Keywords Abstract
Gokmen, Sabri. ""Formative Impulse": A Theoretical Outline for the Study of Goethean Morphology Using Computation." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. In this paper a theoretical and computational framework for a contemporary study of morphogenesis will be presented using a pulsation model. This study will revisit some of the valuable historical ideas on form developed by Goethe in the late eighteenth century. This investigation will be developed in three main parts. In the first part a brief outline of Goethe’s scientific methodology will be described positioning his achievements against the epistemology of Kant. In the second part Goethe’s main works on morphology will be presented with a focus on his botanical writings. Using a fragment titled "Formative Impulse" some of Goethe’s ideas on polar tendencies and metamorphosis will be used for a computational framework in the final part. By bridging among history, theory and technology the paper aims to present a novel approach to the study of computational form and growth in architecture.
Gokmen, Sabri. ""Tangle Jungle": An Experimental Project to Combine Collaboration and Craftsmanship in Digital Design Pedagogy." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. Tangle Jungle was an experiment in an alternative method of design and making for the digital age. The aim of the project was to interpret and reenact traditional craftmanship through today's digital tools. For a particular study on the subject, we looked at the theory and works of William Morris. Morris had an exceptional taste for medieval art and produced, among other things, hand-woven carpets that are still studied today. Morris reinvented the art of his time by reviving pre-industrial modes of production and designs. Today, the digital age is experiencing a similar paradigm shift. Digital tools already work, in many instances, as a direct extension of the hands of a new breed of digital artisan makers. It is possible to assess that the digital is getting closer to Morris's notion of craftsmanship. Tangle Jungle became a testing ground for this historical connection, bringing forth the question, can we redefine our own digital craftsmanship as a form of digitally reenacted Gothic revival?
Imbern, Matias. "(Re)Thinking the Brick: Digital Tectonic Masonry Systems." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. The introduction of digital tools in the production of architecture undoubtedly constitutes the main force behind contemporary architectural innovation. In addition, the interaction of digital technologies with analog craft manufacturing -a rather unexplored field of study- suggests a wide range of novel opportunities. This research focuses on developing a framework for deploying digital design techniques to the production of bricks under vernacular technology as a medium of achieving geometrical variations and functional complexity in domestic-scale projects. Solid clay bricks are embedded in traditional ceramic-construction culture. Thus, this investigation faces the challenges of making a feasible innovative system in a country where digital fabrication is not an economically viable option, and engaging a design that can be easily implemented with current hand-labour. Consequently, the new bricks would be massively introduced in the construction market, allowing novel formal and functional possibilities for designers.
Shih, Wingly. A CAD System for Interactive Space Design In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Kim, Ju-Yeon. A Comparision Study of Media Façades Based on Emotional Keywords In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Bacinoglu, Zeynep, and Sema Alacam. "A Context Based Approach to Digital Architectural Modelling Education." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This paper presents a context based framework for introducing digital modelling and fabrication to architecture students. Modelling has being taught either as a separate skill, or introduced within a comprehensive context of conventional design approaches. We argue that, a ‘digestive context’ might guide students to gain designing experience with/in digital media in a gradual and a cumulative way. This paper is based on a series of modelling and fabrication exercises as part of a one-semester digital design and modelling studio course for postgraduate students. We focus on the impact the initial exercises we assigned our students had on the final design product; We discuss the affordance and adaptability of the method that was developed by the students.
Park, Hyoung-June, and Juliann Chen. A Cost-Driven Design Optimization Framework In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Lee, Hyunsoo, Minkyeong Shim, Heuiwon Yoon, and Jungeun Lee. A Customized Smart Control of the Ubiquitous House In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Park, Hyoung-June, Raymond Yeh, and Rebecca Ahlers. "A Future Scenarios Based Computational Framework for Campus Planning." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.

Future forecasting methodologies and computational applications are applied for developing an interactive design framework in campus planning process. The proposed computational design framework programs various design rules intended for producing buildings with optimized capabilities to adapt to their future settings and meet the functional requirements based upon future scenarios. The implementation of the computational framework for the future scenarios based campus planning is introduced.

Hu, Youpei. A Genetic Algorithm Based Tool to Explore the Solution Space of Building Forms on the High-Rise-High-Density Plots In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Herr, Christiane M., and Thomas Fischer. "A Notation to Aid Column and Beam Layout Design for Reinforced Concrete Construction in China." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. Mesh-Mould is a novel robotic fabrication system for complex, non-standard concrete structures. The system folds together formwork and reinforcement, the two most labour intensive aspects of concrete constructions and offers an alternative approach to the current modes of prefabrication by suggesting an in-situ fabrication process (Figure 1). The paper outlines the development of the Form-work/Reinforcing Meshes through several iterations of physical and digital tests. Initially starting from simple triangulated 3D lattices, the structures evolved to become more complex and differentiated. The incorporating of flow enhancing ducts and surface perimeters with diverse surface aperture densities facilitates an optimal concrete flow and material distribution within the mesh.
Beorkrem, Christopher, and Charles Davis, II. "A Primitive Parametric." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This paper describes the products of an exhibition organized by the authors that speculatively reconstructed the ‘long history’ of Architectural Biology to recover the cultural potential of biological metaphors in contemporary architecture. The extended historical timeline of the show spanned from the second half of the nineteenth century to the present. However, in contrast to previous shows that have isolated modern architects’ interests in the formalist principles of biology, this show examined the formal and cultural prerogatives of modern architects in tandem with one another. This historical framework encouraged the speculative analysis of the social and political relevance of contemporary claims, which inherently challenges the ahistorical bias of the postcritical debates that emerged in the new millennium. Widening our gaze to examine the ‘long history’ of biological metaphors in architecture enabled us to recuperate the cultural significance that biological references have accrued within the discipline of architecture. This disciplinary history promises to repair the historical amnesia that has beset contemporary architects who limit their analysis of biology to formalist principles of design. A key component of the exhibit was the conceptual pairing of the ‘primitive’ (cultural) concerns of nineteenth-century figures with the ‘parametric’ (formal) concerns of postwar and contemporary architects. Using Gottfried Semper as a representative figure for the former position, we reinterpreted the inherent cultural meaning of postwar and contemporary architectural works, including those completed by Frei Otto, Achim Menges, Lars Spuybroek, SHoP, and Evan Douglis. The material potential of this approach was expressed in the making of analytical maps, digital models, and conceptual drawings that explored the latent ‘primitive’ themes of contemporary ‘parametric’ designs.
Phare, Darin, Ning Gu, and Anthony Williams. "A Semiotic Analysis of Representational Imagery Used in a Collective Design Task." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.

Collective Design seeks to explore how new forms of Collective Intelligence, arising from the web, allows mass participation in design. Regarding design we have a wellestablished grounding for understanding how design works through the use of representations. Likewise, collective intelligence via certain crowdsourcing examples has demonstrated that a diverse crowd can trump ability groups, when the conditions are right. In the literature, crowdsourcing is the leading lens bridging design with collective intelligence. However in crowdsourcing design there is less focus on the role of shared representations, subsequently any collective diversity is mitigated by the models that govern the extraction of this intelligence. We propose that more effective design in collective intelligence lies in the crowd’s ability to generate meaningful contributions via the content of shared representations. In order to investigate this, the current paper examines data collected from a pilot study in which a representationally rich online collaborative presentation tool is used to provide a shared design space. The analysis presented applies our previously established semiotic framework to identify potential patterns in the meaningful communication of image based design information.

Murahashi, Ippei, Hiroaki Honda, Toru Hatori, Eriko Tamaru, Yuji Matsumoto, Nagisa Kidosaki, and Ryusuke Naka. A Study on Diversified Analysis Method Focusing on Relationship between Communication Activity and Space in Office In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Aydin, Serdar, and Marc Aurel Schnabel. "A Survey on the Visual Communication Skills of BIM Tools." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. Building Information Modelling (BIM) applications are supported by various modelling tools, being expansive to deliver visualised geometry and databases simultaneously. But there is still a gap in visual communication amongst its professionals. Articulating the advantages of fully Web-based collaboration, this paper looks into how BIM tools make contribution to visual communication between different parties working collaboratively. A hybrid model of low-level and high-level interactions is tentatively conceptualised. Based on the hybridised model, a survey is conducted to elucidate a few experiential matters such as visual aesthetics, cognition and motivational impacts of visualisation in BIM tools. Following the survey, a discussion is oriented towards a new storytelling methodology with a novel term, namely gamification. Seeking motivating and efficient means of visual communication between human-human, human-tool and human-model interactions, the present study focuses on an enhanced legibility and appreciation of tools by those who are involved in BIM projects.
Fukuda, Tomohiro, Sun Lei, and Keisuke Mori. "A Synchronous Distributed Design Study Meeting Process with Annotation Function." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This research investigated the impact of synchronous distributed non immersive cloud-VR (cloud computing type of Virtual Reality) meetings using the annotation function by noting an architectural design process. The experimentation of collaborative design work at the early stage of a housing renovation project was executed by three designers. The synchronously distributed meetings using cloud-VR and a freehand sketching function were completed in two days. The annotation function was used effectively when a designer wished to show the space composition and volume shape of the planned building and so on. The proposed design environment, sharing a 3D virtual space with viewpoints, plans, sketches and other information synchronously and remotely, was feasible and effective.
Williams, Nicholas, Sascha Bohnenberger, and John Cherrey. "A System for Collaborative Design on Timber Gridshells." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. The bent timber laths of the Sound Bites gridshell create two types of performance space over an area of almost 100 m2. Such postformed gridshells are a wellestablished design solution for creating curved forms from linear elements. Extending principles developed since the 1970s, contemporary digital tools have been utilised to drive a renewed interest in them, primarily through so-called form-finding techniques which connect digital and material models through a simulation of shape under bending loads (Nettlebladt, 2013) and the definition of efficient structural geometry acting under compression loads only (Hernandez et. al., 2012). This paper describes the workflow conceived and implemented for the Sound Bites structure. A central challenge of the research was for such a workflow to allow for the principles of gridshell design to be engaged in parallel to other tight constraints and design drivers. As such it needed to facilitate close collaboration between architectural, engineering and fabrication experts. This workflow was tested in the design and realisation of the full-scale structure within a six-week period. The gridshell design was developed through the manipulation of the shape of two edge profiles and the shell form spanning between these. Architectural and fabrication constraints were met and the workflow allowed for a sufficient level of structural analysis to be fed back to inform the design.
Zhong, Chen, Stefan Müller Arisona, and Gerhard Schmitt. "A Visual Analytics Framework for Large Transportation Datasets." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.

