Keywords Abstract
Schnabel, Marc Aurel, Thomas Kvan, Steve Kuan, and Weidong Li. "3D Crossover: exploring objets digitalisé." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 4 (2004): 476-490.

By merging a range of digital and physical media, the architectural design process is enriched by different perceptions, comprehensions and conceptions of spatial volumes within both physical and virtual environments. The use of digital media often confines the design process to only the digital realm, in this class, students moved fluidly back and forth from digital to physical using digital tools in unorthodox ways. These different media transformed the design process from a tangible portrayal of architectural design to a virtual portrayal, and vice versa. With this interchanging and crossing over of design environments from reality to virtuality the limits of each one are dismantled, both realms can be brought together in an overall process that led to alternative form findings and resulting designs. This work lies in the tradition of artists who push media to explore new interpretations both of the media themselves and of their artwork.

De Vries, B.. "A Nobel Prize for CAAD." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 1 (2004): 19-29.

Fundamental questions about the status of CAAD research arise regularly on different levels and under different circumstances. Apparently there is no common understanding about this, causing confusion, which in itself is already bad for the status of CAAD research. In this article I will discuss the CAAD research approach as I find it at most architecture and engineering groups, by comparing it to research in the traditional science domain. Some differences can be explained from the nature of design, but others'have more historical reasons. To conclude I propose a long-term strategy for scientific CAAD research, namely: (i) Build your own community, (ii) Establish prestigious journals and prizes and (iii) Improve quality by natural selection. Eventually this will bring us the recognition for CAAD research that it deserves.

Liapi, Katherine A., and Jinman Kim. "A Parametric Approach to the Design of Vaulted Tensegrity Networks." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 2 (2004): 245-262.

Significant new research in tensegrity theory and technology encourages tensegrityis implementation in architecture. A recently developed technology makes possible the rapid modular assembly of deployable tensegrity units, and the construction of alternate curved configurations by re-using the same modules. Although a form exploration method for tensegrity structures already exists, estimating the structureis new geometry remains a challenge due to difficulties designers encounter in understanding and following the methodis geometric construction process. Besides, the method doesnit address the geometry of vaulted configurations. This paper presents algorithms that link together the geometric parameters that determine the shape of tensegrity vaults by addressing different design-construction scenarios, and a software code that generates parametric models of tensegrity vaulted structures.The application of the algorithms to the morphological study of a tensegrity vaulted dome, which constituted the main feature of an entry to arecent international architectural competition, is also presented.

Manes, Sergio. "Architectural Representation Software: a Design Tool." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 3 (2004): 403-422.

In the last decades, design processes have been approached with absolutely new representation techniques: digital media. This new tool was naturally incorporated to the architectural task not only in universities but also in Architectural offices. However, their evolution and utilization have been so sudden that their impact on the design object could not be properly assessed. Simply they stated to be used by translating analogical representation techniques into the digital media. In the Latin American context, in which the media interaction paradigm has not yet been completely established within universities and teachers, this work presents an exploration of the underlying ideas contained in the architectural representation software, as well as a series of exercises intended to teach how to use digital media as a design tool, instead of teaching how to use them as a mere representation tool.

Sperling, David. "Architecture as a Digital Diagram." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 3 (2004): 371-387.

This paper results from interdisciplinary research about dynamic and transformational processes of conception, representation and spatial construction in Architecture. This work systematizes the common bases of the diagram offered by disciplines that deal with processes of representation, such as Cognitive Science, Logical Semiotics, Mathematical Logic and Philosophy, and of spatial investigation such as Topology and Architecture. It outlines operative components (trans, inter and intra-diagrams) and the diagram's phenomenological variables (thought, space, time) and establishes mutual relationships between it, digital media and Architecture, with the intent of developing the understanding of the digital diagram as an enhanced way of placing information in time and space.

Morozumi, Mitsuo, and Riken Homma. "Assessment of the Use of 3D-Viewing and Mark-up Tool for Rich Network Design Communication." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 4 (2004): 462-473.

Though there have been many successful examples of Virtual Design Studio, there still exist unsuccessful cases in which participants felt dissatisfied or even frustrated, especially at synchronous stages of design_communication. A discussion that required designers to refer to 3D models was one of the situations where technical support was insufficient to satisfy the expectation of designers. Assuming that an interactive viewing of 3D models and use of a markup utility on a shared PC window could enhance such design communications (though this also requires network bandwidth and computational power) the author conducted experiments in design discussion between two designers to test the capability and effects of these tools for network collaborations. This paper discusses the framework and results of the experiments, and proposes the next step for system developments.

