Keywords Abstract
Velasco, Guillermo Vasquez. "A Group of Friends: the Las Americas Network, Virtual Studios, and Distance Education in Architecture." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 3 (2007): 455-468.

This paper celebrates the human factor by describing how our collective vocation towards innovation in design education has inspired the development of an active network across the Americas. Ten years after its creation, the Las Americas Digital Research Network has generated a stream of innovative implementations. This is the first time that the main stream of these research activities is articulated into a peer-reviewed journal publication. The narrative of the paper follows a time-line that starts with the creation of the Las Americas Digital Research Network in 1996. Supported by such a framework the paper continues to describe the implementation of virtual design studios as collaborations nested at the core of the network. Finally, the paper explains how the virtual design studios provide fundamental feasibility for the development of network-mediated distance education curricula in architecture and the opening of a new dimension in the development and deployment of collaborative networks.

Ioannidis, Charalabos, Chryssy Potsiou, and Sofia Soile. "A Spatial Information System for the Archaeological Site of Mycenae." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 2 (2007): 376-394.

Digital and automated photogrammetric procedures, developed for the collection and management of spatial data, and terrestrial laser scanning systems provide new capabilities for documentation of archaeological monuments and sites. Also, special tools in Spatial Information Systems and production of virtual models have been developed. Their combination provides relevant scientists (architects, archaeologists, etc) and users with a variety of options for the creation of integrated systems capable for documentation, restoration and cultural development of archaeological sites. Detailed 2D and 3D representation of the current condition of the site, development of a multi-purpose SIS, and introduction of modern digital products at a local museum, such as 3D models, creation of virtual environment and Web applications are some of them. Application of such techniques and systems was made to the archaeological site of the Mycenae in Greece, one of the most important sites worldwide.

Geva, Anat, and Anuradha Mukherji. "A Study of Light/Darkness in Sacred Settings: Digital Simulations." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 3 (2007): 507-521.

Studying light/darkness and sacred architecture reveals that the “holyi light dramatizes the spiritual state and affects the mood of the user in the sacred space. Furthermore, it shows that faith dictates the treatment of light/darkness in the sacred setting as means to enhance the spiritual experience. These two premises were investigated by conducting digital daylight simulations on the Brihadeshvara Hindu Temple (1010 AD) of Tanjore, Tamilnadu, India. This sacred monument, listed as one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites, is an intriguing case study since the treatment of the'holy light'in the temple is actually the treatment of the'holy darkness'. The simulated values were compared to the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) standards. The results demonstrate that digitized simulations can illustrate the significance of light/darkness in sacred settings as a spiritual experience. Moreover, this quantitative investigation can augment the qualitative studies in the field of historic sacred architecture. The work presented here unites and extends some previously published work.

Hanna, Sean. "Automated Representation of Style by Feature Space Archetypes: Distinguishing Spatial Styles from Generative Rules." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 1 (2007): 02-23.

Style is a broad term that could potentially refer to any features of a work, as well as a fluid concept that is subject to change and disagreement, yet approaches to representing it too often seek either a pre-defined set of generative rules or list of measurable features. Instead, a general and flexible method of retrospectively and automatically representing style is proposed based on the idea of an archetype, to which real designs can be compared, and tested with examples of architectural plans. Unlike a fixed, symbolic representation, both the measurements of features that define a style and the selection of those features themselves can be performed by the machine, making it able to generalise a definition automatically from a set of examples. This process is implemented in analysis, and coupled with a generative algorithm to produce plans in a learned style.

Coyne, Richard, Raymond Lucas, Jia Li, Martin Parker, and John Lee. "Co-operation and Complicity Voices, Robots, and Tricksters in the Digital Marketplace." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 1 (2007): 162-175.

We advocate the theme of complicity, ahead of co-operation, as a means of understanding complex, interactive digital systems. Our case study of a market precinct known as the Barras, about one mile from the centre of the city of Glasgow, foregrounds the notion of complicity. Market places are characterized not only by co-operation in rule-governed environments, but complicity between actors as a means of breaking rules, working at the boundaries of formal frameworks, avoiding other actors, such as law enforcers, and even working with them in tacitly agreed evasion strategies. We present the human voice (as exercised in the case of market stall holders drawing attention to their wares) as a major medium of complicity. In our application of these ideas we deploy Lego Mindstorms TM RCX robot processing to explore interactions between a mobile sensing robot and simple environmental controls: movements of sliding screens in response to an autonomous mobile sensor. As well as their benign characteristics as co-operating agents, we argue for a consideration of robots as quintessential tricksters, plotting and scheming strategies of survival, evasion and opportunism. Traits that can be employed in the development of useful augmented environments.

