Keywords Abstract
Lin, Feng, and Hung Wang. "A Case Study of Cooperative Design Using Video Conference." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 153-162. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. In this case study we observed an experimental cooperative design project: a parking lot design using a video conference system. Twelve graduate students of planning and design were divided into two teams for landscape design and traffic planning. They used ProShareTM, a computer-supported video conference system, to co-design at two separate rooms. We used video equipment to record this conference for a detailed analysis. Some experiences on using this system are described. The results indicate the relationships within the work organization, physical workplace and cooperative design. We argued that this workplace becomes more important, even though much research has put emphasis on the cyberspace in cooperative design.  The team membersi tacit protocol has importance, but it does not guarantee any resolution of conflicts. This cooperative design is not only a social process, but also a logic of iterative verifications and falsifications. It is dangerous to construct a theory of computer-supported cooperative design simply based on this case study, however, such an observation could be the first step towards the theory. 
Li, Siu, and Barry Will. "A Computer Based Evaluation Tool for the Visual Aspects in Window Design." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 247-256. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. Windows in buildings must respond to five major issues - daylight, sunshine, view, ventilation and sound.  Each of these processes in its own way can be critical to the synthesis of a successful architectural design.  All factors except view are engineering criteria that can be evaluated by some mathematical formulae provided there is sufficient information for the calculations. In contrast viewi being a qualitative entity has difficulty in being measured by using conventional mathematical tools but it is probably the major factor that leads to the satisfaction and comfort of the users inside the building enclosure.  This paper introduces a new approach in analyzing views by the use of computers.  One of the advantages of this analysis process is that the psychological aspects are less biased in the end product.  This paper explains the methodologies, theories and principles underlying these modelling and analyzing tools.
Yeung, C., John Bradford, J. So, and G. Cheng. "A Distributed Client-Sever Information System for Architecture." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 407-413. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. We describe in this paper the implementation of an internet-based information system for the organization and retrieval of 3-D architectural structures. Each structure may consist of sub-structures down to the level of building blocks like pillars, roof-tops, walls, windows and doors etc. Along with each structure, a set of characteristics is attached. These characteristics can be physical such as geometry styles, finish and materials, or environmental such as climate, contour and region, or historical such as era and religion. An application can thus query the information system by specifying any combination of these characteristics.
Chiou, Shang, and Ramesh Krishnamurti. "A Grammar of Taiwanese Temples." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 297-311. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. Many different types of traditional Chinese buildings share quite similar architectural forms. This paper extends a shape grammar for Taiwanese vernacular dwellings (Chiou and Krishnamurti, 1995 a, b, c, 1996) to the traditional temple designs.  Our grammar was derived from considerations of the traditional processes of design and construction of Taiwanese vernacular dwellings and from cultural influences. The processes for temple design and construction were similar, consequently, a temple grammar can be derived from this grammar.  In this paper, we do so by augmenting the latter with additional rules that take into consideration specific changes to the spatial form that distinguish the traditional temples.
Mahdavi, Ardeshir, P. Mathew, and N.H. Wong. "A Homology-Based Mapping Approach to Concurrent Multi-Domain Performance Evaluation." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 237-246. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. Over the past several years there have been a number of research efforts to develop integrated computational tools which seek to effectively support concurrent design and performance evaluation.  In prior research, we have argued that elegant and effective solutions for concurrent, integrated design and simulation support systems can be found if the potentially existing structural homologies in general (configurational) and domain-specific (technical) building representations are creatively exploited.  We present the use of such structural homologies to facilitate seamless and dynamic communication between a general building representation and multiple performance simulation modules - specifically, a thermal analysis and an air-flow simulation module.  As a proof of concept, we demonstrate a computational design environment (SEMPER) that dynamically (and autonomously) links an object-oriented space-based design model, with structurally homologous object models of various simulation routines.
Mahdavi, Ardeshir. "A Negentropic View of Computational Modeling." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 107-121. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. I propose a systemic view of computational modelling in architecture that is inspired by concepts in human ecology, information theory and thermodynamics.
Bradford, John, W.S. Wong, A.H.F. Tang, and C.S.K. Yeung. "A Virtual Reality Building Block Composer for Architecture." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 51-59. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. Design is a complex and time consuming process.  One way to simplify the design process is to use pre-build blocks for commonly known parts instead of creating them again with CAD.  To give the designer an immediate 3D view of the design, designing in virtual reality is a good choice. This paper presents a virtual reality interface tool which allows a user to assemble an architecture structure from a library of pre-built blocks. The library is a distributed client-server database.
