Keywords Abstract
Lee, Shu. "A Cognitive Approach to Architectural Style Several Characteristics of Design Thinking in Architecture." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 223-226. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. Designing is a complicated human behaviour and method, and is often treated as a mysterious “black box” operation in human mind.  In the early period as for theory-studying of design thinking, the way of thinking that the researchers took were mostly descriptive discussions.  Therefore, they lacked direct and empirical evidence although those studies provided significant exploration of design thinking (Wang, 1995).  In recent years as for the study of cognitive science, they have tried to make design “glass box”.  That is to try to make the thinking processes embedded in designers publicized.  That is also to externalize the design procedure which provided the design studies another theoretical basis of more accurate and deeply researched procedure (Jones, 1992).  Hence the studying of design thinking has become more important and the method of designing has also progressed a lot.  For example, the classification of the nature of design problem such as ill-defined and well-defined (Newell, Shaw, and Simon, 1967), and different theoretical procedure modes for different disciplines, such as viewing architectural models as conjecture-analysis models and viewing engineering models as analysis-synthesis (Cross, 1991).
Emdanat, S.S., Emmanuel-George Vakalo, and Ali M. Malkawi. "A Conceptual Framework for Integrating Morphological and Thermal Analysis in the Generation of Orthogonal Architectural Designs." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 117-131. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. Digital networks are gaining importance as environments for learning and creative collaboration. Technical achievements, software enhancements, and a growing number of applicable principles make it possible to compile complex environments that satisfy many aspects necessary for creative collaboration. This paper focuses on three issues: the architecture of collaborative environments, communication in these environments and the processes inherent to creative collaboration. The information architecture of digital environments looks different from physical architecture, mainly because the material that it is made out of is information and not stone, wood or metal and the goal is to provide appropriate paths and views to information. Nonetheless, many analogies can be drawn between information architecture and physical architecture, including the need for useability, aesthetics, and consistency. To communicate is important for creative collaboration. Digital networks request and enable new strategies for communicating. Regarding the collaborative creative process we have been able to detect principles and features that enhance this process, but there are still many unanswered questions. For example, the environment can enable and improve the frequency of surprise and coincidence, two factors that often play decisive roles in the creative processes but cannot be planned for in advance. Freedom and transparency within the environment are other important factors that foster creative collaboration. The following findings are based on numerous courses, which we have taught using networked environments and some associated, research projects that helped to verify their applicability for architectural practice.
Chen, Hou, and Shuenn Liou. "A Configuration-Generating Method Based on a Lattice System." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 199-215. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. In this paper, I would propose a configuration-generating method: “L grammarsi.  Relating to Turing machine, cellular automata, tiling problem and Wang tile theory. It is named Lgrammarsi. L grammars base on an infinite lattice space (usually a chess-board-like lattice plane) is a bottom-up approach, in which each cell of a lattice system corresponds to a bounded configuration unit. Thus, a lattice plane would corresponds to a configuration union.  The power of L grammars is demonstrated by generating various configurations such as fractal images (two dimensional examples) and crystal models (three dimensional examples). Finally, it would be discussed briefly about some interesting issues concerning about L grammars such as the limitations of L grammars.     
Kim, Inhan. "A Design System for Concurrent Reuse of Architectural Data." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 163-172. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. This paper describes a design system which supports the concurrent re-use of existing design information by means of an object-oriented database system. The system manages component versioning within a flexible design environment which is to be used by a design team working on an evolving, complex design. A database of prototype designs has been built with a database system that supports versioning. The basic database operations are then extended with the routines that support inter-designer communication. The database system with these extensions produces a design environment in which designers using partitioned design databases holding multiple design component versions, may concurrently develop new designs.  In addition, an expert system shell has been incorporated to deal with design evaluation processes. In this paper, the authors investigate the mechanisms by which existing design versions may be represented, combined and edited to provide new designs.  
Stouffs, Rudi, R. Krishnamurti, and C. Eastman. "A Formal Structure for Nonequivalent Solid Representations." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia . CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. This work is based on the recognition that there will always be a need for different representations of the same entity, albeit a building or building part, a shape or other complex attribute. Different representations support different sets of operations with varying efficiencies. Given our expectation that such multiple representations will always exist, there is a need, formally, to define the relations between alternative representations, in order to support translation and identify where exact translation is or is not possible, and to define the coverage of different representations. A method for the analysis of representations is developed, which is applied to four different solid modelling representations.