Quintero, Mario Santana, Bill Blake, and Rand Eppich. "Conservation of Architectural Heritage:The Role of Digital Documentation Tools:The Need for Appropriate Teaching Material." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 2 (2007): 240-253.

Currently, a wide range of digital sensors for capturing our architectural heritage are available. They offer the opportunity to acquire large sets of information in a relatively short time. These sensors include digital photography (photogrammetry-scaled rectified photography), total stations, laser scanners, high-resolution panoramic devices, etc. A lot of effort has been put in the application of these tools in the field of conservation, however a significant gap exists between the information needed by professionals working in the field of conservation and manufacturers claims of these new technologies. The realistic application of these tools for heritage documentation products needs to be addressed. Offering the architectural heritage community didactic material on how and when to use these tools appropriately can address this gap. This paper presents the teaching material being prepared under the CIPA/RecorDIM initiative to overcome these issues and begins to address the need for a common framework of standards in heritage documentation.

Jachna, Timothy, Y. Santo, and N. Schadewitz. "Deep Space." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 1 (2007): 146-160.

The work described here explores the problem of how digital technologies can enrich the experience of spatiality and social interaction in space(s). An existing café space at the School of Design of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University is linked to a “twini in the form of an online-accessible environment. Sensors and displays establish channels of communication between the virtual and the physical space, enabling on-site visitors to the café and online visitors to the website to share a spatial experience. The article explains the design of modes of communication between the spaces, outlining the theory and genesis of the project and discussing issues and principles in the design and realization of such spaces, including the interplay between the three-dimensionality of the physical space and the two-dimensional picture-plane-based monitor interface through which the website is experienced, as well as strategies for the transmission of spatial experience within the constraints of commonly-available hardware and software.

Wierzbicki, Madalina, and Clarence de Silva. "Design Tools for Foldable Structures with Application of Fuzzy Logic." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 4 (2007): 645-662.

Rigidly foldable shells offer tremendous potential for developing kinetic architectural structures. However, the added element of motion poses new design challenges. Initially, sketchy shell geometry is constructed to reflect the intended form. Further steps involve assuring an error free folding within a range that satisfies desired functional requirements. The kinematics of a parallel topology of the shell's geometry is difficult to express algorithmically what prevents from developing of automated adjustment tools based on computational methods. The geometry can be adjusted manually based on intuitive observations, however the process is tedious, time consuming and unpredictable. This paper develops automated adjustment tools based on the intuitive approach of a human designer. The study applies the fuzzy logic formalism as a computational interface between human approach and structured adjustments to the geometry. The advantages of fuzzy logic stem from its natural ability to represent human knowledge and effectiveness in reconciling ambiguities, uncertainties and redundancies that the intuitive human approach brings along. The development steps of fuzzy logic based algorithm are presented. Performed evaluation tests and the results are discussed.

El-Hakim, Sabry, Lorenzo Gonzo, Francesca Voltolini, Stefano Girardi, Alessandro Rizzi, Fabio Remondino, and Emily Whiting. "Detailed 3D Modelling of Castles." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 2 (2007): 200-220.

Digitally documenting complex heritage sites such as castles is a desirable yet difficult task with no established framework. Although 3D digitizing and modelling with laser scanners, Photogrammetry, and computer aided architectural design (CAAD) are maturing, each alone is inadequate to model an entire castle in details. We present a sequential approach that combines multiple techniques, each where best suited, to capture and model the fine geometric detail of castles. We provide new contributions in several areas: an effective workflow for castle 3D modelling, increasing the level of automation and the seamless integration of models created independently from different data sets. We tested the approach on various castles in Northern Italy and the results demonstrated that it is effective, accurate, and creates highly detailed models suitable for interactive visualization. It is also equally applicable to other types of large complex architectures.

