Keywords Abstract
Talbott, Kyle. "3D Print as Corporeal Design Medium." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 4 (2006): 137-152.

Because it produces representational models, not full-scale architecture, 3D printing often supports the study of form, not architectural materials, structure and tectonics. This research asks how 3D printing can support material study and contribute to a process of design by making, similar to that achieved with mock-ups and other full-scale constructions. It clarifies the nature of design by making through an elaboration of key activities, and then shows how 3D printing can support each activity. The research includes a design experiment in which students used unique 3D printing techniques to enhance the experience of design by making. These techniques include 1) confronting a material foil, 2) embedding material placeholders in parametric models, 3) oscillating between representational and literal interpretations, and 4) using 3D prints as a corporeal medium. With these techniques, 3D printing offered a unique flavor of design by making, which can complement full-scale computer-aided manufacturing techniques.

MacBain, Keith, and William Spillers. "A Tool for the design of Fabric Structures." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 2 (2006): 81-94.

This paper describes the development of a tool, now available for use over the Internet, for the preliminary design of a class of fabric structures. This tool is based on the so-called grid method in which vertical equilibrium over a grid in the horizontal plane is used to determine shape for a cable net. It can subsequently be combined with other analysis routines to produce a detailed structural design.

Sass, Lawrence. "A wood frame grammar: a generative system for digital fabrication." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 1 (2006): 51-67.

A novel design system is presented that generates information for house construction exclusively from 3/4i plywood sheets. A shape grammar routine is employed to subdivide an initial solid shape into constructible components for desktop digital fabrication and design evaluation as a physical model. Once approved final construction can happen with components cut on a CNC wood router after the design has been validated by a laser cut model. Shape grammar rule format is used to design functions that build geometry later converted to a scripting language in CAD. Future goals for the grammar are to develop a complete CAD program that translates 3D designs to 2D drawings for flat digital fabrication. The ultimate goal of the program is to automate the translation of solid models to information for digital fabrication. Currently a manual process the translation allows the designer to focus on the visual aspects of evaluation at any scale with little concern for constructability.

De Vries, B., Sjoerd Buma, and Joran Jessurun. "An Intuitive Interface for Building Management and Planning." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 2 (2006): 17-26.

Building management and planning professionals utilize database systems for administrative support, but these systems are inadequate for conveying architectural plans. In this article we describe the so-called Virtual Maquette that was developed at the Eindhoven University of Technology for the board of the University. The Virtual Maquette consists of a vertical display for 3D view and information of building stock, and an interactive horizontal display for manipulation of view and information. Interaction is implemented using infrared tracking of devices that are positioned on the desktop with the projected plan view. Through this interface the states of the buildings can be inspected at different periods in history and in the future. The support of multiple devices in a single environment is a technical challenge, but it provides a new interaction method for non-technical persons.

Ribeiro, Fabíola, and Rejane Spitz. "Archigram's Analogical Approach to Digitality." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 3 (2006): 19-32.

The Archigram Group produced a number of design projects on the subject of computers, either imagining how computers might affect the life of city dwellers, or investigating what changes such machines would bring to architecture. Working with analogical tools and thinking about an abstract digital future, the Archigram architects deployed concepts that would have come to be crucial in recent discussions in architecture based on digital reality. Their research into things digital - without the aid of computers - led them into inquiring about individuality, expendability, interactivity, customisation and even virtualisation. Rendered in some of their design projects we find a number of architectural proposals which offer a new approach towards the relationship between time, space and architecture - an approach which is currently central for contemporary architecture conceived in cyberspace.

Bermudez, Julio, Jim Agutter, and Stefano Foresti. "Architectural Research in Information Visualization: 10 Years After." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 3 (2006): 01-18.

As our civilization dives deeper into the information age, making sense of ever more complex and larger amounts of data becomes critical. This article reports on interdisciplinary work in Information Visualization addressing this challenge and using architectural expertise as its main engine. The goal of this research is to significantly improve real time decision making in complex data spaces while devising a new architecture that responds to complex information environments. Although we have been reporting in aspects of this work for the past 7 years, this paper covers unpublished knowledge, design methods, operational strategies, and other details that bring together all the material published by our group thus far into a comprehensive and useful whole. We conclude by presenting our latest InfoVis design work in Network Security.

