Keywords Abstract
Agkathidis, Asterios, and Andre Brown. ""Tree-Structure Canopy:A Case Study in Design and Fabrication of Complex Steel Structures using Digital Tools "." International Journal of Architectural Computing 11, no. 1 (2013): 87-104.

This paper describes and reflects on the design and manufacturing process of the Tree-Structure canopy for the WestendGate Tower in Frankfurt upon Main, completed early 2011.The project investigated fabrication and assembly principles of complex steel structures as well as the integration of contemporary computational design, engineering, optimization and simulation techniques in a collaborative design approach. This paper focuses on the notion of modular standardization as opposed to non standard customized components. It also engages with issues relating to digital production tools and their impact on construction cost, material performance and tolerances. In addition it examines the reconfiguration of liability during a planning and construction process, an aspect which can be strongly determined by fabrication companies rather than the architect or designer.This paper is written as a reflection on the complete building process when contemporary digital tools are used from design through to fabrication. It studies both the generation of the steel structure as well the ETFE cushion skin. It reports on a collaborative project, where the main author was responsible for the canopies design, parameterization, digitalization and fabrication, as well as for the dissemination of the outcomes and findings during the design and realization process.As such it represents an example of research through design in a contemporary and evolving field.The canopy received a design award by the Hellenic Architecture Association.

Dade-Robertson, Martyn. "Architectural User Interfaces: Themes, Trends and Directions in the Evolution of Architectural Design and Human Computer Interaction." International Journal of Architectural Computing 11, no. 1 (2013): 1-19.

This paper reviews the historical and contemporary relationships between architectural design and Human Computer Interaction (hereafter HCI).Through this discussion the paper focuses on the enduring use of architecture as a metaphor in interaction design and the growing recognition that architectural space shapes the territory within which we interact with computational information.The paper begins with a brief discussion of the History of HCI before examining the relationship between the development of the computer Graphical User Interfaces (hereafter GUIs) and more recent work on Ubiquitous and Pervasive Computing.The paper then explores some current themes in HCI with a view to looking for potential overlaps between architectural design and new trends in the design of computational systems.

Yu, Rongrong, Ning Gu, and Ju Hyun Lee. "Comparing designers' behavior in responding to unexpected discoveries in parametric design environments and geometry modeling environments." International Journal of Architectural Computing 11, no. 4 (2013): 393-414.

This paper presents a protocol study which compares designers' behaviors when unexpected discoveries appear in a parametric design environment (PDE) and a traditional geometry modeling environment (GME). From the view of design situatedness, designers tend to adapt and respond to the design situation as it continuously changes during the design process. The hypothesis is that when unexpected discoveries appear, these changing design situations can significantly affect designers' cognitive activities. In this study, we are interested in exploring designers' behaviors in responding to these unexpected discoveries in PDEs, and further, to compare those behaviors in GMEs. An experiment was conducted in which five designers completed two similar design tasks respectively in a PDE and a GME. Applying the research method of protocol analysis, designers' behaviors in response to unexpected discoveries in these two design environments are compared and discussed.

Indraprastha, Aswin, and Michihiko Shinozaki. "Computing Level of Privacy in a Virtual Environment." International Journal of Architectural Computing 11, no. 1 (2013): 65-86.

This paper presents a computational model designed to analyze architectural space and to a develop privacy level using two methods: visual distance method and viewing angle method as those are primary cognitive mechanism to experience architectural space.We suggest that the result will offer possibilities for quantitative design analysis of privacy that influenced by architectural elements.The proposed method consists of two stages: determination of subdivided enclosed spaces and measuring privacy level on each subdivided enclosed space. Previous models showed that spatial quality is related to the visual distance to the architectural elements. In addition to distance variables, our model includes viewing angle variables to determine area and the direction angle from any observation point to the architectural elements on the boundary of an interior space.The case study evaluation is able to rank the quality of design of interior spaces with respect to their privacy level.

Bollmann, Dietrich, and Alvaro Bonfiglio. "Design Constraint Systems - A Generative Approach to Architecture." International Journal of Architectural Computing 11, no. 1 (2013): 37-63.

