Keywords Abstract
Williams, Nicholas, Hanno Stehling, Fabian Scheurer, Silvan Oesterle, Matthias Kohler, and Fabio Gramazio. "A Case Study of a Collaborative Digital Workflow in the Design and Production of Formwork for 'Non-Standard Concrete Structures." International Journal of Architectural Computing 9, no. 3 (2011): 223-240.

This paper presents an overview of ongoing research from within the Tailorcrete research project into the development of CAD tools for the design and realization of 'non-standard' concrete structures. The focus is on concrete formwork, a significant factor affecting cost, logistics and aesthetics. With a process spanning a broad range of expertise, collaboration through an effective digital workflow is vital to the successful execution of such structures. As a concept for this workflow, a working model of a Design System is described and its development discussed. This focuses on three aspects: (1) the identification of key Use-Cases, (2) the definition of Formwork Systems, and (3) the definition of communication between software elements to provide relevant means of collaboration for expert users. An implementation as a package of software prototypes is also briefly presented. This includes a Base Framework, tools targeting Use-Cases and components relating to specific formwork systems.

Martens, Bob, and Herbert Peter. "A Long-term Scope of Actions for Reconstructed Cultural Heritage: Maintaining a Virtual Archive of Nonexisting Synagogues." International Journal of Architectural Computing 9, no. 3 (2011): 285-302.

Reconstruction work on more than twenty synagogues in Vienna has been ongoing for more than a decade. The fact that these sacred buildings no longer exist is a pivotal aspect in this undertaking. Research revealed archived material, however, which served as reliable basis for the reconstruction work. The authors discuss details of the process of handling archival research as well as the decision-making process during reconstruction. The paper focuses on the possibilities and limits of this exploration and discusses the long-term options of handling 3D models, also in the light of continuous changes in the software environments used. The dissemination of results to a large audience and the appropriate illustration of spatial contexts is another aspect that has been explored. The publication of results in the form of a city guide is in line with the objective of conveying the reconstruction results to a large audience.

Meyboom, AnnaLisa, Greg Johnson, and Jerzy Wojtowicz. "Architectronics: Towards a Responsive Environment." International Journal of Architectural Computing 9, no. 1 (2011): 77-98.

Contemporary architecture can be seen as a dynamic system that causes change to its environment, or even as system that can modify itself. Interactive or responsive environments are not totally new to architecture however the possibilities in architecture have only been lightly referred to. This interdisciplinary design studio, with mechatronics engineers and architects collaborating, explored possible applications with real world equipment, sensors and knowledge. Development of responsive architecture requires architects to have a fluency in sensors, actuators and their control system programming. New potential application of technologies requires a re-framing of what that technology could do in a different social application. Together these issues challenged architecture and engineering students in a collaborative design environment. The resulting projects - kinetic architecture on control systems - challenge our understanding of what our built environment could be.

Embden, Maria, Vera Andres, Michela Turrin, and Peter von Buelow. "ARCHITECTURAL DNA: a genetic exploration of complex structures." International Journal of Architectural Computing 9, no. 2 (2011): 133-150.

The practical applicability of a computer-aided design system is strongly influenced by both the user interface and the internal model representation. A well designed user interface facilitates the communication with the system by offering an intuitive environment for for specification and representation of model information. An internal model representation, capable of storing geometric, topological and hierarchical dependencies between components in a model, increases the efficiency of the system by facilitating modification and elaboration of the model during the different stages of the design process. The subject of this thesis is the integration of a high level parameterized model representation with direct manipulation interface techniques for the design of three-dimensional objects. A direct manipulation interface enables the user to specify a model by interaction on a graphical representation, as an alternative for an abstract and error-prone apha-numerical dialogue style. A high level model representation is obtained by using a procedural modelling language with general purpose control structures, including arithmetic and logical expressions, repetition, conditionals, functions and procedures, and dedicated data types such as coordinate systems, geometric primitives and geometric constraints. The language interpreter is interconnected with a graphical interface, an incremental constraint solver and a geometrical modeler, using visual programming techniques. The developed techniques are implemented in a modelling system called GeoNode. The system incorporates paradigms of object-oriented design, with respect to both the user interface and to the system implementation. The applicability of the presented techniques is illustrated by examples in application domains such as solid modelling, kinematic analysis, feature modelling and top-down design.