Okamura, Tomoaki, Naoko Fukami, Charles Robert, and Frederic Andres. "Digital Resource Semantic Management of Islamic Buildings Case Study on Isfahan Islamic Architecture Digital Collection." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 2 (2007): 356-373.

This article describes an innovative way to facilitate and to provide a collaborative semantic management of digital resources of Islamic historical buildings. The approach combines a topic maps-based semantic support to the 5W1H model (Where, Who, When, What, Who and How) with objective of enabling comprehensive semantics of digital contents for research and education purposes. The topic maps-based semantic support enables to reduce the problems of semantic gaps among different communities (cultural, linguistic ambiguities among various types of multi-disciplinary experts). Furthermore, a multi-faceted resource category management, applied to metadata sets and related semantic features, allows metadata optimization of the description of the cultural resources. This innovative approach has been used to build the Isfahan Islamic Architecture Database (IIAD) Collection as a case study. The research demonstrates that a topic maps-based semantic model applied to collaborative metadata management paradigms can be easily exploited as a tool to enhance traditional architectural and cross-disciplinary studies.

Wyeld, Theodor, Joti Carroll, Craig Gibbons, Brendan Ledwich, Brett Leavy, James Hills, and Michael Docherty. "Doing Cultural Heritage Using the Torque Game Engine: Supporting Indigenous Storytelling in a 3D Virtual Environment." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 2 (2007): 418-435.

Digital Songlines (DSL) is an Australasian CRC for Interaction Design (ACID) project that is developing protocols, methodologies and toolkits to facilitate the collection, education and sharing of indigenous cultural heritage knowledge. This paper outlines the goals achieved over the last three years in the development of the Digital Songlines game engine (DSE) toolkit that is used for Australian Indigenous storytelling. The project explores the sharing of indigenous Australian Aboriginal storytelling in a sensitive manner using a game engine. The use of the game engine in the field of Cultural Heritage is expanding. They are an important tool for the recording and re-presentation of historically, culturally, and sociologically significant places, infrastructure, and artefacts, as well as the stories that are associated with them. The DSL implementation of a game engine to share storytelling provides an educational interface. Where the DSL implementation of a game engine in a CH application differs from others is in the nature of the game environment itself. It is modelled on the'country'(the'place'of their heritage which is so important to the clients'collective identity) and authentic fauna and flora that provides a highly contextualised setting for the stories to be told. This paper provides an overview on the development of the DSL game engine.

Paterson, Inga. "Experiencing Architectural Interiors and Exteriors in Computer Games." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 1 (2007): 128-143.

This paper looks at the design of “place” in a game environment. It sets out to present a way of analyzing and evaluating game environments using Brian Sutton Smith's seven rhetorics of play as a framework. The question this paper investigates, is what can be learnt from our intrinsic ability to navigate our environment in relation to play? Physical architecture offers the game designer metaphors for virtual worlds that have meaning based on experiences people associate with them. True innovation in game-world design requires an understanding of our built environment that extends beyond the surface aesthetic appeal of architecture, through concentration on the way we experience architecture and interact with our built environment.

Nir, Eyal. "From No-Dimensions to N-Dimensions with Parametric Point-Clouds." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 1 (2007): 46-59.

This paper presents an innovative approach towards parametric design using point-clouds as design media. Exposing the internal numeric representation of digital models led to the development of parametric point-clouds as design drivers. A parametric point-cloud concept is presented in this paper, exploring its potential application for behaviour modelling, generative design and performance-driven design of building envelopes.

Koutamanis, Alexander. "Fuzzy Modelling for Early Architectural Design." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 4 (2007): 589-610.

Fuzzy modelling is simultaneously an extension of existing modelling approaches and a negation of one of their main aspects, the crispness of their definition. As a digital equivalent of analogue sketching it allows designers to register and manipulate imprecise and uncertain information. In the framework of design representations fuzzy modelling supports the development of conceptual design models characterized by flexible definition and interaction. The main advantages of such models are fluency, abstraction and continuity, at a level similar to that of analogue techniques. In addition to that they offer the possibility of local autonomy, i.e. segmentation of a representation into self-regulating and cooperating components. Three alternative forms of fuzzy modelling are proposed: (1) Canonical objects with tolerances, (2) objects described by minimal and maximal values, and (3) point sets comprising discrete, autonomous particles that describe the object by their spatial or structural relationships.