Woodbury, Robert F., G. Braithwaite-Woodbury, K. Spassov, Anthony Radford, and R. Sweeting. "A Pilot Study of 3D Computer Modelling of Development Applications and Assessment of Software Applications for Use in Computer Modelling." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia . CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. Contributed by Susan Pietsch ([email protected])
Chu, Mon. "A Symbolic/Neural Hybrid Approach to Emergent Subshape Recognition." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 191-198. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. Recognizing emergent subshape is one kind of human visual behaviour. People usually recognize several distinct emergent subshapes from primary shapes and give them different interpretations. This paper presents a symbolic/connectionist hybrid system to provide computers the ability of this kind. Through this approach, the recognition system is divided into three modules. Source images are sent to the first module, that is a connectionist network, of the hybrid system. The network is responsible for transforming the source image into abstract visual data, named Pre-attention Distribution and Local Feature Information. Then, the abstract visual data are processed in the second module that is a symbolic subsystem. The subsystem is responsible for making decision in the Visual Search Attention processes and for managing the features of the whole shape. Finally, another connectionist network takes the previous results from the symbolic subsystem and performs the final recognition.
Fu, S., H. Bao, and Q. Peng. "An Accelerated Rendering Algorithm for Stereoscopic Display." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 53-61. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. With the development of the scientific visualization and the virtual environment techniques, stereo viewing systems have not been used extensively. In this paper, we present an accelerated rendering algorithm for stereoscopic display. As the difference between the left view and the right view is slight, we generate the right view by a transformation of the left view conforming to the stereo disparity. The problem of visibility change of a few polygons during the transformation is discussed and an efficient algorithm is developed for filling the holes that may arise in the right view after the transformation. This method makes fully use of the coherence between the left view and the right view. Experiments prove its efficiency.
Wong, Waycal, and Barry Will. "An Analysis of Using a Digital 3D Sundial as a Design and Decision Support Tool." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 131-141. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. The rapid speed of computer development brings new technologies, and these advances require innovative investigations to apply them optimally in the field of architecture.  Burkett (1984) demonstrated that computer graphics can “provide an excellent opportunity for exploring solar issues in building redesign”. With one of the latest computer technologies, the “hyper-model” environment, this research investigates how to environment can become an aid in the design and decision support area. The research first reviews the communication between the architect and the client as described by Salisbury (1990). The review indicates that an interactive 3D hypermedia paradigm, with quick response, fast data manipulation and 3D visualization, offers a better communication media between the architect and the client. This research applies the “hyper-modeli environment to design and develop a new methodology in collecting, analyzing, and presenting solar data.  It also endeavors to show the possibilities of using the environment in design process.
Chou, Wen. "An Empirical Study of 2d Static Computer Art: an Investigation of How Contemporary Computer Art is Affected by Media." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 81-89. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. We are in the act of forming the Technology & Electronics society: a society which cultural, psychological, social and economical facets take shape according to the development of technology and electronics, specially in the fields of computer and information. The influence of these mighty functions, produced by the bit, is prevalent in all the science and social courses, in fact, it has already invaded the artistic world. It did not take long after the birth of the computer for it to become the new tool for artistic production, it revolutionized the traditional production habits, production procedures, methods of expression and the work place in artistic creativity, thus bringing the tides of change in the artistic context and attitude towards the study of the Arts.   
Woo, S, Y Takenaka, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "Architectural Virtual Space in Design Education." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 27-33. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996.

Our research in recent years has included the subject of providing collaborative work space in the field of architectural design. We propose to improve the quality of architectural design education by extending the physical space of the architectural laboratory into the virtual space of the network (i.e. Internet). In this paper, this extension is called the Architectural Virtual Space (AVS) system. The aim of this paper is to provide the AVS system with reality, interaction and real time, and to popularise architectural design education by providing the applications and power whenever needed for collaboration on the Internet in conjunction with the growth of various browsers of hypermedia.