Matthews, David. "Asymptote: Flux." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 2 (2004): 287-290.

Fluxis value is the combination of rich visual imagery organized around thechronological projects of Asymptote with insightful interviews that revealthe process of design that blurs the distinction of physical architecture andcyberspace. Asymptote actively experiments with the contemporarymeaning of space while embracing physical and virtual notions of experienceand meaning within a hybrid model. The descriptions of the projects revealan evocative insight to process and meaning but lack critical, or alternative,points of view. However, this does not diminish the overall use of Flux inrevealing the importance of a critically based understanding of digitaltechnology, cyberspace, and new directions in architecture.

Kolarevic, Branko. "Back to the Future: Performative Architecture." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 1 (2004): 43-50.

The paper addresses performative architecture as an emerging design paradigm in which building performance, broadly understood, becomes a guiding design principle. It traces the origins of this approach to design to Tom Maver's visionary work in early seventies, discusses the inadequacy of existing building performance simulation tools in conceptual design, and proposes the development of software that can provide dynamic processes of formation based on specific performance objectives.

Koutamanis, Alexander. "CAAD's Seven Arguable Virtues." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 1 (2004): 51-65.

In 1995 Maver proposed seven deadly sins for CAAD as the prelude to a critical discussion on the principles, methods and practices of the field. In an attempt to return to this discussion, in this paper these sins are linked to the seven deadly sins and the complementary seven heavenly virtues. The analysis of computational processes into a theoretic, an algorithmic and an implementational framework provides a framework for the positioning of sins and possible or already attained virtues in CAAD.

Heitor, Teresa, José Duarte, and Rafaela Pinto. "Combing Grammars and Space Syntax: Formulating, Generating and Evaluating Designs." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 4 (2004): 492-515.

This paper is concerned with how two different computational approaches to design - shape grammars and space syntax - can be combined into a single common framework for formulating, generating, and evaluating designs. The main goal is to explore how the formal principles applied in the design process interact with the spatial properties of the designed objects. Results suggest that space syntax is (1) useful in determining the universe of solutions generated by the grammar and (2) in evaluating the evolving designs in terms of spatial properties and, therefore, in guiding the generation of designs.

Harfmann, Anton, and Paul Bauser. "Component-Based Design: a Summary and Scheme for Implementation." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 2 (2004): 189-209.

This paper summarizes the major advantages ofcomponent-based design as a paradigm for handling alldesign and construction information about a buildingat every stage of design. The paper reviews some ofthe current issues that plague the building design andconstruction industry. The component-based paradigmis reviewed as a model that reunites the fragmentedbuilding industry and as a solution for dealing withvast amounts of information that accretes during thedesign-construction process. Based on interviews witharchitects, engineers, contractors and fabricators aswell as on-site documentation of construction wefeature the design and construction of the main stairin the Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Artdesigned by Zaha Hadid as a specific case study toillustrate the viability of component-based design andto highlight the obstacles challenging itsimplementation.

Senagala, Mahesh. "Deconstructing the Software Interface:A Critical Close Reading of AutoCAD." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 3 (2004): 299-314.

AutoCAD maintains a nearly 70% market share in the PC-based AEC sector and wields enormous influence over design and production processes in architectural firms and schools. Such an impact is, perhaps, more than what a single building can hope to achieve. The design implications of such a market monopoly are many. Based on Derridean operations of Deconstruction, the paper will deconstruct AutoCAD's latent agenda. The paper will do a critical close reading of AutoCAD for its design preferences, spatial conceptions, worldviews, resistances, stratifications and organizational predispositions with respect to architectural design process. For purposes of brevity, this paper will focus on the architecture of AutoCAD's interface. The results of the paper would be the beginning of a critical theory that can be employed in the process of software design for design professions.

Sarawgi, Tina. "Determining the Suitability of Computer-Aided Daylight Simulation Method in the Design Process." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 2 (2004): 155-175.

