Keywords Abstract
Aitcheson, Robert, Jonathan Friedman, and Thomas Seebohm. "3-Axis CNC Milling in Architectural Design." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 2 (2005): 161-180.

Physical scale models still have a role in architectural design. 3-axis CNC milling provides one way of making scale models both for study purposes and for presentation in durable materials such as wood. We present some types of scale models, the methods for creating them and the place in the design process that scale models occupy. We provide an overview of CNC milling procedures and issues and we describe the process of how one can creatively develop appropriate methods for milling different types of scale models and materials. Two case studies are presented with which we hope to convey not only the range of possible models that can be machined but also the way one creatively explores to arrive at appropriate milling strategies. Where apposite, we compare 3-axis CNC milling to newer technologies used for rapid prototyping but rapid prototyping is not a primary focus.

Datta, Sambit, and David Beynon. "A Computational Approach to the Reconstruction of Surface Geometry from Early Temple Superstructures." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 4 (2005): 471-486.

Recovering the control or implicit geometry underlying temple architecture requires bringing together fragments of evidence from field measurements, relating these to mathematical and geometric descriptions in canonical texts and proposing "best-fit" constructive models. While scholars in the field have traditionally used manual methods, the innovative application of niche computational techniques can help extend the study of artefact geometry. This paper demonstrates the application of a hybrid computational approach to the problem of recovering the surface geometry of early temple superstructures. The approach combines field measurements of temples, close-range architectural photogrammetry, rule-based generation and parametric modelling. The computing of surface geometry comprises a rule-based global model governing the overall form of the superstructure, several local models for individual motifs using photogrammetry and an intermediate geometry model that combines the two. To explain the technique and the different models, the paper examines an illustrative example of surface geometry reconstruction based on studies undertaken on a tenth century stone superstructure from western India. The example demonstrates that a combination of computational methods yields sophisticated models of the constructive geometry underlying temple form and that these digital artefacts can form the basis for in depth comparative analysis of temples, arising out of similar techniques, spread over geography, culture and time.

Janssen, Patrick, John Frazer, and Ming-Xi Tang. "A Framework for Generating and Evolving Building Designs." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 4 (2005): 449-470.

This paper describes a comprehensive framework for generative evolutionary design. The key problem that is identified is generating alternative designs with an appropriate level of variability. Within the proposed framework, the design process is split into two phases: in the first phase, the design team develops and encodes the essential and identifiable character of the designs to be generated and evolved, in the second phase, the design team uses an evolutionary system to generate and evolve designs that embody this character. This approach allows design variability to be carefully controlled. In order to verify the feasibility of the proposed framework, a generative process capable of generating controlled variability is implemented and demonstrated.

Kacher, Sabrina, Gilles Halin, Jean-Claude Bignon, and Pascal Humbert. "A method for Constructing a Reference Image Database to Assist with Design Process. Application to the Wooden Architecture Domain." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 2 (2005): 227-244.

Designing architectural projects requires the introduction of references, because design is an activity oriented towards a result which does not yet exist. If we summarise the current categories used in Artificial Intelligence to characterise the different forms of reasoning, we are able to consider that design is more the concern of the induction or the abduction mechanism than the deduction mechanism. Moreover, the main characteristic of the designer's activity is to work towards non-routine situations with the use of many references. In this paper we will present method principles to construct a reference image database. These references will enable the designer to further in solving the design problem. To illustrate these reference usage, we choose photographic images belonging to the wooden construction domain We also present at the end of the paper an experiment which aims to evaluate the real help that this reference image database can bring to designers during their creation task.

Hannibal, Claire, Andre Brown, and Michael Knight. "An assessment of the effectiveness of sketch representations in early stage digital design." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 1 (2005): 107-126.

This paper presents an experimental approach that examines the response of non-architects to three virtual representations of architecture within a non-immersive Virtual Reality (VR) environment. It investigates the use of current digital technologies in their ability to facilitate early design stage sketch representation and explores the communication of early stage digital design proposals in order to determine the effect of representation type upon perception.