Hudson, Roly, Paul Shepherd, and David Hines. "Aviva Stadium: a case study in integrated parametric design." International Journal of Architectural Computing 9, no. 2 (2011): 187-204.

The nature of large complex buildings requires specialized skills across a multi-disciplinary team and high levels of collaboration and communication. By taking a parametric approach to design and construction, high quality results can be delivered on budget on time. This type of approach facilitates the opportunity for design teams to work in an iterative manner.A parametric model reduces the time associated with complex design changes while providing a centralized method for coordinating communication. In this paper the recently completed Aviva Stadium is used to illustrate the ways in which these benefits manifest themselves on built work.The authors identify the moments in the design and construction process that truly justify the effort in implementing a parametric approach. By approaching design in this way a “design conversation” can take place between parties involved, resulting in a better building.

Shepherd, Paul, Roly Hudson, and David Hines. "Aviva Stadium: a parametric success." International Journal of Architectural Computing 9, no. 2 (2011): 167-186.

The Aviva Stadium, Dublin, is the first stadium to be designed from start to finish using commercially available parametric modelling software. A single model in Bentley's Generative Components was shared between architects and engineers, which allowed the optimised design of form, structure and façade. The parametric software was extended where necessary to integrate with structural analysis and to automate fabrication. By reducing the overhead associated with design iterations, this approach allowed detailed exploration of options and early identification and resolution of potential problems. In this paper, the authors add to the body of scientific knowledge by describing in detail the methods which led to the construction of the Aviva Stadium.This paper is written in light of the completed building and provides information on the generation and control of the envelope geometry, development and analysis of structure and documentation for construction.Whilst these components have been discussed independently previously [1-4], here these aspects are drawn together for the first time and are presented alongside thoughts on the manufacturing and construction processes from the project architect.

Holzer, Dominik. "BIM s Seven Deadly Sins." International Journal of Architectural Computing (2011): 463-480.

This paper aims at exposing seven prevailing problems that have emerged in the uptake of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in design practice.The paper provides a reality check between an idealistic view on BIM and the way it is currently applied in daily use. In order to reflect on the issues at hand, the author draws from three years of doctoral research in multidisciplinary design collaboration, followed by more than two years experience as Design Technology director in a large scale architecture practice. In addition to the above, his current role as the chair of the BIM and IPD Steering Group of the Australian Institute of Architects and Consult Australia exposes the author to a broad range of cultural implications of BIM.The findings presented here illustrate that, despite major advances in the development of BIM, there are predominantly cultural roadblocks to its implementation in practice.

Champion, Erik, and Andrew Dekker. "Biofeedback and Virtual Environments." International Journal of Architectural Computing 9, no. 4 (2011): 377-396.

This paper explains potential benefits of indirect biofeedback used within interactive virtual environments, and reflects on an earlier study that allowed for the dynamic modification of a virtual environment's graphic shaders, music and artificial intelligence, based on the biofeedback of the player. The aim was to determine which augmented effects aided or discouraged engagement in the game. Conversely, biofeedback can help calm down rather than stress participants, and attune them to different ways of interacting within a virtual environment. Other advantages of indirect biofeedback might include increased personalization, thematic object creation, atmospheric augmentation, filtering of information, and tracking of participants understanding and engagement. Such features may help designers create more intuitive virtual environments with more thematically appropriate interaction while reducing cognitive loading on the participants. Another benefit would be more engaged clients with a better understanding of the richness and complexity of a digital environment.

Schoch, Martin, Chakguy Prakasvudhisarn, and Apichat Praditsmanont. "Building-Volume Designs with Optimal Life-Cycle Costs." International Journal of Architectural Computing 9, no. 1 (2011): 55-76.

This report provides a detailed overview of the building-volume optimization (BVO) model. It allows for insights into elements that comprise the BVO model, describes its setup as an optimization tool for design and tests its possibilities through exemplary runs. It includes the description of all life-cycle cost (LCC) members involved and explains the implemented optimization process approach. It also provides a perspective regarding the sensitivity and consequences of the BVO model. Serving as decision-support for designers the model qualifies as a practice-oriented application during the early design stage. Test results indicate that LCC considerations can significantly affect building-volume designs during this stage. Therefore, the introduction of cost objectives to the building-volume design represents a valuable approach. Enabling for their inclusion, design issues referring to estimated building performances, are capable of improvement before design finalization. Especially comparisons between initial and operational costs imply that, with increasing life-cycle periods, the impact of operational costs on shaping building-volume design is continuously growing.

