Keywords Abstract
Klercker, Af. "A CAVE-Interface in CAAD-Education?" In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 313-323. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. The so called “CAVE-interface” is a very interesting and thrilling development for architects! It supports a better illusion of space by exposing almost a 270° view of a computer model than the 60° which can be viewed on an ordinary computer screen. At the Lund University we have got the possibility to experiment with a CAVE-installation, using it in research and the education of CAAD. The technique and three experiments are discribed. The possibilities are discussed and some problems and questions are put forward.
Huang, Ying-Hsiu. "A Cognitive Study of Shapes and Functions in Design Sketches: Simulating an Industrial Design Case by Neural Networks." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 275-284. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. The present research focuses on transforming shapes that had been drawn by designers on the sketches and on evaluating the shapes from design requirements. In this research, neural networks simulate the result from collecting shapes that designers transformed from original shapes and evaluations from all ones. There are four steps in this research: First, a cognitive experiment. I collected real shapes that designers drew and evaluations from the experiment in order to training the neural networks. Second, a transforming neural network is simulating the behaviour in which designers transformed one shape into another without evaluating the design requirements. Third, a evaluating neural network that trained by the evaluations that collected from the experiment is simulating how designers criticized the shapes in terms of design requirements. Fourth, modifying program is trying to modify the evaluations that had been criticized by designers from all shapes and generating a new shape from modified evaluations. This research proposed a synthetic system that simulating the behaviour during design sketching, therefore, computers could also generate some ideas like human designer.
Schultz, Volkher. "A didactic concept for training architects and interior decorators." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 29-39. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. The 20th year anniversary of the Lichtlabor is used as an opportunity to look back. Two decades in a period of rapid technological development is a long time, during which furnishings pass or fail their trial period. The organizational structure of the Lichtlabor which includes lay-out and appliances has continually expanded since 1977 although the theoretical approach has not changed. Even the ideational structure of the Lichtlabor, without which an organizational structure would be worthless, has proved to be workable and effective as a didactic concept. This concept is based on the interdisciplinary midpoint between a technically (basic) understanding of light - a combination of abstract knowledge and experience gained - and its design-related application.
Morozumi, Mitsuo, Y. Shounai, Riken Homma, K. Iki, and Y. Murakami. "A Group Ware for Asynchronous Design Communication and Project Management." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 171-180. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. The number of Virtual Design Studio experiment that used WWW (Digital Pin-up Board) and e-mail for a synchronous communication, is rapidly increasing. There is no doubt that those media are quite helpful, but it also became clear that writing and managing pages of DPB require extra work for designers and technical staff to proceed with collaborative design. To make VDS a popular approach of collaborative design, developing convenient tools to support writing and managing pages of DPB has become inevitable. This paper discusses a prototype of group ware that supports asynchronous design communication with DPB: GW-Notebook that can be used with common web browsers on net-PCs. 
Xiao, Litian, and Xueying Hao. "A Knowledge Base System in the Residential Intelligent CAD System." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 161-170. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. The paper discusses the construction of knowledge-base system in a residential intelligent CAD system (RICAD). It introduces the main parts of residential architecture knowledge-base, the division and management of residential architecture knowledge, the classification of rules, the inference engine and the control strategy, and the fuzzy processing method. RICAD can produce the residential construction drawings under the bounded conditions given by the user. The paper also discusses some reality models and algorithm. These are effective in the practice.
Gero, John S.. "A Model of Designing that Includes its Situatedness." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 235-241. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. Current models of designing are inadequate as a basis for the development of CAAD tools for use at the conceptual stages of designing. Such models appear to be only satisfactory for the detail stages of designing. Further, current models of designing are not in accord with our present knowledge of designing. This gap has created difficulties in the development of suitable computational support tools for designers. The development of the model proposed in this paper aims to begin to fill that gap and hence provide a foundation for a new generation of computer-based design support tools, potentially applicable at the conceptual stage of designing.
Kawasumi, Norihiro, and Shigeyuki Yamaguchi. "A Study of Design Information System for Network Collaboration." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 191-199. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. In this paper, we discuss about the architectural design collaboration and information management based on the worldwide network. Internet and WWW are rapidly infiltrating through the architectural schools in the world, so it is easy to communicate and share the design information with web homepage and e-mail. But, a set of homepage and e-mail is not sufficient for easy and smooth design. Because of the data management method and system for network collaboration is not yet well organized nor well developed. In this paper, we report the results of two Virtual Design Studio projects that we have experienced and intend to analyze the problems to exchange and share the design information on the web. Then we propose the collaborative design system environment and evaluate it from the result of the experimental third Virtual Design Studio project that we have executed.
