving them a human orientation.
"Architects of Virtuality - New Market, New Curricula." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 116-123. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. The potential of 3D virtual environments in the field of architecture and the roll of the architect in the development of such environments are subjects that require our attention. In particular, the subject of virtual architecture, not as representation of future buildings but as an architectural product to be inhabited in a virtual context, surely requires our attention. The paper addresses the question of validating Virtual Architecture" as an architectural product and makes reference to the potential it offers for the professional intervention of the architect. In such a context, the paper elaborates on the expertise that the Architects of Virtuality needs to acquire. For conclusions, the paper develops a model of curriculum that articulates traditional elements from the curriculum of architecture and the curriculum of graphic design.
"Asistencia Computacional En El Diseño De Modelos Matematicos Interactivos." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 180-185. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.
"Base De Datos Bodega." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 232-237. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

The architectural objects and their site are an indivisible part of the concrete culture of a place.in order to achieve the protection of the Cultural Property, the indispensable previous step is the fulfilment of an inventory. If a good inventory is not available, serious tasks of public awareness could not be carried out, nor could be adopted policies or specific safeguard projects. Besides, neither criteria nor protective measurements in the plans of urban or regional development could be incorporated. Finally, we could not discuss with the sufficient scientific support. San Juan has climatic features typical of and regions with high seismic risk, scarce hydric resources, landscape diversity and singular vegetation. This favoured the cultivation of vineyards as well as the construction of important industrial buildings. In this sense, the Architecture of the Vine Production and Wine - making gave rise to establishments (buildings and sites), whose architectural characteristics, in a holistic consideration, are part of the Provincial Architectural Patrimony. A relational database structured by fields related to different levels of information was designed so as to fulfil this inventory. The data processing application used enables to search and ask for information by means of an easy access interface with the following possibilities :expansion, versatility in the design of visualization-printing plugs and readiness to migrate to other formats.

"Between the Analogue and Digital Civilization: Workshop of Media and Space Manipulation." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 46-55. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. As the power shift from material culture to media culture accelerates, architecture finds itself in the midst of a clash between centuries old analog design methods (such as tracing paper, vellum, graphite, ink, chipboard, clay, balsa wood, plastic, metal, etc.) and the new digital systems of production (such as scanning, video capture, image manipulation, visualization, solid modeling, computer aided drafting, animation, rendering, etc.). Moving forward requires a realization that a material interpretation of architecture proves limiting at a time when information and media environments are the major drivers of culture. It means to pro-actively incorporate the emerging digital world into our traditional analog work. It means to change. This paper presents the results of an intense design workshop that looks, probes, and builds at the very interface that is provoking the cultural and professional shifts. Media space is presented and used as an interpretive playground for design experimentation in which the poetics of representation (and not its technicalities) are the driving force to generate architectural ideas. The work discussed was originally developed as a starting exercise for a digital design course. The exercise was later conducted as a workshop at two schools of architecture by different faculty working in collaboration with it's inventor. The workshop is an effective sketch problem that gives students an immediate start into a non-traditional, hands-on, and integrated use of contemporary media in the design process. In doing so, it establishes a procedural foundation for a design studio dealing with digital media.
"Cathedral of the "Plata" - Greater Temple of the Capital of the Province of Buenos Aires." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 204-211. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

La Plata Cathedral Building, Main church of the capital city of Buenos Aires Province, registered in the nave of San Pedro Basilic given its huge size, placing it among the most important churches in the world. The Executing Unit has decided to split the treatment of the building into three biddings, the first of which will consist in the preservation, restoration and revaluation of the external views of the Cathedral. The second stage will consist in the micropiling and reinforcement of the foundations, and the third and last stage will be the completion of the building. Today's systems technologies permit to store and transmit larger amounts of data. For this reason, the Technical Department of La Plata Cathedral Executing Unit have chosen this means to edit the Public Tender Specifications corresponding to the preservation, restoration, revaluation and completion of this church.

"Chateando Con El Municipio. Mapas Inteligentes." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 406-411. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.
"Complementation de Digital and Manual Tools in the Processes of Learning Textile Design." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 380-387. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

The repetition of units for the configuration of one coherent and produced whole, is an included problem in most of the Design disciplines. In the case of Textile Design, both the surface decoration and the itself fabric construction are technologically conditioned from the industrial production, because it must be repeated the printed signs as much as the fabric structures that support it. In the formative process to the product textile design it is essential the training for the motives distribution in the bidimensional space. Because of that the experimentation volume that it is realized in the first levels of the design learning must cover all the operations to generate motives, to repeat it and to relate it, to establish the global structures and the possible languages to the configuration. The digital media as a complement of the traditional manual technical expand the experimental horizon and with it the students make a trip in all the possibilities of rhythms and technical and like this check at full speed the composition alternatives, just as change the relative positions of the parts, the contrast, tones, values, colors, stresses, textures, etc.

"Computers and Architecture in the Digital Era." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 22-31. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

It seems that when architects think, and talk about computers, they only reflect on very narrow images of the phenomenon. Architects think that the impact of computers in their profession is only related to how PCs, CAD/CAM, networks, software, peripherals, can improve the way they work today. Architects, by enlarge, are unable to reflect beyond the screen of their computers and the wall of their offices when it comes to recognize the real consequences resulting from the new technological advances. In this paper we argue that we should think differently. We must recognize that computers are having much more profound impact on the profession. Computers - the technology of the fantastic, par excellence - are changing the city! They are fundamentally transforming the way we use space, and buildings! Computers are beginning to create new kinds of urban cultures and infrastructures. Building types such as offices, banks, retail spaces, and museums are being transformed into virtual workplaces, telecommuting centers, networks of automated teller machines, home banking, smart stores and multimedia experiences. Computers are transforming the concept of working, the concept of banking, the concept of shopping, etc. In the end, something fundamental about the architecture of these activities.

