Keywords Abstract
Forte, Maurizio, and Eva Pietroni. "3D Collaborative Environments in Archaeology: Experiencing the Reconstruction of the Past." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 1 (2009): 57-76.

This paper presents the outcome of the research project: “Integrated Technologies of Robotics and Virtual Environments in Archaeologyi, financed by the Italian Ministry of the University and Scientific Research, FIRB (Funds for the Investments of Basic Research). The aim of the project is to experiment and realize a multi-user domain on the web aimed to a multidisciplinary scientific community: archaeologists, historians, experts in human and social sciences, communication experts. The capacity to load, share and interact with data in the same spatial virtual environment can increase the level of learning and scientific communication. The project is the result of the collaboration between CNR-ITABC of Rome, the University of California, Merced, the Department of Archaeology of the University of Pisa and Scuola S. Anna of Pisa. It focuses on three archaeological sites: the Teban tomb 14 in the necropolis of Gurna, Fayum Medinet Madi, both in Egypt, and Khor Rori, in Oman. The collaborative environment is constructed through a virtual reality system. This allows to create a virtual space where it is possible to share 3D information on the project and to host additional behaviours of the scientific community.

Muramoto, Katsuhiko, Michael Jemtrud, Sonali Kumar, Bimal Balakrishnan, and Danielle Wiley. "A Cyber-Enabled Collaborative Design Studio." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 2 (2009): 267-288.

The research project investigates the use of a network-enabled platform involving a combination of technologies. As a preliminary report on a proof-of-concept design studio conducted in 2007 between Carleton University and Pennsylvania State University, the paper first describes the implementation of this network-centric collaborative design platform. The report articulates the “staging” of the conditions of possibility for a dynamic interplay between technological mediation and the reality of making, then compares the use of high bandwidth technology with customized symmetrical toolsets in the telecollaborative environment, versus commercial toolsets deployed over moderate bandwidth connections. In each setting, the collaborative environment is assessed according to issues encountered by students and design outcomes. The effectiveness of the digitally mediated collaborative studio is also gauged in terms of student reaction to the learning process via feedback surveys and questionnaires.

Eilouti, Buthayna. "A Digital Incorporation of Ergonomics into Architectural Design." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 2 (2009): 235-253.

A project that is particularly designed for digital studio settings is described. Facilitated by multiple computer modelling and animation software, the project incorporates concepts and applications of ergonomics and kinetics as two ingredients and concept generators with problem-based learning techniques into architectural designing. Reflections about the project and its outcomes are reported and discussed. The results indicate that considerations of ergonomics, flexibility, mobility and responsiveness in dynamic structures and their interactions with users can enrich and optimize generated designs. Similarly, the application of problem-based designing approach seems to foster critical thinking of participants and improve their involvement in collaborative design processing.

Guidi, Gabriele, Fabio Remondino, Michele Russo, Fabio Menna, Alessandro Rizzi, and Sebastiano Ercoli. "A Multi-Resolution Methodology for the 3D Modeling of Large and Complex Archeological Areas." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 1 (2009): 39-55.

This article reports on a multi-resolution and multi-sensor approach developed for the accurate and detailed 3D modelling of the entire Roman Forum in Pompei, Italy. The archaeological area, approximately 150 — 80 m, contains more than 350 finds spread all over the forum as well as larger mural structures of previous buildings and temples. The interdisciplinary 3D modelling work consists of a multi-scale image- and range-based digital documentation method developed to fulfill all the surveying and archaeological needs and exploit all the intrinsic potentialities of the actual 3D modelling techniques. The data resolution spans from a few decimeters down to few millimeters. The employed surveying methodologies have pros and cons which will be addressed and discussed. The results of the integration of the different 3D data in seamlessly textured 3D model are finally presented and discussed.

Bueno, Ernesto. "Algorithmic Form Generation of a Radiolarian Pavilion." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 4 (2009): 677-688.

