Keywords Abstract
Fok, Wendy W.. "3 Scales of Repurposed Disposability – Diversion of Construction, Renovation and Demolition (CRD)." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 811-820. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Project managers and construction contractors have long recognized the importance of reducing waste and salvaging high value construction and demolition materials such as copper and other metals. Contractors are usually careful about the quantity of materials ordered, how materials are used and how to carefully deconstruct valuable materials. In most cases however, materials that are more difficult to separate and that are worth less per unit weight are still going to landfill, even when they are present in large quantities. This represents an inefficient use of natural resources and uses up landfill capacity unnecessarily. Unfortunately, some contractors do not realize that there are new opportunities for waste minimization, while others are reluctant to implement environmental practices because they believe these practices will increase their project costs. Most contractors are concerned about the cost of the labour that is needed to deconstruct materials for reuse or recycling. However, it has been shown that effective waste management during CRD projects not only helps protect the environment, but can also generate significant economic savings. Various projects from within our practice and within our academic curriculum will be brought into the attention of this paper. Specifics of modularity, form/fit/analysis, fabrication, and off-site production, will be demonstrated within the larger discussion through the focus onto three case studies.

Wee, Chen Kian, Patrick Janssen, and Arno Schlueter. "A Design Method for Multicriteria Optimisation of Low Exergy Architecture." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 117-126. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper proposes a design method for the exploration of holistic low exergy design strategies which factor in limitations and constraints of both passive and active systems. A design method that consists of a two loop structure is proposed. The inner loop consists of an automated workflow that includes three main components: a developmental procedure for generating design variants; evaluation procedures for evaluating design variants; and an optimisation procedure for optimising populations of design variants. The outer loop consists of a manual workflow that has two main components: a schema formulation process for defining the inputs to the automated workflow and a data analysis process for analysing the data produced by the automated workflow. A case study is presented that demonstrates the proposed method.

De León, Alexander Peña, Jane Burry, Daniel Davis, Nick Williams, Mark Burry, and Michael Wilson. "A Flexible Automated Digital Design for Production Workflow." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper documents the flexible automated digital design for production workflow utilized for the materialization of the FabPod Project, together with the use of an integrated practice methodology and highly collaborative process. The research seeks to narrow the divide between the acts of designing and the acts of making, by integrating through the act of automating computer assisted designs with computer assisted manufacturing.

Schnabel, Marc Aurel, and Jeremy J. Ham. "A Framework for Social Networked Architectural Education." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 313-322. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Students engage in Social Networks (SN) as a form of interaction with friends and tutors, as news or learning resource, to make their voices heard or to listen to other views and many more. Online SN work in close association with offline SN to form a blended social environment that greatly enables and enhances students’ learning. Some Schools of Architecture have struggled or failed to engage in the potential of SNor their respective University’s online Learning Management Systems (LMS). Despite efforts to facilitate blended learning environments or to engage students in problem-based learning activities architectural education often fails to tap into the rich resources that online social learning environments offers through their collective and social intelligence of its users. This paper proposes a framework for SN architectural education that provides opportunities for linking the academic LMS with private or professional SN such that it enhances the learning experience and deepens the knowledge of the students. The paper proposes ways of utilising SN supported learning environments in other areas of the curriculum and concludes with directions of how this framework can be employed in professional settings.

Yu, Rongrong, Ning Gu, and Michael Ostwald. "A Method for Comparing Designers’ Behavior in Two Enviroments: Parametric and Geometric Modeling." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 479-488. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Previous research into designers’ behaviour in parametric environments suggests that parametric tools support or promote design processes in a wide variety of ways. However, despite the results of such research, there is a lack of empirical evidence directly comparing how design in parametric environments differs from design in traditional environments. Aiming to address this issue, a pilot study is presented in this paper comparing designers’ behaviour in Parametric Design Environments (PDEs) with that in more traditional, Geometric Modelling Environments (GMEs). In the study five designers completed two design tasks respectively in PDEs and GMEs. By employing the method of protocol analysis, different behaviours in the two design environments were identified and compared. This paper focuses on the results of testing the experimental setting and of the coding scheme used in the study. One example set of results from the pilot study is reported – where in the designer’s behaviour exhibits some differences between the two environments – in order to provide an example of the coding used.

Barata, Eduardo De Oliveir, Dirk Anderson, and Dagmar Reinhardt. "A Minimal Tension Canopy – Through Investigations of Self-Organised Systems." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 147-156. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

The dynamics of a physics-based algorithm which acquires its complex organization through a number of localised interactions applied over a prescribed network can be described as a self-organised system. This in turn has the capacity to define explicit form and space based upon behavioural computational processes with an embedded structural logic. This paper discusses the way in which physics based algorithms can be used to inform the organisation of a compressional structure in a case study. Its structure is based on Hooke’s law of elasticity; which establishes a three dimensional catenary logic through a number of localised interactions applied over an entire network. This is applied to a project with specific constraints to site, boundary conditions and maximising solar gain whilst maintaining structural rigidity. The methodological approach describes the design to assembly process in which the project has been developed. This includes the applied generative design tools in order to establish the self-organised logic, the form finding process, the techniques of design documentation, the fabrication process and the logistics of construction and assembly.