Wormald, P.W.. "An Enquiry into the Present and Future Role of Three Dimensional Computer Modeling as the Primary Modeling Medium for Industrial Designers." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 257-266. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. The role and importance of computer aided design for industrial design is growing.  Computer modelling is increasingly in demand by clients because of the downstream benefits it can bring.  The creation and manipulation of three dimensional form is central to an industrial designer during the design and development of new products.  The paper addresses industrial designis relationship with computer aided modelling, particularly three dimensional geometry.  Design students and professionals have been observed using current computer aided design applications.  Designersi approaches and attitudes towards computer modelling have been identified.  The future impact of computer aided modelling within industrial design activity and subsequent need for change, both in education and professional practice, are highlighted. 
Ng, Edward. "An Evaluative Approach to Architectural Visualization." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 449-463. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. In the forthcoming globalization and virtual almost everything, we are indeed reliving a moment of history when, at the turn of the century, machines replace craftsman in mass-producing goods quicker, cheaper, “better” and faster for the mass market regardless of the appropriateness in using the machine. So much so that the recent proliferation of computer graphics has reached a stage where many are questioning their validity and usefulness in the advancement of architectural discourse. This paper argues that the pedagogy of the use of the new tools should be effective communication in vision and in representation. In short, saying what you do and doing what you say, no more and no less, or to be “true” and “honest”. The paper tries to provide a hypothetical framework whereby the rationale of drawing could be more systematically understood and criticised, and it reports ways the framework is introduced in the teaching of design studio. The focus of the experimental studio (Active Studio 1.6 beta) is to enable the substantiation of ideas and feelings through a critical manipulation of medium and techniques.  The results are narratives whereby the expression of intention as well as the drawings are both on trial. 
Malkawi, Ali M., Emmanuel-George Vakalo, and S.S. Emdanat. "An Intelligent CAD System for Integrating Thermal and Form-Making Analysis." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 41-49. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. This paper presents an intelligent CAD system for integration morphological and thermal considerations involved in the making of architectural form. A shared knowledge base is at the core of the proposed system. The system is designed to allow independent modules that target the different aspects of a building design and analysis (e.g. thermal analysis and morphological analysis) to access and modify the knowledge contained in this knowledge base. The paper discusses the structure of the system and issues pertaining to its implementation. An example of the use of the system is illustrated. Conclusions and findings about the utility of the system are drawn. 
Chiu, Mao-Lin. "Analogical Reasoning in Architectural Design: Comparison of Human Designers and Computers in Case Adaptation." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 205-215. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. Design cases were considered as the design solution or condensed knowledge of design experience. In the analogical reasoning process, case adaptation is the fundamental task for solving the problem. This paper is aimed to study the difference between human designers and computers in case adaptation. Two design experiments are undertaken for examining how designers apply dimensional and topological adaptation, exploring the difference of case adaptation by novice and experienced designers, and examining the difference between human judgement in case adaptation and the evaluation mechanism by providing similarity assessment. In conclusion, this study provides the comparative analysis from the above observation and implications on the development of case-based reasoning systems for designers. 
Jules, F.. "AutoCAD conventions for architects." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. This book offers step-by-step explanations on how to set up detailed databases and how to create a series of drawing sheets and pages for use in day-to-day operations. The accompanying data disk includes settings, formats and symbol libraries for AutoCAD Releases 12 and 13. Putting the tools to work is easy with the “fill in the blank” files in Microsoft Word and Excel for developing architectural schedules, meeting notes, code analysis, programming and other office functions. The chapter on schematic design addresses the issues of effective use of AutoCAD in creating design and presentations.
Kvan, Thomas. "Chips, chunks and sauces." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. I am sure there is an art in balancing the chunks to use with your chips. Then there is the sauce that envelops them both. I like my chips chunky and not too saucy. Not that I am obsessed with food but I don't think you can consider design computing without chunks. It's the sauce I'm not sure about.  The chunks of which I write are not of course those in your salsa picante but those postulated by Chase and Simon (1973) reflecting on good chess players, the chunks of knowledge with which an expert tackles a problem in their domain of expertise. The more knowledge an expert has of complex and large configurations of typical problem situations (configurations of chess pieces), the greater range of solutions the expert can bring a wider to a particular problem. Those with more chunks have more options and arrive at better solutions. In other words, good designs come from having plenty of big chunks available. There has been a wealth of research in the field of computer-supported collaborative work in the contexts of writing, office management, software design and policy bodies. It is typically divided between systems which support decision making (GDSS: group decision support systems) and those which facilitate joint work (CSCW: computer-based systems for co-operative work) (see Dennis et al. (1988) for a discussion of the distinctions and their likely convergence). Most implementations in the world of design have been on CSCW systems, few have looked at trying to make a group design decision support system (GDDSS?). Most of the work in CSCD has been grounded in the heritage of situated cognition - the assumption that collaborative design is an act that is intrinsically grounded in the context within which it is carried out, that is, the sauce in which we find ourselves swimming daily. By sauce, therefore, I am referring to anything that is not knowledge in the domain of expertise, such as modes of interaction, gestures, social behaviours.