Generative Architectural Design permits the automatic (or semiautomatic) generation of architectural objects for a wide range of applications, from archaeological research and reconstruction to digital sketching. In this paper the authors introduce design constraint systems (DCS), their approach to the generation of architectural design with the help of a simple example: The development of the necessary formalisms to generate a family of architectural designs, i.e. simple houses and pagodas. After explaining the formal system the authors introduce an approach for the generation of complex form based on the application of transformations and distortions. Architecture is bound by the constraints of physical reality: Gravitation and the properties of the used materials define the limits in which architectural design is possible. With the recent development of new materials and construction methods however, the ways in which form and physics go together get more complicated. As a result, the shapes of architecture gain more liberty, and more and more complex shapes and structures become possible.While these advances allow for new ways of architectural expression, they also make the design process much more challenging. For this reason new tools are necessary for making this complexity manageable for the architect and enable her to play and experiment with the new possibilities of complex shapes and structures. Design constraint systems can be used as tool for experimentation with complex form. Therefore, the authors dedicate the final part of this paper to a concise delineation of an approach for the generation of complex and irregular shapes and structures. While the examples used are simple, they give an idea of the generality of design constraint systems: By using a two-component approach to the generation of designs (the first component describes the abstract structure of the modelled objects while the second component interprets the structure and generates the actual geometric forms) and allowing the user to adjust both components freely, it can be adapted to all kind of different architectural styles, from historical to contemporary architecture.

Kotsopoulos, Sotirios D., Wesley Graybill, and Federico Casalegno. "Designing A Connected Sustainable Living Environment." International Journal of Architectural Computing 11, no. 2 (2013): 183-204. This paper presents the design and development of a prototype, connected to a sustainable home project, which is at its final stage of implementation in Trento, N. Italy. The paper specifically focuses on the design ends and the technological means deployed in the process of implementing the prototype. Design ends outline the technical premises underpinning the development of the house systems. Technological means refer to the methods and technologies that had been deployed to satisfy the premises. Emphasis is given to the properties of the reconfigurable façade and the autonomous control system of the house, where variable transmittance materials, AI methods for building control and digital simulation are used in combination.
Park, Daekwon, and Martin Bechthold. "Designing Biologically-inspired Smart Building Systems: Processes and Guidelines." International Journal of Architectural Computing 11, no. 4 (2013): 437-464. This paper investigates design processes of and guidelines for biologically-inspired smart building systems (BISBS). Within the functional and performance requirements of building systems, biologically-inspired design is explored as the key approach and smart technology as the enabling technology. The Soft Modular Pneumatic System (SMoPS) is developed as a design experiment in order to verify the effectiveness of the BISBS design process. Similarly to how independent cells coordinate with each other to undergo certain tasks in multicellular systems, the SMoPS consists of autonomous modules that collectively achieve assigned functions. Within the soft body of each SMoPS module, sensor, actuation, and control components are integrated which enables the module to kinetically respond to and interact with its environment. The modular design and hierarchical assembly logic contribute to creating a flexible as well as robust building system. Throughout the design process, prototyping, simulation, and animation are utilized as an iterative and diversified development method.
Meagher, Mark, David van der Maas, Christian Abegg, and Jeffrey Huang. "Dynamic ornament: An investigation of responsive thermochromic surfaces in architecture." International Journal of Architectural Computing 11, no. 3 (2013): 301-318.

This paper describes the use of environmental sensor data as a basis for the design of architectural ornament that takes on a distinctive appearance in response to the atmospheric conditions where it is located. Among the goals of the project were the identification of inexpensive fabrication methods that could be used to build responsive surfaces at the scale of a room, and the identification of material and tectonic strategies for integrating dynamic information displays in buildings. A series of prototypes were constructed to explore the benefits and limitations of thermochromic ink as a material for visualizing dynamic data, and a method is proposed for building thermochromic surfaces based on printed circuit boards (PCB's) that is cost-effective and allows the fabrication of large surfaces through tiling. The limitations of this method include high power consumption, a short lifespan and difficulties in controlling the surface temperature.

