Keywords Abstract
Said, Suzana, and Mohamed Embi. "A Parametric Shape Grammar of the Traditional Malay Long-Roof Type Houses." International Journal of Architectural Computing 6, no. 2 (2008): 121-144.

A parametric shape grammar of the traditional Malay houses (TMH) built in the past century is presented. The grammar, which consists of rules for generating the form and structure of TMH, is derived from simple geometric representations of the houses. The rules first derive the basic unit structures that form the shapes of the TMH. Nine basic shapes have been identified that form the main vocabulary elements of the grammar. Parameterized polygons and lines define each basic shape. Ranges of values assigned to the variables describing the parameterized polygons and lines are presented. The shape addition rules are used to characterize the compositional aspects of TMH style. Evidences of these basic shapes or their combinations have been documented by previous researchers and are used as a way of explaining the built forms of the TMH. The scope of the study is currently limited to the original TMH of the bumbung panjang (long roof) type in which the key features of the houses are easily discernible from the side view.

Benoudjit, Mohamed, and Paul Coates. "Artificial networks for spatial analysis." International Journal of Architectural Computing 6, no. 1 (2008): 59-78.

This paper tests digital representation techniques which can be used by artificial neural networks in a computer-aided design (CAD) environment to analyze and classify architectural spaces. We developed two techniques for encoding volumetric data: vertex representation and feature space representation, as input for artificial neural networks. We tested how two different kinds of artificial neural networks, perceptron networks and self-organizing maps, could recognize given shapes in these representational formats. We have found that a one-layer perceptron can be used to classify shapes even when presented with input vectors composed of real numbers. These spatial representation techniques provide a method for using ANNs for architectural purposes.

Turkienicz, Benamy, Barbara Bellaver Goncalves, and Pablo Grazziotin. "CityZoom: a Visualization Tool for the Assessment of Planning Regulations." International Journal of Architectural Computing 6, no. 1 (2008): 79-95.

A city modelled according to planning regulations usually presents a correlation between plots and building dimensions. To simulate the overall impact of building regulations over a large number of plots it is advantageous to use a computational tool to perform the task. Existing software can generate proxies of the would be reality, but do not accurately simulate the impact of alternative urban regulations. CityZoom is a Decision Support System for urban planning which not only provides CAD tools, but also allows users to evaluate and modify the city model according to different constraints such as solar radiation, luminance, terrain's pervious conditions, etc. By simulating specific urban regulations and addressing environmental comfort issues, CityZoom helps architects to simultaneously evaluate the different attributes of a particular design. Coupled with GIS tools, CityZoom allows users to perform multiple analyses over the existing database and use the resultant feedback to optimize proposed solutions. Future developments envisage giving CityZoom a more autonomous role, using artificial intelligence to optimize building shapes and dimensions.

Donath, Dirk, and Luis Felipe Gon Bohme. "Constraint-Based Design in Participatory Housing Planning." International Journal of Architectural Computing 6, no. 1 (2008): 97-117.

We introduce some novel ideas for a constraint-based design strategy to support participatory housing planning processes in Latin America. The following lines intend to open the discussion on the requirements and effect of the computer implementation of a constraint satisfaction approach to solve elementary design problems in architectural practice. The case study applies to the building massing design problem posed by the Chilean urban regulatory framework that addresses single-family affordable houses. Two different implementation criteria are being tested in an ongoing series of trials providing further considerations. One prototype uses MAXON's CINEMA4D XPRESSO - visual scripting environment to set up a semi-automated design environment which allows users to edit one feature-based 3D model of massing alternative at a time. The other prototype uses ILOG's OPL STUDIO - constraint programming environment to achieve fully automated search and 2D visualization of all possible solution alternatives to separate subdomains of the building massing design problem.

Dorta, Tomás. "Design Flow and Ideation." International Journal of Architectural Computing 6, no. 3 (2008): 299-316.