The advancement of sensor technologies makes it possible to collect large amounts of dynamic urban data. On the other hand, how to store, process, and analyze collected urban data to make them useful becomes a new challenge. To address this issue, this paper proposes a visual analytics framework, which is applied to transportation data to manage and extract information for urban studies. More specifically, the proposed framework has three components: (1) a geographic information system (GIS) based pipeline providing basic data processing functions; (2) a spatial network analysis that is integrated into the pipeline for extracting spatial structure of urban movement; (3) interactive operations allowing the user to explore and view the output data sets at different levels of details. Taking Singapore as a case study area, we use a sample data set from the automatic smart card fare collection system as an input to our prototype tool. The result shows the feasibility of proposed framework and analysis method. To summarize, our work shows the potential of geospatial based visual analytics tools in using "big" data for urban analysis.

Moya, Rafael, Simon Watkin, Yan Ding, Jane Burry, and Mark Burry. "Aerodynamic Features as Auxiliary Architecture." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This paper presents the experimental study of aerodynamics phenomena in built environments, focused on explorations of environmental wind flow near buildings, pedestrian wind comfort issues and methods of mitigation of wind speed. In addition, it is an overview of an aerodynamic analysis with CFD software for a hypothetical urban shelter design, based on aerodynamic features. The aim is to evaluate the feature’s performance to control wind flow in protection regions for pedestrians.
Krietemeyer, Bess. "An Adaptive Decision-Making Framework for Designing Material Behaviours." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This paper describes an adaptive decision-making design framework for investigating the synergies between aesthetically-driven and performance-driven criteria, specifically in designing the material behaviour of an electroresponsive building envelope system. An immersive and interactive simulation environment developed in the C++ programming language provides a computational tool for testing the visual and energetic performance of a dynamic building envelope as it negotiates bioclimatic energy flows with participants’ aesthetic preferences and interactions. Experiments in bioresponsive feedback loops examine the impacts that user engagement and real-time energy performance feedback have on participants’ design choices. Preliminary results demonstrate that exposure to energy performance feedback and to the collective design choices of multiple users leads to adaptive decision-making that favours synergistic system performance with the potential for increased socio-ecological connections. Critically, this research provides new methods for supporting the design of emerging material behaviours for dynamic building envelopes that can negotiate multiple performance criteria.
Park, Jae Wan, and Yongdae Shin. An Approach for Developing Mobile Urban Media Based on Emergence In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Tuker, Cetin, and Halil Erhan. "An Architectural Modeling Method for Game Environments and Visualization." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. Modeling 3D architectural environments for games and design visualization is different than modelling for other purposes, such as for construction. These models include only the outer surfaces as ‘skin’ structures of the facades for rendering for which existing tools are too complex. After interviewing fourteen domain experts and evaluating available modelling tools, we observed a need for new modelling methods for rapid visualizations that leaves redundant model parts out for efficiency. We have developed a surface modelling method and a formalism for modelling architectural environments by slicing a building into layers with strips of façade element sequences. In the first prototype, we focused on parametric structures using userdefined architectonic vocabulary such as voids and solids. We conducted an expert review study with four participants: two user-experience and two domain experts. All participants responded that the method is easy to learn even for non-experts. Based on the tasks completed, they agreed that the method can speed the process of modelling large continuous façades, single-mass single-storey geometries, and repetitive floor layers; they also made suggestions for improvement. The results from the initial evaluation show that the method presented has some merits to be used in practice.
Oksuz, Elif Belkis, and Gülen Çağdaş. An Implication of Architectural Morphogenesis within Allometric Principles In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Kobayashi, Yuki, Naoki Katoh, Tomohiro Okano, and Atsushi Takizawa. "An Inductive Construction of Minimally Rigid Panel-Hinge Graphs and Application to Design Form." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.

A panel-hinge framework is a structure composed of rigid panels connected by hinges. It was recently proved that for a so-called generic position, the rigidity of panel-hinge frameworks can be tested by examining the combinatorial property of the underlying graph. In this study, we apply such combinatorial characteristics to create design forms. However, such characterization is only valid for so-called "generic" panel-hinge frameworks. When considering the application of design forms, we need to take into account non-generic cases. In this paper, we develop the method to inductively generate non-generic rigid panel-hinge frameworks consisting of orthogonal panels and to inductively generate rigid panel-hinge frameworks based on fractal geometry coupled with space filling 3-dimensional convex polyhedron as a construction unit. We give examples of forms by the proposed method to demonstrate the applicability to design forms.