Jabi, Wassim, and Iakovos Potamianos. "Geometry, Light, and Cosmology in the Church of Hagia Sophia." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 2 (2007): 304-319.

Designed by a physicist and a mathematician, the Hagia Sophia church in Istanbul, Turkey acted as an experimental test case in which advanced knowledge of geometrical constructs, sophisticated understanding of light behaviour, and religious and cosmological beliefs combined to create a magnificent structure. While some of its design concepts are known, many remain hidden. Earthquakes have demolished parts of the church ? such as the original dome. Researchers have in the past misinterpreted their observations and perpetuated false conclusions. Lastly, the lack of digital tools has until now prevented verification and analysis of prior findings. In this paper, we integrate traditional historical research, parametric digital analysis, and lighting simulation to analyze several aspects of the church. In particular, we focus on the geometry of the floor plan, the geometry of the apse, and light behaviour in the original dome. Our findings point to the potential of digital tools in the discovery of a structure's hidden features and design rules.

Oxman, Neri. "Get Real Towards Performance-Driven Computational Geometry." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 4 (2007): 663-684.

In historic design conventions geometry has traditionally promoted descriptive manifestations of form. Beyond the realm of geometry, the concept of performance which may inform such manifestations also carries important potential for design generation. This work explores the relation between geometry and performance from a computational-geometry perspective. It does so by revisiting certain analytical tools offered in most of today's 3-D modelers which support the evaluation of any generated surface geometry specifically curvature and draft angle analysis. It is demonstrated that these tools can be reconstructed with added functionality assigning 3-D geometrical features informed by structural and environmental performance respectively. In the examples illustrated surface thickness (as a function of structural performance) is assigned to curvature values, and transparency (as a function of light performance) is assigned to light analysis values. In a broader scope this work promotes a methodology of performance-informed form generation by means of computational geometry. Vector and tensor math was exploited to reconstruct existing analytical tools adapted to function as design generators.

Neumann, Oliver, and Daniel Schmidt. "Innovative CNC Timber Framing - Technology and Cultural Expression." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 3 (2007): 469-486.

he design-build project for the outdoor theater roof structure at the UBC Malcolm Knapp Research Forest at Maple Ridge, British Columbia, explores technical, spatial, and cultural aspects of CNC wood fabrication. References for the project are technological innovation and formal expression of contemporary wood structures. The roof project illustrates how spatial concepts are informed by the logic of fabrication and methods of assembly. A reciprocal relationship between technology, space, and locale suggests that the introduction of new technology coincides with new spatial concepts. Innovative design in this project is defined as work that resonates at the intersection of the fields of technology, material science, manufacturing processes, and techniques of assembly that constitute the expanded context that projects need to engage. It is through collaborative design research on CNC wood fabrication technologies that common design and building practice is put into question, and boundaries are explored and expanded.

Ioannidis, Charalabos, and Andreas Georgopoulos. "Innovative Techniques for the Acquisition and Processing of Multisource Data for the Geometric Documentation of Monuments." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 2 (2007): 180-197.

Documenting the past of mankind comprises, among other activities, the survey of monuments and cultural artefacts, for long provided by archaeologists and architects using traditional methods. However, due to the recent major technological advances in surveying, photogrammetric and laser scanning methods, surveyors are enabled to produce recording materials and end products, which surpass by far the traditional line drawings in terms of accuracy and completeness. These methodologies are able to offer products like orthophotos, raster developments, 3D representations and realistic visualizations as well as augmented reality tours. This paper investigates the principles and capabilities of contemporary and technologically advanced methods in: capturing huge amount of detailed, accurate and reliable 3D data, modelling of existing and virtual reality, management of 3D or image-based databases. Several examples covering a broad variety of cases, regarding the historical era, the size and the complexity of the monument and also the final products are presented.

Kieferle, Joachim, Uwe Wössner, and Martin Becker. "Interactive Simulation in Virtual Environments - a Design Tool for Planners and Architects." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 1 (2007): 116-126.