Coorey, Benjamin P., and Julie R. Jupp. "A Schema for Capturing and Comparing Parametric Spatial Data." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 509-518. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

In this paper, the authors consider the problem of architectural spatial performance indicators for assessing computer generated design, where identification and analysis of meaningful and relevant spatial qualities is the target of assessment. The paper presents a parametric spatial analysis schema and spatial database structure for the restricted, but still significant, domain of residential housing. A process for the capture and comparison of different types of architectural spatial data is described where analysis focuses on a series of 2D metric and topological spatial measures. The process is then demonstrated in our discussion of a descriptive scenario.

Coutinho, Filipe, Eduardo Castro e Costa, José P. Duarte, and Mário Kruger. "A Shape Grammar to Generate Loggia Rucellai." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This article shows the result of generating a 3d model of Loggia Rucellai in Florence using a shape grammar from Leon Batista Alberti’s treatise De Re Aedificatoria and it is a test bed for further generations of buildings using Alberti’s rules. It shows the accuracy of such grammar to help tracing the degree of influence of Alberti’s treatise in Renaissence Portuguese architecture. Rucellai palace facade ornaments and its interior loggia where used to analyze and compare the Loggia generation accuracy. A Grasshopper script is used for the automation of the rules derivation. An evaluation process is presented and its use aims to better understand the deviations between the treatise and the Loggia grammars.

Lim, Jason, Fabio Gramazio, and Matthias Kohler. "A Software Environment for Designing Through Robotic Fabrication – Developing a Graphical Programming Toolkit for the Digital Design and Scaled Robotic Fabrication of High Rises." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 45-54. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

The term “robot” was born from a play written almost a century ago. Today robotic fabrication has become an emerging topic in architectural research. As architects work with these technologies, they are challenged with writing a different kind of play: here robots are the actors and the physical materialization of a design is their performance. However current Computer Aided Design (CAD) packages do not provide native robot programming functionalities which architects require to plan and orchestrate these fabrication process. To address this limitation, a Python library for robot programming is written. It is referenced by a toolkit of custom components developed to extend a graphical programming environment commonly used for architectural design. The empirical development of these software tools takes place in the context of a design studio investigating the subject of the high rise. The tools are tested in a workflow that involves the digital design and scaled robotic fabrication of high-rise housing. This paper discusses the considerations underlying the toolkit’s design, the outcomes of its use in the studio, and its impact on the creative design process.

Sun, Lei, Tomohiro Fukuda, and Christophe Soulier. "A Synchronous Distributed VR Meeting with Annotation and Discussion Functions." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 447-456. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Owing to cloud computing Virtual Reality (VR), a note PC or tablet with no necessity of high spec GPU can be used for sharing of a 3D virtual space in a synchronous distributed type design meeting. In this paper, in addition to sharing a 3D virtual spacefor a synchronous distributed type design meeting, we developed a prototype system that enables participants to sketch or make annotations and have discussions as well as add viewpoints to them. We applied these functions to evaluate an urban landscape examination. In conclusion, the proposed method was evaluated as being effective and feasible. Operation is limited with one person, and more optional shapes should be preparedin future work.

Park, Juhong, and Takehiko Nagakura. "A Thousand BIM – A Rapid Value-Simulation Approach to Developing a BIM Tool for Supporting Collaboration During Schematic Design." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

A typical architectural design project proceeds as collaboration among professionals who have different expertise, values and priorities. The collaboration is needed to make designs both rich yet feasible, but the professionally different ways of thinking can also be a block on the way of design development. This paper takes the example of the relationship between developers and architects, who tend to have different evaluation criteria, methods, and processes. A BIM-based tool, A Thousand BIM, is introduced as a means to quickly generate possible building typologies on a given project site, with computation of expected total values expressed in simple financial terms. Its aim is to help a group of heterogeneous professionals to communicate in the same language, articulate criteria and priorities in multiple perspectives, and share rapidly simulated evaluations of schematic design variations. The implemented evaluation process considers construction cost per square foot, land value, and sustainability as well as other soft design values such as views and accessibility. It can take various market data as inputs to cost calculation, and the weight to each of the design values is dynamically adjustable. A professional can explicitly set them, and share the criteria, priorities, and results of value simulations with others in an enhanced collaborative process.

Narahara, Taro. "Adaptive Growth Using Robotic Fabrication." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper studies computational methods for adaptive growth seen in human design processes, such as development of spontaneous settlements, by highlighting the contrast with conventional plan execution approaches. The paper speculates as to the possibilities of open frameworks for design using computational methods through a relatively simple yet explicit example in the context of robotic fabrication. The proposed experiment uses an industrial robot arm to pro-duce structures by stacking unit bricks without hard-coded instructions (“blueprints”) from the outset. The paper further speculates about how such implementations can be applied to architectural design.

Arenas, Ubaldo, and José Manuel Falcón. "ALOPS Constructive Systems – Towards the Design and Fabrication of Unsupervised Learning Construction Systems." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 905-914. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

In this paper we explore the concept and design guidelines for an Autonomous Learning Oriented Proto System (ALOPS), a construction system designed to enhance its own performance through time. Our research has been focused on the fabrication of a prototype for a porous wall system which reacts to light intensities by closing or opening its apertures. Taking that aim, we used a combination of robotics, programing, and material behaviour to endow the system with the capacity to record reactions towards encountered sets of conditions during its active energy periods, allowing the system to use this knowledge database to evolve autonomously by feeding this information back into the computation process. This approach in construction systems opens up the architectural design processes to address the creation of digital memory structures rather than complex algorithms in order to operate specific functions. With this development, the architect could think of architectures constantly evolving by learning from their environments as well as of users forming symbiotic and behavioural bonds with the emergent spatial personalities, thus affecting the underpinning relationships between architecture, user and context.