Kaga, Atsuko, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "City information Visualizer Using 3-D model and Computer Graphics." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 205-210. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. 3-D models and computer graphics with its visual characteristics enables easier understanding of various information. Up until now 3-D models and computer graphics has not been used for the analysis of city information due to its high cost and the need for special techniques. Currently, we have discovered new technology in hyper medium based on network technology and lower costs. This paper focuses on the construction of an interactive and visual 3-D city information system, aiming at the'idea processor'for research and analysis of city planning and market research. We have discovered the requirements necessary for the City Information Visualizer system. Using this technology we will construct the prototype system of the 3-D City Information Visualizer. This system is based on the personal computer and the Client/Server system. The system is then applied to practical city analysis. This paper presents the prototype system and its evaluation in a real project.
Mitchell, William. "City of Bits." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2-Jan. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. My name is [email protected] (though I have many aliases), and I am an fláneur. I hang out on the network. The keyboard is my café. Each morning I turn to some nearby machine - my modest personal computer at home, a more powerful workstation in one of the offices or laboratories that I frequent, or a laptop in a hotel room-to log into electronic mail. I click on an icon to open an “inhox” filled with messages from round the world-replies to technical questions, queries for me to answer, drafts of papers, submissions of student work, appointments, travel and meeting arrangements. hits of business, greetings. reminders, chitchat, gossip, cornplaints, tips, jokes, flirtation. I type replies immediately, then drop them into an “otubox,” from which they are forwarded automatically to the appropriate destinations. (Note the scare quotes. “Box” is a very loose metaphor. and I will come back to that later.) If I have time before I finish gulping my coffee. I also check the wire services and a couple of specialized news services to which I subscribe, then glance at the latest weather report. This ritual is repeated whenever I have a spare moment during the day. 
Poon, J., and Mary Lou Maher. "Co-evolution in Design." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 439-448. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. A design process is traditionally viewed as a sequential process model from the formulation of the problem to the synthesis of solutions. Simon (1981) regards design as a state-space search where a problem leads to the solution. To be more practical, there are many versions of solution generated during design, where each current one is an improvement over the previous one. This kind of synthesis of solutions can be viewed as an evolutionary system over time.  We propose to apply the metaphor of “exploration” to design, and further argue that evolution occurs in the problem space as well as in the solution space. Co-evolutionary design is introduced to remove the assumption of having a fixed goal (problem).  The problem is allowed to change over time. Two algorithms for co-evolution are presented. Their characteristics and differences are highlighted. The paper moves on to review the design history of the Sydney Opera House and to show how observations from this real life example confirm our co-evolutionary model. 
Kaga, Atsuko, C. Comair, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "Collaborative Design System with Network Technologies." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 187-196. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. During the past ten years at the Sasada Lab of Osaka University has been using computer graphics for presentation, design review and design for practical architectural design projects. Our laboratory is interested in “collaborative design” with designers, clients and citizen. We discovered that there are two major problems, initiatives and timing, and have found new solutions using network technologies. This method have solved these problems, but we have found major problems in “collaborative design” that occur the during many practical architectural design projects. This paper presents these problems and some of the solutions and research that our group has accomplished, or is pursuing in the field of “collaborative design”, using some of the latest technologies in hyper-medium and networking. This paper presents the requirements for Collaborative Design System, the new technologies and the thought of system architecture, the prototype system in practical design project, and the evaluation of prototype system.
Sullivan, W., F. Kuo, and M. Prabhu. "Communicating with citizens: the power of photosimulations and simple editing." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 295-310. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. Contributed by Susan Pietsch ([email protected])
Gero, John S., and Myung Cha. "Computable Representations of Patterns in Architectural Shapes." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 377-388. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. This paper develops a schema theory based approach to the representation of patterns in architectural shapes.  This representation is capable of computer implementation.  The adequacy of any representation is critical for information processing in computer-aided design.  Shape representation using shape elements and spatial relationships are elaborated and the construction of shape schemas and characteristics of shape schema are investigated.  A representation for patterns in architectural shapes is demonstrated.