Han, Seung-Hoon. "ARCH:DMUVR - a Working Prototype of a Distributed Collaborative Design System." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 2 (2005): 203-226.

This paper outlines a working prototype which suggests a distributed Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) system to promote a new model of collaborative design. Recently, there has been a growing interest in distributed CAAD integration due to the needs of direct collaboration among project participants. The potential for the integration of information is expected to have a tremendous impact on architecture and the construction industry. The aim of this research is to provide a new paradigm for a CAAD system by combining research on integrated CAAD applications with recent collaboration technologies. The proposed system has been designed and a prototype implemented to produce enough guidelines to foster interest in the development of future CAAD systems on the Internet. To this end, two different scopes of implementation are evaluated: first, global architecture and the functionality of a distributed CAAD system, and, second, the association of an architectural application to the system.

Lyon, Eduardo. "Autopoiesis and Digital Design Theory: CAD Systems as Cognitive Instruments." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 3 (2005): 317-334.

In contrast to traditional models of design process fundamentally defined by the abstract manipulation of objects, this study recognizes that the resources available for rethinking architecture are to be found in a reformulation of its theory and practice. This reformation should be based on non-linear design processes in which dynamic emergence and invention take the place of a linear design process fixed on a particular object evolution. Advances in computation thinking and technology have stimulated the design and formulation of a large number of design software. Its elaboration supposes a new conceptualization of our discipline's knowledge, in a body of principles and regulations, which commands the artifact's design and its realization, therefore, it constitutes a preliminary datum for its comprehension, and thereby is of theoretical importance. Despite the continuous increment of power in computers and software capacities, the creative space of freedom defined by them acting as cognitive instruments remains almost unexplored. Therefore, we propose a change from a design knowledge based on objects to one focused on design as a network of processes. In addition, this study explores the concept of Distributed Cognition in order to redefine the use of digital tools in design process as Cognitive Instruments.

Ozel, Filiz. "Confluence of Building Information for Design, Construction and Management of Buildings." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 3 (2005): 373-390.

Professionals who are involved in design, construction and occupancy phases of a building not only generate information that must eventually be used by other building professionals, but also they themselves must use data and informationprovided by others such as product manufacturers, planning departments, etc. The integration of information and data through all phases of the life cycle of a building is important as it impacts the work done by a large number of constituents in the building industry. Seamless integration of such information has been a bigger concern for those who are downstream users of the data generated by the architect as he/she designs a building. Such downstream users can range from structural engineers to construction managers, from facility managers to building asset managers. More recently, the considerable increase in the design and operationof intelligent buildings that incorporate a very wide range of technologies has rendered this coordination more important than ever.

Anders, Peter. "Cybrid Principles: Guidelines for Merging Physical and Cyber Spaces." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 3 (2005): 391-406.

This article introduces seven principles for the design of mixed reality compositions. Contrasting the novelty of mixed reality technology, we have derived these principles from basic needs served by traditional architecture as well as those that have arisen since the introduction of information technologies. These principles draw also from research in cognitive science, human-computer interface design and the recognition of the multivalent, psychosomatic nature of space.

Filho, Cabral, and Jose Santos. "Digital Art a Field of Inquiry for Contemporary Architecture." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 3 (2005): 355-372.

This article investigates the interplay of digital technology, art and architecture and it presents a series of experimental workshops developed at LAGEAR (Graphic Laboratory for the Experience of Architecture, School of Architecture at UFMG, Brazil). The intention of these workshops is to include an artistic approach to the work in a computer lab dedicated to teaching and researching architecture. At first, a discussion on the relationship between art and architecture is presented, followed by an analysis of the enhancement of such relationship with the advent of digital technology. Then a series of works developed by artists and students in collaboration is described. The article concludes with a discussion on the role of digital art for architectural education. It is proposed that it may be one of the most adequate fields for students to freely investigate contemporary issues, such as interactivity and automation, which are now shaping our built environment.

Achten, Henri. "Digital Ground: Architecture, Pervasive Computing, and Environmental Knowledge by Malcolm McCullough." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 2 (2005): 255-258.

