Keywords Abstract
Koshak, Nabeel, and Mark Gross. "3D Modeling of Historic Makkah - Strategies for Constructing Accurate CAD Models of Historic Buildings." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 103-112. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. In this paper, we outline the problem of historic preservation and the opportunities that rigorous CAD models provide to address it, describe the particular class of buildings in Makkah that we are concerned with, and discuss a modelling strategy that takes advantage of common elements, symmetry and repetition in the buildings'construction, and standard operations in current CAD programs. We briefly discuss tools for architectural heritage recording, construction of CAD models of historic buildings, and systematic analysis of built form. Finally, the paper shows how the method can streamline the construction of accurate CAD models.
Ho, Chun-Heng. "A Computational Model for Problem-Decomposing Strategy." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 415-424. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. Conventional computational models such as Soar, Act, and Mental Models, solve problems by pattern matching. However, according to other cognitive psychology-related studies, the searching strategies employed by experts and novices in well-structured problems closely resemble each other. Restated, problem-decomposing strategies allow expert designers to perform more effectively than novices. In this study, we construct a rule-based floor-planning CAD system in Lisp to closely examine the relationship between problem-decomposing strategies and design behaviour in computation. Execution results demonstrate that the larger the number of elements that the system considers implies more efficient problem-decomposing strategies.
Will, Barry, T.S. Li, W.S. Leung, and K.Y. Lee. "A Computer System for Designing Noise Resisting Buildings." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 153-162. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. This paper proposes a computer aided system that will allow the design to respond to the predicted traffic noises associated with the given site. This system is a part of a comprehensive interactive system for Environmental Impact Assessment called IOTA. Designers can have real-time feedback on their designs with respect to the environmental impact from the IOTA. Traffic flow, traffic speed, percentage of heavy vehicles, gradient, site layout, etc. are implemented in this system. The noise level at the facade is computed in real-time. The designers can see the distribution of the noise level at the facade of the buildings in a 3D virtual environment while the buildings or the infrastructures are still evolving. It is envisaged that this system is not only good for the design of buildings but also good for the design of new infrastructures and town planning.
Liu, Yu-Tung. "A Dual Generate-and-Test Model for Design Creativity." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 395-404. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. This paper proposes a broader framework for understanding creativity by distinguishing different levels of creativity, namely personal and social/cultural creativity, and their interaction. Within this framework, the possible role that the computer can play could be further explored by analyzing the procedure of rule formation and the phenomena of seeing emergent subshapes.
Shih, Shen-Guan, and Tsung-Pao Hu. "A Layout Generation System for Elementary Schools." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 465-472. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. This paper describes a layout generation system that is realized by adapting the design problem formation and design process of the well-known SAR method. The purpose is to examine the idea that some certain types of design problems can be greatly simplified by conventional design techniques such as hierarchical decomposition, zoning, module, and most importantly, the concept of “support“, which is a spatial framework that dissects the planning site into sectors and zones of various spatial characteristics.
Matthews, K., S. Duff, and D. Corner. "A Model for Integrated Spatial and Structural Design of Buildings." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 123-132. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. Recent advances in computer graphics and 3D user interfaces have enabled the emergence of 3D sketch modelling as a viable approach to architectural design, especially in the early schematic phase. This paper describes how a system can be built and used which integrates the capabilities of a good structural analysis system in the user-friendly working environment of a design-oriented modelling program. The structure of a building model as seen by finite element algorithms is a schematic idealization of the building's physical structure into nodes, elements, internal releases, boundary conditions, and loads. The more familiar architectural model used for design visualization represents spatial elements such as roofs, floors, walls, and windows. Rather than treat these models independently, the structural model can be defined in relation to the architectural as a virtual model with inherited common characteristics and additional relational and attribute information, using feature-based geometry data structures to organize topological intelligence in the spatial model. This provides the basis for synchronous modification of structural and architectural aspects of the design.
Kolarevic, Branko. "A Pedagogical Model for an Introductory CAAD Course." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 39-46. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. This paper presents a pedagogical model developed for an introductory CAAD course in the first year of architecture studies. The model is based on a set of exercises that emphasize the use of electronic media for the collection of information, its distribution, presentation, transformation, interpretation, and abstraction. The primary goal was to enable students to creatively apply digital media in their design work by simultaneously introducing them to a wide range of applications, and by enabling them to engage in abstract exploration of shapes, forms, and images.
Wang, L., I. Umeki, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "A Study of Urban Space History Using Computer Graphics Technology - Illustrated Though the Historical Data of Yura, Sumoto City, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 173-182. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. The application of computer graphics technology in urban space history research was demonstrated in the present study by illustrating the current and historical data of Yura, Sumoto City, Hyogo Prefecture of Japan. The images of urban space in different historical periods were compared and the changes in environmental design were analyzed.
Lee, E., S Woo, Y. Shiosaka, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "Alternative Design Comparative System in Collaborative Design." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 327-335. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. The evaluation of alternative design sets is important phase for quick design decision and new design conception, and it is repeatedly processed. To proceed design process in standard, the repetition is reduced to minimum. And design must be optimized in limited cost and time. For smooth and fast process lots of alternative design sets are provided within the limit of possibility and it must be evaluated appropriately. It's possible to evaluate alternative design sets using various media. This paper describes the characteristics of various media which have been used for evaluation of alternative design sets, and propose alternative design comparative system based on the findings of case studies.