Chow, Ka-Ming. "Computation in Daylight Architecture." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 93-105. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. Daylight phenomena are dynamic, complex and difficult to capture. Students find that they are hard to study and master. Basically, there are three approaches to the problem: physical modelling, graphic techniques and computation.  Most of the students make use of all three channels to solve their design problem, but some of them donit pay enough attention to the third approach - computation.
Howe, Scott. "Designing for Automated Construction." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 83-92. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. The majority of automated construction research and development has been bottom-up, from the construction/engineering side rather than top-down from the design end.  In order to optimize the use of automated technology, it is important that design principles based on the technology are considered.  This paper seeks to address topics related to designing robotic systems for construction, and developing overall design principles for top-down architect/design applications.  The research herein is divided into a theoretical research programme for the purpose of deriving a simple shape grammar and a simulation research programme for understanding component connections and robotic manipulation.  The second part of this paper introduces a concept automated construction system designed according to the principles derived from the investigation.
Chang, Teng-Wen, and Robert F. Woodbury. "Efficient Design Spaces of Non-Manifold Solids." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 335-344. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. One widely accepted metaphor in design research is search or, equivalently, exploration which likens design to intelligent movement through a possibly infinite space of alternatives.  In this metaphor, designers search design spaces, explore possibilities, discover new designs, and recall and adapt existing designs. We give the name design space explorers to computer programs that support exploration.  This paper describes an efficient representation of states comprising three-dimensional non-manifold solid models and of design spaces made from such states.
Schumacher, Peter, and Anthony Radford. "Games in Virtual Blockland." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 277-286. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. The paper discusses with an example the educational potential and limitations of students using a CAD system as an immersive environment for the rapid exploration of design compositions through play with a small vocabulary of blocks.
Hall, Theodore W.. "Hand-Eye Coordination in Virtual Reality, Using a Desktop Display, Stereo Glasses and a 3-D Mouse." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 73-82. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. Many virtual-reality displays augment the useris view of the real world but do not completely mask it out or replace it.  Intuitive control and realistic interaction with these displays depend on accurate hand-eye coordination: the projected image of a 3-D cursor in virtual space should align visually with the real position of the 3-D input device that controls it.  This paper discusses some of the considerations and presents algorithms for coordinating the physical and virtual worlds.
Bradford, John, R. Wong, and C.S.K. Yeung. "Hierarchical Decomposition of Architectural Computer Models." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 197-203. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. Architectural models can be represented in a hierarchy of complexity. Higher level or more complex architecture structures are then designed by repetitively instantiating libraries of building blocks.  The advantages are that the object can be achieved in modular fashion and any modification to the definition of a building block can be easily propagated to all higher level objects using the block. Unfortunately, many existing representations of architectural models are monolithic instead of hierarchical and modular, thus, making the reuse of models very difficult and inefficient. This paper describes a research project on developing a tool to decompose a monolithic architectural model into elementary building blocks and then create a hierarchy in the model representation. The tool provides a graphical interface for the visualization of a model and a cutting plane.  An associated algorithm will then automatically detach parts of the model into building blocks depending on where the user is applying the cutting plane.  Studies will also be made on dividing more complex models employing spherical and NURBS surfaces.  
Shih, Naai. "Image Morphing for Architectural Visual Studies." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 397-406. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. The purpose of this paper is to suggest and demonstrate how image interpolation, as a tool, can facilitate architectural illustration of design content and process.  This study emphasizes a design-oriented image transition process that is distinguished by two types of morphing: process and source.  A morp model is presented with components of input, function, output and constraints.  Based on a modelis definition, a matrix is used to illustrate the relationship between the two source images by referring to origin, reference plan, configuration, time, etc.  Morphing contents emphasizes changes of pixel, outline (2D or 3D), and order.  Possible applications in architectural visual studies include morphology study, comparison building renovation before and after, dynamic adjustment, quantitative measurement, dynamic image simulation, and model and image combination.
Do, Ellen Yi- Luen, and Mark Gross. "Inferring Design Intentions from Sketches: an Investigation of Freehand Drawing Conventions in Design." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 217-227. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. Designers draw to explore ideas and solutions. We look at empirical studies of the use of drawing in design, including our own work on the connection between graphic symbols and specific design concerns. We describe an empirical study on sketching for designing an architectis office. We found that designers use different drawing conventions when thinking about different design concerns. We are implementing a freehand drawing program to recognize these drawing conventions and to deliver appropriate knowledge based support for the task at hand. 
