Keywords Abstract
Benros, Deborah, José P. Duarte, and Sean Hanna. "A New Palladian Shape Grammar." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10, no. 4 (2012): 521-540. The following paper describes a shape grammar that recreates Palladian villas.A Palladian grammar was originally proposed by Stiny and Mitchell. However, this alternative grammar uses different parametric shape rules and methodology to test the hypothesis that different grammars can generate the same corpus of designs.The formalism is then implemented using a computerised design tool.The grammar includes subdivision rules that allow for a more economical formulation.A new corpus of solutions is explored and the derivation is compared with the original Palladian grammar. The project is part of wider research aimed at formulating a generic housing grammar.
Rossi, Dino, Zoltán Nagy, and Arno Schlueter. "Adaptive Distributed Robotics for Environmental Performance, Occupant Comfort and Architectural Expression." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10 (2012): 341-359.

The integration of adaptive distributed robotics in architectural design has the potential to improve building energy performance while simultaneously increasing occupant comfort. In addition, conceiving buildings as dynamic systems with the ability to adapt to the changing environments in which they exist, opens new aesthetic possibilities for designers. As the faÁade of a building is a common place to address issues of energy performance and occupant comfort, this paper presents a first prototype of an adaptive solar envelope (ASE). Its functions are to provide distributed shading, solar power generation through integrated photovoltaics, and daylight distribution. We describe the interdisciplinary design process, and illustrate the architectural possibilities that arise from a distributed systems approach. The ASE is expanded to work in parallel with an adaptive artificial lighting element. Rather than being preprogrammed, the systems adapt their behavior through interaction with the environment and building occupants. This adaptation to the user's wishes is demonstrated successfully for the artificial light controller. We argue that with presently available technology and an increased exposure of architecture students and practitioners to adaptive design techniques, adaptive architectures will soon become a regular element of the built environment.

Willmann, Jan, Federico Augugliaro, Thomas Cadalbert, Raffaello D'Andrea, Fabio Gramazio, and Matthias Kohler. "Aerial Robotic Construction Towards a New Field of Architectural Research." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10 (2012): 439-459.

This paper takes a first step in characterizing a novel field of architectural research - aerial robotic construction (ARC) - where aerial robotics is used not only for construction, but as a guiding principle in the design and fabrication process. Featuring autonomous flying vehicles that lift small building elements and position them according to a precise digital blueprint, ARC offers a comprehensive new approach to architecture research and technology. Developed by the research groups of Gramazio & Kohler and Raffaello D'Andrea at ETH Zurich, ARC offers unique advantages over traditional approaches to building: it does not require scaffolding, it is easily scalable, and it offers digital integration and informational oversight across the entire design and building process. This paper considers 1) research parameters for the individual components of ARC (such as module design, connection methodologies, vehicle cooperation, and construction sequencing/synchronization), and 2) the architectural implications of integrating these discrete components into a systemic, unifying process at the earliest stages of design. Fidelity between the design concept and the full-scale construction is of particular concern.

Ambrose, Michael. "Agent Provocateur - BIM in the Academic Design Studio." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10, no. 1 (2012): 53-66.

Building Information Modeling challenges academia to question the fundamental roles of abstraction and simulation in design education. Architectural education and practice assume a traditional set of visual conventions at varied scales and levels of detail, that when taken in concert signifies a whole, complete idea of a building, a correspondence between design intent and interpretation, between the representation of ideas and the design of buildings. BIM viewed as provocateur to these assumptions provides potential critical analysis of how architectural design is taught. Academia must seek out new design methodologies for exploring architecture that reflect the representational shift of BIM by developing teaching methods that reprioritize ways of seeing, thinking and making. This paper describes a studio model that seeks out new active methods for exploring architecture that embrace this shift by developing processes that provoke novel ways to reconcile the traditions of abstraction and the opportunities of synthetic simulation.