This paper describes the design stage of an on-going research project for the construction of a pavilion that mimics the bone structures of Radiolarians. In the process, several constructive and generative algorithms are developed, together with geometric and trigonometric functions, all implemented in RhinoScript and a math plug-in for the NURBS modeler Rhinoceros. There has been considerable emphasis on the generation of the Radiolarian cell that is tessellated along a stereographic surface with a honeycomb-based algorithm. It combines design strategies from biomimetics, mathematical functions, generative scripting, process automation and versioning, all integrated into an algorithmic methodology for creating a non-standard structure, capable of being manufactured with CNC technology, and doing so, setting a precedent in the academic and professional environment in which it will be located.

Wang, Xiangyu. "Augmented Reality in Architecture and Design: Potentials and Challenges for Application." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 2 (2009): 309-326.

Recent advances in computer interface and hardware power have fostered Augmented Reality (AR) prototypes for various architecture and design applications. More intuitive visualization platforms are necessary for efficient use of digital information nowadays in the architecture and design industries. As a promising visualization platform to address this need, this paper introduces the concept and associated enabling technologies of AR and also presents a survey of its existing applications in the area of architecture and design. Another focus of the paper is to discuss how the identified key technical issues could potentially be addressed in the context of architecture and design applications.

Boulaassal, H, T Landes, and P Grussenmeyer. "Automatic Extraction of Planar Clusters and their Contours on Building Facades Recorded by Terrestrial Laser Scanner." International Journal of Architectural Computing (2009): Jan-12.

Since 3D city models need to be realistic not only from a bird's point of view, but also from a pedestrian's point of view, the interest in the generation of 3D façade models is increasing. This paper presents two successive algorithms for automatically segmenting building façades scanned by Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) into planar clusters and extracting their contours. Since majority of façade components are planes, the topic of automatic extraction of planar features has been studied. The RANSAC algorithm has been chosen among numerous methods. It is a robust estimator frequently used to compute model parameters from a dataset containing outliers, as it occurs in TLS data. Nevertheless, the RANSAC algorithm has been improved in order to extract the most significant planar clusters describing the main features composing the building façades. Subsequently, a second algorithm has been developed for extracting the contours of these features. The innovative idea presented in this paper is the efficient way to detect the points composing the contours. In order to evaluate the performances of both algorithms, they have successively been applied on samples with different characteristics, i.e. densities, types of façades and size of architectural details. Finally, a quality evaluation based on the comparison of planar clusters and contours obtained manually has been carried out. The results prove that the proposed algorithms deliver qualitative as well as quantitative satisfactory results and confirm that both algorithms are reliable for the forthcoming 3D modelling of building façades.

Fukuda, Tomohiro, Atsuko Kaga, Hideaki Izumi, and Takanori Terashima. "Citizen Participatory Design Method using VR and a Blog as a Media in the Process." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 2 (2009): 217-233.

This research concerned the establishment of a citizen participatory design method using VR (Virtual Reality) and CGM (Consumer Generated Media) as design media or a communication media in the design process. For this, problems in the citizen participatory design are addressed, and the continuous study method using VR and a blog is shown. Then, evaluation is conducted by considering an actual design project as a case study. Furthermore, VR functions needed through the case study are developed. Using this method, a small patio on which parasols were permanently and lawfully set up on a road lot was completed.

Ophir, iv, Yan. "Collective Intelligence: an Agent-Based Approach to Programmatic Organization in Architecture." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 3 (2009): 479-499.

Architectural programming is the research and decision-making process that identifies the scope of work to be designed. Programming is difficult because it involves identifying, collecting, analyzing and updating information from different sources such as engineers, clients, users, consultants, and others. In this paper I propose a computational model for programming and describe its implementation, a tool called PENA that allows a programming expert to represent different processes and people involved in a project using intelligent agents. By delegating responsibility to agents, a programming expert can better organize and manage project data as well as find creative solutions to conflicting issues through agent negotiation. As a proof-of-concept, I show how an agent, called the Arch-Learner, manages adjacencies of rooms in a simple program for a house by clustering them into public and private rooms. I conclude with a discussion of future work and development of PENA.