"Contributions to the Teaching of Visual Communication." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 168-173. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. Going back to the proposal for the incorporation of multimid oriented towards the study of visual communication in 1st year of Architecture and Industrial Design which was presented on the 1st Seminary of Digital Graph that was held in 1997, in the FAU of UBA,it is being developed an educative programme of hypermedial character. Referring to Monge System development, it is though for the students so that they can consul and have a first contact with theoretical concepts. Through direct experience, starting from the studentís pre-existence of a lineal path from general to specific, proposing transversal perspective to start in depth conceptual contents according. Completing the traditional view of drawing by enlarging the iconicity and comprehension of a complex topic like geometry of the space.
"Development of an Information system of Municipal Infrastructure." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 426-431. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

The Information System of Building Components -ISBC, consists of a set of activities to control the graphic data operation procedures of building plans and its storage in a data base. The system is specially prepared to be used by architects, engineers and cad operators who are dealing with a continuous flow of design problems, regarding the permanent adaptation and modification of office's layout in a great amount of buildings around the country. These constant changes bring out several types of architectural design problems that should be taken into consideration by the proposed system, particularly the reallocation of office furniture and the modification of building components. Therefore, the principal goal of the system is based on the inquiry and permanently updating of the data base composed by: furniture, technical equipment (computers and telecommunications networks), lights, air-conditioning, sanitary equipments and any other equipment that can be inventoried. The generation and operation of great amount of graphics and alphanumerical information bring out severe data inconsistency problems, particularly when graphic data is envolved. The task of "feeding" and modifying a data base produces errors that aren't easy to solve, even when specific consistency procedures are used. The ISBC provides the computer routines for the initial task of building up the required data base of each building, allowing to use an interactive algorithm among the digitized plans of each office and the data base of the enquiry system. An additional operation included in the system allows to compute the area of each section of the building in order to calculate several types of working spaces regarding ergonomical and functional performance specifications established by law regulations.

"Diagnostico of the Urban Cultural Patrimony in an area of the City of San Juan Using SGI Tecnology." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 226-231. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

This paper includes some of the results obtained by "The Assessment of San Juan City Environmental Cultural Heritage - A methodology development based on G.I.S. technology" project team. Various criteria and methodologies used for an urban sector diagnosis are analysed based on D.F. Sarmiento Native Home National Historical Monument. Although the above mentioned GIS technology was applied together with the data base generated by the SICAT (Survey Data System), it was necessary to incorporate other data which were not considered by such a base. Consequently, a new system called Heritage Data System (HDS) was designed. The methodological contribution improved the GIS quality of detecting multiple relations among the sector under study cultural goods, such as: eleven environmental historical elements, two designated national historical monuments, one designated national historical site, historical buildings, urban districts, trees and facilities and allowed to define what was called "The Protected Environmental Historical Area".

"Digital Image: Confluyent Design Process." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 84-93. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

The introduction of new technologies in architectural projects causes, in first place, their adaptation as an operative and instrumental resource, without considering the deep changes that their use generates. The digital image, understood as a reference of this process, is spreading and conquering new fields on ideation, representation and communication. The absence of theoretical support, that would offered another point of view is evident, so consequently we believe that is necessary to consider approaches qualitatively new, from epistemologic, methodologic, perceptive and aesthetic fields, in order to transfer them into professional an teaching practice. Today, the annulment of universal validity rules, and the different and contradictory interpretations, oblige to center our view in the interrelationships and,connections, rather than in the definition of each entity. This work develops synthetically a study which confronts and compares traditional project process - composition and heuristic design supported by linear proceeding and analogic media, with confluent project process, based on digital data and hypermedia links, generated simultaneously. The variants of the topics analyzed are at the same time the project itself, the underlying thinking model, and the project communication strategies.

"Digital Integration of the Design Process in an Experimental Design Studio." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 94-105. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

The linear logic of project process is being replaced by alternative proceedings, used simultaneously. Today this option repertory signify that the architect must assume in a conscious attitude both critical reflection and free creativity. The necessity of experimental work arise with the purpose of discovering the effects and challenges generated by hypermedial resources. This idea put in action in a workshop organized by the Centro de Computacion de la Facultad de Arquitectura, deepening in heuristic relationships between analogical and digital proceedings. The workshop was leaded by Arch. Arturo Montagu and coordinated by the authors. The project theme was a concrete problem placed at Mar del Plata city, and was developed by professionals, teachers and students mixed groups, of different ages, objectives and experience. The replacement of analogical media, with all its representation power, for digital media was avoided -this was taken as mere translation-; instead both were considered on its complementary elements and potentialities applied to project ideation and its communication. Due to this experience it is observed that the generation of this project methodology is configured by a synthesis of heuristic and compositive proceedings, the interface design and the interaction strategies with the object. All this work have revealed its own internal logic, that stimulate us to continue on the research.

"Digital Reconstruction of Architecture: a Method of Training in Modelling, Rendering and Animation." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 132-139. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

Throughout time, scholars have been resurrecting the architecture of past ages, Sir Arthur Evans with the Palace of Knossos in Crete, Heinrich Schliemann with the ruins of Troy, and Thor Hyerdahl with the Kontiki and Ra ship reconstructions. Digital reconstruction provides a powerful means to portray architecture and environments that no longer exist; structures that exist in a decayed form can be restored to an appearance of their former condition; and artist's visions that never existed can be reinterpreted in three-dimensions. These types of projects are highly suitable for teaching students, especially in advanced classes, how to use computer graphics for modeling, rendering, and animation. It is often difficult to gather accurate geometric and texture data and the information that is available is often ambiguous or even contradictory. The ambiguity of the information forces the students to truly study and attempt to comprehend what they are trying to model. Indeed, working with incomplete and contradictory graphical information is a normal part of architectural practice that one often has to deal with in the early stages of design

"El Docente y la Utilizacion de Sistemas Multimediales en Redes Telematicas Aplicados a la Ensenanza 3D en Diseno Arquitectonico." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 154-159. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

The remarkable advances in the technology of computer systems, including software, hardware, and networks, continuously give us new avenues to be utilized in education. The pedagogic strategy to be developed in the utilization of digital graphic systems applied to three-dimensional design in architecture (both in the design and virtual expression of objects or already designed architectural groups) is still changing with the times.Therefore, the Department, as an extension of its experience with this type of development and as a response to deal with special situations such as large numbers of students, develops this new proposal, which is currently being used. This project uses the implementation, structuring, and building of a virtual site as an informatics classroom, utilizing multimedia systems, to be used as a support for acquiring knowledge during the learning that takes place doing the coursework. This setting would allow for the feedback between the instructor and the student to be on-going, hence both groups being efficiently motivated through examples and opportunities of how to do the following: utilize appropriate technology, manipulate the right information, utilize the right kind of software programs and techniques, revamp the knowledge, and benefit from using the appropriate digital techniques for each specific case of architectural design and expression.