Weston, Mark. "Anisotropic Operations." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10, no. 1 (2012): 105-120. Deliberately introduced unidirectional material weakening is explored as a means of producing material properties which exploit natural material tendencies rather than as a means to compensate for them. Such anisotropic operations take natural systems as a point of departure for man-made approaches to the augmentation of building performance in the realm of solar shading, but also for the creation of materially complex architectural environments.
Ochs, Steven W.. "Architectural Sociability as a Strategy to Drive Technology Integrations into Architectural Structures and Smart Environments." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10 (2012): 301-318.

Traditional architectural design fulfills the basic needs of society, but its influence as a system to facilitate personal connection has declined with the growth of telecommunications and social networks.The advance of interactive architecture is now positioning buildings to once again fulfill the role as facilitator of connections and fulfill our personal need of belonging.While current attempts to integrate social communication, technology with built environments are nominally effective; Architectural Sociability is proposed as an effective design solution. Strategy details include a purpose based social approach in which social networks, localized data streams, ubiquitous computing, pervasive networks, and smart environments are considered a traditional part of an architectural structure.

Salim, Flora D., Jane R. Burry, Juliette Peers, and Jenny Underwood. "Augmented Spatiality." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10 (2012): 275-300.

Designers have long been concerned with new and visionary types of public space.With the advent of ubiquitous computing, architects and designers have become increasingly aware of the opportunities and challenges in designing spaces and everyday objects to support socially- oriented human interactions whether through spatial or technological means.This paper presents a novel transdiscplinary method for designing new interactive architectural prototypes that promote connectivity and social interactions in the public space in order to address specific agendas of urban interventions.The proposed method was evaluated in a pilot studio, in which students across various design and technical disciplines were invited to propose utopian socio- technological visions for a particular site and to develop their ideas into working architectural prototypes that could be installed at the chosen site and tested by the public.The open brief generated various responses and outcomes in eight projects, of which two are discussed in this paper.

Jabi, Wassim. "Augmenting Architecture Through Desktop Manufacturing." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10 (2012): 163-184.

Personal desktop manufacturing, with its roots in hacker culture, is on the cusp of exploding into the main stream due to the advent of affordable personal 3D printers.This paper is an exploration of these advances in desktop manufacturing technology and their impact on our relationship with products and the built environment.The paper draws parallels to the personal computing and desktop publishing revolutions that offer clues to the future of personal desktop manufacturing. Four major themes have emerged from this exploration: Personal empowerment, remote printing and collaboration, full-scale digital construction, and, most intriguingly, architectural prosthetics. Based on an open-source philosophy and creative commons licensing, desktop manufacturing is redefining our relationship with large manufacturers and is beginning to convert us back from a consumerist culture into a creator one.

Celani, Gabriela, and Carlos Eduardo Ve Vaz. "CAD Scripting and Visual Programming Languages for Implementing Computational Design Concepts: a Comparison from a Pedagogical Point of View." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10, no. 1 (2012): 121-138.

This paper compares the use of scripting languages and visual programming languages for teaching computational design concepts to novice and advanced architecture students. Both systems are described and discussed in terms of the representation methods they use. With novice students better results were obtained with the visual programming language. However, the generative strategies used were restricted to parametric variation and the use of randomness. Scripting, on the other hand, was used by advanced students to implement rule-based generative systems. It is possible to conclude that visual languages can be very useful for making architecture students understand general programming concepts, but scripting languages are fundamental for implementing generative design systems. The paper also discusses the importance of the ability to shift between different representation methods, from more concrete to more abstract, as part of the architectural education.

Pan, Cheng-An, and Taysheng Jeng. "Cellular Robotic Architecture." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10 (2012): 319-339.