Grobman, Yasha Jacob, Abraham Yezioro, and Isaac Guedi Capeluto. "Computer-Based Form Generation in Architectural Design - a Critical Review." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 4 (2009): 535-554.

The idea of using computers for form generation and evaluation in the architectural design process has been put forward already in the early days of computers. However, as opposed to computer aided drafting, the generation of form, its optimization and manufacturing has not been widely accepted and implemented by practitioners. The paper critically reviews the research and state of the practice experiments that has been done in this field and develops an argument regarding the possibilities and limitations of computer-based form generation in the architectural design process.

Voyatzaki, Maria. "Computing Architectural Materiality: the Hyper-natural Aspirations of the New Paradigm." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 4 (2009): 555-564.

The article is based on the premise that in the history of architecture there has always been an intimate relationship between architectural ideas and the various perceptions of the alive. On this premise the article focuses on and investigates the relationship of the contemporary architectural paradigm labeled as digital, parametric or morphogenetic with the alive. Its objective is to reveal its new profound reasonings which lead and nourish its creative expression, to articulate its new ethos with the extended use of advanced information technologies for the creation of architectural forms, but also for the generation of a broad spectrum of new building materials with properties predefined by the architect. The immaterial, the hybrid, the composite, the mutable, the transformable, the interactive, the dynamic, do not only appear as properties of certain architectural creations or building materials, but also as values expressing this ethos and declaring a new relationship or a reconsidered admiration of the natural, the living, the alive. The article concludes that the new hyper-natural aspiration of the contemporary paradigm constitutes a new dynamic expression of architectural materiality and its guiding intellect.

Georgopoulos, A., C.h. Ioannidis, C.h. Chrysostomou, S. Ioakim, N. Shieittanis, and M. Ioannides. "Contemporary Digital Methods for the Geometric Documentation of Churches in Cyprus." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 1 (2009): 21-37.

Recent advances in digital methods incorporating information technology have enabled the traditional surveyor and monument recorder to work faster, more accurately and in an automated way in order to produce advanced digital products, more versatile and more useful to the end users. Such methods include tacheometry, digital photogrammetry, as image-based method, terrestrial laser scanning and the development of specialized software in order to fully exploit the digital data acquisition. Usually, a combination of these methods gives the most efficient cost benefit results, by providing 2D vector and raster products and 3D textured models. In this paper two examples of the implementation of these methods in the geometric documentation of two churches, both significant for the history of Cyprus, are presented. It is concerned with the churches of Virgin Mary (Panayia) Podithou, in Galata and St. George Nikoxylitis in Droushia. The applied methodology, using classical and contemporary techniques of commercial and in-house developed software is presented. Comparative tests for the achieved accuracies and the completeness of each method's products have been made, and their merits and usefulness are explained.

Balakrishnan, Bimal, and Loukas Kalisperis. "Design Visualization:A Media Effects Approach." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 3 (2009): 415-427.

This paper proposes an integrative approach in the evaluative phase of the design process, incorporating concepts, methodologies and measurement strategies that are well established in media psychology. The paper suggests a variable-centered approach for conceptualizing visualization technologies and to evaluate their potential to simulate architectural experience. Psychophysiological measures are introduced to capture the affective component of the architectural experience facilitated by visualization tools such as virtual reality. These are important in order to empirically evaluate the experiential aspects of an architectural space through visualization. Ideas are illustrated with examples drawn from prior and ongoing research collaboration between an architectural visualization lab and a media effects research lab.

Achten, Henri. "Experimental Design Methods - a Review." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 4 (2009): 505-534.

Experimental design methods are applied in all phases of the design process and by almost every party involved in the design process. In this paper, we aim to give an overview of the background, applications, and technologies involved. A limited simple metric is introduced for assessing the degree of innovation. Future developments are outlined.

Datta, Sambit, Stuart Hanafin, and Gregory Pitts. "Experiments with stochastic processes: Facade subdivision based on wind motion." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 3 (2009): 389-402.