Shih, Naai-Jung, and Chih-Hsiang Yang. "A VR-Based Preference Study on the Selection of Egress Route in Evacuation." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 63-70. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. This preliminary study tried to characterize an occupants preference in egress route selection, with/out signage and smoke. In a VR simulation conducted in a public space, six types of egress routes were categorized and exemplified based upon the width of the corridor, fillet corner, or the intersection of two corridors.
Ng, E.N., L.K. Poh, W. Wei, and T. Nagakura. "Advanced Lighting Simulation in Architectural Design in the Tropics." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 429-441. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. This paper outlines a two years research program that the team attempted to apply one of the most powerful computational lighting simulation software RADIANCE to assist in daylighting design of an actual building in the tropics. The validation studies, which were carried out in the Asian Civilisation Museum (ACM) in Singapore, show that Radiance can be used to predict the internal illuminance with a high degree of accuracy under overcast sky conditions without external obstruction. The experimental application of Radiance to daylighting investigation of the ACM further supports its capabilities as well as its accuracy. Using Radiance to study two daylighting control options (curtains and louvers), it can be found that louvers are more effective than curtains as daylighting control devices, and that the angle of the louvers has more effect than their reflectance on daylight penetration and distribution.
Chan, C., J. Maves, and C. Cruz-Neira. "An Electronic Library for Teaching Architectural History." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 335-344. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. This research project developed an electronic library of significant buildings chosen to represent seven selected periods of Western architectural history: Egyptian (Mortuary temple of Queen Hatshepsut), Greek (Parthenon), Roman (Pantheon), Romanesque (Speyer Cathedral), Gothic (Notre Dame Cathedral), Renaissance (Tempietto), and Modern (Des Moines Art Center). All buildings were reconstructed in their original or intended forms based on plans, drawings, photographs, and historical texts. Two products were generated by this project: (1) materials to be displayed on the World Wide Web, including rendered still images for perception, movies for a visual guide, and Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) models for user navigation, and (2) virtual reality (VR) models to be displayed in the C2 (an improved version of the Cave Automatic Virtual Environment or CAVE facility). The benefits of these VR models displayed on the Web and in the C2 are their easy accessibility at any time from various geographic locations and the immersive experience that enhances viewers understanding of the effects of spatial proportions on form and of colors on materials.
Emdanat, Samir, and Emmanuel-George Vakalo. "An Experiment in Using Virtual Reality to Teach Compositional Principles to Beginning Students." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 325-333. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. This paper introduces an experiment in using educational toys as a means for teaching compositional principles to architectural students using: (1) a traditional model-based approach and (2) “BlocksWorld” a computer-based system that utilizes immersive virtual reality technologies. The paper discusses the general nature of the exercise and its objectives and illustrates some of the resulting student projects. Then it introduces an approach to implementing an interactive virtual design environment that is based on this exercise.
Koutamanis, Alexander. "Approaches to the Integration of CAAD Education in the Electronic Era: Two Value Systems." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 238-243. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. In recent years the democratization of information and communication technologies (ICT) has become the greatest influence on the structure of CAAD education. While the content of the CAAD courses simply had to absorb the new technological possibilities, the structure of the courses and in particular their relationship to the rest of the curriculum has become the subject of speculation and experimentation. Integration of CAAD education in an architectural curriculum occurs either by (a) placing emphasis on designing in CAAD courses, or by (b)  integrating computing in design courses. Both approaches respond to the democratization of ICT by making design computing widely available and acceptable. Further improvement is possible if the student becomes the carrier of integration. This is based on the long-term amplification of two value systems. The first refers to personal cognition: rather than rewarding a student with the teacher's approval, educational goals should be translated into individual skills and knowledge. The second system addresses the values of the peer group: such groups support learning by comparison to other individuals and emerging communal characteristics, either as a result of competition or for reasons of assimilation.
Van Zutphen, R.H.M., A. Turksma, Henri Achten, and Af Klercker. "AVOCAAD, Teaching CAAD on the Internet." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 345-354. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. The Leonardo da Vinci pilot project AVOCAAD (Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design), aims to innovate the use of computers in architecture. It tries to achieve this through the development of new course material, which will be used in the education of architectural students as well as for post-graduate education, continuous education and training-on-the-job of architects working in a practice. Besides the development of new course materials, a new framework was developed to give structure to the huge amount of different topics within the CAAD-curriculum and to improve dissemination and learning facilities using the Internet. In this paper, we describe the AVOCAAD project in general, give some examples of concrete course materials, and focus on the general framework, which we called the Vienna Scheme. The paper also focuses on the implementation, and use of the Vienna Scheme on the Internet is also discussed. The project is funded by the European Community under grant B/96/2/0539/PI/II.1.1.c/CONT.