Ubiquitous computing is a fact: we are surrounded in our daily life by an increasing number of (integrated) systems. As Malcolm McCullough notes, since about 1994, there are more microprocessors than there are people, and around the turn of the millennium, this ratio ..

Norman, Frederick. "Digital to Analog: Exploring Digital Processes of Making." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 2 (2005): 191-202.

This focus this paper is the translation of a digital information model that defines an object's surface properties and its connection to that which is real or physical. This research, while early in its investigation, seeks to explore architecture and digital design as a material process. The direct connection to output devices such as computer-numerically controlled routers provide a unique opportunity for controlled variation and serial differentiation and seeks to exploit mass customization rather than standardization. Through a series of studies the process from design to machine file to finish product is explored. This connection to digitally driven fabrication equipment creates within the design process an opportunity to realize ones designs both digitally and materially.

Lai, Ih-Cheng. "Dynamic Idea Maps: a Framework for Linking Ideas with Cases during Brainstorming." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 4 (2005): 429-447.

This research makes use of a cognitive study to explore a mechanism for associating ideas during brainstorming. First, we propose a linking model that integrates three principles of idea association (similarity, contrast and contiguity) with two processes of case-based reasoning (retrieval and adaptation). Then, a design experiment and its protocol analysis are conducted in order to identify the types and mechanisms of linkages between ideas and cases, and to explore a computational mechanism for this linking model. Finally, a framework for case-based reasoning to support idea association called Dynamic Idea-Maps (DIM) is proposed, and its mechanism is elucidated.

Burry, Jane, Peter Felicetti, Jiwu Tang, Mark Burry, and Mike Xie. "Dynamical structural modeling a collaborative design exploration." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 1 (2005): 27-42.

This study is based on a generative performative modelling approach that engages architects and structural engineers in close dialogue. We focus on knowledge shared between engineers and architects to apply the Finite Element Analysis based structural design technique Evolutionary Structural Optimization [ESO] as a way to understand or corroborate the performance factors that are significant in determining architectural form. ESO is very close conceptually to the dynamical system of matter and forces of growth itself. It has parallels both mathematical and metaphorical with natural evolution and morphogenesis so it has been poignant to apply the approach to a formal architectural case study in which the generative influence of these processes is inherent.

Li, Siu-Pan, and Thomas Kvan. "Enhancing Interaction in Architectural Presentations with Laser Pointers." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 4 (2005): 503-517.

In a common meeting environment with projector-and-screen settings, the discussion may be dominated by a presenter who has the control of the content displayed. Although frequently used for architectural discussions, this digitally-engaged setting may not be optimal in its support of participation and discussion of design ideas. This paper presents a novel use of laser pointers to enhance the interaction in architectural presentations. A laser pointing system designed for a projector-and-screen environment was developed. To compare the performance of the laser pointer with other interaction devices, a controlled user study was carried out to test the efficiency of different devices in point-and-selection interactions. The usability of the system was also tested in a design critique. These two tests show that laser pointer is useful and able to encourage participation in group discussions. Details of the laser pointing system, the experiments and the results are reported in this paper.

Alvarado, Rodrigo García, Gino Castillo, Juan Marquez, and Sergio Mayorga. "Filmic Development of Architectural Animations." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 3 (2005): 299-316.

This paper proposes a general method to make animated presentations of architectural designs, based on cinematographic techniques. Particularly, it reviews theoretical documenttion about filmmaking as well as several productions that exhibit remarkable locations. The proposed method first comprises of a planning stage, with the narrative and graphic formulation of the presentation. Next is an elaboration or adjustment stage for the digital modelling of the design, and finally, there is an animation production and editing stage. Likewise, the research sets up a computer implementation of some activities and characteristics, and experiments in the programming of camera movements for architectural animations. In general, this work suggests focusing on the communication of the qualitative features of the design, instead of the elaboration of the digital model, and on emphasizing the visual diversity, graphic style and narrative construction of the presentation.