Kocaturk, Tuba. "Emerging Socio-Technical Networks of Innovation in Architectural Practice." International Journal of Architectural Computing 11, no. 1 (2013): 21-36.

This article reports on the initial analyses and findings of on-going research project which investigates the socio-technical transformation of Architectural practice due to technology adoption.A conceptual framework is developed as a tool to identify, analyse, and characterize the different socio-technical networks in current practice, and the ways in which these networks are being developed and coordinated. Highly technology- mediated and interdisciplinary architectural/engineering practices have been monitored and studied in their real-life project contexts.Through comparative case analyses, a conceptual framework has been developed and used to represent and analyse emerging socio- technical networks and the ways in which these networks facilitate innovation. In this context, new modes/practices of innovations are identified through the diverse and dynamic relationships emerging between architects, digital tools/systems, the design artefact, and the various multi-disciplinary knowledge/actors in a socio-technical setting.

Leidi, Michele, and Arno Schlüter. "Exploring Urban Space: Volumetric Site Analysis for Conceptual Design in the Urban Context." International Journal of Architectural Computing 11, no. 2 (2013): 157-182. This paper proposes a set of new analytic and visualization methods for conceptual design in the urban context. The methodology is based on the discretization of the urban site into a volumetric grid of points. For each of these points, different physical properties such as solar radiation, airflow, and visibility are computed. Subsequently interactive visualization techniques allow the observation of the site at a volumetric, directional and dynamic level, making visible information that is typically invisible. Several case-studies demonstrate how this allows to generate suggestions, for example, for the definition of the form of a building or for the rationalization of its surfaces. This approach aims at developing a conceptual design process that allows the fusion of active technologies, passive methods, and expressive aspects, in cohesive concepts able to embrace and exploit the diversities of an urban site.
Garg, Yogesh K., and Vinay M. Das. "Generating 3 Dimensional Pavilions Described in Mayamatam; A Traditional Indian Architecture Treatise." International Journal of Architectural Computing 11, no. 1 (2013): 105-134. The traditional or classical architecture of India is an interesting subject for exploration from different perspectives.Taking pavilions described in Mayamatam as a representative of the traditional or classical architecture of India and analyzing them from the viewpoint of pattern recognition and mathematics encouraging results are obtained.A pattern is seen in the development of the design of pavilions and has been coded alpha-numerically. Based on the system of development and employing computer applications software is created to design pavilions, which follow the principles of traditional architecture.This software has multiple benefits. It can be used as a teaching aid for the subject ‘history of Indian Architecture’. For architectural conservationists and heritage enthusiasts it offers itself as a tool to help in visualization and digital reconstruction. For architects it can be a means for making structures of recent times, which have the essence of traditional architecture.The aim of this paper is to highlight the methodology for preparing this software and demonstrating its output.
Zarzycki, Andrzej. "Integrating Physical and Digital Assemblies." International Journal of Architectural Computing 11, no. 2 (2013): 247-266. Computer-based tools have changed the focus and modes of design thinking in architecture. While often criticized for its overemphasis on formal expressions and its pursuit of the spectacular, digital creativity has begun to take into account a multiplicity of design factors that define architecture. These factors relate to performance simulation and analysis, constructability, and building information modeling (BIM). This paper discusses the use of physical and digital mock-ups in the context of building technology courses. It uses these mock-ups as an important vehicle that provides students with a feedback mechanism regarding often digitally idealized creative thinking.
Paranandi, Murali. "Making Ripples: Rethinking pedagogy in the digital age." International Journal of Architectural Computing 11, no. 4 (2013): 415-436.

This essay presents a pedagogical model for beginning design that introduces digital fabrication methods through an integrated learning framework. Ripples - a wall sculpture made collectively by all second year architecture and interior design students as a joint project between studio, graphics and shop—exemplifies design practice as a collective activity. In this example, solutions emerge out of interactions among multiple stakeholders through iterative experimentation and optimization. The goal of this essay is to provoke a rethinking of the status-quo pedagogical practices in order to incorporate digital fabrication within existing curricular structures as a core skill for beginning design students, rather than merely as a technology course elected by a few students. Conclusions suggest the relevance to broader contexts of lessons learned from this modest experiment.