Kaga, Atsuko, K. Nakahama, S. Hamada, S. Yamaguchi, H. Yamanishi, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "Collaborative Design System for Citizen Participation in Planning Public Road Projects." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 225-234. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. The realization of smooth execution of public street enterprise and good communication with inhabitants needs the way of easy and right explanation which the inhabitants understand the street planning, and the scheme of administration and inhabitants make the nice housing environment together. In this paper, the street planing presentation system for inhabitants established by using computer graphics. The applicability of the presentation system is made clear using in the real project.
Sasada, Tsuyoshi. "Computer Graphics and Design: Presentation, Design Development and Conception." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 21-29. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. Computer graphics is a powerful medium for presentation and design. In early days of its usage, it has been used mainly for presentation. Then it was started to use computer graphics in design development stage. Even more, now a days you can get an inspiration from it. With tracing the change, we can see a centripetal movement of usage from the fringe to the core of the design field. This paper will describe how this change occurred with what kind of effort.
Gero, John S., and Hsien-Hui Tang. "Concurrent and Retrospective Protocols and Computer-Aided Architectural Design." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 403-410. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. This paper presents the results of studying human designers using two forms of protocol analysis and examines the implications of the results on computer-aided architectural design systems. It uses and contrasts two types of protocol analyses: concurrent protocols and retrospective protocols. The preliminary results indicate that CAAD tools to be useful at the early stages of designing need to encompass synthesis, analysis and evaluation and be highly integrated.
Chiu, Mao-Lin. "Design Navigation and Construction Simulation by Virtual Reality." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 31-41. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. This paper depicts the approach of constructing a virtual reality environment for simulating architectural design and construction operations. The virtual environment is established to demonstrate the spatial performance of design and constructability of construction operations. Particularly, the functions such as navigation of construction sites, simulation of construction operations, and evaluation of construction details will be critical to construction operations. The system shell is implemented by JAVA on the web and integrated with VRML for supporting the above functions. The study focuses on the needs for the system integration and interface design. Four modes of human computer interfaces are proposed, including the user, agent, monitor, and immersion modes. Finally, this paper provides demonstration of construction simulation in an office building project to highlight the above discussion. The operations of crane towers and curtain wall installation are also studied in the construction process. In conclusion, this paper demonstrates the potential uses and limitation of virtual reality in simulation of the built environment.
Iki, K., S. Shimoda, N. Kumadaki, and Riken Homma. "Development and Use of Intranet-Based CAFM System." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 383-392. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. In the past CAFM system study, we proposed a system for supporting data-processing and plan-drafting, on the assumption that it is to be used in different stages of Building Construction, Interior Spatial Planning and Maintenance. By the above system, we have developed a CAFM system using the DBMS (Data Base Management System), CAD (Computer Aided Design) and Spread Sheet as the analysis tools. Management system with FM-related data editing functions such as'Input','Modification','Deleting', etc, are proposed. To promote the FM business smoothly, information should be shared among departments concerned, and informative administrative framework should be organized. This time, we propose a prototype of CAFM system on INTRANET which is developed for general users that permits browsing and downloading of system database.
Shimoda, S., K. Iki, N. Kumadaki, and Y. Takegawa. "Development of the CAFM System for Life Cycle Management." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 125-132. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. The purpose of this research is to develop the CAFM system that supports the cost management related to the building maintenance. Furthermore, we examine the possible implementation of CAFM as the supporting tools of medium-long term planning and fiscal year planning of the Facility Management. The function of the building-maintenance-system-oriented-Life-Cycle Cost (LCC)-supporting CAFM system is the feasibility of reference with the relating information database, which are later used for comparative analysis. The following is a detailed explanation of its functions:1) Outlined data display function of the building parts and materials. 2) 3-dimensional CAD models management. 3) LCC display function of building parts and materials. 4) Search function. This system supports the development of an efficient maintenance planning, and an efficient undertaking of the maintenance program. The concrete effects are as follow, (1) Cost-efficient building maintenance planning. (2) Building value increased by appropriate budget planning of maintenance. (3) Processing load and time are shortened. (4) Human mistakes are decreased.
Pan, Yunhe. "Dunhuang Art Cave Virtual Rebuilding and Navigation: Applying Multimedia, Intelligence and Design Technologies in Dunhuang Arts." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 20-Jan. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. Dunhuang Art Cave is confronted with the serious influence of natural forces. Integrating Multimedia, Artificial intelligence and CAD, we can virtually preserve and reproduce the original cave architecture, painting sculptures and murals. This paper first introduce the main ideas of Dunhuang cave virtual rebuilding, cave virtual navigating, mural color restoring as well as Dunhuang-style pattern designing, and then analyzes in detail their technical issues and show results of prototype systems. In the end, we give a brief summary.