Simulations can assist planners in optimizing their design and in minimizing its environmental impact. By adjusting the architecture according to simulation results, and running further simulations based on the adjusted design, an iterative process can help to increase the design quality. Up to now computing simulations have taken a long time, thus only a very limited number of iterations could be calculated. This project shows an approach that is close to a real time simulation. By dividing the simulation into smaller parts and running the software on clusters or vector supercomputers, first results are available within several seconds, and reasonable results in less than one minute. Besides the technical features, another focus is the easy accessibility of the simulation. Intuitive methods like a tangible user interface provide easy interaction methods for specialists as well as non specialists. The results of the simulation can be visualized and interacted with from the desktop or any kind of virtual environments. Further aspects like limitations of automatic grid generation, shape recognition and computation power are discussed.

Tramontano, Marcelo, and Guto Requena. "Living ways: design processes of a hybrid spatiality." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 3 (2007): 535-549.

This paper presents some architectural housing projects designed by architects in different parts of the world, considering concepts originated from the virtuality domain. Some designers propose the beginning of an interaction between the user and its dwelling that attempts to overcome the functionalist slant of so-called residential automation. After examining different approaches and proposals, ten points are presented as items for an agenda of debates. The brief and introductory analysis proposed hereby is part of undergoing studies at the Nomads. usp Center for Interactive-Living Studies (, of the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Oxman, Neri, and Jesse Rosenberg. "Material-based Design Computation: an Inquiry into Digital Simulation of Physical Material Properties as Design Generators." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 1 (2007): 26-44.

The paper demonstrates the association between geometry and material behaviour, specifically the elastic properties of resin impregnated latex membranes, by means of homogenizing protocols which translate physical properties into geometrical functions. Resin-impregnation patterns are applied to 2-D pre-stretched form-active tension systems to induce 3-D curvature upon release. This method enables form-finding based on material properties, organization and behaviour. Some theoretical foundations for material-computation are outlined. A digital tool developed in the Processing (JAVA coded) environment demonstrates the simulation of material behaviour and its prediction under specific environmental conditions. Finally, conclusions are drawn from the physical and digital explorations which redefine generative material-based design computation, supporting a synergetic approach to design integrating form, structure, material and environment.

Burry, Jane. "Mindful Spaces: Computational Geometry and the Conceptual Spaces in which Designers Operate." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 4 (2007): 611-624.

Combinatorial computational geometry, while dealing with geometric objects as discrete entities, provides the means both to analyse and to construct relationships between these objects and relate them to other non-geometrical entities. This paper explores some ways in which this may be used in design through a review of six, one-semester-long design explorations by undergraduate and postgraduate students in the Flexible Modelling for Design and Prototyping course between 2004 and 2007. The course focuses on using computational geometry firstly to construct topologically defined design models based on graphs of relationships between objects (parametric design,) and concurrently to output physical prototypes from these “flexible models”(an application of numerical computational geometry). It supports students to make early design explorations. Many have built flexible models to explore design iterations for a static spatial outcome. Some have built models of real time responsive dynamic systems. In this educational context, computational geometry has enabled a range of design iterations that would have been challenging to uncover through physical analogue means alone. It has, perhaps more significantly, extended the students'own concept of the space in which they design.

Papagiannakis, George, and Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann. "Mobile Augmented Heritage: Enabling Human Life in Ancient Pompeii." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 2 (2007): 396-415.

We propose a new methodology for real-time mobile mixed reality systems that feature realistic simulations of animated virtual human actors (clothes, body, skin, face) who augment real environments and re-enact staged storytelling dramas. Although initially targeted at Cultural Heritage Sites, the paradigm is by no means limited to such subjects. The abandonment of traditional concepts of static cultural artifacts or rigid geometrical and 2D textual augmentations with 3D, interactive, augmented historical character-based event representations in a mobile and wearable setup, is the main contribution of the described work as well as the proposed extensions to AR Enabling technologies: a VR/AR character simulation kernel framework with character to object interaction, a markerless camera tracker specialized for non-invasive geometrical registration on heritage sites and a PRT mixed reality illumination model for more consistent real-virtual real-time rendering. We demonstrate a real-time case study on the actual site of ancient Pompeii.

Ruiz-Tagle, Javier. "Modeling and Simulating the City: Deciphering the Code of a Game of Strategy." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 3 (2007): 571-586.