Ron, Ruth, Renate Weissenböck, and Eyal Sheffer. Analysing and Visualizing the Moving Mechanisms of Kinetic Architecture In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Leblanc, François. "Anything, Anyone, Anywhere." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. According to Hod Lipson at Cornell University’s Creative Machines Lab, cloud manufacturing ‘consists of a network of smallscale, decentralized nodes of production.’ It is a novel production approach relative to centralized mass production and standardisation methods common to today’s industrial processes. To date, cloud manufacturing techniques have focused largely on the production of smallscale consumer goods that integrate digital fabrication techniques, the most popular being 3D-printing technology. With advances in network-based design platforms for 3D-printing services in combination with the global installation of fabrication laboratories (fab lab), the production of architectural building components using cloud manufacturing techniques is now possible. This paper will define how cloud manufacturing techniques can be expanded into the realm of architectural practice and, in particular, how such techniques can be applied to larger-scale building and construction components. The paper will further discuss how such novel additive manufacturing (AM) processes applied to construction can potentially revolutionize architectural design by generating a new collaborative design model that facilitates local production of customized and readily assembled building components on demand.
Williams, Mani, Jane Burry, and Asha Rao. "Applying Social Network Analysis to Design Process Research, A Case Study." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This paper presents a novel approach to analyse design project development demonstrated within a collaborative design case study. We present the limitations of the existing protocol-based design process analysis in analysing real design scenarios. Taking a complete set of regular meeting notes from a design project, the study translated the record of design discussions and decisions into a decision network. We then selected three Social Network Analysis (SNA) methods to apply to the network to analyse different aspects of the project development. Degree, betweenness and clustering focused on three different resolutions of the design process, offered quantitative ways to analysis and visualise the design decisions in both short term as well as over the whole design process.
Nakano, Akito, and Akira Wakita. "ASOM." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. Recently more researches on tangible objects have been conducted that enhance the intuitive polygonal or surface modelling of designers in digital and physical worlds. However, a few researches have been done that augment the digital solid modelling with tangible objects. In this paper, we present the Augmented Solid Modeller (ASoM) which helps designers create more complex shapes by a combination of Boolean operations between a different type of 3D-printed tangible objects, which is different from the conventional single shape type bottom-up modelling approaches. When multiple objects intersect each other at a given position and angle, the interference or removed shape is often unexpected for designers. Also, as 3D-printed objects are used for designers only to configure and discuss the shape of final digital 3D model in existing CAAD, ASoM changes the role of 3D-printed objects from the replicas to reusable tools for other modelling opportunities. We offered ASoM to students majoring or interested in CAAD and interviewed them to get comments. Since the speed and precision of 3D-printing will achieve immediate improvement, ASoM is a pioneer in developing cutting-edge approach for designers to model both in digital and physical worlds.
Kaftan, Martin, Markus Manahl, Jiri Pavlicek, Elmar Hess, and Urs Hirschberg. "Augmented Parametrics." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. Current parametric design software lacks the capacity to integrate simulation and optimisation when they would be most relevant: at the early stages of the design process. This paper presents a novel framework to address this issue: A parametric program that supports performance-based modelling by integrating detailed physical simulation modules that also take construction issues into account, while at the same time providing easy access to high-level optimisation approaches. Providing bidirectional parametric modelling capabilities, we refer to the system under development as augmented parametrics. It is being developed as part of a research project sponsored by the Austrian Science Foundation.
Chandra, Daniels, and Ning Zhou. "BIM Add-on Tool for Automated CUI Calculation." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. The Building and Construction Authority (BCA) of Singapore established Sustainable Construction Master Plan with the goal of achieving a Sustainable Singapore Blueprint. The Concrete Usage Index (CUI) is a part of Sustainable Construction scoring under Singapore’s ‘Green Mark’ system. Since computation of CUI score was formerly calculated manually without the use of BIM software, it was an inaccurate and tedious process. Although calculation of CUI is currently much faster through the use of BIM software, it still faces challenges. The objective of this project is to address those challenges by creating a BIM addon tool which is capable of automating the process of CUI calculation with minimum user input. Our intention is to help the industry to calculate CUI systematically and efficiently while promoting the adoption of BIM.
Holzer, Dominik. "BIM and Parametric Design as Game Changers." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This paper explores the effects of Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Parametric Design on the distribution of roles and responsibility in architectural practice. It will do so in consideration of the epistemological changes associated to new skillsets young graduates bring into practice and their positioning among experienced professionals on project teams. On one hand the paper will scrutinise how the use of BIM and Parametric design influences design and delivery of projects, their impacts on practice culture, and the associated roledistribution on project teams. On the other hand the paper will discuss to what extent academic institutions can or should respond to the challenges and the opportunities inherent to these changes in practice. A number of responses to the challenges and opportunities will be presented by the author for further consideration by others.
Tai, Nan-Ching. "Binocular Disparity and Depth Cue of Luminance Contrast." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. Luminance contrast has been identified as an effective depth cue through perceptual studies using digital images generated by the integrated technologies of physically based lighting simulation and perceptually based tone mapping. However, the prior established framework utilizes a single camera viewpoint, failing to address the binocular vision of the human visual system. In this study, the computational framework is extended to incorporate 3-dimensional (3D) stereo display technology. Psychophysical experiments were conducted to investigate the depth effect of luminance contrast on the experimental scenes presented on conventional and stereo displays. The objective of this study was twofold: first, to investigate the effect of luminance contrast on depth perception, considering binocular vision; second, to further advance the visual realism of the computer-generated environment to reflect the perceptual reality of static pictorial and binocular disparity cues.
Yu, Rongrong, John Gero, and Ning Gu. "Cognitive Effects of Using Parametric Modeling by Practicing Architects: A Preliminary Study." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This paper presents the results of a protocol study which explores the cognitive behaviour of eight practicing architects while they used a geometric modeller (Rhino) with a parametric modeller (Grasshopper) as they designed. The protocol videos collected were transcribed, segmented and coded using the FBS ontology as the coding scheme. This resulted in each protocol being transformed from a qualitative video into a sequence of symbols from the FBS ontology and further divided into design knowledge and rule algorithm classes. The sequence of symbols forms the foundation on which quantitative representations of cognitive behaviour can be constructed and compared. Results of the relative cognitive effort expended on design knowledge and rule algorithm classes, through an articulation of the cognitive design issues, have been compared and discussed. These results provide insight into the use of parametric modellers by architects.
Lo, Tian Tian, Serdar Aydin, and Marc A. Schnabel. Collaborative Design with Quasi-Grammars In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Lee, Hyunsoo, Jisoo Kim, Minkyu Shin, and Jin-Kook Lee. Comparison between Design Alternatives Using BIM-Enabled Circulation Analysis In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Tong, Ziyu. "Comparison of Partitioning Methods for Estimating the Layout of Green Spaces." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. The urban green space positively affects the quality of the environment and urban life. To estimate the layout of urban green spaces, especially to describe the real difference of regional properties, the influenced zone of each green space should be identified firstly. The influenced zone can be used to quantitatively analyse the difference of regional environmental quality. The identification of the influenced zones of green spaces actually is a problem of space partitioning. The study compared three methods mostly used in space partitioning. The regular grid is a most common partitioning method. It is easy to use, but cannot link the grid with green space separately. Voronoi algorithm is a constructive method which partitions the urban space based on each green. Another approach is the application of gravity models, which assumed analogies between human behaviour and Newtonian gravity laws. The gravity model could calculate the probabilities of residents to choose the green space and partition the urban space. In the comparison of these three methods, we conclude that the gravity model can take more characteristics of the green space as the calculating parameters. The gravity model is a better method to estimate the layout of urban green spaces.
Ham, Jeremy J., and Marc Aurel Schnabel. "Comparisons in Representational Media Use in Design Studios between Hong Kong and Australia." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. Representational media – analogue, physical, digital, or virtual – are employed by students in the conception, development and presentation. In 2013 a survey at two architectural schools was conducted to study the current representational media use in design studios. The survey examined the role digital and physical media play in students’ design work and how students use the various media to generate and communicate their designs. This study presents its importance through the shift in architectural education whereby digital tools are not taught per se any longer, however expected to be mastered throughout the course. Yet students’ learning experiences are strongly dependant on the successful acquisition of skills and its transfer to deep learning. Especially architectural design studios build upon the premises that rerepresentation leads to a better acquisition of knowledge. Architectural educators may use the study to revisit their studio and reposition the role of media as well as align learning outcomes, deliverables and communication tools with the actual working- and learning-styles of students.
Cabrinha, Mark, and Jeff Ponitz. Composite FRP Unitized Façade Systems In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Christenson, Mike. "Comprehensive Parasites." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This paper describes a final-year graduate architectural design studio in which students examine strategies of dissection, infiltration, and parasitization as means of operating within and extending existing constructions. There is a focus on developing rule-sets which are defined locally but lead to large-scale form. Ultimately, this studio is an attempt to critically examine the role of comprehensive design within the larger project of architectural epistemology.
Yasufuku, Kensuke. "Computational Analysis of Architectural Visual Space Along Walking Path by Using Virtual Reality Display." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.

This study evaluated architectural space quantitatively based on ambulatory vision. In this paper, we propose a computational analysis method of a visual space along a walking path by using a virtual reality display. A display image of our system is shown from the first-person perspective. We consider the perspective to be the visual field of the users. To convert the perspective into a visual field, we take advantage of depth buffer data, which can specify how far a pixel of an object is on the perspective. To analyse a visual space by a sequence of visual field, we quantify the geometric characteristics based on isovist theory. A virtual reality display, which employs a wide range view angle and a head-tracking system, also enables us to analyse the relation between the visual field and head motion.

Chen, Yan, and John S. Gero. "Computational Modelling of Designer-User Interactions and Value Systems." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This paper develops a multi-agent computational model to simulate the effects of designer-user interactions on the design of products, interactions that are both direct and indirect. The architecture of an agent-based computational system is described, with emphasis on how it models situated design computing and cognition, including both designer and consumer agents. Indicative results obtained from running simulations are presented. The primary contribution is to demonstrate that situated design computing and cognition can be modelled using Computational Social Science methods.
Zavoleas, Yannis. "Computational Thinking with Analogue and Digital Means." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. By elaborating on the significance of the drawing in the architectural avantgarde of the 1960s, the paper’s primary scope is to weave a thread between late modernism and contemporary research in computational design. The architectural drawing is presented as an abstract means aiding design research. The more recent notion of performative drawing evokes adaptability, being a critical precondition that responds to diverse design aims in interactive manners. Performative drawing's function may further be linked to patterns, a recurring research theme during late modernism. Thinking in (and with) patterns recalls approaching design problems through malleable schemas that hold design data, according to which they are being transformed. In respect, the present paper delves into the analogies between the manipulation of patterns with the use of drawings during late modernism and parametric processes developed through simulation patterns of the current era. Through this comparison, it becomes possible to stress out the operative significance of methodologies and conceptual means in the architectural making as tools that are being used primarily for the exploration of form’s dynamic behaviour.
Leidi, Michele, and Arno Schlüter. Conceiving Design Schemes of Urban Architecture Through Volumetric Site Analysis In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Senske, Nicholas. "Confronting the Challenges of Computational Design Instruction." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. Many architects understand that learning to program can be a challenge, but assume that time and practice are the only barriers to performing well enough at it. However, research from computer science education does not support this assumption. Multinational studies of undergraduate computer science programs reveal that a significant number of students in their first and second year of fulltime instruction still have serious misconceptions about how computer programs work and an inability to design programs of their own. If computer science students have trouble learning to think and express themselves computationally, what does this say about architects' chances of learning to program well? Moreover, if common problems have been identified, can architectural educators learn anything from findings in computer science education research? In order to determine if this research is relevant to architecture, the author conducted a pilot study of architecture students consisting of program analysis and conceptual knowledge tests. The study found that student performance was poor in ways similar to those revealed in the computer science education research. Because architects face similar challenges as computer science majors, this suggests that the discipline could benefit from more investment in educational collaborations. In addition, empirical research – from architecture as well as other fields – must play a more substantial role in helping architects learn computational thinking and expression.
Chen, Yan, Jonathan Neslon, and Michael Parsons. "Constructing Atmospheres." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This paper documents and critically reflects upon the design, development, fabrication, and implementation of three pavilion projects developed during 2013-14. The core investigation of this work is the production of architectural spaces characterized by a quality of enveloping, diffuse, visual and spatial atmospheres. The principal activity of the research is aimed at refining methods for software-based exploration of formal complexities and the subsequent need to control variability and efficiency in fabrication output, using Grasshopper for Rhino to develop customized definitions particular to each specific project scenario. Linking the projects together are issues of scale, resolution of effect, and intent to move from disparate assemblies of structure and skin toward composite, manifold construction techniques that address multiple concerns (gravity, bracing, affect, etc) with a minimum of assembly. A material palette common to the current vernacular of CNC-based projects such as plywood, plastics, and other sheet materials is utilised. This work is invested in extending the possibilities of the architect and architecture as a discipline, extrapolating the workflow from these successive projects to the speculative impact of the work upon emerging possibilities of architectural construction and craft.
Webb, Alexander. "Contextual Social Media as Algorithmic Engine." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This paper describes a method for utilizing contextual social media as a mechanism for urban analysis through the use of parametric design engines.
Wójcik, Marcin, and Sylwia Kłaczyńska. Continuing the ‘Continua’ I In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Yekutiel, Tatyana Pankratov, and Yasha Jacob Grobman. "Controlling Kinetic Cladding Components in Building Façades: A Case for Autonomous Movement." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. "The movement of building façade cladding is usually used to control buildings’ exposure to environmental conditions such as direct sunlight, noise and wind. Until recently, technology and cost constraints allowed for only limited types of façade cladding movement. One of the main restrictions stemmed from the limitations that architects face in designing and controlling movement scenarios in which each façade or cladding element moves autonomously. The introduction of parametric design tools for architectural design, combined with the advent of inexpensive sensor/actuator microcontrollers, made it possible to explore ways to overcome this limitation. Autonomous movement of building façade cladding elements has several potential benefits. One of the main feasible advantages of this type of movement is that it can deal with changing external and interior local conditions in different parts of the façade by individually controlled movement, by preceding reaction or flock behaviour. Thus, it can increase significantly the performance of the building façade. This paper presents new results from an ongoing research study that is examining the potential of autonomous movement of façade cladding elements. It compares the environmental performance of centrally controlled kinetic façade elements and a prototypic façade made of autonomously controlled elements.
Matsubayashi, Michio, and Shun Watanabe. Converting Drawings and Specifications of Building Stock to BIM Model In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Beirão, José Nuno, André Chaszar, and Ljiljana Č. avic. "Convex- and Solid-Void Models for Analysis and Classification of Public Spaces." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.