The successful use of daylight in a building requiresthat the associated forms and devices be conceived asan integral part of the architectural design. The popular methods of simulation for daylighting design manual methods, physical scale model and computergraphics based rendering do not provide a robust model for daylighting decision-making during the design process due to their individual limitations. The recent advances in computer-aided design and rendering compel another look at visually simulating daylight. This paper discusses a project undertaken totest a computer-aided daylight simulation program is accuracy and ability to allow quick iterative daylight explorations, essential to any design decision-making process. Real buildings with their existing complexities are selected as case studies. The outcomes are discussed and recommendations for future daylight simulation software programs to be suitable in the design process are suggested.

Sosa, Ricardo, and John S. Gero. "Diffusion of Creative Design: Gatekeeping Effects." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 4 (2004): 518-531.

A computational framework for design is presented to show that certain social structures can determine how novel solutions are created and spread. This paper suggests that creativity transcends the individual inasmuch as situational factors such as the role of gatekeepers can determine who is considered creative in a society.

Talbott, Kyle. "Divergent Thinking in the Construction of Architectural Models." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 2 (2004): 263-286.

The article examines one little understood butubiquitous form of divergent thinking achievedintermittently during the act of drawing or modelling.It is argued that this phenomenon, here calledintermittent divergence, is rooted in a special kind ofinteraction between perception and imagination, andthat this interaction has specific experientialrequirements. Three requirements are defined. Theresulting new theory then provides a framework forthe critical analysis of conventional digital modellingand parametric modelling. Conventional modellingmethods are shown to satisfy the requirements forintermittent divergence, while parametric modellingmethods are shown to undermine them. The articleconcludes that parametric systems, as currentlydeveloped, could inhibit rather than augment thisimportant route to creativity. Additionally, the articlequestions prevailing beliefs about the computersupport of creativity, including the premise thatsketching is an ideal creative medium and the premisethat ambiguity in graphical depictions is key to thesupport of creativity. The theory offers an alternativeview on these issues.

Montagu, Arturo. "Going back in History." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 1 (2004): 67-75.

This paper combines an acknowledgement of the influential work of Tom Maver with a personal retrospective view of the early experimentations and developments in Computer Aided Architectural Design and related art and design fields.

Mahalingam, Ganapathy, and Rajesh Kavasseri. "Improving Objective Digital Images with Neuronal Processing: a Computational Approach." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 2 (2004): 143-153.

This paper describes an experiment where an image recorded with a digital camera is processed using anelectro-physiological model of a neuron. The luminosity level of each pixel of the source image istreated as the stimulus for an individual neuron, andthe source image is transformed into a response image based on the processing behaviour of theHodgkin-Huxley neuronal model. It is seen that transformation of the image through neuronal processing yields (i) more evenly balanced levels of luminosity and (ii) a more “subjective” rendering of the environment than what was photographed with the digital camera. The CCD (charge coupled device) -based digital camera reveals its limitation as a linear recording device that does not have a balanced dynamic range. The neuronal processing of the image adds non-linearity and a balanced range to the luminosity levels in the image, rendering it closer to a “subjective” perception of the scene.

Elvin, George. "Integrating Design and Construction with Wearable Computers." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 2 (2004): 177-187.

Wearable computers can help bridge the gap between design and construction. They can integrate these traditionally separate cultures by improving the flowof information between them. Using a wearablecomputer, design and construction personnel can nowexchange design information quickly and continuously between the point of work on the construction site and the remote design office. The improved iteration between design and construction and much strongerconnection between design personnel andconstruction site afforded by wearable computers maypoint the way to a new kind of integrated architectural process. In this study, the goal was to determine the value of wearable computers in integrating design and construction by measuringspecific performance characteristics.The resultsinclude findings on productivity, rework andcommunication quality. They reveal that wearable computers can improve communication quality and reduce rework, but may have an initially negative impact on productivity. These findings suggest thatwearable computers may play a key role in futurebuilding projects, helping to bridge the current dividebetween design and construction.

Lang, Silke. "Interactive Spaces for Advanced Communication using 3D Video." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 1 (2004): 109-122.

Architects integrate more and more modern information technologies in their projects. Based on this background the use of 3D video in an architectural context is discussed. The combination of real-time 3D video and blue-c technology for a distributed shopping experience in shared virtual shops is described. IN: SHOP illustrates an approach to enhance physical environments in shopping areas and connects geographically distant persons. These technologies offer new architectural design possibilities. The traditional understanding of location, space, and time may be redefined. Interactive spaces are being designed, modified and experienced. We believe that information technologies have an impact on buildings and architecture.