"Multi-Objective Heuristic Computation Applied To Architectural And Structural Design: A Review." International Journal of Architectural Computing 11, no. 4 (2013): 363-392.
Hack, Norman, Willi Lauer, Silke Langenberg, Fabio Gramazio, and Matthias Kohler. "Overcoming Repetition: Robotic fabrication processes at a large scale." International Journal of Architectural Computing 11, no. 3 (2013): 285-300.

In the context of the Future Cities Laboratory (FCL) of ETH Zurich, the Professorship for Architecture and Digital Fabrication of Fabio Gramazio and Matthias Kohler has set up a robotic laboratory to investigate the potentials of non-standard robotic fabrication for high rise constructions in Singapore. The high degree of industrialisation of this dominant building typology implies standardisation, simplification and repetition and accounts for the increasing monotony evident in many Asian metropolises. The aim of this research on material systems for robotic construction is to develop a new and competitive construction method that makes full use of the malleable potential of concrete as a building material. A novel, spatial, robotic "weaving" method of a tensile active material that simultaneously acts as the form defining mould, folds two separate aspects of concrete-reinforcement and formwork-into one single robotic fabrication process (see Figure 1). This in-situ process could permit the fabrication of structurally differentiated, spatially articulated and material efficient buildings.

Esquivel, Gabriel, Dylan Weiser, Darren J. Hartl, and Daniel Whitten. "POP-OP: A Shape Memory-Based Morphing Wall." International Journal of Architectural Computing 11, no. 3 (2013): 347-362.

Recent tendencies in architecture take a unique point of view, with aesthetically novel and unnatural sensibilities emerging from a close scrutiny and study of apparently natural systems. These tendencies are being driven by mathematical and computational abstractions that transform the way we understand the matterinformation relationship. This project was inspired by Op Art, a twentieth century art movement and style in which artists sought to create an impression of movement on an image surface by means of an optical illusion. Passive elements consisting of composite laminates were produced with the goal of creating lightweight, semi-rigid, and nearly transparent pieces. The incorporation of active materials comprised a unique aspect of this project: the investigation of surface movement through controlled and repeatable deformation of the composite structure using shape memory alloy (SMA) wiring technology. The integration of composite materials with SMA wiring and Arduino automation control resulted in an architectural wall that incorporated perceptual and actual motion.

Kontovourkis, Odysseas, Marios C. Phocas, and George Tryfonos. "Prototyping of an Adaptive Structure based on Physical Conditions." International Journal of Architectural Computing 11, no. 2 (2013): 205-226. Latest advances in digital architectural design enable applications of computation and fabrication strategies for the development of adaptive mechanisms. Adaptive design processes, influenced by environmental and human related conditions, are only developed partially with regard to the design, fabrication, and multi-objective performance based context. The current paper proposes an adaptive design process that investigates the design of a kinetic structure emphasizing material behaviour, embedded technology and computation. In parallel, it allows design proposals to adapt or transform with regard to geometrical configuration and structural behaviour according to external and internal influences. An adaptive hybrid structure is developed at digital and physical prototype level, where its behaviour is examined in real time under the influence of physical conditions. The development is based on a holistic design approach driven by environmental and human activity related conditions, while focusing on the application of elastic materials and embedded technology.
Beorkrem, Chris, Mitchell McGregor, Igor Polyakov, and Nicole Desimini. "Sphere Mapping: a method for responsive surface rationalization." International Journal of Architectural Computing 11, no. 3 (2013): 319-330.