Marqueto, Priscilla, and Marcelo Tramontano. "Among Ways of Living – Looking at Diversity from Cultural Actions and Digital Media." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper presents reflections stemmed from a research that seeks to cast a gaze toward the diversity of ways of living in communities, starting from the interaction in communicational processes structured by digital means. This paper introduces findings on the possibilities of similarities between people of different groups in a community in hybrid instances, starting from cultural activities. Further explorations about the potential and qualifications of the use of digital media for this purpose will also be presented. The trials that comprise the object of reflection in this article took place and were only achievable for being part of a larger public policy project, funded by an important Brazilian research funding agency. The project has been in development since March 2010 by the research group of a recognized leading university and involves post-doctoral, doctoral and master researchers. Additionally, the project has partnership with various third sector institutions such as NGOs and collectives, as well as music bands and European universities.

Kaushik, Vignesh, and Patrick Janssen. "An Evolutionary Design Process – Adaptive-Iterative Explorations in Computational Embryogenesis." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Computational embryogenies are a special kind of genotype to phenotype mapping process widely used inexplorative evolutionary systems as they provide the mechanism for generating more complex solutions. This paper focuses on how designers explore embryogenies for specific design scenariosthrough an adaptive-iterative process.The process is demonstratedfor a complex project to generate a prototypical urban farm in Singapore. It is shown that by employing an adaptive-iterative process, the embryogeny can be made progressively more complex and less abstract, thereby allowing the exploration to be guided by the designer.

Nguyen, Danny D., and Hank M. Haeusler. "Assimilating Interactive Technology into Architectural Design – A Quest for developing an ‘Architectural Drawing’ for Urban Interaction Design as a Communication Platform Through Combining Physical Sensing Devices with Simulation Software." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 365-373. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Assimilating Interactive Technology into Architectural Design – A Quest for developing an ‘Architectural Drawing’ for Urban Interaction Design as a Communication Platform Through Combining Physical Sensing Devices with Simulation Software The research presented in this paper investigates the need for an equivalent of architectural drawings for urban interaction design in an architectural scale in order to communicate interaction design intentions to design participants and clients through using state of the art computer, gaming and sensor technologies. The paper discusses two projects (a) Blur Building, as a large scale interaction design project executed through an experienced team and (b) presents as student design project coordinated by the researchers as a reference project. Both projects in this paper are discussed and evaluated from an Urban Interaction Design point of view. This paper emphasizes the significance for establishing ‘drawing’ equivalents for urban interaction design, discussing representation of ideas in architectural design; followed by outlining existing methods of interactive design representation, such as storyboards to then introduce current advancements in gaming environments. The following paper introduces a framework for future research projects that will design, deploy and evaluate of prototypes as a communication platform combining physical sensing devices in combination with gaming engines to enable a digital / physical hybrid. This would allow designers and clients to test, evaluate and improve urban interactions in a design phase prior to completing the project.

Salim, Flora, Jane Burry, and Jenny Underwood. "Augmenting Public Spaces with Live Forms and Fabrics – Integrating Mechatronics and Textiles to Provoke Social Interactions in Public Spaces." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 965-974. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

The research reported in this paper aims to investigate the potential of integrating live forms and fabrics to enable social interactions at existing public sites as a brief for a transdisiciplinary student design project. Through the use of flexible and modular design and fabrication methods, mechatronics, and smart materials and textiles, existing public sites were augmented with interactive installations by groups of students coming together from multiple cognate design disciplines spanning public art to engineering and including textile design.

Park, Jong Jin, and Bharat Dave. "Bio-Inspired Adaptive Stadium Façades – An Evolution-Based Design Exploration." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 107-116. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Our research focuses on bio-inspired evolutionary design based on genetic algorithms to explore façade surfacesthat improve adaptivity and solar performance of stadium design during the early stages of design development. This paper describes prototype implementation of an automated computer design system, its architecture, and initial results. Our approach highlights importance of early exploration of architectural geometries by rapidly narrowing down optimised design solutions within an infinite search space of possible design solutions. Additionally, the prototype supports automatic generation of design variations and demonstrates potential use of genetic algorithms as a means to constrained design exploration.

Sevtsuk, Andres, Onur Ekmekci, Farre Nixon, and Reza Amindarbari. "Capturing Urban Intensity." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 551-560. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

While the methods for capturing the negative effects of density (e.g. congestion, friction) are widely understood and operationalized, capturing the positive effects of density (e.g. vibrancy, walkability) remain poorly explored. This research focuses on the latter, proposing a novel spatial analysis and mapping approach that can be used to capture the intensity of urban environments. We distinguish between urban density and intensity. Whereas density refers to the amount of people or elements of urban form (e.g. dwelling units, floor area) per unit area of land, intensity refers to the concentration of commercial and service activities on the ground floors along city streets. Bridging morphological mapping techniques with recent network analysis in GIS, ten metrics that capture specific attributes of the built environment influential to intensity are introduced and implemented using data collected from detailed field surveys within two comparative districts in the Bugis area of Singapore. A discussion of the efficacy of these metrics for urban design concludes the paper.