Chien, Sheng, and Ulrich Flemming. "Information Navigation in Generative Design Systems." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 355-365. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. Generative design systems take an active part in the generation of computational design models. They make it easier for designers to explore conceptual alternatives, but the amount of information generated during a design session can become very large. Intelligent navigation aids are needed to enable designers to access the information with ease and low cognitive loads.  We present an approach to support navigation in generative design systems. Our approach takes account of studies related to navigation in physical environments as well as information navigation in electronic media.  Results of studies from the physical environment and electronic media reveal that 1) people exhibit similar cognitive behaviours (spatial cognition and the use of spatial knowledge) while navigating in physical and information spaces, and 2) the information space lacks legibility and imageability. The proposed information navigation model take these findings into account.
Chen, Yan, and Thomas W. Maver. "Integrating Design Tools within a Human Collaborative Working Context." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 35-53. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. Integrating design tools has been an important research subject. The work to be reported in this paper differs from many previous efforts in that it not only tackles tool-tool interoperation, but also does so within a human collaborative working context We suggest that design integration support should include not only tool interoperability, but also mechanisms for co-ordinate and control the tool use. We also argue that the higher-level management support should include not only formalised and automated mechanisms, but also semi-automated and even informal mechanisms for human designers to directly interact with each other. Within a collaborative working framework, we'll present a hybrid architecture for tool integration, in which the human designers and the design tools are assumed to be distributed while the management is centralised. In this approach, each design tool is wrapped as an autonomous service provider with its own data store, thus the project design data is physically distributed with the design tools. A meta-data augmented product model, which populates a central meta-data repository serving as a “mapi for locating the distributed design objects, is devised to provide a common vocabulary for communications and to assist the management of the distributed resources and activities. A design object broker is used to mediate among the distributed tools, and the central meta-data repository. The reported work has been part of a collaborative design system called virtual studio environment We'll illustrate how the integrated design tools might be used in human design work within the virtual studio environment. 
Dannettel, Mark. "Interactive Multimedia Design: Operational Structures and Intuitive Environments for CD-ROM." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 415-427. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. This paper presents practical design concepts for the production of CD-ROMs or on-line media projects which are intended for scholastic and professional use. It is based on the experience and knowledge which has been gained while developing a multimedia package here at the Department of Architecture at CUHK. The package deals exclusively with the technical issue of vertical transportation in buildings, and is intended to be used as a design tool in professional offices, as well as in classroom settings. The required research and production for the development of the structures, formats, and interfaces of this project, along with the consequential evaluation and revision of this work, has led to a greater understanding of appropriate applications for interactive interactive multimedia designs. Specially, the paper addresses the fundamental issues of “user-format”, and a distinction is made between applications which operate as “tools” and those which operate as “resources”. Descriptions are provided for both types of operational formats, and suggestions are made as to how one might decided which format would be appropriate for a specific project. Briefly, resource produces imply that a user actively pursues information in a relatively static environment, while tool procedures imply that a user works jointly with the software to process information and arrive at a unique output. This distinction between the two formats is mostly grounded in the design of the structure and user-interface, and thus the point is made that the material content of the application does not necessarily imply a mandatory use of either format. In light of this observation that an applicationis format relies on the appropriateness of operational procedures, rather than on its material content, further discussions of the implications of such procedures (using a “resource” vs. using a “tool”) are provided.       
Omura, G.. "Mastering AutoCAD 14." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. Mastering AutoCAD, the fully revised version of Omura's best seller, is your one-stop authority for release 14 of AutoCAD. Whether you're a beginner or an experienced user, this tutorial and stand-alone reference book delivers everything you need: from instructions on getting started to detailed explanations of AutoCAD's most advanced features. 
Burry, Mark. "Narrowing the Gap Between CAAD and Computer Programming: a Re-Examination of the Relationship Between Architects as Computer-Based Designers and Software Engineers, Authors of the CAAD Environment." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 491-498. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. As the interfaces between computer users and computer programs become more friendly, the gap between the architect as designer and the software engineer as strategist increases: the designer is even less inclined to relate to the internal workings of the computer program.  One intention of the friendly interface is to allow greater access to relatively sophisticated programs for people to whom the computer is not a natural ally.  But with tailor-made software comes the paradox of unintended perspective use. This paper discusses the need for design architects to learn basic programming skills in a contemporary context in order to avoid being inadvertently restricted by a software apparent flexibility. An undergraduate course that sets out to familiarise students with the new possibilities is presented here in detail.