Kwee, Verdy, Anthony Radford, and Dean Bruton. "Hybrid Digital Media Architectural Visualisation Delivery - Murcutt, Lewin and Lark's the Arthur and Yvonne Boyd Education Centre on Digital Flatland." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 4 (2005): 487-502.

This paper shares ongoing research explorations into visualising and representing architecture through the limited real-estate spaces of computer screens. It proposes greater access,'interactivity'and clarity in digital representations for the study, analysis and/or digital record of existing architecture by drawing on concepts and strategies - within and outside the discipline - to arrive at hybrid visualisation techniques. To illustrate some of these techniques, the paper outlines several issues in the production of hybrid media representations of the Arthur and Yvonne Boyd Education Centre. This award-winning building was designed by the 2002 Pritzker Prize-winner, Glenn Murcutt in association with Wendy Lewin and Reg Lark. It is recognised as a landmark in Australian architecture and a worthy subject of our representation experiments.

Almeida, Clarissa Ribeiro Pe, Anja Pratschke, and Renata La Rocca. "In-between and Through:Architecture and Complexity." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 3 (2005): 335-354.

This paper draws on current research on complexity and design process in architecture and offers a proposal for how architects might bring complex thought to bear on the understanding of design process as a complex system, to understand architecture as a way of organizing events, and of organizing interaction. Our intention is to explore the hypothesis that the basic characteristics of complex systems - emergence, nonlinearity, self-organization, hologramaticity, and so forth - can function as effective tools for conceptualization that can usefully extend the understanding of the way architects think and act throughout the design process. To illustrate the discussions, we show how architects might bring complex thought inside a transdisciplinary design process by using models such as software engineering diagrams, and three-dimensional modelling network environments such as media to integrate, connect and'trans-act'.

Ataman, Osman. "Integrating Digital and Building Technologies: Towards a New Architectural Composite." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 2 (2005): 181-190.

This paper presents an ongoing research project about the development of the materials and fabrication techniques for a fundamentally new class of architectural composite. This type of composite, which is a representative example of an even broader class of smart architectural material, has the potential to change the design and function of an architectural structure or living environment. As of today, this kind of composite does not exist. Once completed, this will be the first technology on its own. We believe this study will lay the fundamental groundwork for a new paradigm in surface engineering that may be of considerable significance in architecture, building and construction industry, and materials science.

Özener, Ozan Ö., Ergun Akleman, and Vinod Srinivasan. "Interactive Rind Modeling for Architectural Design." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 1 (2005): 93-106.

The paper presents a new modeling technique for architectural design. Rind modeling provides for the easy creation of surfaces resembling peeled and punctured rinds. We show how the method's two main steps of 1) creation of a shell or crust and then 2) opening holes in the crust by punching or peeling can be encapsulated into a real time semi-automatic interactive algorithm.The rind modeling method allows us to develop a user-friendly tool for designers and architects. The new tool extends the abilities of polygonal modeling and allows designers to work on structured and consistent models for architectural design purposes. Rind modeling gives architects and designers a processing flexibility. It can be used in conceptual modeling during the early design phase. It can also be efficiently used for creating variety of shell structures for architectural design.

Schieck, Ava, Alan Penn, Chiron Mottram, Andreas Strothmann, Jan Ohlenburg, Wolfgang Broll, Francis Aish, and Simon Attfield. "Interactive Space Generation through Play Exploring the Role of Simulation on the Design Table." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 1 (2005): 03-23.

In this paper we report on recent developments in the use of simulation as an aspect of design decision support for architecture and planning. This research is based on ARTHUR (Augmented Round Table for Architecture and Urban Planning). Although real time simulation has been incorporated in design support systems, little attention has been given to the simulation of pedestrian movement in collaborative AR based systems. Here we report on user evaluation tests of the ARTHUR system, which are focused on the effect of real time pedestrian simulation on the way pairs of designers work together.These tests suggest that the integration of simulated pedestrian movement on the design table plays a critical role in exploring possible design solutions and encourages different and new ways of thinking about design problems. Donald Schon's concept of the reflection-in-action provide a useful framework for interpreting these results.