Constraint based tools for architectural design exploration need to satisfy aesthetic and functional criteria as well as combine discrete and continuous modes of exploration. In this paper, we examine the possibilities for stochastic processes in design space exploration. Specifically, we address the application of a stochastic wind motion model to the subdivision of an external building envelope into smaller discrete components. Instead of deterministic subdivision constraints, we introduce explicit uncertainty into the system of subdivision. To address these aims, we develop a model of stochastic wind motion, create a subdivision scheme that is governed by the wind model and explore a design space of a façade subdivision problem. A discrete version of the façade, composed of light strips and panels, based on the bamboo elements deformed by continuous wind motion, is developed. The results of the experiments are presented in the paper.

Brown, Andre, Ghousia Saeed, and Michael Knight. "Finding Your Way Around Heritage Sites: the Delivery of Digital Information to Mobile Devices." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 1 (2009): 105-120.

An information enriched 3D digital city model connected wirelessly with the real-time user interaction has the potential to deliver an effective piece in the pervasive computing jigsaw. Real-time location awareness can contribute to the effective delivery of 3D digital city models and associated information to small mobile devices. Location awareness is also one of the vital elements of ubiquitous computing systems, together the mobile hardware and its interactive contents can be thought of as'everyware'. This paper describes the work - undertaken with different technological systems that have potential for pedestrian location sensing connecting the pedestrian user with real and virtual environments simultaneously. In particular we look at how users can be correctly located and efficiently informed about buildings and artefacts that are part of the spectrum of built forms that together are referred to as Architectural Heritage sites.

Derix, Christian. "In-Between Architecture Computation." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 4 (2009): 565-586.

In-Between Architecture Computation describes the evolution of the Computational Design approach at the AedasR&D Computational Design and Research group founded in 2004 at Aedas architects in London. The approach has transformed itself from an academic inspired thinking about computing media to a more flexible model of design heuristics and search algorithms that finally start to produce new hybrid design workflows in the industry while also swimming against the industry trend of super-integration software. Only if computing is not exclusively defined through architectural design intent or purely computing logic, does computational design explore new design thinking.

Zeiler, Wim, and Perica Savanovic. "Integral Morphological C-K design approach for multi-disciplinary building design." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 3 (2009): 429-458.

This paper presents a theoretical approach to collaborative design management. The goal is to integrate design and engineering knowledge in the conceptual phase of building design. Based on an integral design process model, morphological overviews are used as a tool to implement C-K (concept-knowledge) theory, to increase knowledge creation and to stimulate knowledge exchange within the building design team. The project was carried out in close cooperation with professional societies within the building design field. The set-ups of the workshops used to implement and to test the theoretical approach are presented as well as the experiences of the participants. More than 100 experienced professionals participated in the workshops and the workshops now have become part of the permanent professional training program of one of the professional societies.

Taron, Joshua. "Interactive Hemostasis Modeling in Urban Network Design." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 3 (2009): 375-387.

This paper describes a type of project that images a city as it might exist given the integration of hemostatic procedures within pedestrian networks during emergencies requiring full-scale egress from an urban core. It articulates the steps taken to integrate a pre-existing C++ hemostasis model (C. Jacob, 2008) into Maya software in order to describe how the project operates on a computational level. By projecting these agent-based logics directly into/onto each pedestrian in the city (the smallest unit of the system), egress-oriented infrastructure can shift from being extensively predetermined in form (concrete barriers, metal railing, police barricades, etc.), to something more intensively defined, real-time, and locally on-demand. These procedures are situated within a larger schema based on the structural principles of Norbert Wiener's cybernetic feedback loops, that acknowledge and allow for hybrid (top-down + bottom-up) awareness and control within systems. The project attempts to ally itself with emerging forms of network design with similar structural typologies supported through the use of personal mobile devices (PMDs) in urban environments.

Ruhland, K, M Sedlmair, S Bioletti, and C O'Sullivan. "LibViz: Data Visualisation of the Old Library." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 1 (2009): 177-192.