Emdanat, Samir, and Emmanuel-George Vakalo. "An Ontology for Conceptual Design in Architecture." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 425-434. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. This paper presents ongoing efforts to formulate an ontology for conceptual design on the basis of shape algebras. The ontology includes definitions for spatial elements such as points, lines, planes, and volumes, as well as, non-spatial elements such as material properties. The ontology is intended to facilitate sharing knowledge of shapes and their properties among independent design agents. This paper describes the formulation of the ontology and discusses some of its underlying classes, axioms, and relations.
Day, Alan, and Anthony Radford. "An Overview of City Simulation." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 183-192. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. The present state of development of city simulation is outlined, including the relationship between the physical city and the virtual city and the traditions and history which lies behind the development of computer simulations of cities.
Park, Soo-Hoon, and John S. Gero. "Analysis of Architectural Sketches Using Categorical Shape Knowledge Based on Shape Features." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 405-414. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. Shape feature analysis method is suggested as a computational support for the association of pictorial patterns of sketches with design semantics. Geometric patterns have been represented with qualitative scheme which is capable of representing classes for a collection of instances. Similarities to the particular shape feature categories have been measured to compare the sketch instances.
Tsou, Jin-Yeu. "Applying Computational Fluid Dynamics to Architectural Design Development - Strategy and Implementation." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 133-142. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. This paper presents the development process and preliminary results of several research projects that apply computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to architectural design. The CFD On-line Teaching project is developing a multimedia training course for architecture students to apply CFD simulation to their projects. Each lesson illus-trates basic principles regarding air flow in building design, and provides CFD sample files with pre-defined flow cells for students to test these concepts. The Chinese Temple project uses CFD simulation to study the wind resistance of a Tong Dynasty heavy timber structure, with particular attention to the roof form. Air flow information generated in the project includes the visual representation of the pressure distribution and velocity field on all slices through the temple, as well as particle tracks around and through the building.  The Urban Housing Air Duct project focuses on air duct design for the China Experimental Urban Housing Scheme. The visual representation of the pressure distribution and velocity field in the ducts provides vital information for helping the China Housing Research Center improve the current design.
Barber, T., and R. Hanna. "Appraisal of Design Studio Methodologies." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 21-30. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. This paper investigates the relationship between different design approaches and their effectiveness in the formulation of design concepts. This inquiry will focus on the computer as the sole design and developmental tool. The research employs a short design programme, a small building with a given urban site, as its investigative vehicle. Nineteen second year students of the Mackintosh School of Architecture were monitored and their design progress evaluated. They were split into two groups: one used CAD and AEC as the only drawing and modelling tool, tutorial and review, and another used conventional tools of drawing and model making (mixed media). Structured interviews and personal observations were used as a means for data collection. Questionnaires were administered to students and their response was analysed using the statistical programme SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). The Mann-Whitney test was used to test the Null Hypothesis that different design approaches will not produce different design outcomes. Correlation, Regression and the X2 test of independence were also employed to screen data and identify patterns of relationships. 
Snyder, James. "Architectural Construction: Drawings with AutoCAD Release 14." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. This is the first book on the market to cover the new drawing and editing features for AutoCAD R14, the most widely used architectural CAD program. CD-ROM contains a tutorial library of all modelling and animation steps covered in the book.
Oxman, R., O. Shaphir, and M. Yukla. "Beyond Sketching: Visual Reasoning Through Re-Representation in Cognitive Design Media." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 337-346. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. Our research approach which is termed Cognitive Design Media (CDM) demonstrates how the cognitive phenomena of design can be supported in computerized environments. Our current work on the “sketch” project is introduced presented and illustrated. Sketching in design is considered to be one of the significant cognitive phenomena which supports exploration through re-representation in design. Until now, only the medium of hand drawing and sketching has been considered to support these processes. Rather than automating the traditional hand-made sketch, or interpreting sketches in a computer system, we are attempting to employ the computer to support one of the cognitive mechanism of re-representation which underlie the sketch activity.
Yeung, C., C. Kan, John Bradford, and R. Wong. "Campus Guided Tour VR System for the University of Hong Kong." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 77-82. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. Virtual Reality has been an ideal environment for visualizing three-dimensional models as well as implementing simulation systems such as flight training and surgery preparation. In such a system, the user can be familiar himself/herself with a particular environment or the procedure of a task even before going into the real site or actually performing a task. In this project, we are trying to implement a Guided Tour System inside a Virtual Reality Environment. Basically, a three-dimensional model of the campus of the University of Hong Kong will be built in the Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML). It is now possible to have a 3D visualization of the model in any Web browser. A non-directed graph can be built based on the 3D model with every branch representing a path, and every node represents a specific location inside the campus. Based on this graph, we can calculate all possible routes between any two nodes and deduce the shortest path between them. The guided tour system is designed in such a way that whenever the user attempts to move to a new place inside the campus, he/she will be brought to there in the quickest way automatically with just a few “mouse-clicki. In this project, the Cosmo VRML player will be used as the browseris plugin, and other associated tasks are developed in Javascript.
Kaga, Atsuko, Y. Shimazu, T. Yamauchi, H. Ishihara, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "City Information Visualizer Using 3-D Model and Computer Graphics." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 193-202. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. 3-D models and computer graphics with its visual characteristics enables easier understanding of various information. Up until now 3-D models and computer graphics has not been used for the analysis of city information due to its high cost and the need for special techniques. Currently, we have discovered new technology in hyper medium based on network technology and lower costs. This paper focuses on the construction of an interactive and visual 3-D city information system, aiming at the “idea processor” for research and analysis of city planning and market research. We have discovered the requirements necessary for the City Information Visualizer system. Using this technology we will construct the prototype system of the 3-D City Information Visualizer. This system is based on the personal computer and the Client/Server system. The system is then applied to practical city analysis. This paper presents the prototype system and its evaluation in a real project.