"El Impacto De La Informatica Sobre El Mundo De Los Objetos Cotidianos." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 336-341. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

The computer impact over daily objects world: methodological reflection from the Philips design team workshop "Vision of the Future".The impact of computers in the industrial design world is often limited to the condition of tool, used in the conception process, and, in a minor scale, it is shown integrating and reprocessing the objects, and the every day rituals that nourish them. The integration of microelectronics into the world of objects has been given theoric basement by those who are responsible for technological development (which we describe in this work), displaying several trends tendencies towards interactive, flexibility and, dematerialization and loss of leading role of the object by its integration in the net. The "Vision of the Future" experience, accomplished by the Philips design team, is a look, from the point of view of design, about this subject. The exploration of this new experience through the world of the objects of the future, shows us that the technologies are far away from dematerializing culture, and even threat the leading role of the object. Many of the products that are studied in Philips work-shop, are recreations of old objects but with new functional possibilities. We can see that, although technology allows rituals to be destroyed, yet they preserve themselves deflecting the logical evolution of technology. In this study, we display a methodology to generate interactive objects, following the most significant examples of the work we studied.

"Exploration of Formal Alternatives of Orthogonal Buildings." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 286-291. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. The shape of buildings determines the relationships between the contained spaces with the contained activities. As shapes are represented by their perimeter, the form and the length of building perimeters is of particular interest to architectural design. This paper presents a short computer program oriented to the exploration of modular floor plans related to their perimeter. The characteristics of a class of orthogonal configurations called polyminoes has been taken as a basis for the programming work. Polyminoes are briefly presented in the first part of the paper as well as some data concerning their geometrical structure. The operation of the computer program illustrated by some working examples, is described in the last part of the paper. The results obtained can be used for comparison between alternative shapes. Additional information about these modular shapes is given together with every particular form so as to ease the evaluation task. In these terms the program must be seen as a tool of assessment rather than as a designing procedure.
"From Graphical Computation to Present CAD Systems. an Historical Vision of the Revolution Produced in the Systems of Graphical Representation (1966-1998)." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 14-21. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

Throughout these pages are made known the persons, the projects and the books that have influenced my actions and that they will be mentioned in form underlined in this paper. I have to emphasize that since 1965 to 1970, and in the continuous search that I was accomplishing to find data and bibliography adapted to the topic of computer graphics, only two series of publications contained topics related to this matter at that time: one was the IBM Journal and the other series was the communications of the ACM. The purpose of this work is to make known an experience accomplished throughout 30 years of intense activity in finding new methods of drawing and design, based on the use of digital computers, mainly in Argentina, and during certain periods of time in Great Britain and since 1971 during short visits to the United States and also in France. The first idea emerged in the year 1965 when I was assistant teacher at the School of Architecture of the University of Buenos Aires, as a combination of ideas between the concepts of spatial geometry and the current morphological studies that we taught in the Course of professor Gaston Breyer. However the idea of automatic drawing emerged observing the operation of the first scientific digital computer installed in the Computing Institute of the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires in 1963 (Sadosky 1963). At the beginning, the approach to the computer were not accomplished from a strictly scientific point of view, but it was implying a kind of "sincresis" (Koheler 1940) it is more than a synthesis, because I was tried to combine ideas that have had its origin in different worlds of thinking, the analogous world and the digital world, and this situation was very difficult to accept at that time.The designing procedures in the decade 1960's was deeply rooted (and still continues) in the architectural design field as a result of a drawing process based in heuristic techniques.

"Generacion Y Combinacion De Superficies En El Espacio Tridimensional." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 266-273. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.
"Geometric Modeling and the Simulation of Fire - Smoke Spread in Buildings." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 438-445. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

Since the performance simulation of buildings, such as fire/smoke spread, energy loss/gain, acoustics, etc. greatly rely on building geometry, the way the physical environment is modeled can substantially effect the reliability of the predictions made by such simulations. Most computer models that simulate fire and smoke spread in buildings limit the computer representation of the building to simpler geometries and define rooms as rectangular spaces or as spaces with uniform crossections. Such a definition does not account for the variety of building elements that can exist in a building such as large overhangs, half height walls, etc. Existing simulations are typically developed as mathematical models and use the principles of thermodynamics to represent the spread of the elements of fire through space over a given time period. For example, in zone models each room is defined as a two tier space with heat and smoke exchange between lower and upper tiers as the fire progresses. On the other hand, field models divide the space into small contiguous units where thermodynamic state of each unit is calculated as the simulated fire progresses. Dynamic processes such as fire and smoke spread must recognize both intangible (i.e. voids) and tangible (i.e. solids such as walls, balconies, ceiling, etc.) architectural entities. This paper explores the potential of solid modeling techniques in generating geometric definitions for both solid and void architectural entities that can interact With mathematical models of fire/smoke spread in buildings. The implications of cellular spatial partitioning techniques for zone or field models of fire/smoke spread are investigated, and the methods of creating cellular decomposftion models for architectural spaces as well as for spatial boundaries such as walls are explored. The size of each cellular partition, i.e. the resolution of the partition, and the material and heat transfer attributes of each cell were found to be very critical in modeling the spread fire through voids as well as through solids in a building.