An emerging need for interactive architecture is currently making buildings mutable, flexible in use, and adaptable to changes in climate by introducing robotic systems. However, the feasibility of the seamless integration of building construction details and kinetic robotics has become a critical issue for developing robotic architecture. The objective of this work is to develop a robotic architecture with an emphasis on the integration of cellular robotics with a distributed kinetic building surface. The kinetic building surface integrates an actuating system, a localization and remote control system, which become part of the kinetic building system. This paper presents a systematic framework by reviewing theories and related work of robotic architecture and automated control. An architectural design scheme is proposed to simulate a scenario of application in a physical space. The functionality of the electrical and control system and the integration of the effects of actual construction were examined by a prototype of a kinetic surface. Our prototype presents a feasible construction method, and a prominent energy-saving effect. The potential strength and restrictions of the cellular robotic approach to architectural applications are discussed. The applicability of the prototype system and issues about controlling the behavior of spatial robots are demonstrated in this paper.

Chernyakova, Irina, Mariel VillerÈ, Federico Casalegno, Leonardo Giusti, and Zoe Schladow. "Civic Media Platforms and Participatory Urbanism: A Critical Reflection." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10 (2012): 253-274.

In this paper, we explicate our research on technology-mediated urban experience specific to two hyper-local tests in which the space of the ëpublicí is transformed into a virtual network by connective broadcasting. The first case study presents collective mapping in Rio de Janeiro toward increased civic engagement and sustainability, the second tests documentation of political demonstrations for strategic and archival purposes for Occupy Boston. Grouped under the term ìparticipatory urbanism,î the projects intend to explore how an individual activates interstitial space (between the physical city and hovering networks, between public and private) by engaging technology and civic media to affect change in the built environment. The physical and virtual environments serve as reciprocal sources of information, engendering a collective practice of shared encounters. We investigate how such encounters of user-centered activity through mobile and web-based media support or implicate the perception and manipulation of the built environment over spans of time and locations, and will highlight qualitative elements of a mobile and web platform designed for successful civic engagement and participatory urbanism.

Dutt, Florina, and Subhajit Das. "Computational Design of a Bio Inspired Responsive Architectural Façade System." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10, no. 4 (2012): 613-633. This research intends to illustrate a nonlinear relationship that could be drawn between the fundamental processes in living systems and architectural design of responsive surface.The research focuses on deriving a set of parametric relationships from the phenomenon in cell biology and generating an architectural expression of a responsive façade system.The research methods primarily investigates the cell – to – cell connection in mammary epithelial cell system and review the evident relay of communication across the entire system of cells .This thorough investigation unfolds the logical parameters of the biological system that delineates the dynamic feedback mechanism and changes in the cell surface conditions initiated from the changes in the extra - cellular environment (ECM).The research findings of this complex mechanism are further translated though parametric modeling tool (in this case Generative Components) to model the causalities of the changes in cell environment and surface condition changes. In the next phase of our research we have explored the architectural utility of this hybridized model operating in a user defined controlled environ, and not just a mere response to biological stimulus.
Toth, Bianca, Patrick Janssen, and Rudi Stouffs. "Custom Digital Workflows: a New Framework for Design Analysis Integration." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10, no. 4 (2012): 481-500. Flexible information exchange is critical to successful design-analysis integration, but current top-down, standards-based and model-oriented strategies impose restrictions that contradict this flexibility. In this article we present a bottom-up, user-controlled and process-oriented approach to linking design and analysis applications that is more responsive to the varied needs of designers and design teams. Drawing on research into scientific workflows, we present a framework for integration that capitalises on advances in cloud computing to connect discrete tools via flexible and distributed process networks.We then discuss how a shared mapping process that is flexible and user friendly supports non-programmers in creating these custom connections. Adopting a services-oriented system architecture, we propose a web- based platform that enables data, semantics and models to be shared on the fly.We then discuss potential challenges and opportunities for its development as a flexible, visual, collaborative, scalable and open system.
Biswas, Tajin, and Ramesh Krishnamurti. "Data Sharing for Sustainable Building Assessment." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10, no. 4 (2012): 555-574. Sustainable design assessment requires information, which is aggregated from different phases of a building design, and evaluated according to criteria specified in a Ôsustainable building rating system.Õ In the architecture engineering and construction (AEC) domain much of the necessary information is available through open source data standards such as Industry Foundation Classes (IFC). However, no single standard that provides support for sustainability assessment completely suffices as a data structure. This paper explores the augmentation of the Construction Operations Building information exchange (COBie) model, as an intermediary data structure, to bridge between requirements of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system and a building information model. Development of a general framework for data sharing and information management for LEED assessments is illustrated through an implementation of a prototype using functional databases.The prototype checks and augments available data as needed, which is used to populate LEED submission templates.
Dritsas, Stylianos. "Design-Built Rationalization Strategies and Applications." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10, no. 4 (2012): 575-594. Rationalisation of architectural design is paramount to manufacturing and its construction. This paper presents a methodology of rationalisation of building envelope geometry. We discuss methods for understanding and addressing design complexity; review two theoretical models of rationalisation: the pre-rational and post-rational design principles; illustrate their benefits and limitations and demonstrate their meeting point proposing an integrated performance-oriented model for analysis and design of building envelopes, using digital design techniques.
Braumann, Johannes, and Sigrid-Brell Cokcan. "Digital and Physical Tools for Industrial Robots in Architecture: Robotic Interaction and Interfaces." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10, no. 4 (2012): 541-554. The development of digital and physical tools is highly dependent on interfaces, which define the terms of interaction both between humans and machines, as well as between machines and other machines.This research explores how new, advanced human machine interfaces, that are built upon concepts established by entertainment electronics can enhance the interaction between users and complex, kinematic machines. Similarly, physical computing greatly innovates machine-machine interaction, as it allows designers to easily customize microcontroller boards and to embed them into complex systems, where they drive actuators and interact with other machines such as industrial robots.These approaches are especially relevant in the creative industry, where customized soft- and hardware is now enabling innovative and highly effective fabrication strategies that have the potential to compete with high-tech industry applications.
Riether, Gernot, and Daniel Michael Baerlecken. "Digital Girih, a Digital Interpretation of Islamic Architecture." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10, no. 1 (2012): 01-12.