Aygen, Z., and U. Flemming. "Classification of Precedents - a Hybrid Approach to Indexing and Retrieving Design Cases in SEED (a Software Environment for the Early Phases of Building Design)." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 435-444. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. An efficient indexing of past solutions is crucial to case-based design (CBD) systems performing complex retrieval on large case-bases. This paper suggests a hybrid approach to the indexing and retrieval of design precedents. The suggested approach accounts for the issues of classification manifested in architectural discussions on type and CBD literature. The indexing scheme integrates description-logic based representation for classification and an object-based representation for precedents. The hybrid scheme constitutes a basis for the implementation of a generic case indexing and retrieval mechanism for SEED.
Fukuda, Tomohiro, Ryuichiro Nagahama, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "Collaboration Support System for Public Design." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 299-307. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. It is very important to collaborate not only with professional people such as designers and engineers but also with non-professional people such as clients and citizens in the field of a public design. But a maker which provides signs, lighting equipment, and street furniture etc does not always design satisfactory. This paper presents the system requirements for public design and the prototype system which reviewers can understand their position and orientation, and application of the system to the project.
LaViola, J., L.S. Holden, A.S. Forsberg, D.S. Bhuphaibool, and R.C. Zeleznik. "Collaborative Conceptual Modeling Using the SKETCH Framework." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 154-158. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. This paper introduces NetSketch, an application that supports distributed conceptual design by providing tools for modelessly creating, manipulating and viewing 3D models in a shared virtual space. Inherent problems exist with collaborative design tools because of the simultaneous group interaction required for users to smoothly and effectively work together in the same virtual space. With NetSketch, we provide solutions to these problems by providing a fast and direct gesture-based user interface, a set of visual effects that better enable a user's awareness of operations done by other participants, and a set of tools for enhancing visual communication between participants.
Wei, Dong, and Kathleen Gibson. "Computer visualization:an integrated approach for interior design and architecture." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. This unique guide offers beginning and experienced CAD users a working understanding of 2D and 3D computer graphics within the context of design issues and principles. One primary feature of this book is its integration of several software applications, highlighting AutoDesk and Adobe products. Its focus, however, is on the way CAD enables you and your clients to visualize built environments, explore alternative ideas, and revise design solutions before construction begins. Accessible enough for university courses, this valuable resource is essential to every architect and interior designer who wants to stay current with new technology and remain competitive in the marketplace
Schmitt, Gerhard. "Design and Construction as Computer-Augmented Intelligence Processes." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 20-Nov. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. The purpose of design is no longer restricted to the construction of physical artefacts, as the emergence of virtual architecture and information architecture demonstrates. Methods and instruments developed for the design of physical architecture are also useful for the development of virtual architecture. Vice versa, important lessons can be learned from design and construction methods for information architecture. Certain quality criteria - such as the Vitruvian firmitas, utilitas and venustas - apply to both kinds of architecture. The computer can directly augment selected tasks by combining human intelligence and machine reasoning to arrive at new design results - both for physical and virtual architecture. This augmented human design and construction intelligence will be a key for future design processes.
Johnson, Brian, and Marietta Millet. "Development of a Case Study "Multi-Site" on the World Wide Web." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 223-232. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. Seeking to enhance the availability and quality of architectural case studies, we examine the web, believing that it may help to simplify authorship, distribution, and navigation of a catalog of case studies. A disk-based multi-media prototype from an earlier effort has been converted to the web and generalized to create a template. Warehousing and navigation of multiple case studies forms the main focus of the current project. Two existing models, monolithic web sites and web rings, are considered and rejected. A third approach is developed which promises to provide a low-budget low-overhead infrastructure within which to house an indefinite number of case studies, while permitting free-form browsing of the collection. The approach which we have developed creates what we call a “multi-sitei.
Park, Taeyeol, and Valerian Miranda. "Development of a Computer-Assisted Instruction System for Information Communication in Design Studio." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 47-56. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. Design studio is the core of architectural education. An essential part of designing is using information and knowledge obtained from non-studio courses. However, as the complexity of buildings increases, the amount of this information increases and there is a danger that essential design information may be ruined and overlooked because of time and place constraints. As a means to bridge the gap between non-studio courses and design studios, some architectural educators suggest that design studios should bring knowledge to students in the process of designing so that they can apply this knowledge to their design. Most architectural studios, however, do not do enough to bring knowledge systematically into design projects when appropriate. Design projects generate need for additional knowledge about a number of topics, but too few studios systematically make knowledge available. Design studios should consider ways in which knowledge for design projects is integrally made available at the appropriate time. This paper describes a model for the delivery of design studio information which can be integral with any design projects. The model is demonstrated by a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) system designed and placed on the Web to introduce basic structural concepts and to teach an in-depth concept of spatial composition in a design studio and reports on its development, implementation, and testing. The system relies on many issues, such as access to relevant information, links between lessons for different subjects, representation of various design concepts, effective instructional methods for learning concepts, etc., which might be critical elements of designing an information communication system for design studio instruction. This paper tests the effectiveness of the system based on the results from responses of design studio students and observations of the researcher and the studio instructor, and concludes with the information that we hope will be useful in developing CAI materials for reflecting and acquiring information on a number of different subjects that have relevance to architectural design.