This research includes a new teaching proposal for architecture and geography, based on Systems Theory and Dynamics Systems, aimed at improving the understanding of the complex structure and dynamics of the city. SimCity, a game of strategy that allows us to design and to plan the city, is used as the software, with the aim of conducting didactic experiments, and integrating the complex relations that configure the city. The methodology incorporated theoretical and experimental stages, and concluded with a simulation exercise. The exercise had a very good reception, as a method for learning and research, creating a great aptitude for generating good research questions, by making many variables visible simultaneously. The research has developed, and participants have, subsequently, been exposed to the second version of the course, where new concepts are being integrated (emergence and cellular automata) to deepen the theoretical base, and to allow further analysis and experimentation with the game.

White, Martin, Panagiotis Petridis, Fotis Liarokapis, and Daniel Plecinckx. "Multimodal Mixed Reality Interfaces for Visualizing Digital Heritage." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 2 (2007): 322-337.

We have developed several digital heritage interfaces that utilize Web3D, virtual and augmented reality technologies for visualizing digital heritage in an interactive manner through the use of several different input devices. We propose in this paper an integration of these technologies to provide a novel multimodal mixed reality interface that facilitates the implementation of more interesting digital heritage exhibitions. With such exhibitions participants can switch dynamically between virtual web-based environments to indoor augmented reality environments as well as make use of various multimodal interaction techniques to better explore heritage information in the virtual museum. The museum visitor can potentially experience their digital heritage in the physical sense in the museum, then explore further through the web, visualize this heritage in the round (3D on the web), take that 3D artifact into the augmented reality domain (the real world) and explore it further using various multimodal interfaces.

Bessone, Miriam, and Ricardo Perez Miro. "Music and Architecture: Bonds, Interrelations, Transductions." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 3 (2007): 551-569.

Digital technology and knowledge integration between musicians and architects enable us to explore and redefine links between music and architecture. This paper describes the experience and results of the creative processes undertaken by music and architecture students and academics to achieve a hyper-medial composition. The processes embrace the simultaneous construction from music to visual form and vice-versa. This exploration is originated from electro-acoustic music works, written ad-hoc, and based on specific assignments especially designed and framed within two types of situations and links with digital technologies: independent actions and interrelated actions. The intention of this work is to obtain constants and/or variables capable of allowing a certain type of graphic conventionalization that will make possible the mathematic representation previously necessary to create specific software tools.

Kalay, Yehuda, and Paul Grabowicz. "Oakland Blues: Virtual Preservation of Seventh Street's 1950'5 Jazz Scene." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 2 (2007): 438-453.

Digital technologies are becoming a popular vehicle for the re-creation and dissemination of cultural heritage, in the form of modelling buildings, people, and their activities. Video game engines can be used to let user virtually “inhabit” the digitally recreated worlds made accessible via the Internet, opening them up to people who otherwise would never be exposed to these cultural sites. Yet, like every medium ever used to preserve cultural heritage, digital media is not neutral: it impacts the represented content and the ways the audience interprets it. Perhaps more than any older technology, it has the potential to affect the very meaning of the represented content in terms of the cultural image it creates. This paper examines the applications and implications of digital media for the recreation and communication of cultural heritage, drawing on the lessons learned from a project to recreate the thriving jazz and blues club scene in West Oakland, California, in the 1940s and 1950s.

Holzer, Dominik, Richard Hough, and Mark Burry. "Parametric Design and Structural Optimisation for Early Design Exploration." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 4 (2007): 625-643.

The investigation presented in this paper focuses on the following questions: How can engineering and architectural expertise, assisted by a process of digital optimisation, promote structural awareness regarding design alterations in the conceptual design stages? Can building geometry be set up computationally to render it sensitive to structural input? Which software tools are required to foster this interaction and what kind of decision support is needed to allow both architects and structural engineers to interact concurrently in this optimisation process? The authors of this paper form a team of researchers and practitioners from architectural and structural engineering background who combine their efforts to address the issue of interconnecting design intelligence across disciplines and advancing revised work methodologies in practice assisted by academic research. The research has shown that an integrated transfer of design information between architectural and structural designers in the early stages is beneficial to the collaboration if experts from both professions agree on common goals and define suitability rules that guide optimisation processes from the very beginning. To enable this, software tools are required that provide ad hoc decision support to create a wider array of informed design alternatives from which to choose.