The relation between texture, pattern and massing is a fundamental question in architecture. Classical architecture, as Leon Battista Alberti states in De Re Aedificatoria, Book VI, Chapter 2, is developed through massing and structure first, texture is added afterwards to give the bold massing and structure beauty [I]. This hierarchy has of course been challenged throughout architecture history. This paper will provide a different thinking of the relationship of massing and texture in Islamic Architecture from a digital point of view. An analysis of Islamic patterns challenged this relationship in Islamic architecture. Digital design and fabrication methods for a series of studies and an installation were used to respond to the findings of the analysis.

Globa, Anastasia, Michael Donn, and Simon Twose. "Digital to Physical: Comparative Evaluation of Three Main CNC Fabrication Technologies Adopted for Physical Modelling in Architecture." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10, no. 4 (2012): 461-480. The objective of this experimental study is to investigate and systematise data regarding the production issues and limitations of Computer Numerically Controlled fabrication technologies typically adopted for physical modelling in architecture.This study also aims to observe the value of potential feedback to the design process from different types of digitally fabricated architectural models.This experimental research systematically explores digital fabrication as a computer-aided modelling tool using two international architectural competition projects as case studies: the design of a skyscraper and relocatable schools. Developed by the authors especially for this research paper, each case study acts as a test bed to compare and evaluate digital production techniques adopted for physical modelling in architecture. Designs go through a process of refinement using CNC fabrication as an integral part of the design process. Each step in the process is closely evaluated as to its effectiveness according to a matrix of feedback criteria.
Phocas, Marios, and Odysseas Kontovourk Matheou. "Kinetic Hybrid Structure Development and Simulation." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10, no. 1 (2012): 67-86.