In this paper a semiautomated morphological classification of urban space is addressed systematically by sorting through the volumetric shapes of public spaces represented as 3-dimensional convex and solid voids. The motivation of this approach comes from a frequent criticism of space syntax methods for lacking information on how buildings and terrain morphology influence the perception and use of public spaces in general and streets in particular. To solve this problem information on how façades relate with streets and especially information about the facades’ height should be considered essential to produce a richer and more accurate morphological analysis of street canyons and other open spaces. Parametric modelling of convex voids broadens the hitherto known concept of two-dimensional convex spaces considering surrounding facades’ height and topography as important inputs for volumetric representation of urban space. The method explores the analytic potentials of ‘convex voids’ and ‘solid voids’ in describing characteristics of open public spaces such as containment, openness, enclosure, and perceived enclosure, and using these metrics to analyse and classify urban open spaces.

Abdelhameed, Wael A.. "Creativity and VR Use." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. Creativity with its various processes is involved in all design actions. Creativity used in architectural design is different than creativity in other domains. However, creativity in general with its related cognition processes has no general theory. This research proposes certain activities of initial architectural design phases in which the role of activity is important. The research proceeds to present a case study of two architectural design studios in which a VR environment is employed in order to investigate the effect of VR use on the creativity in those initial design phases. The research applies a methodology of qualitative and quantitative analysis. Various architectural design factors are neutralized to overcome the influence generated from human factors variation and design thinking prejudice on architectural designing and the associated creativities.
Shin, Minkyu, Sang-Ik Lee, Jisoo Kim, Hyunsoo Lee, and Jin-Kook Lee. Demonstration of an Integrated Approach for Visualizing Indoor Sensor Data In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Khoo, Chin Koi. "Designing a Responsive Material System with Physical Computing." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.

This paper focuses on an investigation to explore architectural design potentials with a responsive material system and physical computing. Contemporary architects and designers are seeking to integrate physical computing in responsive architectural designs; however, they have largely borrowed from engineering technology’s mechanical devices and components. There is the opportunity to investigate an unexplored design approach to exploit the responsive capacity of material properties as alternatives to the current focus on mechanical components and discrete sensing devices. This opportunity creates a different design paradigm for responsive architecture that investigates the potential to integrate physical computing with responsive materials as one integrated material system. Instead of adopting highly intricate and expensive materials, this approach is explored through accessible and off-the-shelf materials to form a responsive material system, called Lumina. Lumina is implemented as an architectural installation called Cloud that serves as a morphing architectural skin. Cloud is a proof of concept to embody a responsive material system with physical computing to create a reciprocal and luminous architectural intervention for a selected dark corridor. It represents a different design paradigm for responsive architecture through alternative exploitation of contemporary materials and parametric design tools.

Dias, Miguel Sales, Sara Eloy, Miguel Carreiro, Pedro Proença, Ana Moural, Tiago Pedro, João Freitas, Elisângela Vilar, Jorge D'alpuim, and António Sérgio Azevedo. "Designing Better Spaces for People." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. We present a pilot study aiming to explore the use of biometrics sensing technology within a semi-immersive VR environment, where users face architectural spaces which induce them sensations close to fear of heights, claustrophobia, frustration and relief. Electrodermal activity was used to detect users’ emotional arousal, while navigating in VR. Navigation conditions and participants’ expertise with games were controlled. Main results show that physiological measurement of user’s perceptions can discriminate well "positive" from "negative" spaces, providing designers with basic information on people’s emotional state when using the buildings they design.
Jonas, Katrin, Alan Penn, and Paul Shepherd. "Designing with Discrete Geometry." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. There has been a shift in aesthetics from the modern orthogonal building envelope to more elaborate curved and folded forms. Non_orthogonal forms are often associated with complete freedom of geometry, entrusting the advancement in custom manufacturing and robotic fabrication of one-off building parts to realise the design. This paper presents a methodology that allows non_orthogonal surfaces to be designed using a constrained library of discrete, tessellating parts. The method enables the designer both to produce ‘approximations’ of freeform designs in a top_down manner or to generate ‘candidate’ designs in a bottom_up process. It addresses the challenge in the field of design engineering to generate architectural surfaces which are complex, yet simple and economical to construct. The system relates to the notion that complexity derives from simple parts and simple rules of interaction. Here complexity relates to the holistic understanding of a structure as an interaction between its local parts, global form and visual, as well as functional performance.
Zhang, Rui, and Patrick Janssen. Differentiated Space: Evolutionary Exploration of Spatial Configurations for High-Rise Residential Buildings In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Sheth, Urvi A.. Digital Craft In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Senske, Nicholas. "Digital Minds, Materials, and Ethics: Linking Computational Thinking and Digital Craft." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This paper describes the connections between computational thinking and digital craft, and proposes several ways that architectural education can cultivate better digital craft, specifically: motivating the use of computational strategies, encouraging a conceptual understanding of computing as a medium, teaching computer programming, and discussing digital ethics. For the most part, these subjects are not widely taught in architecture schools. However, moving forward, if the profession values good design, it must also value good digital craft, and ought to instil a way of working in the next generation of architects that makes the most of both the computer and the designer. Computational thinking provides a common foundation for defining and instilling this critical mindset and, therefore, deserves greater consideration within architectural pedagogy.
Erhan, Halil, Andy Huang, and Robert F. Woodbury. "DiNa Framework and Prototype to Support Collaboration in the Wild." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. Much of the available collaboration support tools focus on sharing of documents and managing projects that require planned activities. These tools fall short in meeting principle of least effort or taking into account of the reality of complex work patterns. We propose DiNa framework and system architecture for a topic centric as opposed to document-centric collaboration system using readily available devices. DiNa aims to complement existing approaches. Our primary goal is to seek answers for how these devices can better support collaboration without overloading the workflow. After a literature review and roleplaying exercises, the prototypes we developed demonstrate new interaction techniques for defining topics and address them in collaborators’ own terms. It uses different visualizations of the artefacts and their association with the topics, among which is a scalable timeline interface accessible from different platforms, to make the artefacts collected more meaningful in a given context. In this paper we present our recent prototype as a proof-of-concept and its initial evaluations followed by the lessons learnt from our studies on supporting collaboration in the wild. The evaluation outcome is suggestions for improving DiNa-based systems for effective collaboration.
Schubert, Gerhard, Marcus Tönnis, Violin Yanev, Gudrun Klinker, and Frank Petzold. "Dynamic 3D-Sketching." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. Sketching by hand is without doubt – alongside building models – the most common tool that architects employ when designing. A disadvantage of the sketch is, even if it is a perspective drawing, that it is a purely two-dimensional planar representation of a three-dimensional product: the three-dimensional impression that the sketch communicates is a product of the viewer’s imagination. Digital modelling tools on the other hand support the creation of three-dimensional content but fall short in their ease of handling: their complexity and potentially unintuitive operation hinder rather than support the design process. Taking this discrepancy as a starting point, the presented system details the development and prototypical implementation of a dynamic 3D-sketching tool. The underlying core idea is to create a seamless connection between a perspective hand-sketch and the corresponding digital 3D-model in order to benefit from the advantages of hand sketching as a design tool and computer maintained 3D models. The system allows the designer to work as usual, visualizing his or her thoughts using perspective sketches. The user sketches on a touchscreen surface. The 2D drawing is automatically interpreted and converted into a system of 3D lines, surfaces and volumes in real-time.
Iwata, Shouto, Mikiya Takei, and Shiro Matsushima. "Enhanced 3D-Space-Scanning System by Robotic Technology." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This study, which scans an architectural space with two-wheel vehicle robot technology that allows the flexible collection of three-dimensional (3D) data, may initiate the interaction between human beings and architecture in the future. It focuses on extracting building geometry and capturing human behavior in order to allow a space to communicate with human behavior. The current project extracts building geometry and human behavior data to create designs through a two-wheel robot; it was a collaborative project among the students of different majors, including mechanical engineering, human interaction, computer sciences, and architectural design. In this paper, the adaptive possibility of the RGB-Depth camera is examined in extracting building geometry.
Takizawa, Atsushi, Yushi Miyata, and Naoki Katoh. "Enumeration of Floor Plans Based on Zero-Suppressed Binary Decision Diagram." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.