Chung, Jun, Daniel Hii, and Malone-Lee Lai Choo. "Computational Fluid Dynamics for Urban Design: the Prospects for Greater Integration." International Journal of Architectural Computing 9, no. 1 (2011): 33-54.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has always been used in the field of architecture, urban design and urban planning to understand the patterns of wind flow through the built environment. Its analysis is important to evaluate whether the natural ventilation through a site is adequate to mitigate heat and pollutant to achieve better human comfort in dense urban environments. However, given the complex operational requirements, the response to wind flow is not always done early enough to support planning and design. This paper seeks to illustrate how CFD analysis can aid planning and design of urban areas and investigates the workflow requirements, in the hope of making the CFD simulations more accessible to the practices and contribute to design decisions. It also looks at the present technological advancements and future prospects to assess the scenarios where emerging technologies can make CFD simulation more readily available with affordable and even mobile hardware installations.

Ko, Kaon, and Salvator-John Liotta. "Decoding Culture Parametrically: Digital Tea House Case Studies." International Journal of Architectural Computing 9, no. 4 (2011): 325-338.

This paper reviews the Digital Tea House, a workshop held at the University of Tokyo with the aim to build three pavilions for hosting tea ceremony.As first attempts on cultivating formal innovations resulting from digital design process applied to construction of tea houses, the works convey that parametric design can be a mechanism through which architects are able to produce new images of a tea house and renew its conceptual meanings, and that it can be a tool to retain architecture convergent with cultural values.The authors analyze issues addressed in the workshop that range from applications of computational design, interpretations of tradition, structural stability, to solutions for quick physical materialization within limited time and budget.This paper clarifies the following: First, that parametric processes are not contradictory to traditional cultural principles, and second, how traditional elements of the tea house were decoded and formally reinterpreted through parametric designs.

Vermisso, Emmanouil. "Design economies of surface: can Architects learn from the manufacturing process of industry-driven projects like auto-cross racing?" International Journal of Architectural Computing 9, no. 3 (2011): 259-284. This paper discusses an in-house manufactured race-car body for the annual Formula SAEé Series competition. The driving parameters for the design and fabrication process are examined with regards to the assignment's “format” as a joint study between architecture and engineering students. Traditionally there has been an inhibition concerning communication between architects and engineers, that is perhaps successfully exemplified through Peter Rice's example of the "Iago mentality" (Rice, 1998) where the Shakespearean confrontation between Othello and Iago is viewed as an analogy to this communication: "In the dialogue of Architecture and Engineering, the engineer is the voice of rationality and reasoni." Unless dictated by construction necessities, research between these two disciplines is not sought as regularly as we would hope for, we are therefore, interested to assess the analog and computational techniques used from a design perspective, and, by understanding the implications of working among two different but similarly geared backgrounds, describe possible improvements on real-size projects that require both technical and design input, thereby affirming Rice's belief for creative inter-disciplinary discourse. Finally, the project is a reminder of the common ground between architectural and automotive design, by examining the notion of surface from a cross-disciplinary premise.
Khoo, Chin Koi, Flora Salim, and Jane Burry. "Designing Architectural Morphing Skins with Elastic Modular Systems." International Journal of Architectural Computing 9, no. 4 (2011): 397-420.

This paper discusses the issues of designing architectural skins that can be physically morphed to adapt to changing needs.To achieve this architectural vision, designers have focused on developing mechanical joints, components, and systems for actuation and kinetic transformation. However, the unexplored approach of using lightweight elastic form-changing materials provides an opportunity for designing responsive architectural skins and skeletons with fewer mechanical operations. This research aims to develop elastic modular systems that can be applied as a second skin or brise-soleil to existing buildings.The use of the second skin has the potential to allow existing buildings to perform better in various climatic conditions and to provide a visually compelling skin.This approach is evaluated through three design experiments with prototypes, namely Tent, Curtain and Blind, to serve two fundamental purposes: Comfort and Communication.These experimental prototypes explore the use of digital and physical computation embedded in form-changing materials to design architectural morphing skins that manipulate sunlight and act as responsive shading devices.

Takenaka, Tsukasa, and Aya Okabe. "Development of the Seed Scattering System for Computational Landscape Design." International Journal of Architectural Computing 9, no. 4 (2011): 421-436.