The Old Library of Trinity College Dublin, built in 1732, is an internationally renowned research library. In recent decades it has also become a major tourist attraction in Dublin, with the display of the Book of Kells within the Old Library now drawing over half a million visitors per year. The Preservation and Conservation Department of the Library has raised concerns about the impact of the environment on the collection. The location of the building in the city centre, large visitor numbers, and the conditions within the building are putting the collection at risk. In developing a strategic plan to find solutions to these problems, the department has been assessing and documenting the current situation. This paper introduces ongoing work on a system to visualise the collected data, which includes: dust levels and dispersion, internal and external temperature and relative humidity levels, and visitor numbers in the Old Library. We are developing a user interface for which the data, originally stored in various file formats, is consolidated in a database which can be explored using a 3D virtual reconstruction of the Old Library. With this novel technique, it is also possible to compare and assess the relationships between the various datasets in context.

Walczak, Krzysztof. "Modelling Behaviour of Configurable VR Applications." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 1 (2009): 77-103.

Creation of complex behaviour-rich and meaningful content is one of the main difficulties that currently limit wide use of virtual reality technologies in everyday applications. To enable widespread use of VR applications new methods of content creation must be developed. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to designing behaviour-rich virtual reality applications, called Flex-VR. The approach enables building configurable VR applications, in which content can be easily created and modified by domain experts or even common users without knowledge about VR design and computer programming. The VR content is configured from reusable programmable content elements, called VR-Beans. Appearance and behaviour of the VR-Beans are controlled by scripts programmed in a novel high-level language, called VR-BML (Behaviour Modelling Language). The language enables specification of generic behaviours of objects that can be dynamically composed into virtual scenes. The paper introduces the Flex-VR component and content models, describes the VR-BML language and provides an example of a Flex-VR application in the cultural heritage domain.

Hadjimitsis, D G., K Themistocleous, A Agapiou, and C.R.I Clayton. "Monitoring Archaeological Site Landscapes in Cyprus using Multi-temporal Atmospheric Corrected Image Data." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 1 (2009): 121-138.

This paper aims to examine the use of satellite remote sensing for monitoring archaeological and more generally cultural heritage sites. For this purpose, multi-temporal data from Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+ and Quickbird images were applied. The paper also discusses the importance of atmospheric correction at the pre-processing step in order to determine true surface reflectance values by removing these effects from satellite images. Atmospheric correction is arguably the most important part of the pre-processing of satellite remotely sensed data and any omission produces erroneous results. The effects of the atmosphere are more severe where dark targets are shown in the satellite image. In the management of cultural heritage sites, since temporal satellite images are required for monitoring purposes, the effect of the atmosphere must be considered. In-situ spectro-radiometric measurements using the GER1500 field spectro-radiometer have been used to assess the reflectance values found after applying the darkest pixel atmospheric correction to the image data. The study area consist the Amathus archaeological site in Limassol and the Nea Paphos archaeological site area located in Paphos district area in Cyprus. Vegetation Index (NDVI) change detection algorithm has been applied to a series of thirteen Landsat TM/ETM+ images of Amathus archaeological site in Limassol. Classification and extraction algorithms have been applied to Landsat TM and Quickbird high resolution images of Nea Paphos archaeological site area.

Hanafin, Stuart, Greg Pitts, and Sambit Datta. "Non-Deterministic Exploration through Parametric Design." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 4 (2009): 605-622.

This paper explores non-deterministic parametric modelling as a design tool. Specifically, it addresses the application of parametric variables to the generation of a conceptual bridge design and the use of repeatable discrete components to the conceptual form. In order to control the generation of the bridge form, a set of design variables based on the concept of a law curve have been developed. These design variables are applied and tested through interactive modelling and variation, driven by manipulating the law curve. Combining this process with the application and control of a repeatable element, known as a Representative Volumetric Element (RVE), allows for the development and exploration of a design solution that could not be achieved through the use of conventional computer modelling. The competition brief for the Australian Institute of Architects (AIA) “Dialectical Bridge” has been used as a case study to demonstrate the use of non-deterministic parametric modelling as a design tool. The results of the experimentation with parametric variables, the law curve and representative volumetric elements (RVE) are presented in the paper.