Open Building (Habraken, 1972) has been the focus of attention due to growing interest in the sustainable society. For Open Building, it is important to preserve the diversity of feasible floor plans in order to adapt to various lifestyles of residents. Capacity analysis is a method for evaluating the potential diversity. We propose a novel method that evaluates the potential diversity of floor plans by enumerating all feasible floor plans satisfying given constraints based on zero-suppressed binary decision diagram (ZDD) (Minato, 1993).

Janssen, Patrick, and Vignesh Kaushik. "Evolving Lego." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. In evolutionary design algorithms, the evolutionary procedures have a major impact on the quality of the genotype-fitness mapping, which in turn impacts the performance of the algorithm. Two key issues affecting the quality of a mapping are the size of the genotype space and the locality of the mapping. In order to systematically investigate the role that genotype space and locality have on evolutionary performance, a set of experiments are conducted using benchmark test cases consisting of simple LEGO structures. Three different developmental procedures are implemented and tested. The results confirm that locality is critical in achieving good performance and in some cases may have a greater impact than genotype length.
Nguyen, Danny D., and Hank M. Haeusler. "Exploring Immersive Digital Environments." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.

In contemporary architecture firms, most design drawings are done via use of 3D modelling software. This method requires advanced knowledge of the software in order to produce an accurate representation of space into the digital environment. The paper argues that conventional 3D visualization methods to design and analyse are restrictive to how well the user understands the space on a computer, as drawings are done ex-situ and without testing the design concept in-situ, hence there might be a level of disparity between the design and final fabrication. This is particularly a challenge when designing Urban Interaction Design concepts, as combinations of variables play a role in how the design will be received by the audience. Observing the design challenges for Urban Interaction Design and applying knowledge to architectural representation, potentially an alternative sketching process can be developed to alleviate the disparity between the conceptual design and post fabrication. This paper discusses an experimental process of using wireless spatial sensing devices to digitize physical spaces in real-time and to use on-the-spot analysis. In its conclusion the paper argues that this method enables the designer to gain advanced conceptual understandings of the intended space and thus make more informed decisions.

Chian, Eugene, and Patrick Janssen. "Exploring Urban Configurations for a Walkable New Town Using Evolutionary Algorithms." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. Multi-objective evolutionary algorithms have been successfully applied within various design domains in order to explore the trade-offs between conflicting design criteria. This research investigates how evolutionary algorithms can be used to develop urban configurations for walkable new towns, focusing in particular on the trade-off between travelling time using public transport and accessibility to open space. A population of optimised urban configurations was evolved and analysed, resulting in the identification of three differing typologies for walkable new towns.
An, Seyun. Eye Tracking Experiment Research in Brand Spaces for Evaluating Space Design Marketing In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Watanabe, Shun, and Haruka Kitada. "Generative Grammar of Modern Japanese City Planning." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.

The generative grammar is described for urban structures and public housing for government workers constructed during the late 1960s and 1970s in Tsukuba Science City, selected as the case study area. A landscape simulation system for ongoing redevelopment projects based on this grammar is developed with ArcGIS and CityEngine, and the configuration of the city landscape is clarified.

Koh, Immanuel. "Generative-Glass: Prototyping Generative Architectural Systems with Artisan’s Glass-Blowing and Automated Digital Fabrication Techniques." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.

This paper aims to investigate the ways in which the traditional processes of glassblowing techniques could be incorporated with contemporary generative design processes in the realization of new novel architectural systems. Pedagogical issues on how such prototyping processes could be better integrated within architectural education are also discussed. With the use of algorithmic design methodology to generate/visualize the components assembled in multitudes and digital fabrication machineries to produce the necessary moulds/jigs/tools/connection joints, a series of 5 different glass prototypes have been actualized at the scale of 1:1 or otherwise. The work is the direct outcome of a new programme founded and directed by the author as part of the Architectural Association (AA) School of Architecture‘s Visiting School in 2013. Part 1 briefly introduces the specific agenda and how the corresponding structure of the programme is designed to facilitate the glass research work done concurrently at the digital fabrication laboratory and glassblowing studio. Part 2 would systematically discuss in detail the design of each of the 5 main glass prototypes made, presented alongside photographs and diagrams to illustrate the prototypes’ respective assembly and fabrication logics. Part 3 would evaluate the work done and project plans for the next iteration of the research in 2014.

Joaquim, Silvestre, and Ikeda Yasushi. Granularity of Control with Parametric Design in a Digital Fabrication Scope In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Heydarian, Arsalan, Joao P. Carneiro, David Gerber, Burcin Becerik-Gerber, Timothy Hayes, and Wendy Wood. "Immersive Virtual Environments: Experiments on Impacting Design and Human Building Interaction." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This research prefaces the need for engaging with endusers in early stages of design as means to achieve higher performing designs with an increased certainty for enduser satisfaction. While the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) community has previously used virtual reality, the primary use has been for coordination and visualization of Building Information Models (BIM). This work builds upon the value of use of virtual environments in AEC processes but asks the research question "how can we better test and measure design alternatives through the integration of immersive virtual reality into our digital and physical mock up workflows? " The work is predicated on the need for design exploration through associative parametric design models, as well as, testing and measuring design alternatives with human subjects. The paper focuses on immersive virtual environments (IVEs) and presents a literature review of the use of virtual environments for integrating enduser feedback during the design stage. In a controlled pilot experiment, the authors find that human participants perform similarly in IVE and the physical environment in everyday tasks. The participants indicated they felt a strong sense of "presence" in IVE. In the future, the authors plan on using IVE to explore the integration of multi agent systems to impact building design performance and occupant satisfaction.
Leitão, António M.. "Improving Generative Design by Combining Abstract Geometry and Higher-Order Programming." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. Generative Design (GD) involves the use of algorithms that compute designs. To take advantage of the computational power of computers, these algorithms must be implemented in a programming language. Although most programming languages have the same computational power, they have very different expressive powers. In this paper we focus on exploring the expressive power of languages and we argue that (1) the ability to use abstract geometry as input and (2) the use of higher-order programming dramatically simplifies the implementation of GD algorithms. We illustrate these concepts using a large and complex example that was developed as a case-study.
Vaai, Jay, Jules Moloney, and Tane Moleta. Integrating Project Management and Mobile Augmented Reality In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA., 2014.
Chaszar, Andre, and Bige Tunçer. "Integrating User and Usage Information in a Design Environment." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.

We describe research exploring and demonstrating the use of large-scale data gathering and processing to inform the activities of architectural and urban designers. We apply this research to public spaces in urban housing estates. The aim is to understand the current use patterns and usability of these spaces, and to adaptively redesign them according to the insights gained from these findings. Another aim of the research is to obtain scientific knowledge regarding the production and use of user-data-based design support systems which promote and enhance the capability of (digital) design aids, such as building- and urban-scale models, to act as ‘learning devices’ giving designers better insights to the nature of the design situations they are asked to address, as well as insights on design space definition and exploration. We adopt a multimodal data collection strategy, consisting of participatory workshops for residents and users, person-based crowdsourcing, location-based crowd sensing, and statistical demographics data.