Kuan, Steve, and Thomas Kvan. "CoBlocks:An Improved Voxel-based Design Tool by Object Structuring of Voxel Models." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 4 (2006): 35-55.

This paper introduces a voxel-based collaborative modelling system called CoBlocks which was developed to support designers in building models together in a synchronized virtual environment. This is due to the fact that voxel models are gaining more attention in computer-aided design (CAD) systems as they support simple and intuitive modelling for the early design phases. However, due to the discrete nature of voxels, it is common practice in most voxel-based design systems that the voxel modelling methods have limited users to manipulate models at the level of individual voxels. From the literature, however, we might expect that voxel modelling would benefit from higher-level interaction as supported by the object structuring of such models. In light of these, a controlled lab study was therefore carried out to examine the benefits of the structuring of these models in voxel-based design systems. The results show that users prefer working with structured voxels and that they can interact better with them.

Goldberg, Sergio. "Computational Design of Parametric Scripts for Digital Fabrication of Curved Structures." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 3 (2006): 99-117.

This paper explores strategies for building toolchains to design, develop and fabricate architectural designs. It explains how complex curved structures can be constructed from flat standard panels. The hypothesis of this research is that by embedding ruled based procedures addressing generative, variational, iterative, and fabricational logics into early phases of design, both design techniques and digital fabrication methods can merge to solve a recurrent problem in contemporary architectural design, building double curved structures. Furthermore it achieves this using common fabrication methods and standard construction materials. It describes the processes of programming computational tools creating and developing designs to fabricate continuous complex curved structures. I describe this through a series of experiments, using parametric design environments and scripted functions, implementing certain techniques to fabricate these designs using rapid prototyping machines. Comparing different design and fabrication approaches I offer a discussion about universal application of programmed procedures into architectural design.

Garber, Richard, and Wassim Jabi. "Control and Collaboration: digital fabrication strategies in academia and practice." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 2 (2006): 121-143.

The integration of digital tools currently being used in many schools and offices with Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) hardware, has allowed architects to exert a far greater degree of control than they have previously been afforded. It is precisely this control that enables greater collaboration during design phases between architects and fabricators. However, the impact of this integration on academia and small practice is unknown. Several questions remain to be answered regarding teaching fabrication techniques and identifying strategies suitable for adoption in small firms. This paper investigates digital fabrication not as a software-specific set of capabilities, but as a design methodology that can allow schools to graduate young practitioners who can use these concepts to design and manage projects in more sophisticated ways. We outline six control and collaboration strategies and present several projects that explore those concepts through analog, digital, and hybrid methods.

Elger, Dietrich, and Peter Russell. "Crisis? What crisis? Approaching information space: New dimensions in the field of architecture." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 1 (2006): 107-121.

The paper describes the current situation concerning career opportunities in the field of architecture in developed western countries. Several aspects that are almost universal mark this situation. Firstly, there are too many architects chasing traditional work in competition with other engineers. Secondly, the needs of the building industry have changed over the past years so that the skills that architects are able to offer are not necessarily those that are sought. Lastly, the constant specialisation of work has continued unabated. Architects, as generalists, have seen their areas of expertise be usurped from neighbouring fields. The situation is not lost, so long as architects are able to recognise what is desired from the point of view of the client and what is desired from the point of view of the architect. For educators, it must be clear that the real potential architects possess is their encompassing knowledge of the building information. Architectural Information Management is a necessary skill to be taught alongside the more traditional architectural skills. A brief outlook as to how this might come about is detailed in the paper. The authors propose didactic steps to achieve this. Primarily, the education of computer supported planning should not simply end with a series of lectures or seminars, but culminate in integrated Design Studios (which include Design-Build scenarios).

Kilian, Axel. "Design innovation through constraint modeling." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 1 (2006): 87-105.

In this paper we describe how constraint modelling can support design innovation. Furthermore, we lay out how constraints are employed in the construction and exploration of a model's design space. We place the approach within the context of design exploration using computational and conceptual representations of design. A review of the literature reveals that geometric, topologic, functional, and quantitative constraints are those most commonly used. For each constraint type, an example is presented drawing from several workshops and research conducted by the author. The examples range from product design, to structural design, to fabrication issues in freeform geometry. Based on the case studies, we describe how the different types of constraints can be used as design drivers and help in the exploration of solution spaces. In conclusion, we identify the need for bidirectional exercising of constraints as the next challenge in design exploration and discuss how it is relevant in particular for cross domain design.