"Geometry and Digital Graphics as Reflexion and Rationalization of the Architectural Project." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 280-285. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. The methodology of the work consists in the following: (a) Starting from the photographic image of an architectonic work (Santisimo Sacramento Church situated in 3451 Bv. OroÒo street, Rosario city, Santa Fe, Republica Argentina), and applying the rules of Descriptive Geometry. about photographic perspective, rebuild - restore the orthogonal parallel projection of its facade. (b) Once the restitution is done, introduce the information into the computer, in order to: Make a geometric analysis of the architectonic shape, applying 2D systems (bidimensional diedric or Monge method ) and 3D (tridimensional, wireframes and renders); Obtain a complete 3D image of the Tower, that means the virtual model of the real object.
"Graphical Syntax of Multimedia." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 140-145. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

The multimedia offers an integration that must be made by the subject with the stimuli given, in their majority visual. For that reason it is interesting to know how effective may be the use of images and to propose some basic norms for designing multimedia software based on a graphic syntax

"Integracion De Cursos De Computacion Y Talleres De Diseño Electronico." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 124-131. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

The paper presents the experience of the authors in the development of a course syllabus and instructional materials in the domain of Computer Aided Design (CAD). In particular, the paper highlights the demands imposed by the fast development of applications relevant to the field of architectural design and the need to offer flexible access to instruction in such a field and domain. The paper describes two parallel implementations of a course on Computer Aided Design, in the second year of the curriculum, and two implementations of an Electronic Design Studio, in the fourth year of the curriculum. Both CAD courses and Design Studios are offered by the same professors and therefore a considerable level of integration has been achieved. For conclusions, the paper addresses the characteristics of the pedagogic model used for the integration of the courses.

"Interaction of Design Media and Process: Theory and Knowledge Base for in the Production of Architectural Hybrids." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 56-65. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. Integrating computers in architectural design means to negotiate between centuries-old analog design methods and the new digital systems of production. The difficulty lies in the underdeveloped state of the necessary methods, techniques, and theories to relate traditional and new media. Recent investigations on the use of multiple iterations between manual and electronic systems to advance architectural work show promising results. However, these experiments have not yet either developed a theoretical base that connects their procedures to a larger conceptual framework nor been sufficiently cross-referenced and third party tested to conform a reliable knowledge base. This paper addresses the first shortcoming in the light of the forces transforming our contemporary civilization and architecture.
"International Virtual Design Studios and Reciprocal Distance Education." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 398-405. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. Motivated by a tendency towards the development of international design and construction consortia, the paper explores the application of information technology in order to add an international and multicultural dimension to our Design Studios. In particular, the paper describes how a group of 4 Mexican design professors offers distance education to a Design Studio in the U.S. and how, in a reciprocal way, 4 American construction professors offer distance education to a Construction Studio in Mexico. Both groups of professors and students make extensive use of the Internet and a T1 dedicated line for compressed video. In addition to the experience previously mentioned, the paper elaborates on potential applications of the "Reciprocal Distance Education" model at university and professional levels. The paper presents conclusions that place particular attention in the evaluation of information resources. In the same way, some conclusions address the administrative an faculty structures that make possible the implementation of the model.
"Introduction of New Tecnologies of Supports in the Teaching of Graphic Design." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 350-357. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. Development of a methodological strategy for the inclusion of new communication digital media to the Design course pedagogical process. How to introduce to the Graphic Design degree learning an strategy that includes the new communication technological support. Development of a practical exercise with real implementation in a last generation media. Institutional FADU Website design. From pre-impression to the pixel.
"La Utilizacion Del Medio Digital Durante El Aprendizaje En La Carrera." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 160-167. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.
"Los Impactos De La Tecnologia Digital En La Practica De La Arquitectura. Casos De Estados Unidos Y Japon." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 250-257. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.
"Los Teselados Periodicos De M. C. Escher." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 292-299. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. A modular designing strategy is proposed employing the periodic tessellations used by Dutch artist M.C. Escher as source of inspiration. It consists in modifying a bidimensional shape to fit geometrically programmatic requirements of an architectural project operating as an insertion support of 3D forms. The procedures followed by the artist are analysed, specially those using figures that tessellate the plane periodically, applying different symmetry rules. Once the rules to generate shapes of tiles are known, we work within area and perimeter to satisfy modularity requirements and to convert the tiling as a geometric precise support for the insertion of architectural objects that follow predetermined dimensional patterns. An example of grouping repeatable habitation units is presented.
"Modeling of Complex Surfaces. the House Mila of Antonio Gaudi." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 258-265. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. This paper explains the three-dimensional representation procedure of one fragment of Mil· house elevation designed by the architect Antoni GaudÌ. The generation process of an architectonic virtual model constituted by free form surfaces like this, represents a paradigm of high level difficulty in CAD modeling. The main objective of our research has been not only construct a model that shows the complex form of its architecture, but also verify the performance of the different tools supported by computer aided design programs in the management of surface modeling.We obtained an accurate information of the real surface elevation with a photogrammetric survey using contour lines. The transformation of this kind of data in a three-dimensional model was not immediately Thus, we have had study different ways to generate the three-dimensional model solution. The process began with the construction of different surface models supported by analytic functions, but the obtained surfaces made with this system were deficient and not too much satisfactory. That's why, we use a polyhedron mesh surface method in order to improve these results.in spite of this methodology reductive performance, (compared with analytic function systems), the obtained surface demonstrated that this technique was the best way to satisfy the requirement of a free form surface previously established as we want to construct. From this point the principal problem was generate a surface defined by two-dimensional data, (contour lines), applying an automatic process sufficiently fast to compete with the analytic function systems.To satisfy the demand was necessary make complementary software to improve the process and allow more fluidity to resolve this typology of surfaces. We achieved this phase thanks to Joan Miquel Quilez collaboration and the constant dedication in the elaboration of complementary software to computer aided design. Finally, the introduction of render systems with lights, shadows, textures and reflected images, allowed show the studied elevation area of Mil· house with more accuracy. Thus, the limits and contours of the finally surface were more evident and help us to known the properties of a non- materialized free form surface successfully.
"Narrative Spaces In The Digital Domain: From Arctic Images To Desert Dreamlands." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 368-373. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.
"Numbers in Movement - Paintings of the End of the Century." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 388-397. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. The electronic art has changed, during the last years, into the way of expression that best represents our culture of the end of the edge. Within the electronic art universe, 1 am going to analyze the 3D animation (CGI) in a special way as the main element in visual revolution. The increasing use of the CGI ( Computer Graphics Images) in film and television is caused by different reasons. From the necessity of a new esthetic expression to use of a technical source impossible of accomplish before. The electronic film period has begun ... the numbers has changed into the essence of this new generation of audiovisual products; the animators, designers and programmers into artisans of virtual world building and new scenic places. The objective of this analysis is to study the incident of CGI of these last twenty years within the audio-visual world.it isn't a chronologic, it is a theoretical rehearse about a new esthetic, a new way of see and build.
"Patrimonio Virtual - Modelacion Computacional Del Modernismo Regional Chileno." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 198-203. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.
"Portability of Documents in Multiple Platforms." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 412-417. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. Exhibition with respect to handling of documents in multiple platforms and portability of files for the net and other means. Generation of documents in programs of frequent use for Digital Graphic Edition (CorelDraw, Illustrator, Freehand, PageMaker, QuarkXPress, Word, etc.) and conversion to portable documents of under capable weight to transport via modem with used sources absorbed in the document that facilitates their reading in multiple platforms. Possibility to publish and to incorporate links, audio files and video, annotations, to generate indexes of contents and margin notes. Professional use of portable documents for generation of color separations (cuatricromia, hexacromia and plane inks [Pantone or other systems colorimÈtricos]) for filming of movies in preimpresiÛn offset or other graphic systems of impression. Generation of electronic notes of class dedicated to be lowered by the net for any platform that the student used, education and evaluation at distance through the net. Interactividad level in communication off line.
"Programa De Evaluacion De Proyectos De Inversion Inmobiliaria." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 452-455. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.
"Project for the Network of a Studio of Architecture." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 418-425. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