Sass, Lawrence. "Parametric Constructionist Kits: Physical Design and Delivery System for Rapid Prototyping Devices." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 4 (2009): 623-642.

In this paper we illustrate a design methodology based on constructionist learning principles with CAD modelling and rapid prototyping. The belief is that a constructionist approach to design development extends design possibilities beyond the visual aspects of rendering and animation to building construction by way of component-based parametric modelling. This is demonstrated by way of construction kits as a proposed system of physical design production, individually and in groups. Results of the system are data sets for model manufacturing, hand assembly and design feedback. The impact of this work is to teach physical modelling as a system of production that will allow a designer hands-on learning of building structure, material mechanics and building component behaviour. Also design success is newly defined as a relationship between the visual and physical evaluation, not just the visual. The paper ends with examples of complex design models generated from elements in the construction kit and a physical design grammar used to guide element assembly. Although the examples in this paper satisfy model making for building structures we believe this system can be useful for anyone who needs to construct physical artifacts beyond traditional scales found in rapid prototyping.

Hudson, Roly. "Parametric Development of Problem Descriptions." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 2 (2009): 199-216.

This paper addresses the development of parametric models in contemporary architectural practice. A parametric model can be regarded as a representation of a solution space and in order to structure this, a description of the problem is required. Architectural design tasks are typically ill structured, the goals may not be defined and the means unknown. Moving from an incomplete problem description to a functional parametric model is a difficult task. In this paper the aim is to demonstrate that through a combination of knowledge acquisition and capture a parametric model can develop from an incomplete problem description. This demonstration draws on existing strands of design theory which are then used to outline a theoretical framework. This framework is then used to examine a case study of a live project and practical examples of the described theory in action are given. The practical observations are the result of a case study involving the author as a participant and observer working with Populous to develop a cladding geometry solution for Lansdowne Road Stadium in Dublin (now know as the AVIVA STADIUM).

Biloria, Nimish, and Valentina Sumini. "Performative Building Skin Systems: a Morphogenomic Approach Towards Developing Real-Time Adaptive Building Skin Systems." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 4 (2009): 643-676.

Morphogenomics, a relatively new research area, involves understanding the role played by information regulation in the emergence of diverse natural and artificially generated morphologies. Performative building skin systems as a bottom-up parametric formation of context aware interdependent, ubiquitously communicating components leading to the development of continually performative systems is one of the multi-scalar derivations of the aforementioned Morphogenomic understanding. The agenda of adaptations for these building skins specifically corresponds to three domains of adaptation: structural, behavioural and physiological adaptations resulting in kinetic adaptability, energy generation, conservation, transport and usage principles as well as material property based changes per component. The developed skins adapt in real time via operating upon ubiquitous communication and data-regulation protocols for sensing and processing contextual information. Computational processes and information technology based tools and techniques such as parametric design, real-time simulation using game design software, environmental information mapping, sensing and actuating systems coupled with inbuilt control systems as well as manufacturing physical models in collaboration with praxis form a vital part of these skin systems. These experiments and analysis based on developing intrinsic inter-dependencies between contextual data, structure and material logistics thus lay the foundation for a new era of continually performing, self powering, real-time adaptive intelligent building skin systems.

Madkour, Yehia, Oliver Neumann, and Halil Erhan. "Programmatic Formation: Practical Applications of Parametric Design." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 4 (2009): 587-604.

Programmatic Formation explores design as a responsive process. The study we present engages the complexity of the surroundings using parametric and generative design methods. It illustrates that responsiveness of designs can be achieved beyond geometric explorations. The parametric models can combine and respond simultaneously to design and its programmatic factors, such as performance-sensitive design-decisions, and constraints. We demonstrate this through a series of case studies for a housing tower. The studies explore the extent to which non-spatial parameters can be incorporated into spatial parametric dependencies in design. The results apply digital design and modelling, common to the curriculum of architecture schools, to the practical realm of building design and city planning. While practitioners are often slow to include contemporary design and planning methods into their daily work, the research illustrates how the incorporation of skills and knowledge acquired as part of university education can be effectively incorporated into everyday design and planning.