Hanna, Raid, and Tony Barber. "Digital Processes in Architectural Design:A Case Study of Computers and Creativity." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 2 (2006): 95-120.

This paper describes the results of a statistical-experimental investigation into the relationship between three variables: design cognition, the computer as a problem solving medium and'creativity'. The hypothesis put forward suggests a directional link between the use of'CAAD as a cognitive design medium'and'levels'of creativity in the design process. The hypothesis was tested statistically using first year architecture students as research design subjects. In order to place the research within a context, develop a thesis and identify'operational'measures for variables, a literature search with special emphasis on'creativity'was conducted. The statistical findings did confirm that levels of architectural'creativity'in the design process and in the final product were somehow affected by the use of CAAD. Ideation fluency and originality, as'creativity'indicators, correlated positively with CAAD as a cognitive medium with coefficients 3 0.5. The statistics from subjects- group design- revealed that computers'power of visualisation, slicing and Boolean operations has helped spatial ability and could eventually help novice designers to venture and create complex objects more than they would normally do with conventional media.

Camarata, Ken, Ellen Yi- Luen Do, and Mark Gross. "Energy Cube and Energy Magnets." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 2 (2006): 49-66.

Combining the easy to use characteristics of tangible interfaces with the peripheral representation of ambient displays, two prototype energy displays - Energy Cube and Energy Magnets - were designed to help people become aware of their home energy consumption patterns. This paper reports on the design and evaluation of those two displays.

Hadjri, Karim. "Experimenting with 3D Digitization of Architectural Physical Models using Laser Scanning Technology." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 2 (2006): 67-80.

This paper assesses the use of 3D Digitization techniques by carrying out laser scanning of typical physical models produced by architecture students. The aim was to examine the product of laser scanning with respect to scanning and 3D modelling processes, and the effects of variables such as characteristics of the models, materials used, and design complexity. In order to assess the similarities and accuracies achieved by the scanning and 3D modelling processes, the research investigated human perception of differences between analogue and digital models. This enabled an assessment of the degree to which digital models were accurate representations of the real ones, and whether laser scanning can successfully be used as a medium to recreate and represent complex architectural physical models. The study presents a potential direction for digital translation in architectural education.

Eng, Markus, Ken Camarata, Ellen Yi- Luen Do, and Mark Gross. "FlexM: Designing a physical construction kit for 3d modeling." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 2 (2006): 27-47.

We have designed a hub and strut kit that interfaces to a 3D graphics application. FlexM is a prototype flexible physical interface for manipulating and building 3D geometry. Using the FlexM hub and strut components, designers can build and explore 3D geometry with the ease of a toy and the power of a computer. The hubs transmit the model's topology and geometry to the computer, where the model is rendered on the screen in real time. The paper reports on the iterative development of several versions of the project.

Boeykens, Stefan, and Herman Neuckermans. "Improving Design Workflow in Architectural Design Applications." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 4 (2006): 01-19.

In architectural design software, there is a trend to integrate the whole design process in a single application. Design, 3D modelling, drafting, but also design evaluation and presentation are bundled inside the application. This is especially apparent in applications that adhere to the concept of Building Information Modelling. When we look at the functionality in these applications, however, a disruption of the design process can be encountered, preventing the designer to step back and forth throughout the different design phases or scale levels. Three current architectural design applications are briefly positioned and compared and potential improvements to the workflow are introduced.

Lee, Jackie Chia- Hsun, Yuchang Hu, and Ted Selker. "iSphere:A free-hand 3D modeling interface." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 1 (2006): 19-31.