A consequence of the globalization on information processes in the way in which new technologies influence on design and production processes. There is no doubt that there is an increasingly and a big change in the areas of architecture design concerning to the operational and working methodology on graphic and alphanumeric information. Now a day it is not a far away Utopia, but a soon to come reality that architects interact in a virtual manner with their individual or institutional clients in their own country, as well as in foreign countries. Keeping these considerations in mind, we elaborated this Paper in order to present one of the existing criteria for the organization of graphic information jointly with its spatial relationship. The work presented herewith shows the development of an informatic net for an ideal mega-studio which in its professional and entrepreneurial profile covers tasks such as design, construction, graphic design and representation of foreign concerns. In the net design and in the selection of equipment for computing design area are covered all the variables at every instance.

"Proposal that Integrates GIS-Multimedia for Application on the Cultural Patrimony Unsj-Ar." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 238-243. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

The proper knowledge and appraisal of our cultural inheritance as well as its consistent diffusion are respected and powerful tools to safeguard it. The possibilities offered by a georeferenced of our cultural inheritance by means of GIS as well as its integration with multimedial resources such as images, animation,digitized video,voice an sound of aregional scope constitute a valuable tool having a significant potential in the study, protection and diffusion of our cultural inheritance. The objective of the present proposal is to show by way of a GIS application that presents georeferenced information of the province of San Juan, an integration of written documents, sound documents (popular music), folkloric elements (images) and digitized videos about the cultural inheritance of eminent places of the province of San Juan, that we are more committed ourselves to preserve due to their peculiar aridity characteristics and highly seismical risk. Some personalized icons displaying the afore mentioned resources are incorporated into the GIS application. The GIS-database presents an field destined to give data regarding the information source consulted about the inheritance.

"Prospects For Caad: An Optimistic Perspective." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 6-13. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

The history of CAAD spans a short but eventful 30 years. This paper initially takes stock of the outcomes over this period by focusing sequentially on the modelling of the functional behaviour of building and on the modelling of the formal characteristics of buildings and cities. It concludes with a view of the way forward.

"Prospects for CAAD: an Optimistic Perspective." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 13-Jun. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. The history of CAAD spans a short but eventful 30 years. This paper initially takes stock of the outcomes over this period by focusing sequentially on the modelling of the functional behaviour of building and on the modelling of the formal characteristics of buildings and cities. It concludes with a view of the way forward.
"Re-Presentations: Media Inquiries Regarding Architecture." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 66-75. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. Within the framework of architectural practice as the academy, media supported worldwide interdependence and transient cultural waves are essential forces activating the current globalization phenomenon. Schools that have always engaged themselves in international dialogue, are now increasingly immersed in the rapidly developing media arena and global information networks. In this paper I propose a theoretical and pedagogical framework in which the concept of migration provides a useful model with which to investigate the transitory natures permeating cultures. These involve not only the literal moving from one physical world into another, but also the more abstract - from that of the so called "real" world into that of the "virtual". Through what I call re-presentations an experimental studio was conducted at the Universidad Nacional del Litorat in Santa Fe, Argentina involving multicultures (the USA and Argentina) and multi-disciplines (film/video and architecture). The conclusion suggests however, that such re-presentations posit paradoxical questions.
"Re-Presentations: Media Inquiries Regarding Architecture." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 66-75. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

Within the framework of architectural practice as the academy, media supported worldwide interdependence and transient cultural waves are essential forces activating the current globalization phenomenon. Schools that have always engaged themselves in international dialogue, are now increasingly immersed in the rapidly developing media arena and global information networks. In this paper I propose a theoretical and pedagogical framework in which the concept of migration provides a useful model with which to investigate the transitory natures permeating cultures. These involve not only the literal moving from one physical world into another, but also the more abstract - from that of the so called "real" world into that of the "virtual". Through what I call re-presentations an experimental studio was conducted at the Universidad Nacional del Litorat in Santa Fe, Argentina involving multicultures (the USA and Argentina) and multi-disciplines (film/video and architecture). The conclusion suggests however, that such re-presentations posit paradoxical questions.