Do, Ellen Yi- Luen, and Mark Gross. "Let There be Light! Knowledge-Based 3-D Sketching Design Tools." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 2 (2004): 211-227.

This paper presents a framework for 3D knowledge based sketching tools for lighting design and two software prototypes built to illustrate sketch-based interaction with intelligent systems in 3-D domains.Spot supports direct sunlight simulation and visualization in a selected time period and Light Pen supports placement of electric lighting designs to lightan intended area in space. In both examples, a 3-Dsketching front-end is coupled with a back-end knowledge-based system. This enables a designer topose a problem by drawing onto a 3-D model towhich the knowledge-based system offers a solution -in one case by providing quantitative data analysis, inthe other by modifying the 3-D model. Spot and LightPenis specific domain of architectural lighting design exemplifies a more general class of 3-D interaction with intelligent systems.

Martens, Bob. "On the Archiving of Tom Mavers' Bibliography (1969)." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 1 (2004): 77-88.

Professor Tom Maver has authored and co-authored nearly 150 publications in the course of his academic career so far. A substantial part of this work has been collected in a paper-based format and most of this has now been converted to a digital format. The bibliographical citations have been recorded - together with digital full paper versions - in CUMINCAD (Cumulative Index on CAD - http://cumincad.SciX.net). A closer examination of the collected archive of these publications and their global impact will be given in this contribution. Finally, a brief outline of possible future work will be presented.

Kvan, Thomas, and Song Gao. "Problem Framing in Multiple Settings." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 4 (2004): 444-460.

This study offers an insight to architectural students'problem framing activities using digital and paper media. The role of problem framing in design processes and its contribution to design learning has been studied by others. Here, we investigate the effects of media on framing activities. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate problem framing under three settings, namely online collocated, online remote and paper-based co-located. Student pairs were asked to spend forty minutes in solving collaboratively a wicked design problem. The results show that problem framing activities are significantly different in the online remote setting compared to those in the two co-located settings. We find more density of framing activities happened in the online remote setting than in the other two settings while there is no significant difference between online co-located and paper-based colocated settings.

Coyne, Richard, Pedro Rebelo, and Martin Parker. "Resisting the Seamless Interface." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 4 (2004): 430-442.

In this paper we examine the quest for seamless computer interaction from the point of view of cultural theory, in so far as this study draws on Freud and his critics. The paper adopts Ricoeur's critical stance, examining the roles of metaphor, repetition, resistance and a time-based perturbation, as means of challenging the imperative towards the seamless interface. We also draw on our experience in teaching and creating interactive digital media works.

Ruffle, Simon, and Paul Richens. "Stylist and Scaleable - Vector Graphics for All on the Web." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 3 (2004): 333-350.

Raster graphics are ubiquitous on the web, but many architectural and engineering applications would be better served by vector techniques. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is an emerging XML based vector graphics standard from the World Wide Web Consortium, but is not yet implemented in mainstream browsers. We describe a way of using the widely distributed Macromedia Flash Player to display SVG files. The resulting drawings are easy to rescale and restyle within the browser, offer superior printing, and many possibilities for advanced interaction and animation.

Stipech, Alfredo, and Guillermo Mántaras. "The Digital Media and New Technologies in Visual Arts Studio." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 3 (2004): 389-401.

This studio dealt with the integration of Digital Media in both the Artistic-Creative and Teaching-Learning processes. The studio combines satellite and present classes during two months of intensive work, with an additional year of work via internet. We obtained successful results as measured by higher levels of knowledge acquisition and the development of perceptual skills. Those results were achieved despite noteworthy limitations in quantity and quality of electronic equipment available. This experience may be particularly important to people working in developing countries and/or in the area between visual arts and architecture.

Kvan, Thomas. "The Dual Heritage of CAAD Research." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 1 (2004): 11-17.

The development of research in computer aided architectural design has evolved in the context of architectural design. A review of Tom Maver's work is undertaken from the perspective of his shortest paper, CAAD's Seven Deadly Sins. In that paper cautions were given to researchers. Here these cautions are interpreted in the context of the dual heritage of our field in science and creative arts. An examination of Tom Maver's own work suggests that these sins are counterbalanced by a like number of virtues and it is suggested that these are demonstrated in the corpus of his work and the community he has fostered.