This paper proposes a computational landscape design method, called the Seeds Scattering system (SS system), that was developed by the AnS Studio to carry out the Sony forest project in Japan.This method enables us to manage various environmental conditions in design processes, to design "natural" in urban areas, ( i.e., people perceive a forest in an urbanized area as if it is natural although the forest is not genuinely natural). First, this paper discusses the limitations of the conventional method of landscape design. In Section 3 to 4, we describes the SS system together with the design process of the project. In Section 5, we present the system from a different perspective, that is, as a method for satisfying social requirements to gain human appreciation.The designer's role in this system is not to manipulate geometries or compositions of tree groupings but to design the fundamental rules that underlie them. As a result, the designer can create a landscape in an interactive manner, thereby producing one that inherently belongs to its site.

Yeung, Wendy, and Jeremy Harkins. "Digital Architecture for Humanitarian Design in Post-Disaster Reconstruction." International Journal of Architectural Computing 9, no. 1 (2011): 17-32.

Digital tools and computational design processes are rapidly changing architecture. Nonetheless their applications in humanitarian design remain under researched. Generative algorithmic design is particularly useful in humanitarian design and post disaster reconstruction. Firstly, the extreme conditions in these contexts pose many constraints that can be parametricised and form the basis of a parametric design. Secondly, optimal use of scarce resources are enabled by integrating these interrelated performance requirements. Thirdly, a robust model definition afforded through parametric modelling enables a mass customised design to adjust for different site and user requirements, and most importantly it allows improvements in subsequent design based on community evaluation. As part of an ongoing research in fusing advanced computational techniques in humanitarian architecture, the post-tsunami rebuilding program of Emergency Architects Australia in the Solomon Islands is presented as a case study to identify successes, opportunities and limitations of a system of digital tools.

Toth, Bianca, Flora Salim, Jane Burry, John Frazer, Robin Drogemuller, and Mark Burry. "Energy-Oriented Design Tools for Collaboration in the Cloud." International Journal of Architectural Computing 9, no. 4 (2011): 339-360. Effective strategies for the design of efficient and environmentally sensitive buildings require a close collaboration between architects and engineers in the design of the building shell and environmental control systems at the outset of projects. However, it is often not practical for engineers to be involved early on in the design process. It is therefore essential that architects be able to perform preliminary energy analyses to evaluate their proposed designs prior to the major building characteristics becoming fixed. Subsequently, a need exists for a simplified energy design tool for architects. This paper discusses the limitations of existing analysis software in supporting early design explorations and proposes a framework for the development of a tool that provides decision support by permitting architects to quickly assess the performance of design alternatives.
Moloney, Jules, and Bharat Dave. "From abstraction to being there: mixed reality at the early stages of design." International Journal of Architectural Computing 9, no. 1 (2011): 01-16.

We discuss the use of multiple design representations to enhance decision making at the early stages of design. Our interest is how the context in which design decisions are made can be extended by two interrelated approaches: (1) the incorporation of the temporal, (2) through the concurrent evaluation of qualitative representations and quantitative information. Outcomes from a practice survey and observations from design studios are used to inform the development of mixed reality (MixR) technology, to enable the applications to reflect architecture specific modes of design praxis. We propose two approaches - studio MixR and site MixR - reflecting the distinction between typical studio based design process and the requirements of a formal design review by the design team and stakeholders. Prototype applications have been implemented and a number of projects have been undertaken to illustrate some of the potential of mixed reality for architecture and urban design. These focus on the early stages of design, from the abstraction of parametric design to on site design reviews undertaken with augmented reality visualization.

Thomsen, Mette Ramsgard, Martin Tamke, and Jacob Riiber Nielsen. "Generating a scalar logic: producing the "it's a SMALL world" exhibition." International Journal of Architectural Computing 9, no. 2 (2011): 115-132.

This paper presents the design project “it's a SMALL world”, an exhibition design developed for the Danish Design Centre in 2009.The project investigates the making of a generative design environment by which multiple design parameters as from program, site or the subsequent digital fabrication and assembly process can be negotiated. In this paper we discuss methods for understanding the emergent interrelationships between encoded parameters, how to manage these and their impact on design.The implementation of the design necessitated a novel design method that allowed to blend the qualities of a generative design approach, that can adapt through recursion gradually to local requirements, with explicit definitions.The project showcases with its new developed manufacturing system for non- standard element how customized digital design and production tools allow for a novel nearness to material and new ways of production and collaboration of architects, engineers and the crafts.