Frazer, John, and Ming Tang. "Development of an Integrated Design System." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 473-482. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. The School of Design in the Hong Kong Polytechnic University is developing advanced computer-based design systems by integrating Artificial Intelligence and evolutionary computing techniques with CAD/CAAD systems. Applications embrace architectural and environmental design as well as interior, industrial, fashion, graphic, and photographic design. The integration of the design systems developed in these domains provides a good basis for building a virtual design studio in collaboration with leading design research centres and institutions around the world. This virtual design studio is intended as a powerful computational environment for the integration of Asian cultural values with modern interdisciplinary design technologies.
Chiu, Mao-Lin, and Ju-Hung Lan. "Discovery of Historical Tainan: a Digital Approach." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 113-122. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. This paper depicts the use of computers in the urban studies, and provides a digital way of understanding historical buildings. “Discovery of Historical Tainani is a joint project among historians and CAD researchers to use a digital approach to preserve historical evidences of the central city of Tainan. The importance of historical scenes is revealed by the efforts of integration with digital information and models. Furthermore, the level of abstraction and accuracy in the large-scale urban models are examined. The result demonstrates that the ability of foreseeing the future changes can be enhanced by the digital approach.
Gu, Jingwen, and Guanghui Xie. "Dynamic Database Management in Computer Aided Residential District Design System." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 243-252. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. Compare with business database, the engineering database is much more difficult to be designed and implemented. In this paper the issues on the dynamic engineering component database and its management involved in implementation of an AutoCAD based experimental CAD system, Computer Aided Residential District Planning and Design System (CARPDS), are discussed. The discussions focus on the organization, access control of the database and the supporting environment.
Youngblut, C.. "Educational Uses of Virtual Reality Technology." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. Educating current and future generations of American children to live in an information society is a critical issue. It is compounded by the recognized need to provide life-long education for all citizens and to support a flexible workforce. Virtual reality (VR) technology has been widely proposed as a major technological advance that can offer significant support for such education. There are several ways in which VR technology is expected to facilitate learning. One of its unique capabilities is the ability to allow students to visualize abstract concepts, to observe events at atomic or planetary scales, and to visit environments and interact with events that distance, time, or safety factors make unavailable. The types of activities supported by this capability facilitate current educational thinking that students are better able to master, retain, and generalize new knowledge when they are actively involved in constructing that knowledge in a learning-by-doing situation. The potential of VR technology for supporting education is widely recognized. Several programs designed to introduce large numbers of students and teachers to the technology have been established, a number of academic institutions have developed research programs to investigate key issues, and some public schools are evaluating the technology.
Dijkstra, J., Harry J. P. Timmermans, and W. Roelen. "Eye Tracking as a User Behavior Registration Tool in Virtual Environments." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 57-66. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. Registration of user behaviour in a virtual environment is a particular aspect of an ongoing research project which aims to develop a conjoint analysis - virtual reality system. In this paper, the registration of user behaviour by eye tracking techniques will be described. It will be advocated that eye-tracking techniques offer interesting possibilities for recording user behaviour.
Hirschberg, Urs. "Fake.Space - an Online Caad Community and a Joint Enquiry into the Nature of Space." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 281-290. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. fake.space was an elective CAAD course in which the (over 120) participating students were an online community. They jointly built up the fake.space node system, a database in which the individual contributions were linked and could be viewed and navigated through in various ways. The topics of the nodes were different aspects and concepts of space. The paper describes the conceptual as well as some technical aspects of this teaching experiment and evaluates its outcome.
Bruton, B.. "Grammars and Pedagogy - Towards new Media Art and Design Education Strategies." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 385-394. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. The impact of computational grammatical design on pedagogy has received little attention in art education due to the dominant modes of traditional approaches to art and design education. This paper explores the pedagogical implications of grammatical strategies using computers for judgements of design within an art educational setting. Grammatical strategies are studied for their effect on the judgements of novice artists in a new media educational context. It is argued that concepts of grammar and views of contingency are used in a variety of senses in the conception and form making of artists, that finding methods for discussing and utilising complex visual information is aided by grammatical formalisation, that these strategies are evidently effective at both early and mature stages of the realisation of a project. The research explores the relation between computer and art on three levels in which grammar is used: as a sense of grammar, as a computational paradigm and as a description of a kind of computer program. Grammatical formalism is apparent in two dimensional linear and non-linear animations using Photoshop, Premiere and Director, and in solid modelling programs such as Extreme 3D, Form Z, Strata Studio Pro, 3D Studio Max and SoftImage. Web site construction also impacts on the judgements of 2D and 3D design. Computational grammatical programs generate forms that reflect alternative understandings of art and design. Art practise is defined in terms of developing consistent and appropriate design language for the contingency at hand. Form making using grammatical tools, both recursive and array types, is discussed in terms of their applicability and educative value. Reference is made to formal qualities for critique and strategic capability of alternative pedagogy for generation of forms. Examples provided show how simple rule sets develop into complex derivational sequences that challenge traditional strategies for computer imaging. The paper demonstrates the value of a sense of grammars for novice art and design practitioners by using first hand examples of experimental work at the South Australian School of Art, University of South Australia. For novice artists and designers, grammars in conjunction with reflective practice is offered as a useful mind set that supports an interest in actively defining a new kind of art. Illustrations provided show the utility of a contingent sense of grammar for pedagogy and highlights the significant role of grammar in pedagogy.