Supported through technological advances, the concept of kinetic architecture is internationally increasingly acknowledged in the past years in the development of adaptable buildings as to differing functional requirements, or external loading conditions. Most decisive factor is the structure in terms of materials and geometrical configurations, and the control system integrated within. Based on general principles of tensegrity structures, a hybrid system has been developed that consists of continuous hinge connected compression members, strengthened by an internal system of struts and continuous cable diagonals with closed loop. The kinetic mechanism is achieved through alteration of the cables length and the respective relative inclination of any adjacent compression members. In this way the transformability of the system arises primarily from the inherent integrative composition and dual capabilities of its members. Following the construction design of the prototype structure, the interactive development, as regards geometric properties and structural configurations, is presented analytically, as based on a parametric-associative design approach applied. Along this line, the specific syntax of structural development and simulation through parametric design is suggested to support in real terms the control design of the innovative structure in an integrated interactive context.

Abdelhameed, Wael A.. "Micro-Simulation Function to Display Textual Data in Virtual Reality." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10 (2012): 205-218.

Virtual reality creates an effective communication platform with a high degree of perception and exploration, increasing the benefits of VR applied functions.This research paper reports a virtual reality function of using the micro-simulation editor-player with XML file in the virtual reality environment.The details of the function are presented.The function aiming at combining visual and textual data in VR model visualisation, was developed by the researcher, and was included in the micro-simulation plug-in of a virtual reality program,VR Studio version 6, previously known as UC-Win/Road, by the program developers.The research paper discusses the computer simulation techniques and uses in virtual reality in general.The research paper proceeds to introduce a case study of construction process visualization in the virtual reality environment, in which the newly developed function is utilized to simultaneously visualise data reports related to the stages of VR model visualisation.The concluding remarks accentuate this micro-simulation function with its potential uses in different fields.

Manahl, Markus, Milena Stavric, and Albert Wiltsche. "Ornamental Discretisation of Free-form Surfaces." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10, no. 4 (2012): 595-612. The adoption of digital planning methods has given rise to an unprecedented formal freedom in architectural design. Free-form shapes enjoy considerable popularity in architectural production today. However, these shapes prove to be notoriously hard to fabricate. In the course of a funded research project we investigated the approximation of continuous double-curved surfaces by discrete meshes consisting solely of planar facets, which can be fabricated efficiently using standardised, mass-produced building materials.We introduce our geometrical approach, which is based on the intersection of tangent planes to the surface, and present the digital tools we conceived to integrate the processes of design rationalisation and form-finding.
Gerber, David J.. "PARA-Typing Informing Form and the Making of Difference." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10, no. 4 (2012): 501-520. This paper presents design research and instruction into the use of constraint based digital and analogue modelling techniques and the development of associative parametric models to simulate highly differentiated fabricated form. One set of these design research projects were conceived as manual analogue generative processes for prototyping modularity and serial differentiation.Then through parametric design techniques, modular aggregations were design explored and developed in concert with material properties and constraints. Utilizing digital fabrication full-scale installations were designed, manufactured, and for site-specific configurations. A second set of projects provides an extension of the design instruction that includes the integration of performance criteria into these design objectives.The objectives of the research are to present benefits and limitations of the incorporation of parametric design, performance analysis, and prototyping techniques in comprehensive studio instruction.The paper discusses the resultant informed materialized difference and the impacts on achieving reinforced and hands on learning objectives.
Bates-Brkljac, Nada. "Photorealistic Computer Generated Representations as a Means of Visual Communication of Architectural Schemes in the Contemporary Culture." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10 (2012): 185-204.

This paper explores the nature and effects of photorealistic computer generated architectural representations on the perception and understanding of design schemes.The aim is to obtain an insight into potentials and limitations that arise from this form of communication. Findings suggest that by conveying a sense of lifelike presence, these representations enhance the understanding of design.They are also perceived as more realistic, accurate and comprehensible and as such, more effective means of communicating design than hand drawings. However, not all photorealistic styles are perceived as neither lifelike nor credible. Instead, it was evident that these representations enter perceptions through a complex interaction between their attribute and observers familiarity with form and visual literacy. Most importantly, the understanding of design through photorealistic representations is deeply conditioned by the prevailing cultural style of visual representation and knowledge of the preferences of specific professions.