Hernandez, Luis, Javier Taibo, David Blanco, Jose Iglesias, Antonio Seoane, Alberto Jaspe, and Rocio Lopez. "Physically Walking in Digital Spaces - a Virtual Reality Installation for Exploration of Historical Heritage." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 3 (2007): 487-506.

Immersive Virtual Reality Systems have been extensively used during recent years for the exploration of architectonic spaces. This paper describes how the use of transitable immersive virtual reality systems, that is, those that allow the user to physically walk while exploring the virtual world, can greatly empower the experience of perception of space in architecture. The text describes a particular example of one installation of this kind that was developed by the authors and how it was implemented for the interactive experience of the virtual reconstruction of a housing unit on a pre-roman settlement. This installation is open to the public as part of a permanent exhibition and constitutes the final output of the research at this time.

Pavlidis, George, Despoina Tsiafakis, Vassilios Tsioukas, Anestis Koutsoudis, Fotis Arnaoutoglou, and Christodoulos Chamzas. "Preservation of Architectural Heritage Through 3D Digitization." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 2 (2007): 222-237.

Continuity and relation to the past are inherent in human nature. The remains of the past constitute culture and cultural heritage. Preservation and dissemination of cultural heritage appear to be, nowadays, a universal priority. Historic/architectural monuments are among the most significant categories of cultural heritage and their 3D digitization appears to be a chief way towards that direction. 3D digitization of architectural heritage is a very specific problem in the digitization domain. Since size, budget and applicability are some of the most important factors in choosing an appropriate digitization method, and since there is not an all-in-one solution in digitization, this problem cannot be always addressed by using one technique. In this paper we review methods that are available for 3D digitization of architectural heritage and we present two case studies of real-world digitization projects involving monuments and urban areas.

Schnabel, Marc Aurel, and Justyna Karakiewicz. "Rethinking Parameters in Urban Design." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 1 (2007): 84-98.

This paper describes the unique coupling of an architectural urban design studio with an in-depth digital media course for the purpose of exploring new avenues of architectural expression, urban form-finding, and communication through the exploration of urban parameters. By merging descriptive parameters of urban situations with digital parametric tools, the understanding of urban design processes was enhanced by the possibility to perceive and comprehend larger problems of spatial urban experiences. The paper discusses how variables, goals, and outcomes of this urban design studio, as well as its integration with digital parametric design, allowed the participants to create an innovative urban design language. It reviews the implications for design education, as well as for the understanding and communication of complex urban designs that are responsive to a variety of parameters. This work lie sin the tradition of artists who push media to explore new interpretations of both the media themselves and of their artwork as much as it does of the use of parametric systems as technological tools.

Moustakas, Konstantinos, Dimitrios Tzovaras, and Georgios Nikolakis. "Simulating the Use of Ancient Technology Works Using Advanced Virtual Reality Technologies." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 2 (2007): 256-282.

This paper introduces a novel framework for the modelling and interactive simulation of ancient Greek technology works with the use of advanced virtual reality technologies. A novel algorithm is introduced for the realistic and efficient resolution of collisions that is based on an advanced collision detection approach that can also calculate in real-time the force that should be fed back to the user using a haptic device. Thus, the user is capable of manipulating the scene objects in the environment using haptic devices to simulate the sense of touch and stereoscopic imaging so as to be immersed in the virtual environment. Moreover, the virtual hand that simulates the user's hand is modeled using superquadrics so as to further increase the speed of the simulation and the fidelity of the force feedback. Extended evaluation of the system has been performed with visitors of the Science Center and Technology Museum of Thessaloniki.

Puusepp, Renee, and Paul Coates. "Spatial Simulations with Cognitive and Design Agents." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 1 (2007): 100-114.

Agent based design systems could provide useful decision help for architects working on spatial planning tasks that involve large number of actors or deal with complex urban situations. These systems are especially helpful in bridging the gap between concrete design proposals and high-level design abstractions such as frequency and flow diagrams. Every attempt to use computational design agents in the planning process will automatically raise many fundamental issues about spatial perception and representation of the environment. The paper discusses these issues in the light of some recent agent based simulations. Two case studies are presented in order to demonstrate different uses of computational agents in urban design. The first study shows how a simple agent-based design system placed in an urban context becomes a creative production tool. The second one reveals analytical capabilities of an agent system in urban environments.