Making 3D models should be an easy and intuitive task like free-hand sketching. This paper presents iSphere, a 24 degree of freedom 3D input device. iSphere is a dodecahedron embedded with 12 capacitive sensors for pulling-out and pressing-in manipulation on 12 control points of 3D geometries. It exhibits a conceptual 3D modelling approach for saving mental loads of low-level commands. Using analog inputs of 3D manipulation, designers are able to have high-level modelling concepts like pushing or pulling 3D surfaces. Our experiment shows that iSphere saved steps in the selection of control points in the review of menus and leading to a clearer focus on what to build instead of how to build it. Novices saved significant time learning 3D manipulation by using iSphere to making conceptual models. However, one tradeoff of the iSphere is its lack of fidelity in its analog input mechanism.

Cheng, Nancy. "Learning design sketching from animations and storyboards." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 1 (2006): 01-17.

A digital pen-and-paper system that generates stroke-by-stroke animations was used to compare the perception of interactive animations versus printed storyboards. Design students studied a space-planning example as either an animation or a storyboard and then emulated the example in doing a similar problem. Students viewing the animations rather than the storyboards performed marginally better in terms of matching the example steps and meeting design quality criteria. Students may understand the process of design sketching, but may lack the skills to copy the steps. Emulating the solution requires both cognitive skills and graphic facility. While beginners could logically organize spatial adjacencies, they often radically resized required program areas to streamline geometry. After organizing building spaces, they lacked the graphic conventions to articulate architectural features, so they could not copy refinement steps. Subjects at all levels used approximately the same number of strokes, with more productive sketching from advanced subjects.

Economou, Athanassios, and Matthew Swarts. "Performing Palladio." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 3 (2006): 47-61.

The relevance of music theory as an interpretive framework for the understanding of Palladio's work has been one of the most debated subjects in the realm of architectural theory and criticism. Typically the debate is quite abstract and it focuses on possible mappings between the ratios found in Palladio's plans and corresponding ratios used in contemporary musical temperaments. The paper here rather focuses on the actual performance of the ratios found in Palladio's work and the implications of this performance, melodic and harmonic, for the perception of the space for a situated observer/performer. To that extent the study suggests a model of mapping between space, sound and color and correlates that with polygon partition theory to simulate movement within a space. A brief account of the computer implementation with game engines technology is provided in the end. All examples to test these ideas are based on Palladio's Villa Capra.

Kenzari, Bechir. "Physical Modeling: the Convergence of Cutting-edge Technologies and Miniature Tooling." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 3 (2006): 119-134.

When Rapid Prototyping and CAD/CAM technologies (including CNC and Laser Cutting) became affordable, ten years ago or so, their reception within model-making circles turned from positive to disappointing because of their incomplete adaptability to the making of architectural objects. Then it was discovered, just few years later, that many modelling details can only be worked out through the use of specific materials, accessories and miniature tools which neither fall under the CNC, Laser or Rapid Prototyping headings. This new situation has implied, among other things, that the status of the model is to be defined in terms of a convergence of particular technological possibilities. Using two specific models as examples, the present article will debate this convergence, which is now allowing a smooth and fluid interaction between several model-making techniques. The tendency of model-making to move closer to the real act of building will also be highlighted.

Day, Alan, and Rashidah Rahman. "Physical or Digital:Alternative Approaches to Modelling for a Participatory Design Environment." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 4 (2006): 57-70.

Many of those who are advocating the use of computers in planning and design are promoting the internet as a way of involving non-experts. Although there is a great deal to be said for such an approach, the role of direct face-to-face communications remains important and yet relatively little has been done to investigate how computers can be of assistance in such a setting. This paper will present the results of an experiment in which a commercially available, but relatively inexpensive, computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) package has been used to facilitate participatory design. The results indicate that such an approach can significantly improve the quality of design and also enhance the experience of those who have participated in the design process.

Ataman, Osman, John Rogers, and Adesida Ilesanmi. "Redefining the Wall: Architecture, Materials and Macroelectronics." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 4 (2006): 125-136.

As a principle element of architecture, technology has allowed for the wall to become an increasingly dynamic component of the built environment. The traditional connotations and objectives related to the wall are being redefined: static becomes fluid, opaque becomes transparent, barrier becomes filter and boundary becomes borderless. Combining smart materials, intelligent systems, engineering, and art can create a component that does not just support and define but significantly enhances the architectural space. This paper presents an ongoing research project about the development of a new class of architectural wall system by incorporating distributed sensors and macroelectronics directly into the building environment. This type of composite, which is a representative example of an even broader class of smart architectural material, has the potential to change the design and function of an architectural structure or living environment. As of today, this kind of composite does not exist. Once completed, this will be the first technology of its own.