Murty, Paul, Scott C. Chase, and Joseph Nappa. "Evaluating the Complexity of CAD Models in Education and Practice." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 105-114. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. When educators or students estimate the complexity of proposed CAD projects, in order to judge feasibility, two conceptions of complexity may be considered. The first, design complexity, based on visible features of the object to be modelled, is the easier to assess beforehand, but is not very reliable. The second, CAD complexity, based on the actual CAD embodiment of the design, is suggested as potentially a more useful guide, in spite of evident difficulties with assessment in advance. Clearer articulation of this under utilised concept is proposed for both educational and more general reasons, and this becomes the focus of the paper.
Garza, De, Andrés Gómez, and Mary Lou Maher. "Evolving Design Layout Cases to Satisfy Feng Shui Constraints." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 115-124. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. We present a computational process model for design that combines the functionalities of case-based reasoning (CBR) and genetic algorithms (GAs). CBR provides a precedent-based framework in which prior design cases are retrieved and adapted in order to meet the requirements of a new design problem. GAs provide a general-purpose mechanism for randomly combining and modifying potential solutions to a new problem repeatedly until an adequate solution is found. In our model we use a GA to perform the case-adaptation subtask of CBR. In this manner, a gradual improvement in the overall quality of the proposed designs is obtained as more and more adaptations of the design cases originally retrieved from memory are evolved.  We describe how these ideas can be used to perform layout design of residences such that the final designs satisfy the requirements imposed by feng shui, the Chinese art of placement.
Li, Andrew I. - Kang. "Expressing Parametric Dependence in Shape Grammars, with an Example from Traditional Chinese Architecture." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 265-274. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. Shape grammars traditionally generate one product at a time. This leads to difficulties when dependent parameters are involved. Parallel grammars are proposed as a solution. As an example, a grammar is shown which generates plans according to the 12th-century Chinese building manual Yingzao fashi. 
Homma, Riken, K. Iki, Mitsuo Morozumi, and T. Morisaki. "Geographic Information Database for Landscape Evaluation." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 143-152. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. In a landscape evaluation of a large-scale facilities construction such as garbage disposal facilities, it is necessary to grasp landscape characteristics of the area that is able to observe object facilities. This landscape characteristic consists of both a geographical characteristic (landscape resources, public space, districts designated by various urban planing laws, etc.) and a visual characteristic (visibility / invisibility range, distance from the object). The facilities design with consideration for landscape requires a geographic information database for the landscape characteristic, which enable planners to share the geographic information in the area. Authors proposed Network-based Dynamic Evaluation Process for urban landscapes in CAADRIA98, and illustrated the need of the common place that shares geographic information in the process. The system has function to provide the information of the area with layered maps simply. However the system developed with HTML Layer Function, that has limited to update data and boolean operate of layers. For using the system for practical purposes, it should conduct a GIS lookup and report back, via HTML. On the other hand, at present, there are various analogue thematic maps, digital maps are not prepared enough for landscape evaluation. It causes that landscape design process is not efficient. Also, a potential (importance) of viewpoints for evaluating facilities design have been defined by qualitative analysis so far, therefore a quantitative comparison of viewpoints was not available. As a solution of those problems, authors are tackling the development of Geographic Information Database (GIDB) by using GIS. In this paper authors give an outline of GIDB composed of overlaying various digital thematic maps included visual characteristic of the facilities. As a case study, in construction of the garbage disposal facilities in Kumamoto city, the important viewpoints was extracted by GIDB.
Uddin, Mohammed Saleh. "Hybrid Drawing Techniques by Contemporary Architects and Designers." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. The complete hybrid drawing sourcebook Hybrid drawings offer limitless possibilities for the fusion and superimposition of ideas, media, and techniques-powerful creative tools for effective and innovative architectural graphic presentation. This unique guide offers a dynamic introduction to these drawings and how they are created, with a stunning color portfolio of presentation-quality examples that give full visual expression to the power and potential of hybrid drawing techniques. Featuring the work of dozens of internationally recognized architects and firms, including Takefumi Aida, Helmut Jahn of Murphy/Jahn Architects, Morphosis, Eric Owen Moss, NBBJ Sports & Entertainment, Smith-Miller & Hawkinson, and Bernard Tschumi Architects, the book's visual examples are accompanied by descriptive and analytical commentary that gives valuable practical insight into the background of each project, along with essential information on the design concept and the drawing process. Combining all of the best features of an idea resource and a how-to guide, Hybrid Drawing Techniques by Contemporary Architects and Designers is an important creative tool for students and professionals in architecture, design, illustration, and related areas
Martens, Bob, and A. Voigt. "Implementation of ATM-Based Collaborative Design." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 201-214. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. The following contribution describes research work in progress within the context of the focal field of research and development “Remote Teamwork (RT)” at Vienna University of Technology. Current research work is aiming at the elaboration of suited collaborative remote-working structures for research and project transactions (incl. study projects) - within the context of spatial planning - on the basis of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM, a technology of broad band telecommunications). The generation and manipulation of digital spatial models and their virtual transportation within large distances represent main objectives. The current subjects in architecture, urban and regional planning (e.g. master planning, building-up planning, urban design, interior design) act as test projects to be defined in the course of the research work in their contents and spatial context and to be represented as digital spatial working models. Special attention is given to consolidation, harmonizing and advancement of current single activities in the field of ATM (e.g. facilitation of the access to technology, definition of project partners at the global level, development of originary, planning- and design-relevant software on the basis of native-ATM).