"Reconstrucción Virtual De La Colonia Del Sacramento De 1762." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 192-197. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

Colonia del Sacramento (capital of Colonia department, in Uruguay) has been registered in the list of the Convention Heritage concerning the protection of worldwide cultural and natural heritage. The registration on this list (December 6th 1995) confirms the exceptional and universal value of a cultural or natural places which deserves protection for the whole humanity. The ancient Colonia del Sacramento founded in 1680 by Portugal, was a commercial and military site leading role of the historical controversy between Spain and Portugal. Main place of wars and treaties during a century, it keeps an urban design, unique in the area and valuable architectonical testimonies of different periods of this rich past, with a simple, popular profile. This work has been effected within the Clemente Estable Found 1996, which is promoted by National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICYT). Through virtual reality techniques, a three-dimensional model of Colonia del Sacramento city was built as it was in its period of prosperity (around 1762). For the achievement of this digital maquette, a great deal of written and graphic information was compiled and processed. This information was organized in an inventory way (with numerous readings and searches). The inventory and the digital maquette were joined in a multimedia application (CD-ROM) which allows potential users to move through virtual city and friendly and interactively consult images, graphics and texts.

"Reconstrucion Virtual De La Ciudad De San Juan." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 218-225. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.
"Recursive Urban Configurations." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 300-309. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

A method to develop skills using digital techniques in architectural and design fields is proposed. Recursive procedures in successive cycles of abstraction are used applied for the urban layout design process. Each configurational cycle (master plan, urban modules, buildings, habitational units) is separated and exaggerated to face the process with pedagogical goals. Urban factors that conform the city are identified in order to classify repetitive urban problems. A patch of the city, in which a master plan is developed, is isolated and is submitted the measurable tests related to the Architectural and Design projecting process, enfatizating the following aspects., its systemic structures, its geometry and its growing. Alometric concepts and growing form analogies are used as scale control method in transformations and in recursive cycles. Based in two potentially recursive theories, fractals and tessellation's theories, a pedagogic procedure oriented to the use of tessellations is proposed using CAD systems tools.

"Reflections on the Teaching of the Architecture, Computing and the Internet." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 174-179. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. This paper proposes a reflection upon the teaching of architecture as seen from the actual practice of the profession within the context of the changes caused by the widespread use of computers and Internet in recent years. This proposal designates the present time as "semic revolution", superseding denominations like post industrial" or information revolution", emphasizing that the "mental prosthesis" created by man represents the highest degree of exploitation of his innerness as a "semic subject". A brief epistemological framework serves to lay the foundation for the concepts of imagination, creation, and design, differentiating the creator by his characteristic of requiring or not, semic mediation in order to reach his goals. The dominant use of new instruments which serve to represent and operate the "primary virtual object" giving priority to the comprehension and function of the new tool over the acquisition of information and ability to use it, is proposed when carried over to the field of application. The integration of internal networks through email strives not only to facilitate document transmission, exercises, group work, etc. but to understand the new dimension in the intellectual activities of man.
"Representation of the Perceivable Properties of Materials and Finishes in the Textile Project. Color and Texture." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 374-379. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. The investigation of the perceptible properties of the materials was centred in the identification of the related variables to the colour and the previous texture to the process of production. It's known for all that a textile product is valued for their futures consumers of subjective way for these two properties, that operate by way of sensorial nexus to the hour of facing to the characteristics of the textile object to choose. Once explored the language of the repetitions and their construction in a previous work, we considered important continue this analysis centred in the advantages of the use of the tool computer science with the purpose of verifying these properties before any productive process. The possibility of valuing the old amount of alternatives to the hour of deciding the production of a project or another it is a tool that 1 don't sole us in a saving of time but rather it bring near us mainly to the quality of the product to obtain. This work centers their work in the possibility of representation and valuation of this quality the more possible, constituting a tool of decision project, that plays how registration of the relationship between the man and their textiles products.
"Simulation of the Ergonomic Behavior of a Mecatronic Product." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 332-335. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

By means of clinical analysis, it has been observed that patients who must remain in bed for long periods due to the nature of the pathology they suffer, develope pressure sores by decubitus which become serious complications themselves. In our thesis we intend to propose an alternative from our Industrial Design point of view, we'll explain how to avoid the problems aforementioned. For the development of this thesis we've chosen computer software from CAD systems as an instrumental methodology. These systems allowed as to develop a theoretical model of interface. The empirical foundation on which our model is based, lies on the systematic analysis of the classic technique of pressore sores prevention. In computer simulation, a flexible plate, driven by a set of actuators, defines a kinematic behavior equivalent to the one produced by classic method. Two theoretical models were used, Model 1 and Model 2. Model 2 was created as a consequence of certain functional and ergonomic disorders found in electronic 3D maquettes developed during the design of Model 1. The development of Model 2 became the significant nucleus upon which the exposition of the theoretical model was centered.

"The Construction of the Space of Power. Museum of the "Casa Rosada" (Argentinean Presidential House)." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 212-217. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. The present work is part of the exposition "Francesco Tamburini, La ConstrucciÛn del Espacio del Poder I", exhibited in Rivadavia Cultural Center ( Rosario city), and in Casa Rosada Museum during 1997. The Exposition is based on an investigation program of the space that involves Casa Rosada, determining this space as the first piece of its collection. In 1995, when a group of argentines where visiting the picture gallery Pianetti (Jesi, Italy) there have been found some watercolours of Francesco Tamburini (1846-1890), planner of the main faÁades of the Government and author of many works. These watercolours have great value for architecture, and unknown by public, they have been the starting point of the Exposition. Among these argentines was Roberto De Gregorio architect, historian teacher of this school of architecture, and in charge of the historical investigation. C.I.A.D.'s specific work consists in converting in digital data Casa Rosada's faÁades. The two first stages, already completed, finished on the digital data conversion of facades, in front of Plaza de Mayo and Rivadavia street, with presidential access esplanade. Actually the work is centred on the two facades left and on the elaboration of an electronic model for the edition of a CD-ROM containing the information of the exposition.
"The Design of Computer Working and Teaching Environments." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 310-315. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. It is undeniable that the computer has affected every aspect of our lives. Many people work with computers on a daily basis, from writing e-mail or simply browsing the internet to hours of serious modeling and drafting for those in the architecture field. As we spend more time working with computers, research into improving computer teaching and working environments becomes more important. For those working in an architecture office, it almost certain that a major part of the day will be spent in front of a computer drafting. This research provides a preliminary set of guidelines that can be applied in the design of computer working/teaching environments. The on-going research is focussed in creating facilities geared toward user comfort and productivity and improving teaching environments. It covers issues regarding the position and orientation of the room, lighting aspect (including natural and artificial light), acoustics, user visual comfort, psychrometric conditions, furnishings, and the adaptability of the space for future changes. The project includes analysis of existing examples of computer-lecture rooms, noting the problems and suggesting improvements.
"The Design of Computer Working and Teaching Environments." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 310-315. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