Briscoe, Danelle, and Arman Hadilou. "Collective Intelligence: An Analytical Simulation of Social Interaction with Architectural System." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 375-384. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper proposes an architectural system interactive to both users and the environmental condition in real-time. While nature acts as a global control for the system, the user can alter it locally. Due to the increasing digitization of our contemporary culture, there is an unprecedented capacity for information to flow in our physical and socially net-worked world that can be used to inform design problems and processes. Live and real-time information sources, like Twitter, could be virtually scanned for specific data input associated to a par-ticular geometrical manipulation. This process enables a collective group of users to inform the system. As the number of users increases there is collaboration for defining the form which is different from single user interaction. Since the model is associated with a specific definition of generative behaviours as described by the words, these definitions could be used as the

Kristensen, Ena Lloret, Fabio Gramazio, Matthias Kohler, and Silke Langenberg. "Complex Concrete Constructions – Merging Existing Casting Techniques with Digital Fabrication." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

In the course of the 20th century, architectural construction has gone through intense innovation in its material, engineering and design, radically transforming the way buildings were and are conceived. Technological and industrial advances enabled and challenged architects, engineers and constructors to build increasingly complex architectural structures from concrete. Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques have, more recently, rejuvenated and increased the possibilities of realising ever more complex geometries. Reinforced concrete is often chosen for such structures since almost any shape can be achieve when poured into a formwork. However, designs generated with digital tools tend to have limited relation to the efficient modes of production typically used in contemporary concrete construction. A large gap has emerged between the technology in architectural design and the building industry, so that few efficient solutions exist for the production of geometrically complex structures in concrete. This paper focuses on the capabilities and efficiency of existing casting techniques both with static and dynamic formwork which, when combined with digital fabrication, allow innovative fabrication approaches to be taken. Particular focus is placed on slipforming, an approved and efficient construction technique, which until now is unexplored in conjunction with digital fabrication.

Kaijima, Sawako, Roland Bouffanais, and Karen Willcox. "Computational Fluid Dynamics for Architectural Design." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 169-178. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a cost-effective, well-known technique widely employed in industrial design. While indoor analysis can be achieved via CFD, Wind Tunnel Testing (WTT) is still the prevailing mode of analysis for outdoor studies. WTT is often only performed a few times during the course of a building design/construction cycle and primarily for verification purposes. This paper presents a cross-disciplinary research initiative aiming to make CFD understandable and accessible to the architecture community. Our particular interest is in the incorporation of CFD into the early stages of architectural design. Many critical decisions, including those pertaining to building performance, are made during these stages, and we believe access to wind/airflow information during these stages will help architects make responsible design decisions. As a first step, we designed a passive cooling canopy for a bus stop based on the equatorial climatic conditions of Singapore where wind/airflow was a driving factor for geometry generation. We discuss our strategies for overcoming the two bottlenecks we identified when utilising CFD for this framework: mesh generation and result comprehension/visualisation.

Christopher, Hannah, Srinivas Tadeppalli, and G Subbaiyan. "Computer Aided Modular Geometric Modeling,to Study the Perception of Safety – Natural Surveillance for Perceived Personal Security." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 761-770. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Natural surveillance is one key factor proposed, in the approach to decrease fear of crime. Building fenestrations and outdoor spaces like terrace, balconies and verandas that extend the interior spaces and the indoor activities, beyond the closed external shell of the buildings, are proposed by CPTED, in their place specific policy guidelines, to help design out fear and crime. In this background, this study on natural surveillance opportunities, explores typological variations of these component outdoor spaces of buildings, in line with variations in size and location. The affordances considered for this study specifically focus on the ways in which these spaces structure the visual fields for the external observer. This paper thus reports the survey of visual preferences exploring the spatial affordances of building spaces and their association with fear of crime.

Koh, Immanuel. "Computer Vision and Augmented Reality Technologies in Experimental Architectural Design Education at the AA." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 427-436. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper aims to investigate the potential of both open source software and new media (esp. computer vision and augmented reality) as tools for architectural design and education. The examples illustrated in the paper would be drawn mainly from students’ projects done as part of their AA Media Studies Course submission at the AA School of Architecture (AA) during the academic years from 2011/2012 to 2012/2013. The paper outlines the main approaches, which students have chosen to implement, both directly and indirectly, these new media and tools into their studio work at the AA. Section 1 briefly introduces a range of currently available open source computational design toolkits that are deemed useful for quick implementation of computer vision and augmented reality technologies. The related programming languages, softwares and hardwares would also be introduced and described accordingly. Sections 2 and 3 are accompanied with a visual catalogue of students’ projects to better illustrate the diversity in the understanding and implementation of computer vision and augmented reality technologies in architectural design. Section 4 serves to conclude the paper by first discussing briefly the feedback from students at the end of the course before clarifying the context of the research and thus its relation to recent work done by others using similar technologies.