Kurmann, David. "Informotion: Dynamic Representation of Information Structures." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 133-141. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. Information is everywhere. We are flooded by information and one can observe peoples problems handling the amount of information. The relational table as the mean to present information as well as simple html pages are having their obvious depts. Therefore, people are looking into three-dimensional representations and entire virtual environments to visualize data contents. Within this papers it is proposed to visualize information and information structures in a dynamic fashion. Therefore, we will have a look at some principles of dynamic representations as well as the metaphors and methods used to enables dynamic representations. With Autonomous Objects in Sculptor and inforMotion two examples are implemented in our research projects using dynamic data visualization.
Chan, C., L. Hill, and C. Cruz-Neira. "Is it Possible to Design in Full Scale? a CAD Tool in a Synthetic Environment." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 43-52. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. This project developed a Virtual Architectural Design Tool (VADeT) executed in the C2 Virtual Reality (VR) space. C2 is a synthetic CAVE environment providing a full-scale setting for image projection and perception. Applying this tool for design offers four advantages over other CAD systems. First, it enables navigation performing in full scale to create the sense of immersion and reflection of the seeing-as. Second, it allows the creation, modification, and editing of three-dimensional objects in a virtual space. Third, designs can be modified and viewed simultaneously inside or outside of the generated model to obtain the best design products. Fourth, the entire design process can be recorded and played back. Collectively, this tool serves the purposes of: (1) a three-dimensional sketching tool for manipulating 3-D objects, (2) a design study tool for transparently displaying the design processes, and (3) a design teaching tool to demonstrate the processes by which designers do design. Thus, design in a full-scale representation not only is possible but also is a new and unconventional mode that will heavily influence design thinking.
Kim, Yong-seong. "Knowledge-Aided Design System for Intelligent Building Design." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 305-312. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. In the age of information technology, architectural design problems become increasingly complex, the finding of optimal solutions has become more difficult and obscure. Computer-aided design techniques have been applied to solve these ill-structured design problems, however, most of these applications have been used for graphical automation. Design improvement in quality has not been achieved using traditional computer programs. To handle the critical design decision problems, design systems need to be structured based on theoretical problem solving models. This would enable the design system to handle the problem solving design knowledge as well as the various technological aspects and geometrical representations. A theoretical model, knowledge-aided design, is proposed. Knowledge-aided design is a conceptual and theoretical model based on fundamental principles of design. It provides a problem-solving environment and a procedure for knowledge-based computer-aided architectural design based on cognitive science and artificial intelligence techniques. As a partial implementation of the theoretical model, the development of knowledge-aided design system for intelligent building design is described.
Martens, Bob. "Making light tangible: simulation of light design within architectural education." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 6-Jan. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. In times where computer-assisted representations dominate the “market” of visual simulation, the major strongholds of simulation in true size in conveying (artificial) light configurations have been observed. Though light cannot be “touched” due to its material absence the human eye reacts extremely sensitively to differing constellations. In matters of seconds differences are perceived and classified. Opening up a rift between the various simulation techniques, however, would not prove wise. The normal procedure still consists of trial positioning of lighting objects on site (i.e.: 1:1 simulation at building site). Regarding the effort this causes attempts as to gaining similar results by means of (partial) computer representations are worth considering. The degree of abstraction, however, might be too significant to make for conclusive decisions. In other words: Can the gap between imagination and translation thereof into reality be bridged? This contribution deals with the experimental implementation of artificial light in the full-scale lab and its possibilities regarding the 1:1 simulation at the Vienna University of Technology, with special attention to the didactic aspects related thereto.