In the last year, we developed the Hybrid Ideation Space (HIS), an innovative immersive sketching and model-making system that augments analog tools with digital capabilities, for continue and direct reflective conversation with the representation. The system enables designers to sketch and make models all around them in real-time and real scale using a digital tablet (sketches), image capture (physical models) and a spherical projection device (immersion). Teams of industrial design students participated in the study working on the initial stages of the design of a car. This is a comparative study putting side by side the HIS, analog tools and hybrid modelling techniques. We developed the notion of Design Flow to assesses the design ideation process. The students reported being in the state of flow more often in the HIS than with digital or physical modelling.

Terzidis, Kostas. "Design inside the Chinese Room." International Journal of Architectural Computing 6, no. 3 (2008): 361-370.

The Chinese Room paradox is about the role of intentionality and consciousness in human decision making. Here I reflect on the possibilities opened up by this paradox in the world of design and its continuous computerization.

Schlueter, Arno, and Tobias Bonwetsch. "Design Rationalization of Irregular Cellular Structures." International Journal of Architectural Computing 6, no. 2 (2008): 197-211.

Complex geometries found in nature are increasingly used as images and analogies for the creation of form and space in architectural design. To be able to construct the resulting complex building forms, strategies to handle the resulting production requirements are necessary. In the example of a design project for a Japanese noodle bar, a strategy for the realization of an irregular cellular spatial structure is presented. In order to represent its complex geometry, building principles relating to foam are applied to transform and optimize the design, which is based on hexagonal, cellular compartments defining the different interior spaces. The principles are converted into software code and implemented into a digital design toolbox to be used within a 3D-modelling environment. Utilizing the tools within the redesign process made a rationalization of the cellular structures possible without sacrificing the desired visual irregularity. The toolbox also enables the extraction of the cell geometry to support the generation of production documents. The result is the dramatic reduction of production effort to realize the complex cellular structures by keeping a maximum of design flexibility and desired visual appearance.

Dujovne, David, and Claudio Montoya. "Digital design and manufacture based on Chiloean boats." International Journal of Architectural Computing 6, no. 3 (2008): 317-333.

This paper proposes a design methodology for the manufacture of complex, double-curved surfaces based on the digital reconstruction of traditional structural and constructive elements of Chiloean boats. It also suggests a beneficial association between digital design and CAD CAM for manufacture using locally crafted construction techniques. The incorporation of innovated contemporary digital design and fabrication tools into traditional construction systems, aims to optimize and perpetuate traditional artisanal craft construction of complex shapes developed in the south of Chile. The importance of this research in budget-restricted economies, lies in the possibility of applying local construction and assembly techniques to new sophisticated designs that may satisfy the country's architectural needs. Scale models are used to record the design process and constructive development while information flow charts document the design methodology for the construction of complex geometries.

Ahlquist, Sean, and Moritz Fleischmann. "Elemental Methods for Integrated Architectures: Experimentation with Design Processes for Cable Net Structures." International Journal of Architectural Computing 6, no. 4 (2008): 453-475.

Tension active systems are compelling architectural structures having an intimate connection between structural performance and the arrangement of material. The direct flow of structural forces through the material makes these systems attractive and unique from an aesthetic point of view, but they are a challenge to develop from a design and an engineering perspective. Traditional methods for solving such structural systems rely on both analog modelling techniques and the use of highly advanced engineering software. The complexity and laborious nature of both processes presents a challenge for iterating through design variations. To experiment with the spacemaking capabilities of tension active systems, it is necessary to design methods that can actively couple the digital simulation with the analog methods for building the physical structure. What we propose is a designer-authored process that digitally simulates the behaviours of tension active systems using simple geometric components related to material and structural performance, activated and varied through elemental techniques of scripting. The logics for manufacturing and assembly are to be embedded in the digital generation of form. The intention is to transform what is a highly engineered system into an architectural system where investigation is as much about the determination of space and environment as it is about the arrangement of structure and material.

Larsen, Knut Einar, and Christoph Schindler. "From Concept to Reality: Digital Systems in Architectural Design and Fabrication." International Journal of Architectural Computing 6, no. 4 (2008): 397-413.