Markova, Stanimira, Andreas Dieckmann, and Peter Russell. "Custom IFC Material Extension – Extending IFC for Parametric Sustainable Building Design." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 13-22. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

The enormous variety of design systems and data formats utilised by the actors in the building design process has been recognised as a significant challenge for information exchange and project management. The introduction of the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) data standard as a paradigm shift has opened a first time opportunity for smooth data and information exchange over the full range of design related parameters and processes, reaching beyond the classical constructional, economic and safety-related requirements. Moreover, IFC allows for the extension of the standard in further areas, corresponding to the specific design, project or client requirements. These user-driven extensions often close an important gap of the IFC standard and can subsequently be imbedded in new releases of the IFC data standard. This paper is focused on the extension of IFC for the purposes of controlling and managing material use, increasing material efficiency and closing material cycles over the life cycle of a building. Material efficiency is defined by the design scopes of material recyclability, element reusability and waste reduction. The practical implications of the data format extension and design-check performance are examined on the level of the data model and, subsequently, on the level of proprietary Building Information Modelling (BIM) software, based on a pre-defined case.

Doelling, Max C., and Ben Jastram. "Daylight Prototypes: From Simulation Data to Four-Dimensional Artefact-Physical Metrics Models in Sustainable Design Education." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 159-168. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

The increasing use of building performance simulation in architectural design enriches digital models and derived prototyping geometries with performance data that makes them analytically powerful artefacts serving sustainable design. In our class “Parametric Design”, students perform concurrent thermal and daylight optimization during the architectural ideation process, employing digital simulation tools, and also utilize rapid prototyping techniques to produce process artefacts and whole-building analysis models with climate-based day-light metrics physically embedded. Simulation metrics are merged with prototyping geometries to be output on a colour-capable Zprinter; the resultant hybrid artefacts simultaneously allow three-dimensional formal as well as whole-year daylight performance evaluation, rendering analysis scope four-dimensional. They embody a specific epistemological type that we compare to other model instances and posit to be an example of multivalent representation, a formal class that aids knowledge accretion in workflows and allows designers to gain a physically reframed understanding of geometry-performance relationships.

Suh, Junghwa K., and Hyoung-June Park. "Daylighting as a Synthesis Tool in the Early Stage of an Urban-Scape Design." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 189-198. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper proposes an integrated daylighting design framework for developing optimal configurations of multiple buildings in order to achieve satisfactory visual comfort level. The proposed approach consists of the application of Climatic envelopeand Design Rules with assorted computational tools. The envelope becomes a prescriptive zoning tool and 3D boundary of parcel design that clarifies environmentally conscious design boundary for architects to develop various building configurations. Its synthetic implementation of natural light in the design process is combined with Design Rules for optimizing the building configurations to maximize their visual comfort level. The proposed design framework is demonstrated through a real site application; Honolulu, HI and Seattle, WA where two dominant sky conditions, clear and overcast sky, are represented. The integrated framework is introduced as a design guideline for architects to develop initial building configurations that maximizes the visual comfort in the early design stage.

Steinfeld, Kyle, and Joy Ko. "Decodes – A Platform-Independent Computational Geometry Environment." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 499-508. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper presents three strategies – host-independence, domain-specificity, and context-appropriate abstraction – for the design of a textual programming environment supporting computational architectural design that more effectively addresses the needs implied by common practices within this community. A survey of existing computational design environments is first presented through the lens of these three strategies. An outline is then presented for a platform-independent computational geometry library built upon each of these strategies, alongside a report of progress made on implementing this platform thus far. More information on this project may be found at http://decod.es/.

Muslimin, Rizal. "Decoding Passura’ – Representing the Indigenous Visual Messages Underlying Traditional Icons with Descriptive Grammar." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 781-790. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

For the Toraja people in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, the engraved ornament (Passura’) means more than a simple decorative element. More importantly, Passura’ also serves as a symbolic icon to convey spiritual messages. However, only few people actually understand the underlying meaning behind the ornament. Consequently, those without this knowledge can only appreciate the aesthetic dimension of Passura’. Our computational design research focuses on under-standing the visual–linguistic aspect of Passura’ using Descriptive Grammar method to investigate how meanings are embedded on the ornaments. The design rules and their description are synthesized into a shape-to-text grammar that can read the ornament as a text, and into a text-to-shape grammar that can write a text into an ornamental design. Preliminary results of this grammar demonstrate how Passura’ works as an active indigenous communication device, rather than simply being a passive decorative element.

Benjamin, Spaeth A.. "Designer’s Dilemma – The Precision of Numerical Simulations in Design Systems." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 665-673. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Performance based design systems are characterised through the use of performance related evaluation methods or by providing design environments which are restricting the design space according to performance criteria. The performance of a design can be evaluated by numerical simulations. With the use of numerical simulations a fundamental dilemma appears: the precision implied in numerical simulations and the imprecision of the design process itself are systematic contradictions. User control or user interaction in open systems places the user into charge of the imprecision required by the design process. In closed systems, as the below described evolutionary system, methods of imprecision have to be integrated i.e. into the precise simulation based evaluation procedure. Through tolerant selection methods and the gradual evaluation of individuals the rigid and precise system can be guided towards a design system rather than an optimisation system. Due to technical requirements which are related both to the fact of using computer systems but also to the systematic conditions implied to simulations the use of the tolerant selection methods is limited.

Sun, Lei, Fukuda Tomohiro, Toshiki Tokuhara, and Nobuyoshi Yabuki. "Difference Between a Physical Model and a Virtual Environment as Regards Perception of Scale." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 457-466. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper focuses on differences of spatial reasoning capacity observed by using a physical model and a Virtual Reality (VR) system, and specifically emphasizes perception of the scale of space. While respondents view eda physical model and a VR system, a questionnaire was used to objectively evaluate these and establish which was more accurate in conveying object size. As a result, it was acknowledged by the respondents that the physical model performed more accurately and quickly. Subject to further validation, we expect the physical model to offer great utility to develop new digital media in the future.