Wowo, Ding, and Zhang Lei. "Modeling and Transferring: Using the Computer and the Internet as the Design Tools." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 355-361. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. The medium of the computer enables a change in process and input which has the potential to define the concept of architecture and to develop the design methodology in different ways. Last year there was a joint teaching project between SEU in Nanjing and ETH in Zurich, which tried to build proper 3D model in the studio teaching and transfer models between two groups. This joint teaching studio shows the effort made to integrate the computer tool into the studio teaching process and the critic system. 
Yu, Dazhong. "Public Participation in Urban Design Based on Information Technology." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 393-402. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. For years, lack of public participation has affected the quality of design and planning. The developing cities constantly face the anti-development sentiments on the part of local residents because of controversial decision of development. Rapid development of information technology provides us with a chance to mend the delay of communication with the public in design procedure. It makes it possible to get the resident's reaction to a new project. Unlike a purely CAD-based environment, computer application to urban design is based on a blend of computer-aided design, spatial information system, and interactive multimedia. It is the combination of geometric, geographic, and annotated information and the need of data integration by collaboration and meanwhile it provides opportunities of participation. Due to the position at the crossover of architecture, landscape architecture, and planning, urban design attempts to control the proceeding in both design improvisations and socio-economic policies. In this proceeding, public participation plays an important role in exchanging opinions with the masses. In the situation of participation in China, we can synthesize some useful methods of public participation in the urban design by means of computer simulation, computer communication, and diverse software and tools, etc.
Park, S.-H., and John S. Gero. "Qualitative representation and reasoning about shapes." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 55-62. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. In this paper we present an approach to the qualitative representation of shape and its use. We use a qualitative coding scheme founded on landmarks in the shape. The scheme encodes a qualitative representation of angles, relative side lengths and curvatures at landmarks. We then show how such a representation can be used as a basis for reasoning about shapes using extracted shape features. We conclude with a preliminary analysis of 12 sketches of the architect Louis Kahn and show how they may be categorised based on these shape features. 
Yan, Huang, and Wang Gu. "Reconstruction of Yuan Ming Yuan on Computer." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 425-428. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. Yuan Ming Yuan is regarded as a masterpiece of ancient Chinese architecture and garden. Its unfortunate ruin by the British and French Army more than 100 years ago became a shameful record in the history of China. Since then, although many Chinese have appealed for its reconstruction, a rebuilding project is believed to be impractical both from the economic and the historical aspect. So we develop a study on the task by using computer graphic technology as a visualization method. This paper will describe the process of modelling and rendering developed by 3rd year undergraduates and our continued attempt to create a VRML world on WWW.
Oxman, R., E. Golan, E. Nir, and D. Brainin. "Schema Emergence in Collaborative Design." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 215-224. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. In this paper, we report on work in which media environments are developed to support schema emergence in collaborative design. We present a conceptual framework to support the cognitive phenomena of emergence in CAAD environment. First, we introduce and present a cognitive conception of schema emergence in design. We then discuss our computational model of schema emergence. Based upon this model we propose a conceptual framework to support emergence in collaborative design. Finally, the potential of the present implementation and the computational tools which support the approach are discussed.
Woo, S, E. Lee, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "Shared Virtual Space for Evaluation of Design Alternatives." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 89-95. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. The evaluation of design alternatives is important phase for quick design decision and new design conception, and it is repeatedly processed. For smooth and fast process lots of design alternatives are provided within the limit of possibility and it must be evaluated appropriately. It can be possible through evaluating design alternatives using various media. This paper describes the characteristics of Shared Virtual Space which have developed for evaluation of design alternatives, and evaluates Shared Virtual Space based on the findings of case studies.
Ji, Guohua, and Jinlong Feng. "Structural Approach to the Organization of Information: a Teaching Experiment at SEU." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 153-159. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. Design studio still plays a very important role in architectural design education today since teachers and students can exchange their thinking directly. In the whole teaching/learning process, there are a lot of information to be exchanged between the teachers and the students. How to organize the information and record the whole teaching/learning process is very interesting to us. The increasing use of CAD raises some problems with its advantages when the amount of compute-files becomes very big and they are in different formats. In the third year design studio teaching in the academic year 1998/99 at Department of Architecture in Southeast University, we try to use WWW techniques and features to organise the design information. We try to integrate the teaching programme, the project information, the reference material and the students'work together, to record and monitor the teaching process. Since the teaching programme is clearly organised, we could use some strategies and ideas to control the organisation of file storage and presentation. It creates the basis for the further development of applying network to aid the studio teaching. 