Malkawi, Ali M., and Ravi S. Srinivasan. "Interfacing with the real space and its performance." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 1 (2005): 43-56.

This paper presents an immersive gesture-recognition-based system to visualize the indoor thermal environment using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). To enable efficient visualization of CFD in actual space, an Augmented Reality system was integrated with a CFD simulation engine. To facilitate efficient data manipulation of the simulated postprocessed CFD data and to increase user control of the immersive environment, an intuitive method of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has been incorporated using gesture and speech recognition. While gesture recognition aids in transforming hand postures into command functions through forward kinematics and computation of hand segment positions and their joint angles, speech recognition allows better control of the data manipulation. This enabled real-time interactions between the users and simulated CFD results in actual space.

Liakata-Pechlivanidou, Anastasia, Stylianos Zerefos, and Stylianos Zerefos. "Perceptual and Cognitive Factors that Influence Orientation in Computer Generated Real Architectural Space." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 2 (2005): 245-254.

This study presents results from an experiment that concerns spatial perception and cognition in virtual environments. It also includes the effects of how the development of a simulated virtual space can change perception and cognition of a real building perceived only through architectural drawings and photographs. In the experiment each student was shown external and internal 360° images, representing nodes in virtual space, of the same virtual building. Two different groups of students were formed. The first group was shown photorealistic rendered images, while the other group the same images with non-photorealistic representation. Differences in orientation tendencies of the participating students, as well as statistical results from these experiments were tested and are presented in this paper. It was found that there was a statistically significant tendency of the students towards larger scatter in more luminous virtual space as well as a tendency to visit lit parts of virtual space.

Kvan, Thomas. "Professor Tsuyoshi Sasada 1941-2005." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 4 (2005): 519-526.

Tsuyoshi Sasada, known as Tee to so many of us, died on 30 September 2005 at the age of 64 after a long illness.Tee retired from Osaka University in 2004 upon reaching the mandatory retirement age but retained his association as Emeritus Professor.At the time of his death he held appointments as Honorary Professor, National Chiao Tung University (Taiwan) and Expert Researcher, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology. He had been with Osaka University since 1970, having earned his bachelor, master and doctoral degrees at Kyoto University. In 1988 he was appointed Professor in Osaka and established his laboratory, known as the Sasada Lab, from which over 200 students have graduated.  

Srinivasan, Ravi S., and Ali M. Malkawi. "Real-time Simulations Using Learning Algorithms for Immersive Data Visualization in Buildings." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 3 (2005): 265-280.

Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations are used to predict indoor thermal environments and assess their response to specific internal/external conditions. Although computing power has increased exponentially in the past decade, CFD simulations are still time-consuming and their prediction results cannot be used for real-time immersive visualization in buildings. A method that can bypass the timeconsuming simulations and generate “acceptablei results will allow such visualization to be constructed.This paper discusses a project that utilizes a supervised Artificial Neural Network (ANN) as a learning algorithm to predict post-processed CFD data to ensure rapid data visualization. To develop a generic learning model for a wide range of spatial configurations, this paper presents a pilot project that utilizes an unsupervised Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithm. The ANN technique was integrated with an interactive, immersive Augmented Reality (AR) system to interact with and visualize CFD results in buildings. ANN was also evaluated against a linear regression model. Both models were tested and validated with datasets to determine their degree of accuracy. Initial tests, conducted to evaluate the user's experience of the system, indicated satisfactory results.

Mullins, Michael, and Tadeja Strojan Zupancic. "Representational Thickness: a quantitative comparison between physical, CAVE and Panorama environments." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 1 (2005): 127-144.

This study compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical environment and its virtual representations in a CAVE and Panorama. To measure accuracy of spatial perception, users were asked to look at identical objects in the three environments and then locate them and identify their shape on scaled drawings. Results were then statistically compared for differences. In a discussion of the results, the paper addresses three hypothetical assertions - that depth perception in physical reality and its virtual representations in CAVE and Panorama are quantifiably different, that differences are attributable to prior contextual experience of the viewer, and that design professionals and laypeople have different perceptions of what they see in VR. In conclusion, the concept of'representational thickness'is suggested by the results.