Fukuda, Tomohiro, Ryuichiro Nagahama, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "Networked Interactive 3-D design System for Collaboration." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 429-437. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. The concept of ODE (Open Design Environment) and corresponding system were presented in 1991. Then the new concept of NODE. which is networked version of ODE. was generated to make wide area collaboration in 1994. The aim of our research is to facilitate the collaboration among the various people involved in the design process of an urban or architectural project. This includes various designers and engineers, the client and the citizens who may be affected by such a project. With the new technologies of hyper medium, network, and component architecture, we have developed NODE system and applied in practical use of the collaboration among the various people. This study emphasizes the interactive 3-D design tool of NODE which is able to make realistic and realtime presentation with interactive interface. In recent years, ProjectFolder of NODE system, which is a case including documents, plans, and tools to proceed project., is created in the World Wide Web (WWW) and makes hyper links between a 3-D object and a text, an image. and other digital data. 
Fukuda, Tomohiro, Ryuichiro Nagahama, and J. Nomura. "Networked VR System: Kitchen Layout Design for Customers." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 93-100. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. In this paper, we present our Virtual Reality (VR) technology application, a networked VR-supported design system of a kitchen layout. This networked VR system was developed on personal computers to allow customers to design at home. With the VR system, customers can have a pseudo-experience of their “virtual kitchen”,  modify the design of the kitchen, and make decisions by being provided with a good idea of their potential purchase. The VR system will also play an important role in user interface in the House Design Advisory System. This system, which we are currently developing, will give advice on house design, as well as on kitchen layout design, according tothe customersi diversified lifestyles. 
Murakami, Y., Mitsuo Morozumi, K. Iino, Riken Homma, and K. Iki. "On the Development and the Use of Group Work CAD for Windows-PCS." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 179-186. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. With the development of high-band width communication technology, designersi interests seem to shift gradually from a single-user, single-domain system to a network based group-work design system. So long as one regards that the design activity develops only in a concurrent, but asynchronous fashions, it is possible to say that file transfers through computer networks have already opened up the possibility of a hands-on collaborative design process in which all participants do not have to gather in the same place.  However few CAD systems support group design work that develops in a concurrent synchronous fashion.  This paper discusses a basic model of group work CAD systems that the authors have developed for windows PCs linked with LAN.  Reviewing procedure of system operation, the authors conclude that the system could stimulate and accelerate a process of group wok design.
Gero, John S., and Soon Park. "Qualitative Representation of Shape and Space for Computer-Aided Architectural Design." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 323-334. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. In this paper we develop and describe a qualitative representation scheme for shapes which has the capacity to be utilised in the mappings to the semantics of spaces. The representation is founded on three types of qualitative codes based on landmark values for fundamental shape attributes. Qualitative values for these codes can vary to control the granularity of the representation. Structures in the resultant codings, which are the qualitative representation, can be analyzed to produce generic categories of shape features which provide a connection with “feature-based” models.
Kolarevic, Branko. "Relational Description of Shapes and Form Generation." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 29-39. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. The paper describes a relations-based graphic environment of shape delineation and dynamic drawing manipulation that can provide a qualitatively different way to explore shape, dimension and geometric organization. Relational description of shapes based on the concept of construction or regulating lines is introduced as an explicit formulation of a strategy to form generation and creative discovery.  A limited prototype of the relations-based graphic system, called ReDRAW, is briefly described and the implications of its use in conceptual architectural design are discussed.
Chiu, Mao-Lin. "Representations and Communication channels in collaborative architectural design ." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 77-96. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. Collaborative design requires participation of individuals and coordination of design information and tasks. This paper focuses on the representations and communication channels in collaboration design. On the basis of a design communication model and findings of four collaborative design case studies, the phenomena of design communication are presented. The study also examines when the conditions of collaboration are achieved and what kinds of interfaces in computer-mediated collaborative work are needed, and propose a theme-oriented interface for computer-mediated collaborative design. 
Maher, Mary Lou. "Sam: a Multimedia Case Library of Structural Designs." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 13-May. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. Recent developments in multimedia and case-based reasoning provide the basis for developing teaching aids for architecture students that present technology and science learning materials as design cases. Case-based reasoning tools can provide assistance in the identification of a relevant design case and the modification of a case for the current design problem.  We have developed multimedia library of buildings to support a case-based reasoning approach to teaching structural design. The design cases are linked through a network of concepts that follow a specific learning area, for example, the structural design of tall buildings is linked through the concept of lateral load resistance.  The multimedia environment provides an active learning tool that the student uses to generate design solutions. 