Pipe, Nicola. Integration Processes for Advanced Material Fabrication in Architecture In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Wu, Yen-Liang. Interactive Campus Navigation In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Dritsas, Stylianos, and Sawako Kaijima. "Introducing Architecture & Engineering to Prospective Undergraduate Students." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. We present a design activity offered as part of an open-house event conducted at the Singapore University of Technology and Design to attract prospective undergraduate students of architecture and engineering. We examine the role of digital design media in their potential of bridging the gap between disciplines in education.
Osório, Filipa, Alexandra Paio, and Sancho Oliveira. "KOS- Kinetic Origami Surface." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. In an increasingly technological, informed and demanding society Architecture should be able to answer to its space requirements using materials and technological resources that today has at its service. Kinetic systems have been used by architects as an approach that embeds computation intelligence to create flexible and adaptable architectural spaces according to users’ changing needs and desires. This paper describes one possible way of exploring kinetic systems to develop a foldable surface with geometric patterns based on the rules of rigid origami. This surface aims to take advantage of the elastic capacities given to a planar material by its folding. After folding the surface can assume different forms in order to create a range of spatial configurations ordered by a user through a remote control.
Cabrinha, Mark N.. "Lattice Shell Methodologies." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This paper outlines a working methodology for the parametric development of lattice shell structures combining surface topology and form-finding with the material constraints of straight lath members woven into a geodesic network. By employing non-uniform grid spacing, a wider typology of spatial types can be employed than can be achieved with traditional flat-matt lattice shell construction. As a parametric design tool and working methodology, some of the heavy lifting in form-finding and geodesic analysis can be off-loaded to the tool, such that a more comprehensive attention can be placed on other design criteria such as spatial development and environmental response while maintaining the elegance and economy of lattice shells.
Lee, Jin-Kook, Minkyu Shin, Jisoo Kim, Hyunsoo Lee, and Gyuyeob Jeon. Lee, Jin-Kook; Minkyu Shin, Jisoo Kim, Hyunsoo Lee and Gyuyeob Jeon In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Lo, Chia-Hui, and Teng-Wen Chang. "Lily: Developing a Contextual Idea Linking Tool for Designing on Site." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.

This research develops a supporting tool (Lily) to inspire designer generates relevant ideas while he or she is on site visiting. This mobile application has been developed via scenario-based design paradigm and testing experiment. Based on the analysis of the interaction process from experiment observation, the visualization is comprised of both the physical information (site) and virtual information (linking form idea pieces) that is implemented based on the Location-Based technology with iOS application platform. An implementation called Lily.

Han, Sooyeon Rosie, and Mi Jeong Kim. Location-Based Social Network Services as a Tool for Collaborative Urban Planning In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Patlakas, Panagiotis. "Maths & Crafts." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This paper discusses the potential of the application of principles of fractal geometry in small scale design, using the design of parametric furniture as an example. It begins by summarizing the fundamental mathematical principles of fractals and the, relatively limited, application they have had so far in design. A theoretical stance is taken, viewing fractals as form-generators with significant potential. From this, the main principles of a computational design methodology are established, drawing on parallels from other design periods. As proof-of-concept, the paper presents the application of the methodology in a specific brief for the design of a piece of furniture, accompanied with images that document and illustrates the process. A parallel is established between the 21st century methodology of digital craftsmanship presented here, and the 19th century Arts & Crafts movement. Finally, the paper presents directions for further research which would allow the utilization of fractals in different design scales.
Hack, Norman, Willi Viktor Lauer, Fabio Gramazio, and Matthias Kohler. "Mesh Mould: Differentiation for Enhanced Performance." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. Mesh-Mould is a novel robotic fabrication system for complex, non-standard concrete structures. The system folds together formwork and reinforcement, the two most labour intensive aspects of concrete constructions and offers an alternative approach to the current modes of prefabrication by suggesting an in-situ fabrication process (Figure 1). The paper outlines the development of the Form-work/Reinforcing Meshes through several iterations of physical and digital tests. Initially starting from simple triangulated 3D lattices, the structures evolved to become more complex and differentiated. The incorporating of flow enhancing ducts and surface perimeters with diverse surface aperture densities facilitates an optimal concrete flow and material distribution within the mesh.
Takeda, Hiroyuki, Yoshinori Kurashige, Keishiro Hara, and Atsuko Kaga. "Methodology of City Analysis for Evaluating Compactness Using GIS." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. A method to evaluate convenience for daily life focusing on proximity and accessibility is proposed. First, a set of indicators related to convenience for daily life was developed, and comprehensive evaluation on physical environments of a city was conducted by utilizing GIS, statistical, and other surveyed data. Then, a proposed evaluation procedure with a weighting method using the age categories of residents was applied to clarify the areas that could attain high convenience. Additionally, the change of convenience associated with the change in future demographic characteristics was examined based on the estimated population and demographic characteristics in 2040. Potential "cores" were identified that can efficiently enhance the force of centralization needed for realization of a compact city. It was also suggested that the evaluation method developed in this research can be used as a tool to address and realize sustainability in cities.
Nakapan, Walaiporn. "Mobile Learning in a History of Art and Architecture Classroom." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This paper presents a pilot project, using mobile devices in a History of Art and Architecture classroom to enhance instructor-student classroom interactions and student learning. At our Faculty of Architecture this particular class has a usual high failure rate (26% F in 2012). It is a compulsory course for architecture students, some of them are required to take this course twice or more before they can graduate. Traditional learning is lecture-based, and students studying toward their tests are often overloaded with information. In June 2013, Rangsit University initiated a new policy to provide tablets to every freshmen; around 7,200 tablets were distributed campus-wide (Samsung Galaxy Note 10.1 with S-pen). Toward the end of the class, the students were asked to complete a questionnaire in order to find out what they think about mobile learning. Typically, students are quite satisfied, and give positive feedback in their comments. The experience gained from this pilot project will be extended to other classes.
Dickinson, Susannah, and Sheehan Wachter. "Nature as a Comprehensive Model: A Biomimetic Installation." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. The following group installation was part of a seminar on biomimetics at the University of Arizona, USA. The design began with research into various natural systems, namely cell growth and morphogenesis and digital tools. In nature cells contain preprogrammed responses based on intrinsic properties which allow for differentiation and adaptation to external forces. This logic of cell morphology was developed into the installation design. Form specificity and topological variation was developed through the manipulation of a material system, bending and loading identical components to adapt to external forces, such as the sun, while simultaneously navigating the site, providing structure and ultimately architectural space.
Polancic, Allyn E.. "Oblique-Atory." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. Typical horizontal building types, open spaces, and human activities have yet to competently overcome or adapt to the constraints of vertically-oriented dense urban environments. Designing the built environment to the oblique, or more than two axes at once, is a required strategy for the future of city planning, the advancement of body-space interaction in architecture, and to reinforce the interconnectedness of the natural environment with human activities. With the development and increasing use of 3D modeling software, parametric and generative design processes, and the progressive investigation of complex geometry, it is likely that the oblique will be envisioned more and more as a functional architectural device. This research investigates the tessellation of minimal surface geometry to achieve a folded, multi-use surface capable of connecting disparate urban program and which can enable a city to offer amenities that are typically available in horizontally-oriented suburbs. The geometric family of the helicoid is found as the optimal formal generator because of its ability to create a continuous surface while allowing for both horizontal and vertical circulation.
Grobman, Yasha, and Roy Kozlovsky. "On the Shores of Architecture." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This paper explores the implications of complex geometry enabled by computational technology to architectural theory and practice. It reviews the different design paradigms engaged breaking the horizontality of the floor and ceiling or fusing them together. It argues that current advances in fluid dynamics simulations open a new frontier in the conception of the usable architectural surface, in which the architectural product is no longer a fixed object, but the interaction between a fluid, changing environment and built form. The paper presents a case study in which computational fluid dynamics are utilized to reconvert a disused breakwater into a ‘blue garden’. The morphology of the breakwater and its texture are calculated to produce the conditions amiable for supporting a varied marine ecosystem, and to shape the waves to generate aesthetically meaningful sensations. The essay discusses the technical and conceptual challenges of controlling the nonlinear behaviour of fluids. It then speculates on the theoretical ramifications of having the surface interact with exterior forces and the subject's imagination to produce an event enfolding in time.
Lopes, João V., Alexandra C. Paio, and José P. Sousa. "Parametric Urban Models Based on Frei Otto’s Generative Form-Finding Processes." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. Presently there is a progressive tendency to incorporate parametric design strategies in urban planning and design. Although the computational technologies that allow it are recent, fundamental theories and thinking processes behind it can be traced back to the work conducted at the Institute for Lightweight Structures (IL) in Stuttgart, between the 1960’s and 1980’s. This paper describes an experimental urban research work based on Frei Otto and Eda Schaur's thoughts on unplanned settlements, and on the form-finding experiences carried out at IL. By exploring the digital development of parametric and algorithmic interactive models, two urban design proposals were developed for a site in Porto city. Out of this experience, this paper suggests that today the act of design can benefit from a deeper understanding of the natural processes of occupation and connection.
Barrios, Carlos R.. "Parametric Visualization and Navigation in Multidimensional Spaces." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This paper presents a visual model to increase visualization and efficiency when working with parametric models. The formalistic model allows to visually track all possible variations of parameters in a logical structure showing all design variations at once. The paper introduces background information on typical arrangements of parametric modeling instances showing their limitations; presents the formalistic model for logical arrangement in multidimensional structures showing its advantages; and discusses an example of the application of the formalistic model showing a logical arrangements of designs in a hypercube matrix.
Carlow, Jason F.. Performance-Driven Façade Systems In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
zgan, Sibel Yasemin Ö., and Mine Ö. zkar. "Playing by the Rules." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. Despite reservations for the rule-based perspective of design with regards to creativity, the role and the potential of rules is instrumental in reflective design thinking. Rules enable sensible and functional conversations about the process. Working with (and mastering) a small rule set is common amongst artists as well. Escher developed rules based on the shape combinations in Majolica tiles to investigate regular plane divisions in his own work. Dwelling on a rule set allows for explorations in a rich design space that result in new series of works. Escher’s published sketches show that throughout his artworks, keenness in seeing shape relations and an ability in manipulating simple shape rules leads to numerous artworks from the same tessellations. Through a visual and rule-based analysis of artistic tiling in Escher’s work, the paper provides a computational perspective on analytical methods for design.
Janssen, Patrick, and Vignesh Kaushik. "Plot Packing." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. Generative design tools can accelerate the optioneering process by allowing designers to quickly generate large numbers of design variants, thereby enabling a wider and more thorough exploration to be conducted. This paper focuses on procedures for generating inner city street networks and city block massing studies for sites within existing urban areas. A novel procedure is proposed that is capable of subdividing complex non-orthogonal sites into similarly sized well-formed plots and subsequently further subdividing these plots into sizes appropriate for selected city block typologies. The application of the procedure is demonstrated on a site in Singapore.
Moya, Rafael, Flora Salim, and Mani Williams. "Pneumosense Project." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.