Penttila, Hannu, and Hannu Penttillä. "Services in Digital Design: new visions for AEC-field collaboration." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 3 (2009): 459-478.

The objective of this paper is to describe contemporary digital building design from a service provider aspect. The constrained framework of this work is digital architectural design practice. When design is seen in the context of the AEC field, a process oriented approach is commonly used in describing collaboration and evolutionary progress of the design work as a project. Design projects are scheduled chains of activities which result in design delivery or actual physical buildings as the end products of the project. Recently developments in building information modelling (BIM) have presented fundamentally new ways for collecting, exploring, and sharing design information. This study develops the novel digital approach: BIM as design services. The key finding of the study is that parts of the design domain can be described as services in the changing digital environment. The scientific contribution of this paper is in describing contemporary digital design practice with an alternative service approach. A framework for such services is also presented. This work will expand the authors'contribution to research on preliminary architectural design using building information models.

Crotch, Joanna, Robert Mantho, and Martyn Horner. "Space Making Between the Virtual and the Physical." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 3 (2009): 403-414.

Digital technologies and processes have been used to generate architectural form for over two decades, recent advances in digital technologies have allowed virtual digital environments to be constructed from physical movement. But can a bridge that connects the physical and virtual realms be developed? Can this, currently arbitrary form making be grounded in human activity and subsequently be integrated into real time, space and place? This paper describes the preliminary explorations of research which attempts to address these questions.

Vecchia, Luisa, Adriane Borda Alme da Silva, and Alice Pereira. "Teaching/learning Architectural Design based on a Virtual Learning Environment." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 2 (2009): 255-266.

This paper describes an experiment in which a virtual learning environment was used in the context of an architectural design course. The objective was to evaluate the capability of the learning environment used to support the interactions needed, between teacher-student and between students, for the establishment of a process of discussion and development of architectural design. Some limitations were identified and also positive points, such as the possibility to register the whole design process. These registers allow the design teacher to evaluate his own teaching process and improve it and also the visualization of what kind of intervention the teacher makes and when, making it possible to identify the kind of design processes established by the student and the kind of structure of knowledge which is implicit in a process of teaching/learning architectural design according to the level of development of the design.

Stahre, Beata, Monica Billger, and Karin Anter. "To Colour the Virtual World - Difficulties in Visualizing Spatial Colour Appearance in Virtual Environments." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 2 (2009): 289-308.

This paper discusses the problems of visualizing colour appearance in an interactive virtual environment (VE) from the viewpoint of practice based architectural research. The discussion is based upon the research information project Virtual Colour Laboratory (VCL), the aim of which is to visually present and demonstrate existing research results on spatial colour phenomena for educational purposes, in the shape of a software application. During the work on this project, various problems connected to the visualization of colour appearance have emerged which are discussed in relation to current research on spatial experience and visual appearance in VEs. The aim of the paper is to focus on the importance of colour appearance in digital modelling as well as to highlight the problems of visualizing colour appearance interactively. The term colour appearance is used here as a general concept for the perceived colour of a surface or object.

Kolarevic, Branko. "Towards Integrative Design." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 3 (2009): 3.

For many, integration within the building industry is seen as a likely outcome as architecture, engineering, and construction fully engage the digital technologies in the design, analysis, and production of buildings. Concepts such as integrated design, integrated practice and integrated project delivery (IPD) have gained prominence in architecture over the past several years as relatively new paradigms.What is usually meant by these terms is a multidisciplinary, collaborative approach to design in which various participants from the building industry - architects, engineers, contractors, fabricators, etc. - participate jointly from the earliest stages of design, fluidly crossing the conventional disciplinary and professional boundaries to deliver an innovative product at the end.