Igarashi, T., S. Matsuoka, and H. Tanaka. "Teddy: a Sketching Interface for 3D Freeform Design." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 109-126. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. Teddy is a sketching interface for quickly and easily design freeform models such as stuffed animals and other rotund objects. The user draws several 2D freeform strokes interactively on the screen and the system automatically constructs plausible 3D polygonal surfaces. Our system supports several modelling operations, including the operation to construct a 3D polygonal surface from a 2D silhouette drawn by the user: it inflates the region surrounded by the silhouette making wide area fat, and narrow area thin. Teddy, our prototype system, is implemented as a Java program, and the mesh construction is done in real-time on a standard PC. I will give a live demonstration of modelling operations and describe its algorithms in detail. 
Hirschberg, Urs, Gerhard Schmitt, D Kurmann, Branko Kolarevic, B. Johnson, and Dirk Donath. "The 24 Hour Design Cycle: an Experiment in Design Collaboration over the Internet." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 181-190. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. This paper describes a Virtual Design Studio exercise involving three academic institutions University - Hong Kong (China), ETH Zurich (Switzerland), and University of Washington, Seattle (USA) - whereby teachers and students, obviously on three different continents and in three different time zones, roughly eight hours apart, were working on a common design project using computer-aided design systems, video-conferencing and a web-based central database that managed and displayed all works throughout the process. The 24 hour design cycle is a metaphor for a more open and international approach to design, facilitated through computer networks. It implies a new form of collective authorship and distributed credits and thus deals with some of the essential challenges and opportunities the internet poses to creative disciplines.
Ceccato, Cristiano. "The Architect as Toolmaker: Computer-Based Generative Design Tools and Methods." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 295-304. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the results of various stages of research into the development of generative design methods and tools, conducted at the Architectural Association School of Architecture (London), Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine (London), and independently. A brief introduction explains the philosophy behind generative design methods and their basic principles. A number of computer software tools and projects developed by the author are then used to illustrate the methodology, techniques and features of generative design and its organisation of information.
De Paoli, Giovanni, and Marius Bogdan. "The Backstage of Vitruvius' Roman Theatre: a New Method of Computer-Aided Design that Reduces the Gap between the Functional and the Operational." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 411-422. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. Computers are increasingly being used in professional design studios and by students of Architecture. However, their use is limited to technical functions (tekhne), what one usually calls computer-aided design is often no more than computer-aided drawing. In this research paper we reflect on the architect's work methods, and suggest an approach to design based on the “projection” of properties of the object (i.e. operators), rather than by geometric primitives. We propose a method of design using procedural models, and encourage a reevaluation of current programs of study with their traditional subdivision into separate disciplines. By means of a procedural model of Vitruvius'Roman theatre, we show that, from a generic model we can produce a three dimensional (volumetric) model with all the characteristics belonging to a single family of objects. In order to clarify the method of construction, we use a functional language that allows us to model the actions. Similarly, we can use this functional language to encapsulate the properties of the building. The scientific result of this experiment is the understanding and confirmation of the hypothesis that, by means of computers, we can find operators that help the architect assimilate a complex building design.
Won, Peng-Whai. "The Comparison between Visual Thinking Using Computer and Conventional Media in the Concept Generation Stages of Design." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 363-372. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. Computer, this new kind of media, has influenced the behaviour of design to some degree. Among these years, many researches have appeared for the development of computer-aided design. In recent years, such kind of computer-aided studies about the forepart of design, that is the stage of concept generation, have also started to generate. But most of these researches belonged to the kind of applied studies with the test of computer systems. On the other hand, there were many researches about the visual thinking and cognitive behaviour of designers while sketching or drawing in the stage of concept generation. From the synthesis of the fore two disciplines, we can find that there existing a point of deficiency, that is the cognitive research about designers using computers as the sketching media is absent. And that is what I want to study and discuss in this research. The fundamental analytic data of this research is the visual process chronicled form the sketching of subjects, and the assistant analytic data is the verbal data from the questions that the subjects are asked after his/her sketching. These data is analyzed by three coding schema. The cognitive appearance while designers generating concepts with computers or conventional media are propounded and discussed in this research.
Wu, Jie, and Jingwen Gu. "The Computer Media Method of Analysis of Architecture Works." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 97-103. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. The analysis of architecture works is through the design of architecture. It is closely related to the review of architecture and also is the most important method to research into and study architecture. But it hasnt been paid enough attention, because of the limitations of the traditional methods. Now with the development of the computer media technology and its wide use, there appears a new methodóthe computer media analysis method, which has many advantages that the traditional methods havent. In this paper, we discuss the frame, the process and the feature of the new method. And through the analysis of examples we explore the working of this method under the current condition. We hope through the research and the study of this new method, the analysis of architecture works can be used consciously by students, educators, and practitioners to think deeply about, research into, study architecture, and at the same time to creating better designs.