One of the challenges for today's architectural designers is the establishment of continuous digital processes between design and fabrication. To achieve this, designers need to acquire knowledge about the production and the methods and tools involved. Two case studies organized at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) on digital timber fabrication investigate the new field of collaboration between architectural designers and fabricators. The studies demonstrate the design potential of acquiring insights into the fabricators'software and digital production machinery and reflect contemporary fabrication technology in formal expression. We identified two different approaches to formal exploration that we defined as “sophistication of the detail” and “variation of the element”.

Kotsopoulos, Sotirios. "From Design Concepts to Design Descriptions." International Journal of Architectural Computing 6, no. 3 (2008): 335-359.

The paper examines the process of articulation and development of design concepts from a computational standpoint. The context of the research is the architectural studio and the process of designing from scratch. The scope of the research is educational. Shape grammar formalism is used in a retrospective analysis, to show how the concept of “porosity” was used by architect Steven Holl and his team in designing Simmons Hall, a 350-unit student residence, at MIT.

Ophir, iv, Yan. "Go with the flow: particle systems for program modeling in high-rise buildings." International Journal of Architectural Computing 6, no. 2 (2008): 171-196.

This paper revisits the particle flow system, a time-based computational tool, which has received a lot of attention from the early pioneers of digital architecture. The use of particle flow systems in architecture enables designers to materialize what they term as site forces which can later be formalized into a building. The methods offered by various designers for using particle flow systems in architecture have kept the discourse purely formal by focusing on the exterior and neglecting the interior. This paper offers a different way of using and conceptualizing particle flow systems in architecture. Shifting the emphasis from the formal, the paper aims to show the potential of using particle flow systems as a parametric model for exploring the spatial organization of an architectural program. This paper also illustrates the application of the proposed computational model, i.e., the particle flow system, by using a case study - the design of a high-rise building in downtown Tel Aviv, Israel.

Barros, Diana Rodríguez, Dora Castañé, and Alfredo Stipech. "Hypermedia urban models in virtual environments: Case studies of central areas of Argentine cities." International Journal of Architectural Computing 6, no. 3 (2008): 221-241.

The virtual models of urban fragments recreate environments of simulation and analysis with a great degree of realism. This paper addresses a review of case studies in which Argentine researchers from three different university centres have worked jointly. We examine spatial databases from a representational and communicational perspective as virtual 3D, walkthrough, and interconnected urban models. Our aim is to explore, recognise and analyse advances in this direction, and to apply them to the development of virtual models of central areas in the Argentine cities of Buenos Aires, Rosario, Santa Fe and Mar del Plata. We present the methodology used to analyse the design, production and management processes of the virtual model as well as the results of our research. We acknowledge that these models are consistent non-traditional instruments of analysis which complement the knowledge of the city and facilitate spatial comprehension. Finally, we review predominant tendencies.

Kobayashi, Yoshihiro, and Wael Abdelhameed. "Implementations and Applications of DesignMap: Case Studies to Manage an Online Database of Visual Designs." International Journal of Architectural Computing 6, no. 3 (2008): 243-258.

This research introduces state-of-the-art techniques in the areas of online libraries, communities, and forums. The research endeavours to describe a computer system called DesignMap that could be categorized as a visual design forum. This system encourages networking and can also be applied as a visual design library. The DesignMap system, which manages and displays a massive number of visual designs in two and three dimensions, was presented and discussed in a previous research. This project, however, is concerned with the application of DesignMap as a tool to search, visualize, modify, and then add designs in a map, these designs are classified based on their formal properties of object relationships. DesignMap users have access to any part or category in the map. The resulting design series created by users of this system present a new and unique form of design collaboration. The research also investigates several applications of the DesignMap system.

Hudson, Roly. "Knowledge Acquisition in Parametric Model Development." International Journal of Architectural Computing 6, no. 4 (2008): 435-451.