Emdanat, Samir, and Emmanuel-George Vakalo. "Shape grammars: an assessment of their utility in architecture." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 313-321. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. Shape grammars are generative formalisms that allow spatial computations to be carried out on shapes. This paper examines the assumptions, methodologies, and formalisms underlying shape grammar research in relation to architectural form and its making. The paper first establishes the criteria for evaluating the adequacy of a given generative system. Then, it applies them to the evaluation of the shape grammar formalism. Issues of the representation of style and language, procedural and declarative knowledge representation, as well as, the specificity and generalizability of the formalism will be addressed. The paper argues that, in its present state, shape grammar leaves a great deal to be desired in terms of its descriptive power and generalizability. The paper concludes by exploring some of the desired characteristics for languages of architectural form.
Wang, Ming, and Jung Chu. "Spatial Delimitation and Spatial Reasoning ." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 15-27. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. The paper attempts a notational system which can sufficiently describe any given architectural floor plan with the capacity to do spatial reasoning.  By its descriptive power the system certainly is a good representational tool for constructing spatial configuration.  By its reasoning power the system can have some semantical understanding of the spatial configurations under construction.  That is, the system knows some spatial properties such as: whether this space can have sufficient daylight?  Can that space be seen from this space? 
Kvan, Thomas. "Studio Teaching Without Meeting: Pedagogical Aspects of a Virtual Design Studio ." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 163-177. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. Virtual Design Studios are proliferating.  Schools of architecture are eagerly experimenting with the technology of the Internet.  Discussions about Virtual Design Studios typically focus on technological issues - which hardware, what software - or environments - MOOs, ftp. Recently, some papers have been written on the perceptual issues and the social aspects of remote design collaborations, thus contributing to some of the contextual issues within which virtual studios are conducted.  This paper contributes another perspective, presenting a review of the pedagogical issues raised in a VDS. It examines the difficulties and opportunities which present themselves in teaching a Virtual Design Studio.  Based on reviews of problem-based learning and examinations of architectural studio learning, including several experiences in conducting virtual studios, the author considers the particularities of conducting a studio in the virtual world, the motivations for these studios, the experiences of students and the results obtained. From this background, the author identifies benefits and drawbacks of teaching in this manner, leading then to guidelines for framing and conducting effective and successful Virtual Design Studios and raises issues for further discussion. 
Braithwaite, G., Anthony Radford, E. Huang, Teng-Wen Chang, D. Jones, Robert F. Woodbury, and R. Sweeting. "The Computer Modeling of Development Proposals: a Routine Part of Development Control." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 123-132. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. This paper describes and discusses the aims and practicalities involved in the computer modelling of contentious development applications becoming accepted as a routine part of the processes of development control.  It uses three case studies drawn from the University of Adelaideis work with the City of Adelaide in Australia to delineate the role of 3D computer models of proposed new buildings and their immediate surroundings in the public understanding of the streetscape, neighbourhood context, overshadowing and overlooking implications of the proposals.
Homma, Riken, M. Matsumoto, Mitsuo Morozumi, and K. Iki. "The Development of a Psychological Evaluation System for Natural and Rural Landscapes." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 229-236. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. In recent years, the importance of preservation of the view in natural and rural landscapes has been emphasized. In order to preserve the grassland view in the Aso area (which is a representative grassland view in Japan), the authors participated in the research about the relevancy of social structures in a rural area and the landscape by examining the view along a major line road that passes through this area. 
Frazer, John, and P. Stephenson. "The Groningen Experiment." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. In its first five years, the Architectural Association's Diploma unit II developed the theoretical framework of an alternative generative process, using computer models to compress evolutionary space and time. This led to a prototype that could be demonstrated interactively and the launch on the Internet of an experimental evolutionary environment which attracted global participation, established a dematerialised model. The new phase of the programme has begun to externalise this conceptual model into constructed form, focusing on urban-scale evolution and other historical and natural examples of co-operative and ecologically i integrated development. The approach has been to consider metabolic processes as a way of understanding both the formal development of urban symbiosis and the specific problem of materialization. The city planning department of Groningen commissioned a small working prototype demonstration of a predictive urban computer model. The unit produced an evolving model which explains the transition from the past to the present, and projects future trajectories a “what if” model for generating, exploring and evaluating alternatives. The model mediates in scale, space and time:, in scale between the urban context and the fine grain of the housing typologies, in space between the existing fabric of Groningen and specific dwelling units, in time between the lifestyle within the medieval core and the desires of the citizens of tile next century 
Frazer, John. "The Groningen Experiment." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 345-353. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. This paper first describes an experimental evolutionary and generative model for the city of Groningen in northern Holland and goes on to speculate on how such techniques could be broadened and applied to the possible global co-operative evolution of cities.