Iordanova, Ivanka. "Teaching Digital Design Exploration: Form Follows." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 4 (2007): 685-702.

This paper presents some challenges of teaching computational geometry to architectural students, and proposes a multi-level pedagogical scheme introducing associative geometry and parametric modelling/design into architectural design education. It reports on two pedagogical experiences: one held in the context of a spatial geometry course in the first year of education, and another one, in a digital design studio with third-year architectural students. More specifically, it discusses the impact on design exploration of a library of interactive referents models introduced into the architectural studio. Situated in the'performance'paradigm of digital design methods, they allow for design object explorations based on modification of architecturally meaningful features (structural, environmental, functional, etc.). The form of a design object can thus'follow'function, structure, or even sustainability. The digital methods and the design knowledge transferred by the interactive models, together with their visual nature, are found to amplify the processes of'seeing-as'and the'reflective conversation with the situation'considered essential for creative design.

Hesselgren, Lars, Renos Charitou, and Stylianos Dritsas. "The Bishopsgate Tower Case Study." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 1 (2007): 62-81.

This paper summarizes the ongoing research on the Bishopsgate Tower in the City of London designed by Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates. We present a pre-rational geometry computational solution targeting a constraint-aware exploration of the architectural design-space, while interactively optimizing building performance in terms of constructability and cost-efficiency. We document a novel approach in building metrics optimization supported by parametric technologies and embedded analytical algorithms. The process is indicative of how computational methods will develop in the future and help designers find solutions for increasingly complex spaces.

Foni, Alessandro, George Papagiannakis, Nedjma Cadi-Yazli, and Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann. "Time-Dependant Illumination and Animation of Virtual Hagia-Sophia." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 2 (2007): 284-301.

This paper presents a case study centered on the virtual restitution and virtual life simulation of a highly complex and endangered heritage edifice: the church of Hagia Sophia, in Istanbul, Turkey. The goal of this article is to describe the techniques used in order to achieve a real time rendering and animation of the selected space and its characters, as well as to point out the challenges and solutions that such a work implies at different stages in production. Most of these issues are focused on the reconstruction of the architecture of the site, however, in order to achieve an accurate simulation, the social aspect is not to be omitted. The importance of a heritage site resides as well in the historical characters and the social interactions that were taking place there: this information allows a better understanding of the function and the importance of the selected site in connection with the cultural aspects of the life at a certain time. In order to strengthen the feeling of immersion in a heritage edifice virtually restituted, it is important to recreate virtual life and describe the timely evolutionary aspects of the edifice as well.

Kersten, Thomas. "Virtual Reality Model of the Northern Sluice of the Ancient Dam in Marib/Yemen by Combination of Digital Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Archaeological Applications." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 2 (2007): 340-354.

In this paper the potential of digital photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning in combination is demonstrated in the recording and 3D CAD construction of the northern sluice of the ancient dam in Marib/Yemen, which is located approx. 150 kilometre east of the capital city Sana'a, close to the inner Arabic desert. The Yemeni government proposed for initiation of the building into the list of the UNESCO world cultural heritage. This described project work is a co-operation between the Commission for Archaeology of Non-European Cultures (KAAK) Bonn of the German Archaeological Institute (DAI) and the department Geomatics of the HafenCity University Hamburg. The object recording was carried out in January 2006 with the digital SLR camera Fujifilm FinePix S2 pro and the terrestrial laser scanner Trimble GS100 during the archaeological excavations. The northern sluice was reconstructed and visualized as a computer-based 3D CAD model for archaeological investigations (as-builtdocumentation of the excavations) and for future tourism advertising and publication purposes.

Cabral, Cláudia. "ZOOM-IN, ZOOM-OUT: Architectural scale and digital technology." International Journal of Architectural Computing 5, no. 3 (2007): 523-534.

This paper aims at contributing to the study of the relationship between technology, knowledge and representation. It is based on previous studies on architecture, art and technology in modernity and its development, as well as on studies about scale in architectural design. In despite of the fact that scale can be technically considered indifferent for computer-aided design, I intend to discuss how digital tools intercede in the process of clipping that selecting a specific scale eventually implies sustaining that, for architectural design, the concept of scale has to do both with representation and with knowledge of reality.