This paper addresses the development of parametric models in contemporary architectural practice. A parametric model can be regarded as a representation of a solution space and in order to structure this, a description of the problem is required. Architectural design tasks are typically ill structured, the goals may not be defined and the means unknown. Moving from an incomplete problem description to a functional parametric model is a difficult task. This paper aims to demonstrate that through a combination of knowledge acquisition and capture a parametric model can develop from an incomplete problem description. This demonstration draws on existing strands of design theory which are then used to outline a theoretical framework. This framework is then used to examine a case study of a live project and practical examples of the described theory in action are given. The practical observations are the result of a case study involving the author as a participant and observer working with HOK Sport to develop a cladding geometry solution for Lansdowne Road Stadium in Dublin.

Baltazar, Ana Paula, Silke Kapp, Denise Morado Nascimento, Rodrigo Marcandier Gonçalves, Sulamita Fonseca Lino, Mara Lidia Rodr Coelho, Amanda Alves Olalquiaga, Felipe Jose Gontijo, Joana Vieira da Silva, and Pedro Arthur Nov Magalhaes. "Noncopyright and the Digital Interface to Support the Autonomous Production of Dwellings." International Journal of Architectural Computing 6, no. 3 (2008): 279-297.

This paper presents the discussions on intellectual property crucial for the research group MOM to develop the system IDA (digital interface for supporting autonomous production of dwellings). It first introduces IDA, its conceptual framework, its database and its interactive interface. Then, it examines the arguments for copyright, identifying them as myths or disguises of other intentions, usually based on perpetuating privileges. From that it discusses the way IDA approaches interaction as a means to break the usual logic of perpetuating privileges in digital systems. This leads to examining some anti-copyright movements concluding that they follow the same logic of register of the copyright. Thus, noncopyright seems to be the best means to protest against the current logic and for conveying information towards autonomy of users in their processes of production of space. It also points to an alternative use of computers in architecture as proposed in IDA, which is not based on representation but on interaction.

Park, Hyoung-June. "Parametric Variations of Palladio's Villa Rotonda." International Journal of Architectural Computing 6, no. 2 (2008): 145-169.

A computational tool for the study of proportional balance is introduced as an apparatus for investigating Andrea Palladio's design of Villa Almerico, more familiarly known as Villa Rotonda, in the second book of his Quattro Libri dell'Architettura. The objective of this investigation of Villa Rotonda is to find a novel outcome from the morphological transformations of the villa, where the transformations are generated from parametric variations of the villa while maximizing its proportional balance. The outcome confirms Palladio's mastery of proportional treatments of his design of Villa Rotonda and shows various morphological descendants evolved from the original design. It suggests a new way of employing a parametric geometry in the formal study of a classical building and its stylistic evolution.

Oxman, Rivka. "Performance-based Design: Current Practices and Research Issues." International Journal of Architectural Computing 6, no. 1 (2008): 01-17.

In view of current developments in the theory and technology of digital design, potential novel directions for environments that support performance-based design are beginning to emerge. The field of performance-based design is defined through an analysis of current work in the field. Various models of performance-based architectural design are presented and discussed. On the basis of this analysis, key concepts and issues in the application of performance-based design in architecture are defined and certain research directions for the development of new approaches are presented. Finally we propose a new approach termed: Performative Design. Performative Design suggests that in creating simulation environments for performance-based architectural design both generative and evaluative capabilities can be integrated within performance-based simulations. The potential of performance-based simulation as a model of performance-based design is explored through a case study from an experimental digital design studio. Implication of this work on future research directions in the field is explicated.

Maleki, Maryam, and Robert F. Woodbury. "Reinterpreting Rasmi Domes with Geometric Constraints:A Case of Goal-seeking in Parametric Systems." International Journal of Architectural Computing 6, no. 4 (2008): 375-395.