Kamath, Ayodh V.. "Digitally Designed Architectural Form-Built Using Craft-Based Fabrication – Weaving a Complex Surface as a Bamboo Reticulated Shell." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper outlines a methodology that enables the construction of complex surface forms resulting from computational design processes by manual means using non-industrial materials. The methodology is based on the craft process of weaving whereby a three-dimensional form can be produced using a flexible, linear material. Construction information from a three-dimensional digital model is communicated tocraftspersons through a set of two-dimensional drawings outlining the sequence of construction and requiring only linear dimensions.

Junchao, Lyu, Sun Chengyu, and Zhao Qi. "Does the Debate on Stress Effect Lead Evacuation Simulation Models to Different Performances?" In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 179-187. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

There exists a long time debate over the rational state of the evacuees in the evacuation simulation. Sime et al. insisted that the evacuees behave rationally in most cases. Following this argument Arthur and Passini concluded that if a setting works well under normal conditions, it will have a better chance of working well in emergency conditions. Such an argument for rational decision-making makes statistical models, such as Utility Maximizing Model (UMM), acting as proper framework for choice modelling in evacuation. However, on the other side, some people pointed out that there exists panic in the evacuation and bounded rationality theory, represented by pruned Decision Tree Model (DTM), should be adapted in choice modelling instead. Such a debate over stress effect causes hesitations and uncertainties when researchers try to select a proper model framework for their practical simulation. This study compared the performances (prediction accuracies) of the UMM and DTM with the same set of choice data collected in a virtual evacuation experiment. With a similar level of performance on both sides, it is suggested that the on-going debate does NOT bring any difference to the choice modelling in practical evacuation simulation. It is time to improve the performance rather than to continue the debate.

Ivanovic, Glen Wash. "Drawing the Invisible: Visualizing Personal Spaces." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 571-580. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

The present research discusses the importance of human activity as a place-making coordinate, and proposes the Activity Counter Maps (ACM) as a methodology for visualizing people’s social spaces. Through two case studies, the ACM were tested for creating representations of both intensity of occupation in public spaces and people’s public distances combined into a unified “three-dimensional public shape”. The research analyses the resulted images and discusses its possible applications for digital design.

Turakhia, Dishita G.. "Dynamic Tensegrity Systems – Investigating a Case in Reconfigurable Habitable Structures." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 97-106. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Irregular tensegrity structures, due to their non-linear behaviour, possess the potential ability to configure in multiple stable states. The kinematics and inherent properties of the compressive and tensile components govern the final static configuration of the system. The primary objective of the research is to study the non-linear behaviour of irregular tensegrity structures and formulate a computational generative, evaluative and algorithmic method to design a structurally dynamic tensegrity system, with inherent potential to adapt to the varying contexts and its respective demands, requirements and spatial needs.

Weng, Yueh-Sung, Jia-Yih Chen, Yu-Pin Ma, Cheng-An Pan, and Tay-Sheng Jeng. "Eco-Machine: A Green Robotic Ecosystem for Sustainable Environments." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper focuses on developing a kinetic system with responsive solutions for sustainable environments. The emphasis of our work is to develop a zero-energy interactive ecosystem called an “eco-machine”. We setup a conceptual framework and investigate how to integrate sensors and actuators into green building tectonics to achieve a sustainable kinetic system. The operational scenario and prototype implementation are reported in this paper.

Park, Jihyun, Azizan Aziz, Kevin Li, and Carl Covington. "Energy Performance Modeling of an Office Building and Its Evaluation – Post-Occupancy Evaluation and Energy Efficiency of the Building." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Energy performance modelling can provide insights into the efficiency and sustainability of commercial buildings, and also the achievement of certification standards such as USGBC LEED. However, the results from the modelling must be validated via a post-construction evaluation, which quantifies any discrepancies between the predicted energy usage and the actual energy consumed. In this study, an existing office building was examined to test how well the model predicts energy usage. The results from the model were compared with the actual usage of gas and electricity over two years (2010-2011). Our study showed a 123% higher gas usage,and a 36% lower electricity, compared with the simulation. This difference presents that occupant behaviour and building construction practices have significant impact on the energy usage of a building. For instance, the large discrepancy among gas usage is due to the office building’s thermal envelope, which identifies the spots at which heat leaks out of the building, thereby forcing the heating unit to work more. Additionally, the post occupancy evaluation study identified that indoor environmental conditions impact on energy consumption of the building.

Grace, Kazjon S., John S. Gero, and Rob Saunders. "Experiential Influences on Computational Association in Design." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 863-872. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper presents a computational model of association in design that incorporates the ability to learn from experience. Experiments with an implementation of our model of computational design association, the interpretation-driven model, demonstrate this experiential influence. The challenges inherent in 66tial offered by the interpretation-driven approach are discussed with reference to a typology of association learning.