Pranovich, Slava, Henri Achten, B. De Vries, and Jack van Wijk. "Structural Sketcher: Representing and applying well-structured graphic representations in early design." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 1 (2005): 75-92.

Computational drawing support has the potential to improve design support in the early phase. Much work in this area is devoted to input of design information, manipulation, and presentation. Based on a review of current work, we note that among other things, digital drawing tools should be close to the conventions and techniques already used by architects. This is, in principle, possible by processing strokes in a more or less traditional sketch approach, or by offering specialised commands that provide a direct implementation of such conventions. The latter approach is covered by Structural Sketcher. A subset of drawing conventions developed earlier, called graphic units, is adopted within the system. In order to contribute to design support, the application of such graphic units should be fast and intuitive, and the definition of internal relationships should be quick and straightforward. For intuitive manipulation, Structural Sketcher incorporates the “paper and scissorsi metaphor, and introduces a novel UI-concept called the KITE. To achieve an easy and fast maintenance of relationships, a graph based on anchor-points is built-up on the fly. Performance of the system has been tested on a quantitative and qualitative basis. The system shows the benefit that graphic units can bring to drawing support, and how these can be implemented. To conclude, limitations and further work are discussed.

Fischer, Thomas. "Teaching Programming for and with Microcontroller-Enhanced Physical Models." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 1 (2005): 57-74.

As processes of use, interaction and transformation take center stage in various fields of design, electronic sensors, controllers, displays and actuators can significantly enhance the value of physical models. These technologies allow the development of novel computer interfaces for new kinds of interaction with virtual models, and in the future they can be expected to play an important role in the development of new types of active building components and materials for automated construction and dynamic runtime adaptations of inhabitable environments. However, embedding programmed logic into physical objects involves skills outside the traditional domains of expertise of designers and model makers and confronts them with a steep learning curve. The wide variety of alternative technologies and development tools available in this area has a particularly disorienting effect on novices. However, some early experiences suggest that mastery of this learning curve is easily within reach, given some basic introduction, guidance and support. To assist design students in acquiring a basic level of programming knowledge, better educational programming tools are still required. It is the intent of this paper to provide designers and educators with a starting point for explorations into this area as well as to report on the development of an educational approach to electronics programming called haptic programming.

Massera, Carmen. "The Calabozo:Virtual Reconstruction of a Place Based on Testimonies." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 3 (2005): 281-298.

The objective the research reported here is to create a visualization of a place based on personal experiences. My research addresses this issue through a case study: the visualization of a women's political prison during the Uruguayan military dictatorship (1973-85). The proposed visualization is based on these women's personal experiences of the solitary confinement cell (calabozo). Compared with their male counterpart, women's memories about prison have been traditionally relegated to a second level in Uruguay. The visualization aims to communicate these women's experiences of the calabozo through a video installation. This article first reviews relevant precedents to the case study and to virtual reconstructions and later describes the video installation.

Montagu, Lilia. "Tribute to Professor Arturo F. Montagu." International Journal of Architectural Computing 3, no. 3 (2005): 407-418.

Professor Arturo Montagu passed away on 8th April, 2005, after a five-year long courageous battle against cancer. Arturo was one of the world's pioneers in architectural computing whose work and teaching influenced generations of professional and researchers, in Latin-America and beyond. It was through him that SIGraDi was created and that many of today's relationships among people in the rchitectural computing community got started and thrived. Despite his illness, he continued working unabatedly until the very end. In fact, few people ever noticed that he was sick. The sheer force of his intellectural activity for a long period of time in the 20th century - dense and valuable like few in architectural computing - and his invincible spirit hid the marks of his illness for a long time. This article summarizes Professor Montagu's contributions to the field of architectural computing and includes tributes from four people who knew him well but through very different circumstances.