Senagala, Mahesh. "Rethinking Smart Architecture: Some Strategic Design Frameworks." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 3 (2006): 33-46.

The paper is an attempt to provide a comprehensive re-definition and a complex-adaptive framework for strategic understanding of smart architecture. The paper rethinks smart architecture's strategic and conceptual frameworks. A complex-adaptive and systems approach has been forwarded as an alternative. Comprehensive definition of smart architecture has been provided. Disparate yet related camps of responsive architecture, adaptive architecture, intelligent buildings, kinetic architecture have been brought under the umbrella of smart architecture. The role of users in smart architectural schemata has been explored. Examples of a few recent architectural projects have been used to illustrate the emerging directions in smart architecture.

Sarawgi, Tina. "Survey on the Use of Lighting Design Software in Architecture and Interior Design Undergraduate Education." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 4 (2006): 91-108.

With the steady development of global illumination algorithms over the past four decades, lighting design software is no longer the domain of a specialist. Easy to use interface, built-in flexibility, reliable calculation models, and compelling visuals has made today's lighting design software useful to architects and interior designers. However, despite these advantages, the use of lighting design software is not widely included in the undergraduate architecture and interior design education. This paper summarizes the results of an online survey of a sample of accredited architecture and interior design schools in the United States conducted to (a) determine the extent of use of lighting design software in teaching and learning lighting at the undergraduate level and (b) to assess design educators'attitude toward their usefulness in design education. This paper discusses directions for the future based on the survey results.

Calderon, Carlos, Karl Nyman, and Nicholas Worley. "The Architectural Cinematographer: Creating Architectural Experiences in 3D Real-time Environments." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 4 (2006): 71-90.

This paper addresses the problem of creating new navigation paradigms for experiencing architectural designs in 3D real-time environments. The exploration of techniques other than still images or fly-through animations is complex and manifold, and requires the understanding and skills of many disciplines including cinematography, computer programming, architectural design and communication of 3D space. In this article, we present the Architectural Cinematographer (AC), a first step towards new navigation paradigms for real-time interactive virtual environments that are intended to enhance architectural walkthroughs with interactive camera effects. The AC is a fully developed modification (mod) of the game UnrealTournament2004™ using the Unreal™ game engine and relies on the notions of architectural concepts, cinematographic techniques and game level design to structure the virtual environment (VE) content in a way that facilitates a perception of design qualities in virtual architecture. AC addresses the current lack of either software or a structured approach to facilitate this in real-time architectural visualizations.

Loveridge, Russell, and Kai Strehlke. "The Digital Ornament using CAAD/CAAM Technologies." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 1 (2006): 33-49.

New digital technologies are challenging the traditions of the architectural design methodology, the relationship between context and design, and the dependency on skilled workmanship for the fabrication of beautiful and complex architecture. Intellectually, applications of digital technologies are also allowing for the reinvestigation, reinterpretation, and redevelopment of historical concepts, theories, and skills[1]. Our focus of ornament in this paper is presented as a constrained architectural testing ground, a reduced issue that still addresses the primary issues of geometry, aesthetics, individualism, and the transferal of design to materiality. Our work on digital ornament combines the traditionally intuitive skills of geometric & graphic manipulations with easily edited input (variables and digital images), control through parametric programming, and automated output (CNC manufacturing). The combination of these processes allows for efficient diversity and uniqueness of design, while also compensating for the increasing cost and declining availability of skilled artisans for the physical fabrication. The presented projects in teaching, research, and professional activities demonstrate our ongoing experiments with new technologies of programmed surface modelling and computer numerically controlled manufacturing (CNC manufacturing). This work has been incorporated in real world projects, both in the revitalization historic buildings, and in new applications of ornament in contemporary architecture.

Sass, Lawrence, and Marcel Botha. "The Instant House:A Model of Design Production with Digital Fabrication." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 4 (2006): 109-123.