Yueh, Shing. "Architecture Design as Two Searches - Knowledge of Spatial Organization and Knowledge of Shape in Design Process." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 217-221. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. In the theory of design research, design thinking has gradually become an important direction for the research.  In early research of design thinking, due to the insufficiency of academic research in human thinking, we have been unable to make further research in the field of design thinking.  However, with the remarkable development of a variety of subjects: such as management science, cognitive psychology as well as artificial intelligence and others, researchers engaged in design thinking have more clear methodologies and solid background to conduct research studies of design thinking process. 
Comair, C., Atsuko Kaga, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "Collaborative Design System with Network Technologies in Design Projects." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 269-286. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. This paper depicts the work of the team of researchers at the Sasada Laboratory in the area of collaborative design and the integration of global area network such as the Internet in order to extend the architectural studio into cyber-space. The Sasada Laboratory is located at the University of Osaka, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental engineering, Japan.  The portfolio of the Laboratory is extensive and impressive. The projects which were produced by the men and women of the Laboratory range from the production of databases and computer simulation of several segments of different cities throughout the world to specific studies of architectural monuments. The work performed on the databases was varied and included simulation of past, present, and future events. These databases were often huge and very complex to build. They presented challenges that sometimes seemed impossible to overcome. Often, specialised software, and in some cases hardware, had to be designed on the “fly” for the task. In this paper, we describe the advances of our research and how our work led us to the development of hardware and software. Most importantly, it depicts the methodology of work which our lab undertook. This research led to the birth of what we call the “Open Development Environment” (ODE) and later to the networked version of ODE (NODE). The main purpose of NODE is to allow various people, usually separated by great distances, to work together on a given project and to introduce computer simulation into the working environment. Today, our laboratory is no longer limited to the physical location of our lab. Thanks to global area networks, such as the Internet, our office has been extended into the virtual space of the web. Today, we exchange ideas and collaborate on projects using the network with people that are spread over the five continents.
Watanabe, Shun. "Computer Literacy in Design Education." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 10-Jan. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. Many Schools of Architecture in Japan installed many computers in their class rooms, and have already begun courses for CAAD skill. But in many cases, few teachers make their efforts for this kind of education personally. Having limited staff prevents one from making the global program of design education by using computers.  On the other hand, only teaching how to use individual CAD/CG software in architectural and urban design is already out of date in education. Students will be expected to adapt themselves to the coming multi-media society. For example, many World Wide Web services were started commercially and the Internet has become very familiar within the last year. But I dare to say that a few people can enjoy Internet services actually in schools of Architecture and construction companies. Students should be brought up to improve their ability of analysing, planning and designing by linking various software technologies efficiently in the word-wide network environment and using them at will. In future design education, we should teach that computers can be used not only as a presentation media of architectural form, but also as a simulation media of architectural and urban design from various points of view. The University of Tsukuba was established about 25 years ago, and its system is different from the other universities in Japan. In comparison with other faculties of Architecture and Urban Planning, our Faculty is very multi-disciplinary, and ability of using computers has been regarded as the essential skill of foundation. In this paper, I will introduce how CAAD education is situated in our global program, and discuss the importance of computer literacy in architectural and urban design education.
Pamula, J.. "Computer-aided imaging ." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia . CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. The paper attempts to assess, in general terms, the impact of computers, as a novel medium and tool for producing visual images, on the areas of communication and artistic expression. It starts from the observation that today, mostly due to the profound advances in electronic and computer media, the image becomes more and more important as a medium of communication in comparison with traditional textual means. This leads to enormous demands for efficient generation of meaningful and effective images, calling in turn for new breakthrougths in the theory and practice of devising new visual languages and visualization of information, suitable for computer implementation. 
Liu, Yu-Tung. "Connectionist CAAD for Restructuring Shapes in Terms of Emergent Subshapes." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 173-190. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. Designers naturally restructure shapes in terms of emergent subshapes in the process of design. According to the result of a psychological experiment about how experienced and non-experienced designers see shapes, only experienced designers can encode implicit subshapes emerged from the primary shapes. Many symbolic approaches have been considered in addressing this focused problem. On the other hand, the issue is also encountered by connectionist networks, also called parallel distributed models or neural networks.  Recognizing both explicit and implicit emergent subshapes has been explored using connectionist networks associated with appropriate mechanisms of visual attention, namely recurrent attention and searchlight attention in combination. The distinction between symbolic and connectionist computations of shapes is discussed.  