Park, Peter, Matthew Gilbert, and Andy Tyas. "Potential Use of Structural Layout Optimization at the Conceptual Design Stage." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10, no. 1 (2012): 13-32. Despite recent developments in computer-aided design in architecture, both in terms of form generation techniques and performance-based design tools, there still appears to be polarization between the “visual” and the “technical” elements of design. Two causes of this are discussed: long-standing tradition within the discipline and perception of design as primarily a visual exercise. Structural layout optimization is a technique which enables automatic identification of optimal arrangements of structural elements in frames. As the technique appears to have the potential to help reduce the polarization between the visual and the technical elements of design, it can be considered as an “integrative” form generation tool. Applications of the technique are considered via three design examples, demonstrating both its potential and areas where refinement is required before it is suitable for application in practice.
Leitao, Antonio, and Jose Santos. "Programming Languages for Generative Design: a Comparative Study." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10, no. 1 (2012): 139-162. In the field of Generative Design (GD), Visual Programming Languages (VPLs), such as Grasshopper, are becoming increasingly popular compared to the traditional Textual Programming Languages (TPLs) provided by CAD applications, such as RhinoScript. This reaction is explained by the relative obsolescence of these TPLs and the faster learning curve of VPLs. However, modern TPLs offer a variety of linguistic features designed to overcome the limitations of traditional TPLs, making them hypothetical competitors to VPLs. In this paper, we reconsider the role of TPLs in the design process and we present a comparative study of VPLs and modern TPLs. Our findings show that modern TPLs can be more productive than VPLs, especially, for large-scale and complex design tasks. Finally, we identify some problems of modern TPLs related to portability and sharing of programs and we propose a solution.
Leach, Neil, Anders Carlson, and Behrokh Khoshnevis. "Robotic Construction by Contour Crafting: The Case of Lunar Construction." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10 (2012): 423-438.

Contour Crafting is a digitally controlled construction process invented by Professor Behrokh Khoshnevis that fabricates components directly from computer models, using layered fabrication technology. By obviating the need for formwork used in traditional concrete construction, CC can reduce costs and construction times significantly. The technique has great potential as a robotic form of construction reliant on relatively minimal human labor as a form of construction in relatively hazardous environments, such as the Moon with its radiation levels that can prove highly damaging. Current research funded by NASA has been exploring the potential for using CC on the Moon to build structures making use of readily available regolith that is found in great abundance on the surface of the Moon. This article offers an overview of this research and evaluates the merits of using CC on the Moon.

Bohnenberger, Sascha, Chin Koi Khoo, Daniel Davis, Mette Ramsgard Thomsen, Ayelet Karmon, and Mark Burry. "Sensing Material Systems - Novel Design Strategies." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10 (2012): 361-375.

The development of new building materials has decisively influenced the progression of architecture through the link between built form and available material systems. The new generation of engineered materials are no exception. However, to fully utilise these materials in the design process, there is a need for designers to understand how these new materials perform. In this paper we propose a method for sensing and representing the response of materials to external stimuli, at the early design stage, to help the designer establish a material awareness. We present a novel approach for embedding capacitive sensors into material models in order to improve material performance of designs. The method was applied and tested during two workshops, both discussed in this paper. The outcome is a method for anticipating engineered material behaviour.

Davis, Felecia. "Sensing Touch Curtain: Soft Architecture and Augmented Communication." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10 (2012): 219-236.

The Sensing Touch Curtain prototype demonstrates one type of sensing that can be woven into soft building components. It is a computational textile that senses the nearness of a person or people and registers absolute touch on fabric through capacitive sensing. Capacitive sensing measures position and distance between the textile and a target object by sending forth electric signals.The methods of construction, method of electronic weaving and ways to consider models for somatosensory textiles are discussed in the paper. The Sensing Touch project frames an expanded role for soft architecture enclosures.

Rashid, Mahbub. "Shape-Sensitive Configurational Descriptions of Building Plans." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10, no. 1 (2012): 33-52.