Toy, M.. "Hypersurface Architecture." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. The first edition of Hypersurface presented an analysis of contemporary culture that identified two interpenetrating trends: avant garde architecture and everyday commercial practices. Hypersurface II demonstrates the convergence of these two forces that radicalizes form and deterritorializes subjectivity. This second edition further investigates the way in which effects emerge within architecture and explores the manifestations of this unprecedented moment in architecture where the rampages of commercial culture begin to cross-contaminate architectural form. 
Dannettel, Mark, and Vito Bertin. "Integrating Electronic Media into the Architecture Studio -A Teaching Development Grant at the Chinese University of Hong Kong." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 31-38. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. Increasingly, architecture students and instructors are exposed to a widening array of softwares, hardwares, and strategies for the production and representation of architectural work. In an effort to promote the effective use of these tools within design education, instructors need to develop strategies for implementing them into the design studios. A teaching development grant which has been received by the Department of Architecture at CUHK is entitled Integrated Media Design Studio. This investigation involves multiple instructors, and levels of design studios. It provides an environment of a wide range of available equipment for producing, evaluating, documenting, and communicating architectural work in the studio. In addition to increasing the effective use of technology resources, and also raising the quality of studio instruction, this teaching development grant aims to create opportunities to further integrate other courses within the studio environment.
Reffat, Rabee, and John S. Gero. "Learning About Shape Semantics: a Situated Learning Approach." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 375-384. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. Designers recognise or make sense of objects in the context “situations” of other things. Design cannot be predicted and you have to be “at a particular set of states” in order to decide what to do. The inability to determine a priori all design states implies that any design process cannot be pre-planned and design actions cannot be pre-defined. Situated learning is based on the notion that knowledge is contextually situated and is fundamentally influenced by the context in which it is used. We propose a situated learning approach in the domain of architectural shapes design. This paper elaborates the concept of situated learning and demonstrates what it produces in the domain of shape semantics.
Conforti, Frank, and Ralph Grabowski. "Microstation for AutoCad Users: a Bi-Directional Handbook ." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. This book provides the last word on feature-by-feature comparisons of AutoCAD and MicroStation from the user's perspective. Each chapter presents a quick summary of a specific feature in AutoCAD, followed by the related feature in MicroStation. AutoCAD software users will find the book to be a great asset in transitioning from the AutoCAD environment to the MicroStation design environment. Conversely, the book is equally valuable for the MicroStation product user who needs to make the transition to AutoCAD. Thorough coverage of translating drawings between AutoCAD and MicroStation provides vital information for users working with both platforms. For the user who works with both products and for the user who wants to know more about the “other” software package, this is the book for you. An Online Companion™ allows users to access the Autodesk Press web site for information on job resources, professional organizations, updates and more.
Popova, Mina. "Model of Design Parts and its Use to the Design Team." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 233-242. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. This paper discusses the impact of the choice of representation on the final result in design and construction projects. Representation is an integrated part of the design process used by architects as a communication tool to help them present a concept to their clients and other consultants. The representation choice, in addition, reflects the professionalis perception of the design process and the architectural artefact. Architectsi offices work with a wide range of problems - aesthetic and spatial issues, detailing, choice of materials, and systems design. The multiplicity of representations enriches the understanding of these issues. Today, the model-oriented approach in design is common among both architects and leading software producers for the construction industry. While STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product Data) aims at developing very comprehensive product models, we examine the possibility of building up a small-scale model responding to the information needs of a design team. In our research work, we view a model of design parts as a suitable carrier of information allowing the designers to store data reflecting their accumulated and refined professional knowledge and experience. Besides, the team of architects can later easily retrieve information needed for future design reuse from the model. To reuse design solutions and learn from previous work is an essential part of the professional culture. The construction industry as a whole has been slow in implementing information technology to improve the work methods. Neither have architectsi offices used the full potential of this technology to structure information and rationalize the design process. The objective of this study is to examine whether information technology makes it possible to organize all the design information in an office archive. The proposed model of design parts relates to national standards and universal models for product data representation and exchange, such as STEP. Today, the construction sector is becoming increasingly aware of the potential of the model-oriented approach both to rationalize the design and construction process and offer designers new options to store, broaden and reuse professional knowledge. We have used the information modelling language EXPRESS to describe our concept.
Lee, Jia-Her. "Modelling Mondrian's Design Processes and their Architectural Associations Using Multilayer Neural Networks." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 455-464. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. Can artificial intelligence be used for design behaviour of human beings? Human designeris behaviour and design thinking are extremely complicated. There is still argument about the relationship between the two until now. Therefore, this research only investigates regular and common design behaviour. This essay is taking Mondrian of Neo-Plasticism as an example and neural networks systems as a tool to illustrate the core idea. It is hoped that we can simulate the design thinking ability, such as memory association and recognition of human designers. Computation of neural networks systems, as a result and the difference between human designers and computer, can be discussed too. Also, since the work of Neo-Plasticism Mondrian influences contemporary architecture design, industrial design, andvisual design directly or indirectly, floorplans of architect John Hejdukis works were taken as an example to discuss the application of Neural networkss in the design field.
Homma, Riken, Mitsuo Morozumi, and K. Iki. "Network-Based Dynamic Evaluation Process for Urban Landscapes." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 213-222. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. When designing large-scale projects that affect urban landscapes such as the construction of power stations, it is important for a designer, to be able to predict how the landscape will be changed and public opinion in regard to the design stage. In order to support the communication between the public and the designer in the design process, authors have proposed a Network-Based Dynamic Evaluation Process (NDEP) for urban landscapes with WEB. This process can achieve a consensus decision, by applying the interactive cycles of proposal and evaluation to the design process. In this paper the authors outlined the framework of the process, the evaluation method by AHP, and a case study of an experimental production system.