Gero, John S., and Mary Lou Maher. "Current CAAD Research at the Key Centre of Design Computing University of Sydney." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 35-52. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. Designing is one of the most significant of human acts. It is one of the bases for change in our society. However, designers are amongst the least recongised for societyis change agents.  Surprisingly, given that designing has been occurring for many millennia, our understanding of the processes of designing is remarkably limited. Part of our understanding of designing comes not only from studying human designers as they design but from postulating design methods which describe some aspect of the design process without claiming to model the processes used by human designers. The early approaches to design methods were prescriptive when applied to human designers. More recently, design methods have been formalised not as humano-centred processes but as processes capable of computer implementation.  Amongst the goals of these endeavours are to develop a better understanding of the processes of designing, to develop methods which can be computerised and to aid human designers through the introduction of novel methods which have no human counterpart. Much of this research is driven by the fact that human designs are very often incomplete, inadequate or just plainly poorly conceived for the task they are meant to address.     
Tan, Milton. "Design Thinking and the Need for Open Access to Multimedia Sources." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 99-107. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. To realise the impact of Multimedia Information Technology on architecture, it is necessary first to re-map the position of media technology in the design thinking process. This would then reveal the key issues and priorities facing the development IT applications for architectural design. In the particular context of Asia, special considerations and opportunities exist which make it even more compelling to have a clear frame of reference.  These three interconnected topics constitute the concerns of this paper. 
Hou, June. "Exploration of Extending the Communication Range in the Virtual Design Process." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 299-305. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. Computer Support for Collaborative Works (CSCW) and recently investigated Virtual Design Studio (VDS) are reviewed.  By involving into two design projects and examining the virtual design process, several technical and procedural problems are notified and discussed.  A community reconstruction was proceeded in the second project to help local communities to build their network communication.  This paper tries to construct guidelines for future virtual design process and addresses the possibilities of extending the communication range to local communities and users. 
Maher, Mary Lou, J. Rutherford, and John S. Gero. "Graduate Design Computing Teaching at the University of Sydney." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 233-244. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. Design Computing involves the effective application of computing technologies, digital media, formal methods and design theory to the study and practice of design.  Computers are assuming a prominent role in design practice. This change has been partly brought about by economic pressures to improve the efficiency of design practice, but there has also been a desire to aid the design process in order to produce better designs. The introduction of new computer-based techniques and methods generally involves a re-structuring of practice and ways of designing.  We are also seeing significant current developments that have far reaching implications for the future. These innovations are occuring at a rapid rate and are imposing increasing pressures on design professionals.  A re-orientation of skills is required in order to acquire and manage computer resources.  If designers are to lead rather than follow developments then they need to acquire specialist knowledge - a general Computing also demands technical competence, an awareness of advances in the field and an innovative spirit to harness the technology understanding of computers and their impact, expertise in the selection and management of computer-aided design systems, and skill in the design an implementation of computer programs and systems. 
Martens, Bob, A. Voigt, and Helena Linzer. "Information Technologies within Academic Context: Remote Teamwork - a Challenge for the Future." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 227-232. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. “Remote Teamwork”,  i.e. the substance-related cooperation of people over spatial distances in decision-situations relies on “CIVIC” (Computer-Integrated Video-Conferencing-audio-visual communication at spatial distances integrating interactively digital, spatial computer models) and “CISP” (Computer-Integrated Spatial Planning) aiming at the elaboration of suited remote-working structures of research, project transactions and teaching preferably on the basis of “ATM” (a technology of broad band telecommunications). The generation and manipulation of digital spatial models and their virtual transportation within large spatial distances represent the main research objectives. The efficient use of teaching resources calls for the integration of new teaching possibilities within the framework of “Remote Teamwork”, e.g. Distributed and Shared Modelling, Distant Learning and Remote Teaching. The Faculty of Architecture, Urban and Regional Planning therefore is stressing information technologies within academic context. The following contribution is dedicated to the focal field of research and teaching “Remote Teamwork” of the Vienna University of Technology. This project is carried out in cooperation with the Institute of Spatial Interaction and Simulation (IRIS-ISIS), Vienna and the Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC Linz-Hagenberg).  Teaching experience relevant for “Remote Teamwork” is derived from various experiments of cooperative teamwork.   