QaQish, Ra'Ed, and Raid Hanna. "The Impact of CAL Strategies on CAD." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 475-489. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. This paper reports on a two fold study, which examines the impact of CAL on CAD and architectural education, and evaluates the overall effectiveness and efficiency of CAD teaching and strategies in the curriculum of architecture. The study also examined the need for a framework within which the creation of a module for applying CAL in CAD to support the curriculum of architecture can be structured and assessed. The main concern of the study was to explore the range and balance of computer assisted activities in the design studio, and the interpretation of the various roles of the CAD tutor and his/her involvement in delivering these activities.  In delivering these activities two criteria, namely: teaching methods and CAD integration (which are interchangeable and yet play different roles), can have a distinct effect on the implementation of CAL in the design studio. The case study evaluated and investigated the CAL the AEC course as part of the 3rd year design studio at Mackintosh School of Architecture, to determine to what extent the AEC learning events were effective in advocating new strategies in CAD.  The methods of this investigation consisted of classroom observations and administrating questionnaires. Variables such as the group and gender differences/participation, the tutoris confidence, level of administration and strategies to help with technical problems and motivations, also the task-related activities, tangibility of the learning materials, and the minutes of lesson have been examined.  The global rating of the CAL events in CAD lessons, the CAL organisation and sequence, the level of studentsi confidence, the rate of studentsi interest, the mode of classroom, the level of learner performance and the relationship between CAL and the overall curriculum have also been empirically examined and their interdependent relationships explored.  The findings of this study may help in establishing future directions in adopting some form of effective CAL strategies in CAD. The study also serves as an evaluation tool for computing teaching in the design studio.  Furthermore, the checklist used in this case study may also be used in evaluating the different courses in CAD in the curriculum of architectural schools. 
Morozumi, Mitsuo, M Takahasi, Ryusuhe Naka, N Kawasumi, Riken Homma, William Mitchell, S. Yamaguchi, and K Iki. "The Levels of Communications Achieved Through Network in an International Collaborative Design Project: an Analysis of VDS 96 Project Carried Out by Kumamoto University, MIT and Kyoto Institute of Technology." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 143-152. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. This paper reviewed the process and the achievements of a five-week-long virtual design studio project the authors carried out with three universities in Japan and the United States in the summer of 1996, in which there was no communication among team members other than network media. After analyzing the use of communication tools in different situations of design communication, and the level of communications achieved in this project, the authors concluded that the present network technology could provide sufficient levels of communication, if only participants could put forth some amount of extra effort for communication among team members.
Woo, S, E. Lee, Tsuyoshi Sasada, and I. Kim. "The Multi-User Workspace as the Medium for Communication in Collaborative Design." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 133-142. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. The design process requires collaboration between organizations and individuals. This paper considers recent research in collaborative design system, it is called the multi-user workspace.  The group-oriented multi-user workspace is a design environment where the collaborative work progresses smoothly between participants in the architecture design process. This paper describes the research project concerning the multi-user work space with inter-university collaboration. The design in the multi-user work space is processed while participants interact with each other. This paper shows the possibility of the multi-user workspace and investigates its problems.   
Woodbury, Robert F., and Teng-Wen Chang. "Using the WWW for Design Teaching." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 465-474. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. In this paper we show how we have used the World Wide Web in teaching design-related subjects at The University of Adelaide and discuss how our use of the Web has transformed both the subjects we taught and our thinking about design instruction. Since 1995, we have used the Web in teaching three subjects. We have progressively gone beyond the delivery of subject material on the Web towards using the Web as a vehicle for fostering new forms of communication among students and academics.
Komatsu, Kiichiro, and Nobutaka Kanda. "Visual Recognition Oriented Spatial Presentation in CAAD System." In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 267-276. CAADRIA. Hsintsu, Taiwan: National Chiao-Tung University, 1997. Computers have established themselves as indispensable tools in the practice of urban and architectural design.  As they have become more and more popular, various presentation means to support computerized design tools, such as CG and VRML, have been developed and put into practical use.  They have been inclined to be regarded as tools for photorealistic presentation, or as a mere shape previewer.  However, considering the recent demand to esteem multi-aspects of space design, the importance of understanding and transmitting multi-aspects in space aided by visual recognition is expected to increase undoubtedly.  In order to realize such assistant procedure in design, we must identify the requirements of spatial presentation in design, and apply it appropriately to visualizing process.  By virtue of that, it can be said that visualization itself has possibilities to open some innovative styles of urban and architectural design.