Iki, K., S. Shimoda, T. Miyazaki, and Riken Homma. "On the Development and the Use of Network Based Cafm System." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 253-260. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. The purpose of this study to develop a prototype of the network based and distributed database integrated CAFM (Computer Aided Facility Management) system for spatial analysis and space planning of office building. This system developed for the FM (Facility Management) works of large company that owns many office buildings in wide spread area. This system has following characteristic capabilities, 1) data acquisition from distributed database 2) benchmark comparison among in-house offices, particular office and several outside office standards 3) analysis of POE database and spatial condition database 4) evaluation of space planning by using CAD database and POE database This paper reports these four points. 1) conceptual and functional frame work of the system 2) technical arrangement of the system development 3) case study of the system use in a FM works on spatial analysis and space planning 4) evaluation of the system
Kawasumi, Norihiro, and Shigeyuki Yamaguchi. "Reconstruction of an Architectural Three Dimensional Model from Orthographic Drawings." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 355-364. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. In this paper, we describe a semi-automatic reconstruction method of a three-dimensional model from orthographic view drawings of architecture. There are several approaches to reconstruct three-dimensional solids from two-dimensional drawings. But most of them deal with mechanical drawings, not architectural drawings. We observed three-dimensional modelling process of design practice and we tried to make clear model-ing procedure from architectural drawings, such as plan and elevation views, and classified into seven typical modelling operations on three-dimensional CAD system. Then we pro-posed a reconstruction method to create a surface three-dimensional model from a set of architectural plan and elevation drawings. Each elevation drawing is defined as polygon elements. The reconstruction system makes each element of elevations built up and then placed each around the contour of the plan drawing. Several illustrative examples are in-cluded as results.
Shimokawa, Y., Mitsuo Morozumi, K. Iki, and Riken Homma. "Replacement and Transformation as a Key to Schematic Design Thinking - 3-D Modeling System which Supports Design Thinking." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 365-374. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. This paper analyses a prototype of a 3D modelling system that can support schematic design development and begins with very abstract representation elaborates it step by step into a detailed representation. Using Mitchell's concept of a TOPDOWN system for 2D sketches as the basis, the authors proposed a design process model and a prototype that allows both bottom up additive processes in exploring the design frame and top down processes for the design refinement of each building element. Various utilities of replacing and transforming graphic objects as well as those that can control shapes and the location of those objects with construction lines have been proposed. The authors discussed possible use of the system and topics for future study by reviewing case studies.
Kurmann, David. "Sculptor - How to Design Space?" In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 317-326. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. Architects face a significant lack of computer tools that truly support them in the early, conceptual stages of design. In this paper, we take a look at the reasons for that and propose some solutions. We introduce new human-machine interaction methods that do differ from construction based approaches. We define new spatial interface paradigms as well as new objects and their behaviour. Finally we present their implementation in “Sculptori - a modelling prototype to enable designing in space with space.
Chien, S.-F., D. Magd, James Snyder, and W.-J. Tsa. "SG-Clips: a System to Support the Automatic Generation of Designs from Grammars." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 445-454. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. SG-CLIPS is a computer tool that supports the automatic generation of designs from a predefined set of grammar rules that encapsulate the composition principles of a certain style of design. It is an open system that accepts any grammar conforming to the conventions described in this paper. We demonstrate the system through an example and discuss the relation to shape grammars and limitations.
Wang, Cheng-jui. "Shape Cognition in Design - Constructing a Cognitive Model of Shapes for Different Design Fields." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 347-354. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the characteristics of shape cognition of different design fields in the “intuitive designi domain, and to construct a cognitive model of shape cognition for different design fields. The research procedure used in this study consisted of two phases. The first phase was applied to protocol analysis study of three professional designers in architectural design, industrial design and graphic design respectively. In the second phase, one controlled laboratory experiment was designed to reveal the characteristics of designersi shape perception in different “intuitive design” fields. By these empirical findings, we found that designeris cognitive processes of shapes would be not alike in different design fields. The results suggest that in different design fields, designeris shape cognition processes will be different, and in each design field, similar cognitive processes of shape contained different design meanings.
Woo, Sungho, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "Shared Virtual Space for Architectural Education." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 291-298. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. Our research in recent years has included the subject of providing co-operative work space in the field of architectural design. We propose raising the quality of architectural design by extending the physical space of the architectural laboratory into the virtual space of the network (i.e. Internet). In this paper, this extension is called Multi-user work space. The aim of this paper is to provide Multi-user work space with the feature of synchronous+asynchronous, bidirection and peer-to-peer+client-server, and to popularize architectural design by providing Multi-user work space with a seamless environment in time and space. 
Maver, Thomas W.. "Space Odyssey by Computer - Journeys through the Environment." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 10-Jan. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. The extraordinary characteristic of the city which thrills both its citizens and those who visit it, is the complex way in which multitudes of individual buildings, themselves each a complex of individual spaces, combine to form the weft and weave of the urban fabric. No two cities are alike but each and every one has its innate and endearing character: the grandeur of Vienna, the eternity of Rome, the simplicity of Tucson, the elegance of Edinburgh, the dynamic of Tokyo, the vibrancy of Hong Kong. This presentation illustrates how the emerging computer-based technologies can, in a manner hitherto impossible, explain to students of architecture and urban design (and to the public at large) how the design of individual buildings and their spatial relationship to each other, aggregate to create the environment which characterises the city, in a complementary way it demonstrates how the virtual urban voyager can not only identify and visit individual buildings, but enquire within - to observe, understand and even handle the contents. 