Henriques, P., Thomas W. Maver, and A. Retik. "Integration of Cost Planning in the Architectural Design of Housing." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 105-114. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. Cost estimation in the initial phases of a project is of great interest to the construction industry. This paper proposes a new way of the integration of an architectural project and its cost estimate so as to optimise the design solutions, according to technical and economic criteria. This work explores the capacity of an elemental cost estimation method for residential buildings, when integrated with Computer Aided Design systems, to increase cost estimate precision during the early stages of design. A Cost Planning and CAD model (CP/CAD) is developed by the integration of a database and a CAD system which provides for the automatic exchange of information relative to the geometric layout of the building, the construction element build-up and the construction costs of the same. Finally the CP/CAD model is tested through the estimation of costs for some theoretical cases and also for a group of one-family houses with similar architectural characteristics. The results show the increased precision and the advantages of the model for cost estimation in the early design stages. 
Wie, Zhao. "Interactive Optimization: a Practical CAAD Model." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 75-80. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. In recent years, the CAAD technique become more and more popular in most of architectural design institutions in China.  Then, like in many other countries, CAAD in China is mainly used for making working drawings and perspectives, a drawing tool not a design tool, and the traditional architectural design process still remain unchanged.  The decision making and layout approaching of the designs are based on the skills and experiences of architects, lacking of effective means for architects making design analysis and evaluation during designing. 
Gu, Jingwen. "Natural Results from Advances in Computer Techniques - CAAD Teaching in China Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 21-26. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. The computer science has been becoming one of the most rapidly developed science areas in the world since 1970s. Many new and powerful solutions to engineering and scientific problems are based on computers. Now the applications and teaching of computer techniques are quickly towards almost all of the fields including architecture and urban planning. Of course, the advances of application of computers in particular fields and teachings are very different for some reasons. CAAD is one of few fields in which the teaching states, teaching ways and level are obviously different from university to university and from one area or country to another.  In this paper the history of CAD and CAAD applications in China is first briefly reviewed. Then the CAAD activities including teaching and research work at Tongji University are introduced, and the social, economical, functional, technical and physical factors that have effects on CAAD teaching are discussed. What is currently included in our CAAD program is also discussed.  As the further advances in computer technology including both software and hardware, What CAAD will include and in what way CAAD will be taught and the CAAD collaborative research projects will be taken remotely are shown finally.  
Kusama, H., Tomohiro Fukuda, J.W. Park, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "Networked CAD System for Designer Group." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 153-161. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. Open Design Environment (ODE), the concept of which was proposed in 1991, is a platform on computers to support synthetic to proceed design. We have applied ODE in practical use of design, design review and presentation to make collaboration by using CG in design participants. Recent linkage between LAN and Wide Area Network, just as the Internet, gave ODE a new progress to make wide area collaboration. It leads to generate the concept of Network ODE (NODE).  However, we have found some problems on system to proceed the wide area collaboration by using ODEis Design Tools. Since they are developed on the specific computer system, they can not correspond to the wide area collaboration on various network environments.  As a result, the re-arrangement of design environment and the development of Design Tools are needed, which are rather flexible and general purpose, i.e. independent of machine sort and network adaptive.  In this paper, to proceed collaboration in a designer group, how to create the system of NODE is demonstrated with the new Key Technologies of network and CG.  
Morozumi, Mitsuo, T. Hamada, Y. Shimokawa, and K. Iki. "On the Development of 3-D Schematic Design System Utilities for Planning Sketches and 3-D Modeling." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 63-73. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. Though it is the basic tasks of designers in a schematic design stage both to program design requirements and, then, to develop spatial images of a building following those programs, most CAD systems have lacked convenient utilities to interpret a program for some forms of spatial designs, or to assess developed designs referring to the prepared programs. This paper, in the first part, reviews design procedures of designers and the internal limits of the existing CAD system, and in the second part, discusses a schematic design system that the authors have developed. Presenting the case study with the system, the authors show that the system provides a convenient environment of schematic design.