While the traditional graph-theoretic techniques of space syntax are able to provide a rich description of the spatial configuration of buildings, they are not sufficiently shape sensitive. Therefore, techniques are proposed to describe building plans as configurations of spaces taking into consideration the elements of shape explicitly. First, the traditional space syntax techniques are applied to a more shape-sensitive partition of a plan in order to find out if these techniques would reveal any interesting shape property of the plan. Following this, a technique to characterize the spatial units of a plan is suggested taking into consideration how surfaces become visible from these units. Finally, a plan is described as the configuration of triangles defined by the vertices of the shape of the plan, and triangulation is used as a technique for a shape-sensitive description of spatial configuration.

Henriques, Goncalo. "TetraScript: a Responsive Pavilion, from Generative Design to Automation." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10, no. 1 (2012): 87-104. This research is part of a broader investigation into the use of digital technologies in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) sector. The intention is to improve the ability of buildings to respond to context by proposing a skylight system that can adjust to external environmental conditions and internal functional demands. We call this responsive ability customisation. The proposed skylight system can adapt to different geometries, uses, locations, times of day and other contextual conditions. Customisation can be achieved by static and dynamic processes. Static customisation is achieved during the design process by selecting the form and size of the building, as well as the number, arrangement and size of the skylights, among other features. Dynamic customisation is accomplished after construction by changing the skylight aperture in real-time to control interior conditions. This paper focuses on the static process to find an adequate skylight configuration for a case-study pavilion.
Thün, Geoffrey, Kathy Velikov, Mary O'Malley, and Lisa Sauvé. "The Agency of Responsive Envelopes: Interaction, Politics and Interconnected Systems." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10 (2012): 377-400.

This article positions the territory of responsive envelopes within the context of contemporary disciplinary questions surrounding the politics of the architectural envelope on one hand, and the agency of material explication of environmental, social and spatial performance on the other. Two recent prototype-based responsive envelope projects undertaken by the authors, the Stratus Project and Resonant Chamber, are described in detail relative to the reciprocity between the development of their materiality, form, production methods and their dynamic interaction with external forces, environments and inhabitants. An argument is made that responsive envelopes, in their capacity to structure continually evolving energetic, material and information exchanges between humans, buildings and the wider environment, have the potential to actively construct and enable political participation through spatial transformation, data driven processing and informatics. These envelopes are positioned as agents within wider ecologies and social systems, and as sites for the design of robotic architectures to engage such questions.

Vermisso, Emmanouil. "The fabrication of fabrication: a second order design process." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10 (2012): 401-422.

The project discussed here was developed during a research & design seminar on biologically inspired prototypingi. Based on the observation that nature produces infinite structural and formal configurations through re-cycling of only one material (fibers), a ëmachineí was designed that can fabricate complex shapes using a variety of thread types. The paper theoretically situates a form-finding process with possible applications in construction and discusses the first phase of design as well as the early second stage and the factors that affect our decisions for future development. The author is concerned with the possible value of such a process for architecture, as well as a philosophical meaning of ëlayeredí design processes.

Tosello, Maria. "The Virtual Space of the Dynamic Hypermedia Device, a Habitable Space." International Journal of Architectural Computing 10 (2012): 237-252.

The hybrid contemporary space, which integrates urban and interactive virtual spaces, implies particular ways of inhabiting that suggests new identities, promoting the constant alternation between its different worlds.This article proposes to analyze and understand the design, construction and appropriation processes in this new social space-time. These processes are not only guaranteed by the accessibility to new media, but they involve the organization of complex strategies which included the development of instruments and landscapes that allow the migrations and interweaving between two realities: the urban and the virtual.This project generated an accumulation of unforgettable experiences that turned into a multiplicity of words and images that expanded through informal media or planned strategies.These activities allow reflecting upon the behaviors, meanings, and diverse thresholds that were constructed by the actors themselves during this process, and suggest new ways of being-in-the-world.