Komatsu, Kiichiro, and Shun Watanabe. "Spatial Database for Model Analysis Methods." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 203-212. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. In the field of architectural and urban planning and design, computer education needs to move beyond basic computer literacy and have more emphasis placed on special subjects related to planning and design. How to manage spatial data is becoming an essential issue for research and education in planning and design especially in the analysis and evaluation phases. This paper discusses the importance of spatial data in planning education and shows how a common spatial database for model analysis methods was constructed at the University of Tsukuba. The database consists of many geographical and statistical data files classified under the standard region mesh codes and covers the whole country from global areas to local areas. Web-based instructions about how to use the database have also been prepared which enable students to study practical spatial analysis by themselves.
Neuckermans, Herman, T. De Ridder, and B. Geebelen. "Speech-Driven Computer-Aided Design - Innovation in Human-Computer Interaction." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 309-316. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. The use of computers in architectural design has shifted from what initially was a very numerical approach into a graphical way and thus into a designerly way of working. Through the extensive use of WIMPs CAAD packages today are more or less user-friendly. In the meantime the ever increasing functionality of those packages inflate the number of commands, actions, options and choices which have to be activated with the mouse in order to generate a structured drawing. As a result packages become rather cumbersome to handle. In this research we have explored a new medium, namely speech, to tell the machine what to do. With software for speech recognition and making use of a head-mounted microphone we have built a far more user-friendly way of handling a CAD package. Grids, snap, ortho, layers, settings and other commands that can be used in combination with mouse actions are activated and deactivated by voice command. We are convinced that this is a step further towards a more easy and natural way of using computers while designing and certainly a way for speeding up the modelling of real architecture. The experiment has been conducted for AutoCAD with the software for speech recognition by Lernout & Hauspie. This new way of working is not limited to architecture and the principle can be used right now for any other package, provided it has a programming interface.
Garcia, Renato. "Structural Feel or Feelings for Structure? - Stirring Emotions through the Computer Interface in Behaviour Analysis of Building Structures." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 163-171. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. The use of computers in the analysis of architectural structures has at present become indispensable and fairly routine. Researchers & professionals in architecture and engineering have taken advantage of current computer technology to develop richer and more comprehensive interactive interfaces in systems designed to analyse structural behaviour. This paper discusses a research project which attempts to further enrich such computer interfaces by embodying emotion or mood (affective) components into them and assessing the effects of incorporating these into multimodal learning modules for students of architecture at the University of Hong Kong. Computer structural analysis is most often used to determine the final state of a structure after full loading, but can also be used very ably to depict the time-history behaviour of a structure. The time-dependent nature of this process of behaviour provides an excellent opportunity to incorporate emotion cues for added emphasis and reinforcement. Studying time-history behaviour of structures is a vital part of classroom learning in structures and this why such emotion cues can have significant impact in such an environment. This is in contrast to the confines of professional engineering practices where these cues may not be as useful or desirable because oftentimes intermediate time history data is bypassed as a blackbox and focus is placed primarily on bottomline analysis results. The paper will discuss the fundamental basis for the establishment of emotional cues in this project as well as it's implementation-which consists mainly of two parts. The first involves'personifying'the structure by putting in place a structure monitoring system analogous to human vital signs. The second involves setting up a'ladder'of emotion states (which vary from feelings of serenity to those of extreme anxiety) mapped to the various states of a structures stability or condition. The paper will further elaborate on how this is achieved through the use of percussion, musical motifs, and chord progression in resonance with relevant graphical animations. Initially in this project, emotion cues were used to reinforce two structural behaviour tutoring systems developed by this author (3D Catenary Stuctures module & Plastic Behaviour of Semi-rigid Steel Frames module). These modules were ideal for implementing these cues because both depicted nonlinear structural behaviour in a mainly time-history oriented presentation. A brief demonstration of the actual learning modules used in the project study will also be presented together with a discussion of the assessment of it's effectiveness in actual classroom teaching. 
Mahalingam, Ganapathy. "The Algorithmic Auditorium- a computational Model for Auditorium DesignThe Algorithmic Auditorium- a computational Model for Auditorium Design." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 143-152. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. Auditorium design is a complex task. Various programmatic, functional and acoustical parameters have to be resolved in the spatial design of an auditorium. This ongoing research project deals with the development of a computer-aided design system for the preliminary spatial design of proscenium type auditoriums. The concept of “acoustic sculpting” is used to generate the spatial form of the auditorium from programmatic, functional and acoustical parameters. These parameters are incorporated using a combination of mathematical, empirical and statistical methods. The generation of the spatial form of the auditorium is implemented as an algorithm that is executed on the computer. The spatial form of the auditorium generated by the system is exported as a computer model for design development and acoustical analysis.
Chiu, Mao-Lin. "The Design Guidance of CSCW - Learning from Collaborative Design Studios." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 261-270. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. Computer supported collaborative work (CSCW) becomes important for the architectural practice and design education in recent years. Design guidance on design operations facilitates design studios to achieve their educational and research purposes. This study depicts the experience of computer-supported collaborative design learned from three collaborative design studios. Design guidance can advise participants to understand the purpose of communication in CSCW, anticipate design collaboration, and formulate design operations by the process model. Based on the observations of CDS, the discussion focuses on how to develop guidance on design operations according to the following factors: (1) structured framework, (2) the kind of technology, (3) the level of communication, and (4) the process model of CSCW.