The study of wind conditions in the urban context has multiple application areas such as for cleaning pollution through ventilation, analysing wind pressures on building facades, and improving pedestrian comfort. In this context, the Pneumosense project is a student's project focused in the design of a kinetic system to ameliorate negative impact of wind conditions in pedestrian areas in the city of Melbourne. Its development considers several stages including site analysis, analogue wind tunnel testing, digital simulations with Computational Fluid Dynamic software, material explorations, kinetic component design with Arduino, and rapid prototyping.

Gokmen, Sabri. "Polychromy: A Study on Goethe’s Theory of Colours and Computational Design Pedagogy." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This paper will present the main principles of Goethe’s Theory of Colours and formulate a theoretical approach for the study of polychromy in digital design pedagogy. In the first part of the paper a survey on colour theory will be presented comparing Goethe and Newton’s works on colour. The concepts of polarity [Polarität] and intensification [Steigerung] will be introduced as the two main principles of Goethe’s dynamic notion of colour. These terms will be used to explain how Goethe considered colours to induce sensual effects on the onlooker. In the second part a digital design studio that focuses on colour will be presented. The pedagogy will show how a dynamic notion of colour could be studied using digital tools. Some of the student works will be presented while addressing how a Goethean notion of sensual colours could be studied as spatial parameters. The goal of the paper is to distill a theoretical approach towards the study of colour in architecture and contemplate on how it could be applied within the digital design curriculum.
Bruscia, Nicholas, and Christopher Romano. "Project 2XmT." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Huang, Alvin, Stephen Lewis, and Jason Gillette. "Pure Tension: Intuition, Engineering & Fabrication." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.

The "PURE Tension" Pavilion is a lightweight, rapidly deployable, tensioned membrane structure and portable charging station commissioned by Volvo Car Italia to showcase the new Volvo V60 Hybrid Electric Diesel car. Officially launched in Milan, Italy in October 2013, this experimental structure was developed through a process of rigorous research and development that investigated methods of associative modelling, dynamic mesh relaxation, geometric rationalization, solar incidence analysis, membrane panelling, and material performance. It is an experimental structure that, similar to a concept car, is a working prototype that speculates on the potential future of personal mobility and alternative energy sources for transportation while also exploring digital design methodologies and innovative structural solutions. This paper will illustrate the design, development and fabrication processes involved in realizing this structure.

Ikeno, Kazunosuke, Takashi Koshiba, Yu Shimojo, Hiroki Michida, Hiroyuki Fukumoto, and Tomohiro Fukuda. Relocation Design of Power Line and Utility Pole for Landscape Improvement In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Lim, Jason, Ammar Mirjan, Fabio Gramazio, and Matthias Kohler. "Robotic Metal Aggregations." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. The recent convergence of computational design and digital fabrication has made new forms of architectural materialization possible. A workshop conducted at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology investigated how differentiated lightweight metal structures may be designed and fabricated under these new conditions. The workshop aim was to complete three such structures; each one is aggregated from aluminum profiles that are robotically assembled according to computationally driven geometric logics. The key challenge was to enable participants, assumed to lack programming and robotic fabrication experience, to design and construct their structures within imposed time constraints. This paper describes the subsequent development of accessible computational design tools and a robust robotic fabrication method for the workshop, and highlights the key decisions taken with their implementation. The workshop results are discussed and the design tools evaluated with respect to them. The paper concludes by recommending an approach to developing computational design tools which emphasizes the importance of usability and integration with the fabrication process.
M. Haeusler, Hank, Danny Nguyen, and Margaret Goldsack. "Ruled Surface Media Facades." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.

Traditionally media facades have been created using 2D surfaces, not dissimilar to televisions. As computational architecture continues to explore non-Euclidian shapes it is a logical process to investigate the use and possibilities of emerging complex curved surfaces for the display of media content to match architectural design aspirations with demands of ubiquitous city concepts of penetrating surfaces with information. Drawing on existing architectural knowledge of ruled surfaces the paper outlines the implementation of adopting existing principles from architecture and mathematics to contemporary discussions in media architecture. It demonstrates that ruled surfaces can function as media facades by simulating ten different ruled surface types in Grasshopper and overlaying them with different video content. Based on the results the team proceeded to build a 1:1 prototype of a hyperbolic paraboloid to test if the simulated results in the computer matched with the physical model. The prototype was further tested using media content to observe the visibility of the display from various viewing positions. Based on the findings the paper concludes that ruled surface media facades are feasible. This investigation, its proposed hypothesis, methodology, implications, significance and evaluation are presented in the paper.

Li, Lezhi, Renyuan Hu, Meng Yao, Guangwei Huang, and Ziyu Tong. "Sculpting the Space: A Circulation Based Approach to Generative Design in a Multi-Agent System." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.

This paper discusses an MAS (multiagent system) based approach to generating architectural spaces that afford better modes of human movement. To achieve this, a pedestrian simulation is carried out to record the data with regard to human spatial experience during the walking process. Unlike common practices of performance oriented generation where final results are achieved through cycles of simulation and comparison, what we propose here is to let human’s movement exert direct influence on space. We made this possible by asking "humans" to project simulation data on architectural surroundings, and thus cause the layout to change for the purpose of affording what we designate as good spatial experiences. A generation experiment of an exhibition space is implemented to explore this approach, in which tentative rules of such spatial manipulation are proposed and tested through space syntax analyse. As the results suggested, by looking at spatial layouts through a lens of human behaviour, this projection-and-generation method provides some insight into space qualities that other methods could not have offered.

Tabbarah, Faysal. "Searching for Computational Regionalism." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This paper outlines a developing teaching and research pedagogy being developed at an educational institution in the United Arab Emirates that resists contemporary models of Computational Orientalism. The paper describes that exploring the space between Middle-Eastern material culture and contemporary computational design methodologies as generative, systemic, and adaptive conditions allows for the development of a material culture that is both local and driven by the computational zeitgeist. More specifically, the paper outlines the historical relevance of the computational spline and how it is being explored to develop a novel material culture through parametric models and physics-based systems.
Kuma, Taichi. "Shrink Film Architecture." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This paper is about designing a process to create a lightweight building envelope using a shrinkfilm. The advantage of using this material for architecture is that we can simply construct the complex geometry without requiring an expensive formwork. In addition to this, this research illustrates the methodology to control the 3-dimensional form of the shrink-film by using simple 2-dimensional patterns. These patterns enable us to easily manipulate the form. In this paper, the simulation and the prototyping are conducted in both physical and computational methods.
Fernando, Ruwan A.. "Space Planning and Preliminary Design Using Artificial Life." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. The majority of CAD tools are designed for precision modelling of forms. The very earliest stages of design tend to be worked through with traditional media such as sketching with pen or pencil. A reason why this is, stems from the difficulty of drawing or diagramming uncertainty or vague ideas in a traditional CAD application. When a designer is still working through the design, pen and pencil are a means of exploring. While any simple pencil sketch can be imitated using CAD, this is too time consuming and limiting when compared with traditional media. This paper presents research in a prototype for a early stage planning software application using blobs (closed recursively subdivided curves) and ideas from artificial life. While not a replacement for sketching, the aim of this research is to provide a means of diagramming preliminary ideas as exploring the idea of a dialogue between humans and computers. The shapes represented in the software use physics simulations and act as 'soft-bodies' allowing users to manipulate them in various ways. Ideas from artificial life simulations are used to have the shapes interact with each other and produce unexpected configurations. The aim of these interactions is to trigger a response from the user and to allow them to explore configurations that they did not anticipate.
Puusepp, Renee. "Spatial Agglomerates." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This paper reports on the computational modelling research investigating spatial organisations often associated with unplanned settlements. Such spatial agglomerates are composed of several co-located but autonomous units (agents) that share common facilities and infrastructure (e.g. circulation). Depending on the context, units in the agglomerate represent individual dwellings, apartments or abstract spatial geometry. The paper presents early prototype models that can be interpreted at various scale, and a computational model for generating organic settlement layouts. The originality of the research resides within a new multi-agent algorithm for creating spatial organisations. The agglomeration process benefits from two distinct generative design strategies – self-organisation and adaptive development strategy. While the self-organisation accounts for the emergence of the global structure in the agglomeration, the adaptive development strategy ensures that the basic environmental and spatial requirements of each individual unit are satisfied.
Hyun, Kyung Hoon, Ji-Hyun Lee, Minki Kim, and Sulah Cho. "Style Analysis Methodology: Identifying the Car Brand Design Trends through Hierarchical Clustering." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. This paper aims to identify car design trends within various automobile manufacturers by investigating two objectives: first, finding similarities between car styles among different car brands from various automobile manufacturers to specify unique car designs which lead the trend; second, identifying the consistency of the brand design characteristics through hierarchical clustering. To do that, Fourier decomposition was used to quantify the car design similarities between 120 cars from 23 different brands. The calculated similarity index is then compared with network centrality measures to identify the clustering of the car brands. The quantified style data then can be applied to accurately predict the design trend. Thus this study can contribute to identify car style trends for strategic design decisions.
Gannon, Madeline, and Eric Brockmeyer. "Teaching CAD/CAM Workflows to Nascent Designers." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. The following paper presents a suite of custom software environments that make advanced techniques in digital fabrication accessible to novice, first-year designers. The collective design aides facilitate a number of digital-to-physical workflows, including 3D modeling for CNC milling and 3D printing, 2D patterning for laser cutting, and interactive visualization for projection mapping. Each of the workflows illustrate pedagogical principles for embedding tacit and tactile knowledge into computational frameworks: balancing complexity against functional limits, revealing the underlying abstractions connecting digital geometry to CNC machines, engaging the designer through intuitive and responsive environments, and leveraging generative and interactive digital modeling for serial variation. These digital design and fabrication aides have been used to facilitate formal and material explorations for groups of pre-college and freshmen students, aged 16 to 19. Their resulting tangible artifacts—made from foam, birch plywood, paper, plastic, and light—show that CAD/CAM workflows can be an accessible subject matter for students without prior experience in digital modeling or fabrication.
Sosa, Ricardo, Qinqi Xu, and Rajesh Elara Mohan. "The House That Roomba Built." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.