Shen, Tie. "Practice and Experience in the Design of Building Model with the Micro-computer ." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 245-248. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. Recently, I joined the competition for the commissions of the general department store of Tongzhou and Tongzhou agricultural trade centre, and succeeded in each competition. The design work was carried out with computer from first to last, with the use of AutoCad 12.0 and 3ds 3.0. I do not intend to introduce the design thoroughly, but I would like to deal with some aspects of CAAD. The following are my major steps and practicable experience of using CAAD. In order to differentiate design of building model with micro-computer and traditional-concept models, the former will be referred to as “screen model”,  and the latter “object model”. 
Chiu, Mao-Lin. "Prototypes, Variation and Composition: a Formal Design Approach in Urban Housing Design with Computer Assistance." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 287-298. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. This paper outlines a formal design approach for teaching 3D modelling in computer-aided architecture design studios, and various design principles are used in the process, particularly the generalization, variation and composition. The teaching agenda includes: (1) a formal design approach of housing design, (2) design collaboration, and (3) computer-aided architectural design. //  The research agenda includes: (1) incorporation of the formal design approach with the urban infill theory, and (2) development of a computation design method. //  The studio project is demonstrated to highlight the implementation of the approach.
Garcia, Renato. "Sound Structure: Using Data Sonification to Enhance Building Structures CAI." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 109-117. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. Although sound is now extensively used to enrich multimedia applications in the form of simple audio signals, earcons, musical passages and speech, it has unfortunately been under-utilized as a means of data representation. Sound, having many characteristics which enable it to convey multi-dimensional information, provides a broad channel for dynamically presenting data in a learning environment. This paper looks into how teaching concepts of building structures to students of architecture and engineering through computers and multimedia can be enhanced by enlisting the use of appropriate sound parameters.  Sound is useful in presenting redundant or supplementary information such as in portraying building structural response to static and dynamic external loading. This process of audiolization, which refers to the use of sounds to present data, can alleviate much of the cognitive load that usually burdens visual displays and has been used to some degree of success in various studies on scientific representation. Where appropriate, audiolization can be synchronized to more established visualization processes to provide more effective multi-modal multimedia systems for the study of building structures.
Li, Jian. "Study on Computer-aided Design of Shading Device of a Building." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 143-151. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. The design of shading device is an important aspect of architectural heat-prevent design in sub-tropical climates of China.  There is a large amount of calculation how to choose suitable style and size of shading device for various window in each exposure of a building, for the aim of both sheltering from sunlight indoors and preserving proper sun-shining time in a room.  The solution of the calculation for the design of shading device is presented in this paper.
Cheng, Nancy. "Teaching CAD as a Foreign Language." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 20-Nov. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. By looking at the well-developed discipline of language teaching, we can improve instruction of computer aided design communication. Language teaching not only breaks down a complex field into attainable steps, but also shows how learning strategies and attitudes can enhance mastery. Guiding students in learning approaches will equip them to deal with constantly changing technology. Even at an introductory level, awareness of the learning process can heighten learning. Thus, giving a conceptual framework and enhancing resource-finding, brainstorming and coping abilities will lead to threshold competence. Practicing these strategies on realistic projects hones the ability to connect concepts to actual situations. Both design or research projects exercise resource-usage, task management, crisis management, but specifically, collaboration exercises which engage the students with a real audience can provide strong motivation and link academic study to practical concerns. Ideas about teaching techniques are documented with examples from the University of Hong Kong.  
Goldstein, Laurence. "Teaching Creativity with Computers." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 307-316. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. Using computers as an aid to architectural design promotes efficiency - of that there is no doubt - but its real merit must surely lie in provoking inventiveness.  The medium makes possible the speedy creation and manipulation of images, a holistic, integrational approach to design, the exploration of virtual environments, the real time collaboration in design by individuals at remote sites and so on - these all fall under my heading of “efficiencyi, since more or less the same ends can be achieved, albeit much more slowly and tediously, by traditional methods.  But inventiveness, thatis something different.  For comparison, think of the advent of reinforced concrete.  In the early years, the new medium was used, roughly speaking, as a substitute for timber beams, but the genius of Le Corbusier was required to appreciate that concrete had fluid qualities which afforded completely different kinds of design opportunities.  Can computers likewise revolutionise design?  Will new kinds of building get constructed as a result of the advent of computers into the design arena?