Wertheim, M.. "The Pearly Gates of Cyberspace: a History of Space from Dante to the Internet." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. Ever since the online world began, its inhabitants have puzzled over a fundamental question: What sort of space, exactly, is cyberspace? Is it just a metaphor, a vivid shorthand for the abstract complexity of computer networks? Or is it in some sense actually a space that parallels the one our bodies live in? Wertheim's impressively argued answer in The Pearly Gates of Cyberspace: A History of Space from Dante to the Internet is that it is both, and more. Cyberspace, she claims, at once exposes and fulfills a long-time cultural yearning for the type of immaterial space, the realm of the soul, that was written out of the West's cosmological picture when science displaced medieval theology.
Guo, Haoxu. "The Realization of Intelligent Aid to CAD of Architectural Design with the Object-Oriented Method." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 443-454. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. The object-oriented analysis and design has been the principal technology of software development since the 90s and intellectualization has been the direction of development for CAD software in the architectural design. An investigation is made on the application of the object-oriented technology to the realization of the intellectualization of the CAD for architectural design.
Lin, Cheng-Yuan. "The Representing Capacity of Physical Models and Digital Models." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 53-62. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. Physical models are used in order to elucidate the lack of clarity found in the two-dimensional representations of design, and digital models have provided a more effective way of differentiating curvature and space with greater accuracy. What are the fundamental differences of these two approaches that plays the most significant role in modern design? This research attempts to analyze in depth the differences by operating an experiment that would determine the factors play a relevant role and describe some of the relevant phenomenon and establish criteria to aid this analysis.
Oxman, R., and A. Shabo. "The Web as a Visual Design Medium ." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. One of the main problems of the web is its dominant textual characteristics. Since the natural way designers express their design ideas is in graphical form, accessing graphical information is a key issue in developing the web as a visual design medium. Since most of the design documents which are created today are products of CAD programs, our current research emphasis is upon indexing and retrieval of CAD documents on the WEB. In this paper we present an approach for the utility and accessibility of CAD-based design information. An approach for the use of CAD documents as a form of distributed case-based design resource on the web is proposed. Possibilities for employing case-based CAD as a theoretical foundation for building large design resource bases on the Web are presented. A case-based technology as a basis for indexing and storage of design cases in a form which enhances the accessibility of design information is proposed. 
Frazer, John, M.X. Tang, and S. Jian. "Towards a Generative System for Intelligent Design Support." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 285-294. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. In the development of intelligent computer aided design systems, three important issues need to considered. These issues are: how to support the generation of product concepts using evolutionary computation techniques, how to use intelligent databases and constraint management systems for detailed exploration of product embodiment, and how to integrate rapid prototyping facilities for product evaluation. In this paper, we present a brief review of knowledge based design and evolutionary design and discuss ways of integrating both in the development of a generative design system. Based on this review, we present the model and its applications of a generative design system utilizing a number of AI and evolutionary computation techniques. This generative design model is intended to provide a generic computational framework for the development of intelligent design support systems.
Dijkstra, Jan, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "Towards a Multi-Agent System for Network Decision Analysis." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 373-382. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. We introduce the outline of a multi-agent system that can be used for network decision analysis. This system is based on cellular automata and multi-agent technology. The system simulates how agents move around in a particular 3D (or 2D) environment, in which space is represented as a lattice of cells. Agents represent objects or people with their own behaviour, moving over the network. We think that the system provides a potentially valuable tool to support design and decision-making processes, related to user behaviour, in architecture and urban planning.
Kan, Jeff, B.K.M. Chow, and Jin-Yeu Tsou. "Visual Impact Evaluation of Electricity Substation Architecture." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 81-87. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. This paper presents a case study of the application of computer techniques for design communication and visual impact analysis. We were sponsored by China Light & Power Company Ltd. To simulate the design of a proposed electricity substation and its it is setting in a residential neighborhood. During a five-week intensive study, we took nearly one thousand photographs of the existing site. We also created a three-dimensional CAD model of the proposed substation, and produced perspectives from points of view analogous to the photographs. We applied Apple Quicktime VR technology to document the site environment with 360-degree panoramas. We then montaged the computer-generated panoramas with those taken from the real environment. A navigable virtual environment, architectural animation and set of still images were presented to the public in September 1998. The reactions from the regional council members and local residents nearby were recorded to provide evidence to measure the effectiveness of digital architectural design communication.
Tschuppik, Wolf-Michael. "Working on icons - Learning from simulation." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 83-89. CAADRIA. Shanghai, China: Tonji University, 1999. This contribution aims at making simulation understood as an interpretable medium. To this end the individual components of simulation are regarded as three-dimensional icons, which issue a “blurred” and thus interpretable image when put together. The title-providing learning potential has been developed in line therewith by the author.