Meyboom, AnnaLisa. "Heavy Design." International Journal of Architectural Computing 9, no. 3 (2011): 251-258.

Digital tools in architecture have a powerful capability that we have only begun to explore, the questions to ask of them are perhaps not what they can do but what should we use them for? To date, much of the work done in the area of computational design has been used as elaborate patterning - some have called it “ornament”. The significance of this ornament is not only pleasure but in its use of digital patterns to represent our current complex and digital age.This representation in itself is not problematic, however, what is problematic is the lack of other meaningful uses of the digital form-generating tools and their distance from a culture of making. The main failing of our use of digital design (algorithmic or not) in architecture to this point is its inability to translate smoothly from the digital world to the physical world. The main reasons for this difficulty in translation are gravity and inherent material properties. Working with gravity and its physical implications is generally considered the role of the structural engineer, as such, engineers have generally created digital tools in this area.The engineer's methodology analyses a structure based on complex structural analysis programming but in order to do this, a detailed description of the structure must already exist. This is not useful in preliminary stages of design. However, the generation of architecture within an environment, which already includes structural principles, may bring us one step closer to this transition of virtual to physical by including gravity in architectural generation while not diminishing the creative form-generating process. An approach has been proposed which responds with a concept of “heavy design”. This type of approach incorporates logics from other disciplines, primarily structural engineering, to inform design. The design process incorporates the structural behavior of a system into the architectural model. Engineering offers a mathematical interpretation of the physical world and this is inherently suited to algorithmic design because it is already in equation form. It can thus be programmed into the architectural form generational software. The variables used in the equations become the variables within the architectural design and this inherently brings the natural physical laws to the architecture through a numerical, algorithmic method. The design produced is not a singular answer but rather a responsive vocabulary of a structural system, which is then employed in design in differing conditions. The architecture produced is both function and ornament, having cultural interpretation but carrying out many engineering tasks: a true parametric architecture.

Biloria, Nimish. "InfoMatters, a multi-agent systems approach for generating performative architectural formations." International Journal of Architectural Computing 9, no. 3 (2011): 205-222.

The research paper exemplifies a novel information integrated design technique developed at ONL (Oosterhuis and Lenard), Netherlands, specifically appropriated for manifesting complex geometric forms. The “informed design technique”, apart from being highly instrumental in conceptualizing and generating the geometric component constituting architectural form in a parametric manner, is also efficiently utilized for precise computer aided manufacturing and construction of the speculated form. Geometric complexities inherent in contemporary architectural constructs and the time spent in appropriation of such topologies, fueled the “informed design” approach, which caters to issues of timely construction, precision oriented design and production (visual and material) and parametric modelling attuned to budgetary fluctuations. This designresearch approach has been tested and deployed by ONL, for conceiving “the Acoustic Barrieri project, Utrecht Leidsche Rijn in the Netherlands and is treated as a generic case for exemplifying the “informed design” technique in this research paper. The design methodology encourages visualizing architectural substantiations from a systems perspective and envisages upon a rule based adaptive systems approach involving extrapolation of contextual dynamics/ground data in terms of logical “rules”. These rules/conditionalities form the basis for spawning parametric logistics to be mapped upon geometric counterparts exemplifying the conception. The simulated parametric relations bind dimensional aspects (length, width, height etc.) of the geometric construct in a relational manner, eventually culminating in a 3D spatial envelope. This evolved envelope is subsequently intersected with a “parametric spatio-constructive grid”, creating specific intersecting points between the two. A pattern of points attained from this intersection: “the point cloud” serves as a generic information field concerning highly specific coordinates, parameters and values for each individual point/constructive node it embodies. The relations between these points are directly linked with precise displacements of structural profiles and related scaling factors of cladding materials. Parallel to this object oriented modelling approach, a detailed database (soft/information component) is also maintained to administer the relations between the obtained points. To be able to derive constructible structural and cladding components from the point cloud configuration customized Scripts (combination of Lisp and Max scripts) process the point cloud database. The programmed scriptroutines, iteratively run calculations to generate steel-wire frames, steel lattice-structure and cladding panels along with their dimensions and execution drawing data. Optimization-routines are also programmed to make rectifications and small adjustments in the calculated data. This precise information is further communicated with CNC milling machines to manifest complex sectional profiles formulating the construct thus enabling timely and effective construction of the conceptualized form.