The "Roomba House" (RH) is a novel generative design approach based on robotic interaction with the physical environment in order to inductively identify design opportunities for improving the design of future robot-inclusive spaces and furniture. The paper presents the theoretical and technological details of this approach, an empirical study of a cleaning robot and sample results from an evolutionary system inspired by heuristics inductively derived from the study. RH is an informed provocation based on the recognition that increasingly widespread domestic robots that roam our living spaces will infer key features and help produce creative design solutions that maintain or improve user requirements while improving their inclusiveness in everyday life.

Devilat, Bernadette, and Stephen Gage. "The Role of the Record and the Paradox of the Original." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.

Earthquakes have progressively destroyed the Chilean built heritage over the years, not only due to the initial devastation they produce, but also as a result of the applied reconstruction approaches that follow. The design of reconstruction projects has usually aimed to re-establish the previous built form of historic buildings; generating new ‘heritage’ constructions that try to imitate only the appearance of previous ones rather than understanding that heritage, in the case studied, includes a sustainable mode of construction. This issue occurs in places where previous records are sometimes non-existent, which poses the question of authenticity. Considering the regularity of earthquakes in Chile, the role of accurate recording technologies, such as 3D laser scanning, becomes relevant. Their implications for new and existing architectures in the re-construction process include being a virtual database for demolition, retrofitting, intervention or replica. This paper examines the survey of the church of San Lorenzo de Tarapacá obtained in January 2013, and discusses how this, in conjunction with previous records, might impact on what is considered heritage and the design of future reconstructions.

Austern, Guy, , Mara Moral, and Theerapat Jirathiyut. "The Urban Genome." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.

The influence of urban morphology on the energy consumption of a fabric has been recently established by research into the energy use of existing cities. This paper suggests a framework for generating environmentally adapted urban tissue by using genetic algorithms as form-finding processes. A series of multi-objective optimization algorithms are described. The geometric abstractions used as a basis for these algorithms are illustrated in detail, and the results and implications of these types of simulations are discussed. The methodology developed within this paper was tested on one km2 site in three cities of varying climates, and further expanded into a detailed case study within one city.

Nojimoto, Cynthia, Mayara D. De Souza, João Paulo Soares, and Marcelo Tramontano. "Thinking About Systems." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.

This paper presents the organization of a design process which allows the inclusion of communities in a collaborative way and integrates cultural and social aspects of local context, by considering available material resources and equipment, local practices in architecture and construction, environmental features, and other aspects into the possibilities provided by parametric design and digital fabrication. This paper recognizes that design process is developed from interrelated actions, which can be understood by the concept of complexity from the French philosopher Edgar Morin.

Jemtrud, Michael, and Keith G. Ragsdale. "Three Little Shacks." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.

The paper is premised upon the notion that tools and techniques have the potential to resist the premature prefiguring of problems and solutions in projectbased activity, with particular relevance in collaborative design practices. The architect’s métier and mode of knowledge production is marked by the capacity to make artefacts. Because our age is characterized by the imperative to innovate and evolve technically, architectural ideation must now engage an array of computationally-based tools for imaging, information management, simulation and fabrication. This paper, framed within the theoretical and productive context of a research-creation project, investigates the ontological status of process-work, speed, and the notion of failing fast through the prototyping of three small buildings, or shacks. It does this through a strategic choreography of factual and counterfactual investigations that give rise to fabricative knowledge incapable of being prescribed conceptually from the outset. It will be claimed that, in the case of architecture, the potential of technics to reflectively and playfully re-work things and ideas is also a participatory mode of ethical engagement.

Alam, Jack, and Jeremy J. Ham. "Towards a BIM-Based Energy Rating System." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.

Governments in Australia are faced with policy implementation that mandates higher energy efficient housing (Foran, Lenzen & Dey 2005). To this effect, the National Construction Code (NCC) 2013 stipulates the minimum energy performance for residential buildings as 114MJ/m2 per annum or 6 stars on an energy rating scale. Compliance with this minimum is mandatory but there are several methods through which residential buildings can be rated to comply with the deemed to satisfy provisions outlined in the NCC. FirstRate5 is by far the most commonly used simulation software used in Victoria, Australia. Meanwhile, Building Information Modelling (BIM), using software such as ArchiCAD has gained a foothold in the industry. The energy simulation software within ArchiCAD, EcoDesigner, enables the reporting on the energy performance based on BIM elements that contain thermal information. This research is founded on a comparative study between FirstRate5 and EcoDesigner. Three building types were analysed and compared. The comparison finds significant differences between simulations, being, measured areas, thermal loads and potentially serious shortcomings within FirstRate5, that are discussed along with the future potential of a fully BIM-integrated model for energy rating certification in Victoria.

Dorta, Tomás, and Gokce Kinayoglu. "Towards a New Representational Ecosystem for the Design Studio." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.

The collection of visual and physical simulation tools available to a design team constitutes what can be termed the Representational Ecosystem of the design studio. Current digital paradigm does not effectively support design discussions because it is limited to the pictorial-frame and scaled representations. We analyzed for the first time the link between the Interconnected Hybrid Ideation Space (HIS) and the representational ecosystem of a design studio as a case study. The Hybrid Representational Ecosystem is proposed to better achieve a comprehensive and closer view of the design solution because it is fully hybrid (analog/digital), it supports multiple kinds of representations, scales, and co-design. The epistemology and principles of the new paradigm are described.

Dounas, Theodoros, and Benjamin A. Spaeth. "Universal Dovetail Joint." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. The paper presents the geometrical investigation of a three-dimensional dovetail joint that can lead (timber) frame construction to more than two-dimensional frames; the creation of timber construction with timber members meeting at irregular angles can be shown to be feasible, simplifying overall construction. Traditional joints in timber construction usually work only in two dimensions, in other words in planar surfaces, resulting thus in complicated assemblies in three-dimensions. Stemming from traditional timber dovetail joints, the universal joint under investigation is produced under revolution of the geometry of a dovetail fastener through its middle axis. The resulting concave disk can connect timber elements under irregular angles, without the need for the structural members to lie in the same plane. The joint works due to friction between members rather than using any other element of bonding, allowing for the assembly of joints and structural members with no specialized tools. The paper explores the geometric constraints and degrees of freedom that such a disk creates in timber construction, and consequently in similar linear construction systems.
Unal, Faruk Can. "Use of Augmented Reality Technologies in Architectural Guide; The Evaluation on Eindhoven City." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Hassan, Ramzi, Thomas B. Hansen, and Helena Nordh. "Visualizations in the Planning Process." In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014. Visualizations are playing an important role in the formulation and communication of design concepts. Various types of visualizations are being used in the planning process for the presentation of architectural design projects and planning scenarios. This study examines the process of working with visualizations in planning in Norway, and how it is being used as a means to communicate information. Two types of pilot studies were conducted. The first was a survey that sought to find out what visualization is being used by planners in Norway today. The second study was conducted in the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences and explored how different methods of visualization is being understood and experienced by lay people and professionals. Despite the fact that 2D visualizations (e.g. maps, floor plans, sections, elevations) and BIM visualizations can prove to be less engaging and understandable compared to 3D realistic model visualizations, the findings indicates that the use of mixed methods can provide a better overall understanding of a project.
Fok, Wendy W.. Vitreous – A Project with the Judd Foundation In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.
Lim, Chor-Kheng. Waters: An Interactive 3D-Printed Customized Planter Design for the Elderly In Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kyoto: Kyoto Institute of Technology, 2014.