The method proposed in this project addresses the parametric manipulation of a given pattern to respond directly to a parametric surface. The research attempts to propose a method for attaching fixed sized objects to a free flowing surface or "blanket." The model can be used to interrogate a series of shapes and forms with the same componentry. Continuing the research of Kevin Rotheroe, Yale University and founder of FreeForm Design. Rotheroe and his students developed a series of studies in material and surface properties. By utilizing a proven pattern, the proposed method sets parameters derived from the formal properties of the original pattern and produces a new pattern that is responsive to the curvature of a complex surface. The workflow developed in this research consists of a complex blending of tools in Rhino Grasshopper and Gehry Technologies Digital Project. The intent is to achieve the aesthetics and structure offered by Rotheroe's original research and to add a responsive precision that provides an accurate adaptation of the pattern based on curvature of a specific computationally defined surface.

Riether, Gernot. "The Nuit Blanche Pavilion; using the elasticity of polymers for a lightweight structure." International Journal of Architectural Computing 11 (2013): 331-346. The Nuit Blanche Pavilion is a recent project by Gernot Riether in collaboration with artist Damien Valero. The project takes advantage of an elastic behavior found in high-density elastomers to form a lightweight structure that integrates form, geometry and program in a single material system. Grasshopper and the finite element plug-in Karamba were used to optimize these interdependencies. This paper will describe the design of the project and elaborate on an aspect of Riether's research that uses digital technology to promote environmentally responsible materials and construction methods.
Abondano, David. "The Return of Nature as an Operative Model: Decoding of Material Properties as Generative Inputs to the Form-Making Process." International Journal of Architectural Computing 11, no. 2 (2013): 267-284. The abandonment of nature as an architectural model and the redefinition of the relationship between form and material were two of the main consequences of industrialization for modern architecture. While nature was replaced by the machine as a model for architecture, industrial production suppressed the craftsman's knowledge of the material and the associated techniques once essential to the form-making process. Thus, the replacement of nature as a model implied that principles once related to natural processes started to be seen as industrial values, i.e., the economy of means stopped being recognized as a quality related to natural form-making processes and became a demand of industrial production. Nowadays, material properties and nature are being reintroduced into architecture with the help of digital technologies; that is, the return of nature though computation. As a result, nature has become an operational model as opposed to the visual or iconic one it used to be; its inner qualities and processes are being decoded in order to inform the form-making process and foster innovative digital ornamentation.
Sharif, Shani, Russell T. Gentry, Jeannette Yen, and Joseph N. Goodman. "Transformative Solar Panels: A Multidisciplinary Approach." International Journal of Architectural Computing 11, no. 2 (2013): 227-246. This paper focuses on the applications of geometrically transformable and expandable structures with deployed "energy production" mode and retracted "wind shedding" mode to replace the fixed photovoltaic (PV) panels and racking systems currently used in buildings rooftop installations. The significance of this expandable geometric system relies on its embedded motion grammar, i.e. rotation and translation transformations, in the system. The research draws inspiration from reconfiguration of compound tree leaves in nature, and addresses issues of redesign and modeling challenges that led to digital fabrication of the prototype. Finally, the research studies the development of a multidisciplinary research from the distributed cognition point of view, and emphasizes on the role of an iterative creation, sharing and reflection method for the development of a common ground for a successful collaboration.
Verovsek, Spela, Matevz Juvancic, and Tadeja Zupancic. "Understanding and interpreting urban space (in)formation." International Journal of Architectural Computing 11, no. 2 (2013): 135-156. This paper introduces a novel approach to understanding the complex information and logics of urban spaces by the non-professional public. A model for Interpretation of Qualities in Urban Space (aMIQUS) is proposed. The objectives are threefold: first, to form common, valid and applicable measures to assess features of space design; second, to indicate the developmental trait that considerably affect users' spatial experience which - taken as a consequence - derives from either sustainable/prudent or poor design decisions; and third, to generically recreate and visually represent urban spaces for communicative purposes. The model represents an identification method, not a problem-solving mechanism and is intended as a pragmatic instrument for recognizing crucial information, narrative, embedded in spatial scene. Model is followed by the initial idea to extend it in terms of an educational digital interface for the general public, participating in the process of urban decision-making. The paper concisely summarizes both theoretical and applicative efforts.