Geometry has long been a generator of architecture. In traditional Persian architecture, Rasmi domes project a drawing onto a predefined 3D geometry. In fact, the word'rasmi'and the verb for drawing in Persian have the same linguistic root. Projection is readily done in manual drawings or conventional CAD programs. From a constraint perspective, the dome is constrained by the drawing and the 3D geometry. If the latter constraint is replaced by invariance of distance on the original drawing, a class of domes results, but members of this class cannot be computed conventionally. Class members are developable from a planar layout of triangles, which is, in turn, generated by a simple drawing rule. This yields a parametric structure of four parameters. Three determine the initial planar diagram. One determines configuration. Further, domes in the class are mechanisms: they are not fully specified by the constraints and parameters. We develop the geometric constraints representing the location of the defining points of a dome and present a goal-seeking algorithm to solve the constraints within a propagation-based parametric modelling system.

Lim, Sungwoo, Miquel Prats, Iestyn Jowers, Scott C. Chase, Steve Garner, and Alison McKay. "Shape Exploration in Design: Formalising and Supporting a Transformational Process." International Journal of Architectural Computing 6, no. 4 (2008): 415-433.

The process of sketching can support the sort of transformational thinking that is seen as essential for the interpretation and reinterpretation of ideas in innovative design. Such transformational thinking, however, is not yet well supported by computer-aided design systems. In this paper, outcomes of experimental investigations into the mechanics of sketching are described, in particular those employed by practicing architects and industrial designers as they responded to a series of conceptual design tasks. Analyses of the experimental data suggest that the interactions of designers with their sketches can be formalised according to a finite number of generalised shape rules. A set of shape rules, formalising the reinterpretation and transformations of shapes, e.g. through deformation or restructuring, is presented. These rules are suggestive of the manipulations that need to be afforded in computational tools intended to support designers in design exploration. Accordingly, the results of the experimental investigations informed the development of a prototype shape synthesis system, and a discussion is presented in which the future requirements of such systems are explored.

Tonn, Christian, Frank Petzold, Oliver Bimber, Anselm Grundhofer, and Dirk Donath. "Spatial Augmented Reality for Architecture Designing and planning with and within existing buildings." International Journal of Architectural Computing 6, no. 1 (2008): 41-58.

At present, more than half of all building activity in the German building sector is undertaken within existing built contexts. The development of a conceptual and technological basis for the digital support of design directly on site, within an existing building context is the focus of the research project “Spatial Augmented Reality for Architecture” (SAR). This paper describes the goals achieved in one aspect of the project: the sampling of colors and materials at a scale of 1:1 using Augmented Reality (AR) technologies. We present initial results from the project, the development of an ad-hoc visualization of interactive data on arbitrary surfaces in real-world indoor environments using a mobile hardware setup. With this, it was possible to project the color and material qualities of a design directly onto almost all surfaces within a geometrically corrected, existing building. Initially, a software prototype “Spatial Augmented Reality for Architecture-Colored Architecture” (SAR-CA) was developed and then assessed based on evaluation results from a user study.

Schein, Markus, and Oliver Tessmann. "Structural Analysis as Driver in Surface-Based Design Approaches." International Journal of Architectural Computing 6, no. 1 (2008): 19-39.

This research argues for novel strategies to integrate structural analysis data in architectural design. Instead of a linear procedure of analysis, synthesis, evaluation and post-rationalization a synthesis/evaluation loop is installed which embeds structural analysis data as design driver from early on. The approach regards structural performance as one design criteria within a network of different requirements. An equilibrium of multiple parameters is aspired to instead of a single-parameter-optimum. The research is conducted via a custom-made digital interface between 3d modelling software and an application for structural analysis of space frames. The information exchange provides the basis for successive strategies within a collaborative design process of spatial roof structures: negotiation of an overall form and a multi-dimensional improvement of space frame topologies by a Genetic Algorithm (GA).

Silva, Erivelton, and Rodrigo Paraizo. "Urban Projects Database Based on Alexander's Pattern Language:The Case of Favela-Bairro." International Journal of Architectural Computing 6, no. 3 (2008): 261-277.

This paper describes a system for searching and retrieving urban design drawings developed or contracted by public or governmental entities. We assume that in governmental public programs with similar goals recreating solutions is a daily action, which is, clearly, an unnecessary waste of time and resources. The system presented in this paper aims at concentrating and organizing this information in order to allow urban planners and designers to search for existing solutions to their projects and answers to their current needs.