Jie, Chee Zong, and Patrick Janssen. "Exploration of Urban Street Patterns – Multi-Criteria Evolutionary Optimisation Using Axial Line Analysis." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 695-704. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

In urban design, researchers have developed techniques to automate both the generation and evaluation of urban street patterns. In most cases, these approaches are investigated in isolation from one another. Recently, a number of researchers have attempted to couple these approaches, in order to enable larger numbers of street patterns to be generated and evaluated in an iterative loop. However, to date, the possibility of fully automating the generative-evaluative loop using optimisation algorithms has not been explored. This research proposes an explorative design method in which urban street patterns can be optimised for multiple conflicting performance criteria. The optimisation process uses evolutionary algorithms to evolve populations of design variants by iteratively applying three key procedures: development, evaluation, and feedback. For development, a generative technique is proposed for constructing street patterns. For evaluation, various performance measures are used, including in particular Space Syntax based Axial Line analysis. For feedback, a Pareto-ranking algorithm is used that ranks street patterns according to multiple criteria. The proposed method is demonstrated using an abstract scenario in which orthogonal street patterns are evolved for a small urban area.

Lee, Ju Hyun, Ning Gu, and Anthony P. Williams. "Exploring Design Strategy in Parametric Design to Support Creativity." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 489-498. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper deals with the generative and evolutionary aspects of parametric design. We aim to provide a better understanding of individual design strategies to support creativity in parametric design via protocol analysis. An in-depth analysis conceptualises subjects’ creative strategies into two models: problem-driven strategy and solution-driven strategy. The solution-driven strategy progress design in the solution space resulted in the highest value in the level of creativity. This is one of potential aspects of parametric design. Exploring design strategies in parametric design contributes to its effective use.

Tessmann, Oliver, and Mirco Becker. "Extremely Heavy and Incredibly Light – Performative Assemblies in Dynamic Environments." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 469-478. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This research addresses the design and negotiation of two kinds of assemblies that are similar in topology but fundamentally different in performance. Firstly, Topological Interlocking Assemblies (TA) are made of solid elements. Their overall structural integrity relies on each element being kinematical constraint by its neighbours. Secondly, Bell Kites, similar in topology but fundamentally different in performance these kites are made of clusters of tetrahedrons. While TA are heavy, massive and exposed to gravity Bell Kites are super light and dominantly driven by wind forces. These two instances formulate the opposing ends of a spectrum in which a new system, one that is capable of covering the full range of performance, is developed and re-conceptualized in architectural context. The research seeks design-innovation by scrutinizing systems that are not yet part of the architectural ecosystem. Mapping out their performative characteristics and developing their spatial and programmatic potential through conscious design moves explore the potential for architectural applications. The work presented in this paper is the result of a design research studio of the Architecture and Performative Design Class at the Staedelschule in Frankfurt.

Williams, Nick, Daniel Davis, Brady Peters, Alexander Peña De León, Jane Burry, and Mark Burry. "FabPOD: An Open Design-to-Fabrication System." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 251-260. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Digital workflows from the design to the production of buildings have received significant recent attention in architectural research. The need for both integrated systems for design collaboration (Boeykens and Neuckermans, 2006) and clear and flexible communication flows for non-standard fabrication outcomes have been identified as fundamental (Scheurer, 2010). This paper reports on the development of a digital “design system” for the design and prototyping of an acoustic enclosure for meetings in a large open work environment, theFabPod. The aim was to keep this system open for temporal flexibility in as many aspects of the finalisation of the design as possible. The system provides novel examples of both integrated collaboration and clear communication flow. (1) Acoustics is included as a design driver in early stages through the connection of digital simulation tools with design models. (2) Bi-directional information flows and clear modularisation of workflow underpins the system from design through to fabrication and assembly of the enclosure. Following the completion and evaluation of the FabPod prototype, the openness of the system will be tested through its application in subsequent design and prototyping iterations. Design development will respond to performance testing through user engagement methods and acoustic measurement.

Chaszar, André, and José Nuno Beirão. "Feature Recognition and Clustering for Urban Modelling – Exploration and Analysis in GIS and CAD." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 601-610. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

In urban planning exploration and analysis assist the generation, measurement, interpretation and management of the modelled urban environments. This frequently involves categorisation of model elements and identification of element types. Such designation of elements can be achieved through attribution (e.g. ‘tagging’ or ‘layering’) or direct selection by model users. However, for large, complex models the number and arrangement of elements makes these approaches impractical in terms of time/effort and accuracy. This is particularly true of models which include substantial numbers of elements representing existing urban fabric, rather than only newly generated elements (which might be automatically attributed during the generation process). We present methods for identification and categorisation of model elements in models of existing and proposed urban agglomerations. We also suggest how these methods can enable exploration of models, discovery of identities and relationships not otherwise obvious, and acquisition of insights to the models’ structure and contents which are not captured, and may even be obscured, by manual selection or automated pre-attribution.

Raspall, Felix, Matias Imbern, and William Choi. "Fisac Variations: An Integrated Design and Fabrication Strategy for Adaptable Building Systems." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 55-64. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

The promise of robotic fabrication as an enabler for mass-customization in Architecture has been hindered by the intricate workflow required to go from parametric modelling to CNC fabrication. The lack of integration between highly-specialized proprietary software, normally required to operate the machines, and most of the design tools constitutes a major limitation. One way to tackle this constraint is by developing simple tools that directly link parametric modelling to robotic coding. Accordingly, “Fisac Variations” develops an uninterrupted digital workflow from form-generation to robotic fabrication. This innovative approach to Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing was tested by studying and reengineering a specific historic construction system -Miguel Fisac’s Bones System was used as a case study- and by enabling it to address problems of contemporary architectural agenda such as flexibility, variability and mass-customization. The proposed workflow threads form-finding, structural analysis, geometric definition, CNC code generation and digital fabrication within the same open-source computational environment. In this way, this innovative procedure aims to increase design freedom while ensuring fabrication feasibility. This paper describes background research, concept, form-finding, construction process, methodology, results and conclusions.