It is undeniable that the computer has affected every aspect of our lives. Many people work with computers on a daily basis, from writing e-mail or simply browsing the internet to hours of serious modeling and drafting for those in the architecture field. As we spend more time working with computers, research into improving computer teaching and working environments becomes more important. For those working in an architecture office, it almost certain that a major part of the day will be spent in front of a computer drafting. This research provides a preliminary set of guidelines that can be applied in the design of computer working/teaching environments. The on-going research is focussed in creating facilities geared toward user comfort and productivity and improving teaching environments. It covers issues regarding the position and orientation of the room, lighting aspect (including natural and artificial light), acoustics, user visual comfort, psychrometric conditions, furnishings, and the adaptability of the space for future changes. The project includes analysis of existing examples of computer-lecture rooms, noting the problems and suggesting improvements.

"The Design Threshold." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 36-45. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. When digital technology finally assumes its far-reaching potential, it will cross the Design Threshold. it will assume its own innate and universal identity - not the misplaced identity often ascribed by computer programmers or the mimicry of traditional process dictated by status quo architects - but an identity and awareness that plays to the unique capabilities of digital design. Uniqueness occurs at the design threshold. It can be identified as the point where: (1) The digital process becomes integral to the conclusion, a design that would not have been reasonably anticipated otherwise. (2) The intention of the designer is substantially dependent on the interaction of digital process to accomplish the intended result. (3) The complexity of the task exceeds the ability of the designer to accomplish that task by any other reasonable available means. // This pedagogy is explored through graphic experiments that exhibit DNA like properties.
"The Design Threshold." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 36-45. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

When digital technology finally assumes its far-reaching potential, it will cross the Design Threshold. it will assume its own innate and universal identity - not the misplaced identity often ascribed by computer programmers or the mimicry of traditional process dictated by status quo architects - but an identity and awareness that plays to the unique capabilities of digital design. Uniqueness occurs at the design threshold. It can be identified as the point where: (1) The digital process becomes integral to the conclusion, a design that would not have been reasonably anticipated otherwise. (2) The intention of the designer is substantially dependent on the interaction of digital process to accomplish the intended result. (3) The complexity of the task exceeds the ability of the designer to accomplish that task by any other reasonable available means. // This pedagogy is explored through graphic experiments that exhibit DNA like properties.

"The Graphic Design for the Network." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 358-367. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

The Graphical Designer faces the task of conceiving connections for non-printed documents within the World Wide Web, the so-called interfaces. He is also challenged to control the various codes demanded by the most recent electronic procedures. We deal with the designer's new endeavour, which requires methods unkhow thus far, as navigation between the various components of the net and the use of audiovisual aids.

"The Idea to Develop a Data Base of the City of Resistencia." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 244-249. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. The idea of making a Data Base of Resistencia City, came through the evaluation of the potential educational, touristic and commercial value that this sort of information has. The fragmented state of the information and its nonsystematic registration up to now emphasize the real value of this project. The different subjects are grouped in the following headings: Sculpture, Architecture, Places and Cultural Events. They are presented to the user as multimedia data in CD. The information available could be printed.
"The Pending Balance of CAD with the Generation of Curved Forms for Design." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 342-349. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. In the modelling process of curve shapes, some conic lines have been privileged to the point that they have become tools in CAD systems: circumferences and ellipses. Others have been ignored to the point of being excluded: parabolas and hyperbolas. Important reasons make this rescue convenient. One of those is that these curves are frequently used in design because of their distinct identification. In theory, modern "splines" and "nurbs" cover the whole range of whatever a designer might want to draw (as far as curve shapes are concerned). However, its structuring capacity cannot be compared to that of conic lines. To have all the conceivable curves and to lack the possibility of organizing them, restricts its morphological potentialities. There is a set of notable curves, among others lemiscates, spirals and Cassinian ovals, that keep waiting for new technologies to give them the possibility of existence. Though these lines have a high aesthetic and graphic value, they are not frequently included in projects. This is not because they are unsuitable, but because there are not simple possibilities of drawing them. We expect graphic computing will fill this empty place, so that these shapes become part of our habitat.
"The Teacher and the use of Multimedia Systems in Telematicas Networks Applied to the Teaching of 3D in Architectonic Design." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 154-159. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. The remarkable advances in the technology of computer systems, including software, hardware, and networks, continuously give us new avenues to be utilized in education. The pedagogic strategy to be developed in the utilization of digital graphic systems applied to three-dimensional design in architecture (both in the design and virtual expression of objects or already designed architectural groups) is still changing with the times.Therefore, the Department, as an extension of its experience with this type of development and as a response to deal with special situations such as large numbers of students, develops this new proposal, which is currently being used. This project uses the implementation, structuring, and building of a virtual site as an informatics classroom, utilizing multimedia systems, to be used as a support for acquiring knowledge during the learning that takes place doing the coursework. This setting would allow for the feedback between the instructor and the student to be on-going, hence both groups being efficiently motivated through examples and opportunities of how to do the following: utilize appropriate technology, manipulate the right information, utilize the right kind of software programs and techniques, revamp the knowledge, and benefit from using the appropriate digital techniques for each specific case of architectural design and expression.
"Topicos Para La Enseñanza Computacional De La Matematica Para La Arquitectura." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 186-191. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.
"Un Nuevo Horizonte Arquitectonico, Productivo E Intelectual." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 76-83. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