Rahaman, Hafizur, and Beng-Kiang Tan. "Interpreting Digital Heritage: a Conceptual Model with End-Users' Perspective." International Journal of Architectural Computing 9, no. 1 (2011): 99-114.

Present virtual heritage projects are mostly focused either on “process” or “product” but rarely consider “users” (end-users'perception of the content) with project contents predominantly developed with an “ocular-centric” tendency. There is no significant interpretation method or principle for interpreting digital heritage like other disciplines such as archaeology. This paper argues that, for better interpretation and experience of a digital heritage site, a comprehensive interpretation method is required, which should address end-users with various background, overcome the linearity in narrative level and subjectiveness in content creation. This paper also argues that instead of predetermined instructional sequences or descriptive interpretation, the interaction setting can be participatory and contributive, where the end-users and environment may engage in “dialogic-interaction”. In terms of methodology, “Interpretation” is first conceptualized by assimilating definitions from various heritage scholars and interpretation organizations. Notions of interpretation-practice and level of interaction are identified from reviewing some online digital heritage projects. By identifying weaknesses, this paper finally proposes a conceptual model for developing a comprehensive interpretation method for future digital heritage projects.

Martini, Kirk. "Optimization and parametric modelling to support conceptual structural design." International Journal of Architectural Computing 9, no. 2 (2011): 151-166.

The paper describes software combining parametric geometric modeling with a version of the harmony search method, modified to support multimodal structural optimization. Researchers have recognized the potential of population-based optimization methods, such as genetic algorithms, to support multimodal optimization: that is, generating a diverse range of good alternative solutions, rather than a single best solution. Among these methods is the harmony search method, which has been demonstrated to be efficient in many unimodal structural optimization problems. The paper describes a new version of the harmony search method, implemented as an assembly within Bentley's Generative Components, enabling high-level control of geometry. The new method is demonstrated on an bridge supported by two inclined parabolic arches, a structure where GC controls a complex geometry with a single variable. Comparative studies of the example find that the new method is more effective than conventional harmony search in consistently finding multiple good solutions.

Roudavski, Stanislav. "Selective Jamming: Digital Architectural Design in Foundation Courses." International Journal of Architectural Computing 9, no. 4 (2011): 437-462. This article considers how the concepts and practice of digital architectural design can influence early architectural education.The article approaches this topic through one example, the Virtual Environments course a constituent of the Bachelor of Environments program at the University of Melbourne.The institutional remit of this course is to introduce first-year students to the roles of design representation. However, recently, the course developed to encompass these pragmatic educational aims and began to question canonical attitudes towards architectural education and practice.At the core of this course are the notions, methods and skills of digital architectural design, understood not as a stylistic option or as a novel paradigm, but as a catalyst for creativity, experimentation, critical thinking and the sustained growth of creative communities.
Peng, Chengzhi. "uCampus: Can an open source 3D interactive virtual campus modelling platform support institutional learning and innovation?" International Journal of Architectural Computing 9, no. 3 (2011): 303-324. This paper reports and reflects on the key findings from the UK JISC funded weCAMP-uCampus project undertaken at the University of Sheffield in which a Web-based 3D interactive campus visualization modelling platform was developed and deployed using the latest Java and XML-based open source technologies. The project evolved rapidly along three strands of development on software design, content generation, and user/stakeholder engagement. One of the key outcomes is a novel approach to visualising large complex datasets in conjunction with multi-scale and multi-layered 3D campus modelling. To test the adaptability of uCampus, the Augustine House Experiment was later carried out in collaboration with the iBorrow project based at the Canterbury Christ Church University campus. The question on the prospect of uCampus to support learning and innovation at an institutional level is discussed by revisiting the earlier works of the Oregon Experiment and the Seeding-Reseeding Meta-Design Framework.
Davis, Daniel, Jane Burry, and Mark Burry. "Understanding visual scripts: Improving collaboration through modular programming." International Journal of Architectural Computing 9, no. 4 (2011): 361-376. Modularisation is a well-known method of reducing code complexity, yet architects are unlikely to modularise their visual scripts. In this paper the impact that modules used in visual scripts have on the architectural design process is investigated with regard to legibility, collaboration, reuse and design modification.Through a series of thinking-aloud interviews, and through the collaborative design and construction of the parametric Dermoid pavilion, modules are found to impact the culture of collaborative design in architecture through relatively minor alterations to how architects organise visual scripts.