Zhang, Lei. "The Design of a Test Program for Basic Design." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 253-267. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. Within the whole range of methods available in the teaching of design with computer the "Exercise" made, seems to be one of the most productive. Not only the student but also the teacher is involved in a step by step process of search, discovery and development. The continuous and controlled building of complexity in architecture design are the underlying issues. The student models in desecrate steps, exploring, testing, discovering and thus build a "repertoire" which combines knowledge skills, experience, attitudes as well as methodology. Symbiotically related the teacher prepares the exercise, one might call the process applied design research. Since based upon research, the teacher structures the learning process defining the what and why by indirect means. Leaving the how to the student's initiative and inventiveness. The design of the design or the design of the learning process poses one of the real challenges to the teacher. In the case of chains of exercise the interactiveness of the student and teacher are of specific interest, since feedback loops add to the process. The following test program is directly related to this line of thinking. In it a "teacher" is asked to develop a simple chain of exercises based on a given "theoretical model". Thus building his own experience in basic design. In this test run the student is introduced to the concept of continuous space as well as the notion of architecture form as the interaction between space, site and structure a course. It could be seen as a basic model since we could have much more complex resolutions if we change the given elements and limitations.
Shih, Wei, and Ming Chuang. "The Development of a Glasses Design Support System." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 91-97. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. While looking at glasses, we will have various sensation on their forms, colours, textures etc. These feelings direct us to decide which pair of glasses to buy. This study tries to find out the relationship between human sensation and glasses design, that is, to figure out what kinds of forms will excite what kind of human sensation.  By adopting this relationship, we also propose a computer support system which can automatically generate appropriate glasses forms in response to the expectation of consumers. In this study, we first collect several adjectives which can express the human sensation on glasses designs. Then, in an experiment, subjects are asked to evaluate a set of glasses in order to acquire the ratings of those adjectives. We further analyze the formal elements included in different glasses, multivariate analysis and the neural networks are used to decide which design of each element are more likely to excite a specific human sensation. These results then are built as a knowledge base of a support system which includes an inference engine to assist a designer to produce new glasses design. By receiving the input of desired adjectives, this system will find out the most preferred elements for each adjective and integrate them into some appropriate design prototypes for further modification. 
Maver, Thomas W.. "The Virtual City." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 181-184. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. Europe's architectural heritage is immensely rich and diverse, it contributes to the quality of life in our cities and attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors from all corners of the world. Yet it is under increasing threat from insensitive planning, atmospheric pollution and commercial exploitation. There is urgent need to understand the complex evolutionary development of our urban habitats, to reconstruct what once existed, to archive what currently exists and to test, in context, proposed future architectural and planning interventions. The emerging multimedia technologies offer an unprecedented opportunity to make all this accessible to a wide range of interested agents - from citizens to tourists, from students to scholars, from conservationists to developers.
Shen, Tie. "Today s CAAD in China." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 249-252. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. The research and application of CAAD in China was in about the 1980's. Though a lot of success has been achieved in these ten years or so, the improvement is still relatively minor when compared with some other speciality. In fact there are only very few architects who are really making use of CAAD. In this paper, I would like to analyze the present situation and countermeasure CAAD in China. 
Li, Andrew I. - Kang, and Jin-Yeu Tsou. "Using Virtual Models to Teach Traditional Chinese Wood Construction." In Proceedings of the First Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , 119-130. CAADRIA. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, 1996. In this paper we discuss our experience in using virtual models to teach traditional Chinese wood construction. Although our approach is technically simple - we use a kit of model parts made with the Solid Modeler of AutoCAD, Release 12 (now Release 13), and customized commands in AutoLISP - we have had excellent results. This is because of the remarkable match between the modelling medium and the highly systematized nature of traditional Chinese wood construction. It is this crucial - and interesting - characteristic that we want students to understand and appreciate. In our first teaching experience, in the fall term, 1994-95, despite unexpected drawbacks, our approach succeeded.  In fact, our students, all Hong Kong Chinese, were surprisingly enthusiastic and even took pride in the sophistication of this uniquely Chinese construction system.  In 1995-96, we have used the same kit of parts in two courses: an introduction to Chinese architecture (spring term) and an advanced course in Song dynasty wood construction (fall term). We first discuss briefly the theoretical basis for our approach.  We then describe the assignments, the kit of parts, and supporting materials used in our teaching experiences.  Finally, we discuss our findings and consider directions for the future development and improvement of our approach.