Roudavski, Stanislav. "Towards Morphogenesis in Architecture." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 3 (2009): 345-374.

Procedural, parametric and generative computer-supported techniques in combination with mass customization and automated fabrication enable holistic manipulation in silico and the subsequent production of increasingly complex architectural arrangements. By automating parts of the design process, computers make it easier to develop designs through versioning and gradual adjustment. In recent architectural discourse, these approaches to designing have been described as morphogenesis. This paper invites further reflection on the possible meanings of this imported concept in the field of architectural designing. It contributes by comparing computational modelling of morphogenesis in plant science with techniques in architectural designing. Deriving examples from case-studies, the paper suggests potentials for collaboration and opportunities for bi-directional knowledge transfers.

Roudavski, Stanislav. "Towards Morphogenesis in Architecture." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 3 (2009): 345-374.

Procedural, parametric and generative computer-supported techniques in combination with mass customization and automated fabrication enable holistic manipulation in silico and the subsequent production of increasingly complex architectural arrangements. By automating parts of the design process, computers make it easier to develop designs through versioning and gradual adjustment. In recent architectural discourse, these approaches to designing have been described as morphogenesis. This paper invites further reflection on the possible meanings of this imported concept in the field of architectural designing. It contributes by comparing computational modelling of morphogenesis in plant science with techniques in architectural designing. Deriving examples from case-studies, the paper suggests potentials for collaboration and opportunities for bi-directional knowledge transfers.

Izkara, J.L., X. Basogain, and D. Borro. "Wearable Personal Assistants for the Management of Historical Centers." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 1 (2009): 139-156.

One of the main tasks facing the manager of a historical centre is to avoid degradation while retaining the historical value. For this reason, any intervention which takes place on the environment, should be carefully managed. Only when performing a proper diagnosis of the environment and its reality is possible to follow a high quality intervention. The integration of new information technologies has been crucial to the improvement of these processes providing new tools. Within the project called RASMAP, we have designed and implemented a mobile augmented reality platform based on a service oriented architecture. This project introduces the concept of Wearable Personal Assistant (WPA). WPA in the RASMAP platform represents an innovative wearable tool, which provides support to professionals in their daily activities (mechanical engineer, safety responsible person, diagnosis expert, etc.). This tool is based on augmented reality technologies, mobile devices and communication infrastructures. The development of the platform for the WPAs implies addressing several technological challenges: a) to overcome the limitations inherent in the mobile devices: speed, capacity of memory, capacity of storage, graphical features and others, b) to obtain tracking systems that they do not need to alter or to adapt the environment, c) to optimize for the transmission and reproduction of multimedia contents through wireless networks on mobile devices. In this article, we describe the RASMAP platform, as a basis for the development of WPA and the extension of its use for the management of historical centres. The quality and usefulness of the scientific-technological results provided by the WPA have been validated developing a demonstrator for the diagnosis of the conservation status of the historical centre of a small town in the Basque Country. The advantages to be gained by using WPA in the proposed scenario are among others: more efficient processes, improved communication between users, and local and distributed multimedia content records.

Tost, Laia, and Maria Economou. "Worth a Thousand Words? the Usefulness of Immersive Virtual Reality for Learning in Cultural Heritage Settings." International Journal of Architectural Computing 7, no. 1 (2009): 157-176.

The goal of this paper is to investigate whether immersive virtual reality is suitable for learning about archaeology and the past in cultural heritage settings. To that end it presents the conclusions related to learning from the visitors'survey undertaken in 2007 by the Museology Laboratory of the University of the Aegean at the Hellenic Cosmos (the exhibition centre of the Foundation of the Hellenic World) in Athens, and contrasts these with other similar studies. This project was aimed at comparing the learning outcomes, perception and use by audiences of two different virtual reality systems and a related exhibition. It included qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data gathered through in situ observations, interviews with museum educators and face-to-face questionnaires with visitors. The results confirmed that, as previous studies have shown, virtual reality systems allow a different kind of learning, but also questioned the common believe about their advantage for children in comparison with other interpretation methods.