Schmitt, Gerhard. "The Impact of Computer Aided Architectural Design on Physical Reality." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 1 (2004): 31-41.

Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) has produced three types and three generations of CAAD researchers, teachers and practitioners. The three types - CAAD inventors, implementers and users - benefit from the constantly improving computer technology. The three generations - CAAD pioneers, trendsetters and educators are in a more difficult situation as the attitude towards, and the knowledge about, Computer Aided Architectural Design in the general public and in the professional community is unstable. To explore the impact of CAAD on physical reality and to discover future challenges, it is useful to look at the pioneers of CAAD, as they often combine in one person the characteristics of the development that occurred afterwards. Tom Maver is one of the premier examples. The paper presents thoughts on CAAD teaching and research and contrasts them with the professional reality at ETH, in order to explore the impact of CAAD on the physical reality.

Scaletsky, Celso Carnos. "The Kaléidoscope System to Organize Architectural Design References." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 3 (2004): 351-369.

The presentation of a new computer-based tool to assist architectural conception demands reflection on the process of creation itself. There is an articulation between typical conceptual procedures and computerized means. We chose one of these procedures: the utilization of external references (not necessarily architectural) to stimulate new design ideas. This is the basis for the experimental computational model “kaléidoscope”, which is characterized as an open reference system for architectural design. There are two essential qualities for such a system: 1) The system should permit an individual interpretation and construction of the referential knowledge, considering that 2) references may proceed from fields other than architecture. The computational model begins with a reference, formed by the association of an image to concepts and / or texts. The concepts are graphically represented and organized in thematic thesauri. The “kaléidoscopei system includes several search and navigation modes, allowing access to references as a means to rouse new design ideas.

Clarke, Cory, and Phillip Anzalone. "Trusset: Parallel Development of Software and Construction Systems for Space-Truss Structures." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 2 (2004): 229-244.

This paper documents our current progress on the parallel development of a building system and corresponding agent-based software design tools,together the two produce a seamless pipeline from design to fabrication and assembly. The building system is a clad differential space-truss designed for fabrication entirely with computer numerically controlled (CNC) linear cutting devices such as CNC laser cutters or two-axis mills. The software component is a set of agent-based design tools for developing surfaces and envelopes formally suitable tobe built using our space-truss system.

Halin, Gilles, Damien Hanser, and Jean-Claude Bignon. "User Adaptive Visualization of Cooperative Architectural Design." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 1 (2004): 89-107.

A cooperative design is a social activity inside a group. In this kind of activity, each actor plays a specific role. If each actor wants to realize the actions corresponding to his role, he needs some adaptive information about the cooperation context. The cooperation context of design project is a relational organization where each actor maintains specific relations with other people (designers, project managers, etc.) but also with documents and activities. Such a cooperation context exists in architectural cooperative design which is distinguished by a “mutual prescriptioni between actors. In architectural design we are in a network model of actors, instead of the hierarchical model that we can find in classical workflow tools. This organization has to be represented in the project management tool to give each user an adaptive vision of the project organization and evolution. The representation and the visualization of such a network, which characterizes each project, is the main objective of the “Relational Model of Cooperationi and the hypermedia view presented in this paper.

Rana, Sanjay, and Mike Batty. "Visualising the Structure of Architectural Open Spaces Based on Shape Analysis." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 1 (2004): 123-132.

This paper proposes the application of some well known two-dimensional geometrical shape descriptors for the visualisation of the structure of architectural open spaces. The paper demonstrates the use of visibility measures such as distance to obstacles and amount of visible space to calculate shape descriptors such as convexity and skeleton of the open space. The aim of the paper is to indicate a simple, objective and quantifiable approach to understand the structure of open spaces otherwise impossible due to the complex construction of built structures.

Muñoz, Patricia, and Juan López Corone. "Visualizing Intangible Realities in Design." International Journal of Architectural Computing 2, no. 3 (2004): 315-331.

This paper explores an enormous potential of digital media in the area of morphology in industrial design, which goes beyond its extended and widespread possibilities of visualization and materialization. The visualization of the concepts that sustain the identity of our projects, even though they are invisible in finished products, can be explained and made evident through digital media. Intelligible aspects acquire perceptual shapes in order to make its apprehension easier. In this sense, we understand that virtual simulation is an important tool of cognitive mediation.