This work presents the pedagogical experience of a Design Workshop that investigated the impact of the digital and analogic means on the architectonic design process This work was based on the research of Dr. Arch. Julio Bermúdez who also directed this workshop in 1997. This class was part of the Training Program organized by the "Centro de Informatica y Diseho" (CID) at the "Universidad Nacional del Litoral" FADU (Facultad de Arquitectura Diseho y Urbanismo) Santa Fe, Argentina and made possible by the ongoing International Program of Academic Exchange between the FADU and the (University of Utah Graduate School of Architecture (IPAE Project NO 4). The experimental studio utilized an architectural problem to study the procedural, technical, interpretative and theoretical issues associated with the relationship of contemporary media and design process. The pedagogical vehicle was a program that expresses in itself the meeting or collision between two cultures competing for dominance at the end of the millennium: the immemorial material culture (corporeal, tectonic) and the new and everyday more influent virtual culture (information, nets, media, simulation). The premise for the design process, communication and criticism was the constant migration between the digital and analog representation systems. Within this theoretical-practical context semantic aspects containing different representation modalities were used such as physical and electronic models along with systematic and sensitive drawings (manuals, pixels and with CAD). Hybrid interfaces took a leading role in the process since they allowed the communication between analog and digital media through the creative and technical interaction between scanner, video and computer. This architectural and media context generated an intense pedagogic environment fostering the development of creativity and a critical attitude while allowing concrete breakthroughs in the teaching process and format design. Our work reflects on these results showing examples of stud-go works and providing a final evaluation of this unique experience in Argentina.

"Use of a GIS for the Formulation of a Socio-territorial Diagnostic of the City of Buenos Aires." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 324-331. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

The use of a GIS to assist the elaboration of a socioterritorial diagnosis of the City of Buenos Aires. This paper is based on the result of two research projects sponsored by the University of Buenos Aires (Project AR01 0 and Project Cl-94). From the beginning of 1998 onwards these results have been applied to the development of a "socio-territorial diagnosis" of the City of Buenos Aires, an applied research project funded by the Government of the City of Buenos Aires and carried out by the Facultad de Arquitectura, Diseho y Urbanismo, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Research Unit: PROHAB). The main goal of the analysis was the identification of the spatial distribution pattern of of the selected variables, directed to the delimitation of "social areas". The facilities provided by the GIS allowed us to perform this task in an exploratory manner. An analysis of the 3405 census tracts of the City of Buenos Aires (the central part of the agglomeration) is presented here. A great number of indices were constructed based on variables of the Argentine National Census of Population and Housing referred to housing conditions, housing type, provision of services, origin of the population, educational level, etc. This paper describes the various steps necessary for the application of a GIS, including the digitizing of the cartographic base and the statistical elaboration of the census information (provided by the INDEC in magnetic medium). A colour cartographic output that can be considered a first approximation of the "social map" of the city in 1991 is presented.

"Use of Digital Graphics in the Management of the Maintenance of Buildings." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 446-451. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. The study and development of an informatic application as part of the Research Project informatic application for the building maintenance action", consist on the peripheric and software surface outline, frequently used in this discipline, like the Data Base of the programs Access of Microsoft and Autocad of Autodesk. The outline of data base implies the concept of sensitive matrix, necessary for the systemic analysis of the information. This software not only let you make the initial diagnostic of the buildings, necessary for the Plan of Corrective Maintenance (PMC) and Plan of Preventive Maintenance (PMP), but also it is used as an efficient tool of the maintenance, which allow the constant up to date information, the exact on time diagnostic, to make the necessary adjustments to the PMC and PMP. Besides, a good technical documentation is necessary for an efficient maintenance action. The entail of the Data Base with the CAD Systems allows a fast access to a big volume of centralized information to consult or change. To formulate a pattern of integral maintenance action on buildings, implies the systematic conception of them and the Philosophy of the Preventive Maintenance. They are less than the Model and do not consider the former concepts. It is difficult to define and solve the matrix system (inside or outside the software) and the relations where the information run. The informatic application outline in its different steps (planning, operation, evaluation) with the elements (technical, administrative, of control) are the structural axis of a new form of the Maintenance Action.
"Virtual Design Studio - Multiplying Time: 3x8 H = 24 H." In II Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 106-115. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998. This paper describes a Virtual Design Studio exercise involving three academic institutions-University of Hong Kong, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Z¸rich, and University of Washington in Seattle-whereby teachers and students, obviously on three different continents and in three different time zones, roughly eight hours apart, tried to "multiply time". Students were asked to design a house for a Chinese painter and a Swiss writer on a small island in Puget Sound near Seattle. In a short and intensive design charrette, students explored in five different phases various dualities associated with the given design problem. In each phase students were asked to select someone else's design, thus implicitly forming design teams. The paper describes the structure and goals of the studio exercise, the methodologies applied, the resulting design processes, and the lessons learned.
"Virtual Design Studio - Multiplying Time: 3X8 H = 24 H." In II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital, 106-115. SIGraDi. Mar del Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, 1998.

This paper describes a Virtual Design Studio exercise involving three academic institutions-University of Hong Kong, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, and University of Washington in Seattle-whereby teachers and students, obviously on three different continents and in three different time zones, roughly eight hours apart, tried to "multiply time". Students were asked to design a house for a Chinese painter and a Swiss writer on a small island in Puget Sound near Seattle. In a short and intensive design charrette, students explored in five different phases various dualities associated with the given design problem. In each phase students were asked to select someone else's design, thus implicitly forming design teams. The paper describes the structure and goals of the studio exercise, the methodologies applied, the resulting design processes, and the lessons learned.