Jabi, Wassim. "The Role of Artifacts in Collaborative Design." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 271-280. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. With the proliferation of digital technology, a new category of design artifacts, usually described with the term virtual, has emerged. Virtual artifacts have gained further prominence due to the advances made in collaboration software and networking technologies. These technologies have made it easier to communicate design intentions through the transfer and sharing of virtual rather than physical artifacts. This becomes particularly true in the case of long-distance or international collaborative efforts. This paper compares the two major categories of artifacts - the physical and the computer-based - and places them in relationship to an observed collaborative design process. In order to get at their specific roles in collaboration, two case studies were conducted in which designers in academic and professional settings were observed using a methodology which focused on participation in the everydayness of the designer as well as casual discussions, collection of artifacts, note-taking, and detailed descriptions of insightful events. The collected artifacts were then categorized according to the setting in which they were created and the setting in which they were intended to be used. These two attributes could have one of two values, private or public, which yield a matrix of four possible categories. It was observed that artifacts belonging in the same quadrant shared common qualities such as parsimony, completeness, and ambiguity. This paper finds that distinguishing between physical and virtual artifacts according to their material and imagined attributes is neither accurate nor useful. This research illustrates how virtual artifacts can obtain the qualities of their physical counterparts and vice versa. It also demonstrates how a new meta-artifact can emerge from the inclusion and unification of its material and imagined components. In conclusion, the paper calls for a seamless continuity in the representation and management of physical and virtual artifacts as a prerequisite to the success of: (1) computer-supported collaborative design processes, (2) academic instruction dealing with making and artifact building, and (3) executive policies in architectural practice addressing the management of architectural documents.
Bai, Rui-Yuan, and Yu-Tung Liu. "Towards a Computerized Procedure for Visual Impact Analysis and Assessment - the Hsinchu Example." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 67-76. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. This paper examines the procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment proposed by Rahman and reviews the use of CAD applications in urban projects in the real world. A preliminary computerized procedure for visual impact analysis and assessment is proposed. An experiments was conducted in our laboratory to verify the preliminary procedure. In order to further study the revised procedure in real urban projects, it was also applied into the renew project of The Eastern Gate Plaza located in the center of city Hsinchu, Taiwan from 1996 to 1998. According to several face-to-face discussions with Hsinchu habitants, government officials, and professional designers, a final computerized procedure for visual impact analysis and assessment is concluded.
Yeung, C., L. Cheung, J. Yen, and C. Cheng. "Virtual Classroom for Architecture." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 93-102. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. Over the past few years, we have seen that the evolution of the Internet and World Wide Web technologies have significantly enhanced the global communication and collaboration. People, no matter where they are, are virtually getting closer and closer. The barriers that came from time and distance have been partially removed by the use of such technologies. Internet and WWW are not just technology, they are an environment or space. With such breakthrough in technologies, a new paradigm in education is there. The education very differently from what we have now. This paper presents an Internet-based environment to support teaching and learning in architecture education. We will discuss the design concept and how to integrate the technology and knowledge-based techniques to implement the learning environment for architecture students. Architecture is a very specific discipline which consists of the knowledge from arts, sciences, engineering, and more. One of the focuses in architecture education is to teach how to express and communicate design ideas with the multimedia or other technologies, such as, virtual reality (VR). A case study presented in this paper is about how to deliver and present the ancient Chinese temples and its bracket set systems from the server to the browsers to support distance teaching. That is, students and teachers may not be in the same location, but they are able to watch the same objects and to exchange ideas. We will discuss how to use multimedia technologies to illustrate how a temple and its bracket set differ from dynasties to dynasties and introduce its basic properties to the viewers. Moreover, we will discuss how we organize and handle 3-dimensional objects with such system. Many people are still arguing about whether Internet-based teaching or a real classroom setting is better. We are not implying that Internet-based teaching is superior or predicting that it will dominate the teaching in the near future. However, we strongly believe that it is just another alternative to express and represent architectural thinking to over some of the barriers that come from time and distance. We believe, that it is always true, that the Internet-based teaching may provide both teachers and learners greater flexibility and to support more International collaboration. That is, regardless where the students or teachers are, they can always participate in learning or teaching and make teaching and learning much more rich and interesting.
Cheng, Nancy. "Wayfinding in Cyberspace - Negotiating Connections between Sites." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 83-92. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. As the number of 3D virtual worlds grow, the distributed nature of the Internet will juxtapose many different kinds of spatial environments. Moving between these environments can be disorienting due to the lack of structural continuity. How can we create an easily navigable experience in a realm so different from the stable, natural world that we inhabit? This paper provides background about navigating virtual worlds, discusses the boundary gaps and describes efforts in how to bridge these gaps. Using examples from an academic exercise, archetypes of negotiated connections between sites are proposed.
Mogensen, Preben. "When Survival is an Issue: PD in Support of Landscape Architecture." In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 187-203. CAADRIA. Osaka, Japan: Osaka University, 1998. This paper reports on an ongoing project involving researchers from Lancaster University and a branch of a landscape architecture firm. It explores some of the possibilities pursued in the project as well as the conditions they encountered. Specifically, it describes the introduction ofsupport for graphic work and electronic communication in a context characterised by continuous financial pressure, downsizing, and the need for short term gains. It seeks to contribute to the accumulation of experience within the participatory design community by reporting on an ongoing projectas regards its objectives in relationship to its context.