Through a novel design production system, we have developed the ability to produce highly customized wood framed buildings for rural communities in need of designed environments. A definitive need exists for a system that rapidly deploys small buildings such as schools, small hospitals and houses while tailored for a specific design within a community. This paper describes the relationship of digital fabrication to materials and rules for design and fabrication. By example, this paper presents a process of construction of a small house on-site from an initial computer model in sequential stages. Our case study in this paper will express possibilities with digital fabrication for building with designed variation.

Vollen, Jason, and Dale Clifford. "The Peculiar Nodal Generator: a speculation." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 2 (2006): 01-15.

Economically abandoned cities as well as urban cores depopulated because of catastrophic events have spawned urban renewal projects of all varieties. Often these projects promote civic programs such as arenas, theaters, museums, and aquariums as replacements for what was once an interactive public realm. Unfortunately the realization of these large programs promotes a disconnected series of sequestered activities rather than the prospect of a lively and potentially frenetic urban center governed by chance interactions. As an intervening strategy, this paper considers the possibility of implementing Nodal Generators, responsive systems that sense and adapt to environmental fluctuations to create localized microclimates capable of providing unscripted public space in the discarded and interstitial regions of the modern city. Inspired biotically and explored digitally, the Nodal Generators provide a linkage between community and technology using smart materials and adaptive assemblies. This paper details several speculations on the nature and form of these nodes and proposes their implementation into urban arid situations.We can postulate that while the nodal generators speculated upon in this paper might at first draw attention to themselves through spectacle, they will ultimately create a shared community experience through eventual inhabitation of that public space.

Sowa, Agnieszka. "Towards architect-aided computing design." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 1 (2006): 69-85.

In the design process of some recent, specific architectural projects the part elaborated by computers and machines significantly grows. They could generate, optimize and produce the most complicated and complex solutions, taking over some tasks which before were the domain of architects. This article presents a project carried out by postgraduate students at Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule in Zurich, Switzerland, where such a digital design process was implemented, with all its advantages and disadvantages. The observations and conclusions gained during the work allow the author to formulate the concept of Architect-Aided Computing Design, to define some challenges for architects created by such a working method, and to present an analysis about the potential new software for architectural production.

Sanguinetti, Paola. "Utilization of Time-Based Techniques in Research and Teaching." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 3 (2006): 63-77.

This article describes how computer animations, combined with cinematic techniques, have served as a teaching and research tool in architecture. Animations were used in the following areas: case studies of precedents in architecture using the animated modelling as a form of tectonic analysis, conceptualization of space through the study of film, specifically three approaches using film in the early stages of design: cinematic structure, film as site, and transcoding transparency, and mapping the urban fabric combining various time-based media.

Pak, Burak, Ozan Ö. Özener, and Arzu Erdem. "Utilizing customizable generative design tools in digital design studio: Xp-GEN experimental form generator." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 4 (2006): 21-33.

In this paper, we present a generative design model for conceptual design in architecture. Based on this model we developed and implemented a compact, open-ended generative tool with a connected design evaluation database. Core concept of our generative approach is to achieve complex forms from a base primitive and create the form from the modified instances.Our tool is used in various levels of design studios, including graduate and undergraduate students. Designs from these experiments are evaluated in a qualitative framework.

Klinger, Kevin, and Joshua Vermillion. "Visualizing the Operative and Analytic: Representing the Digital Fabrication Feedback Loop and Managing the Digital Exchange." International Journal of Architectural Computing 4, no. 3 (2006): 79-97.

Digital architecture is process-based and reliant upon a conversation between digital visualization, analysis, and production. With the complexity of information generated in process-based digital practices, we need to effectively manage and exchange the information. Feedback loops are integral to this process/product, and thus require extensive management of complex versions of visual and data related information. Quite a lot of scholarly attention has been focused upon highlighting innovative projects using digital fabrication and serial customization. However, there is a scarcity of scholarly work about innovations in visualizing and representing the design data integral in this feedback loop. This paper will examine innovative representational devices such as the matrix, sectioning, layering, bracketing, nesting, and other new forms of organizing, visualizing, analyzing, and simulating complex data, intent upon communicating multiple levels of operations during the design and fabrication process. With a rigorous taxonomy of operative and analytic devices for process-based digital design development, we can begin to outline a trajectory for future evolutions in practice. This writing is an attempt to make a few steps in this direction, and demonstrate some of these new representational ideas in practice.