Schimek, Heimo, Albert Wiltsche, Markus Manahl, and Christoph Pfaller. "Full Scale Prototyping – Logistic and Construction Challenges Realising Digitally Designed Timber Prototypes." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 653-662. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper reports on the final stage of a research project with the realization of a real scale prototype and ties an empirical finale to the project, which started as a fundamental research project three years ago. The scope of this research project was to explore new ways, how Non-Standard Architecture can be build with standard building elements using contemporary building processes and materials resource efficiently. Mass Customization and File to Factory, concepts where a continuous digital workflow is applied, were fundamental to our approach. Within this framework we developed generic parametric details and made them part of the whole process from the beginning of the design to the manufacturing. The present paper describes a strategy for the assembly of a large prototype, consisting of approximately 50 flat timber panels that are being assembled to a structure of the size of a small house. The paper focuses especially on the customized falsework, we designed for the construction of the prototype, which became a crucial part of the assembling process besides the assembly of the actual prototype.

Alhadidi, Suleiman. "Generative Design Intervention: Creating a Computational Platform for Sensing Space." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 345-354. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper outlines some investigations from a project which utilizes computing and scripting of specific site components, spatio-temporal movement and behavioural patterns to explore how designer might understand people activities and formulate design interventions within public spaces. This research looks at how generative tools can facilitate designers to integrate the large volume of information received by hybrid data collection, and conventional data analysis directly into the design process. Through an examination of sensing urban space, this research proposes a method to track and record people’s movement patterns in order to implement them via generative design tool. To facilitate this, a scripting method is specified; which uses sensors and motion tracking devices to capture the use of a specific public space. This project proposes a methodology for developing designed spaces and optimal pathways generated from real-time data and feedback captured by sensors.

Gerber, David J., and Shih-Hsin Lin. "Geometric Complexity and Energy Simulation – Evolving Performance Driven Architectural Form." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 87-96. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

The research presents the custom development of a software tool and design process for integrating three design domains, their respective objectives, and geometric parameterizations. It then describes a set of experimental projects and analyses in the context of informing form and geometric complexity. Preliminary results of the multidisciplinary design optimization prototype, which, implements a genetic algorithm, are then presented. The findings include discussion of the value for architects for designing-in performance e.g. the bringing of the energy simulation and financial pro-forma upstream in the design process and of the value for trade off design decision making the system provides. The summary discussion includes the benefit of breeding architecturally complex geometries and the kinds of optimisations or search for improvements on designs that can be achieved.

Fabian, Ong Eu Ho, Patrick Janssen, and Lo Tian Tian. "Group Forming: Negotiating Design Via Web-Based Interaction and Collaboration." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This research project proposed to create spatial and communal qualities of Group Form architecture via a web-based user participation design method. The proposed method allows multiple users to simultaneously design houses on the same site, encouraging spatio-temporal negotiation as users interact and collaborate with one another. In order to assess the feasibility of this approach, a prototype of a web-based Group Form design tool was implemented using the Processing environment. An experiment using the web-based tool was conducted with the objective of exploring the actual user behaviour.

Roe, Stephen. "Information Storm – An Assessment of Responsive Facades and Their Potential to Introduce New Relations Between Building Users and the Weather." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 915-924. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Today buildings are increasingly responsive to the weather. In such responsive buildings an “Open System” is emerging which consists of a coupling between buildings and their temporal environments. This paper assesses whether these new technologies, in addition to potentially reducing energy consumption, can also lead to a new experiential relation between building users and the weather. The paper qualitatively assesses current examples of Responsive Facades and their effect on the user’s experience of the weather. The information structures of the facade systems are then examined. From this analysis identify potential future avenues of research –or strategies – which may be most effective in making the weather apparent. Finally some design proposals which explore the possibilities of these strategies are presented. The paper is intended to complement the current, primarily technical, emphasis of research in this area by exploring the innovative architectural potential of Responsive Facades to create new user experiences and relations to the weather.

Stavric, Milena, and Albert Wiltsche. "Investigations on Quadrilateral Patterns for Rigid Folding Structures – Folding Strategies - Rigid and Curved Folding." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

A rigid spatial structure represents a three-dimensional structural system in which the size of the singular planar elements is very small related to the whole construction. In this paper we will do investigations of quadrilateral patterns and we will propose an analytical method for designing structural rigid folding with quadrilateral patterns following geometrical surfaces of different topology. Our method offers folding structures with four fold lines meeting in one node which allows a simpler solution of join connections and assembling of the whole spatial and structural system. As the physical characteristics of paper can lead to all kinds of wrong conclusions it is necessary to use CAD tools in addition to scale models, where the entire folding element is reconstructed and its geometric characteristics are controlled. This kind of control reflects on the scale model. Models are then adjusted, examined and built to reach certain conclusions that are once more tested in CAD software.

Roupé, Mattias, and Mathias Gustafsson. "Judgment and Decision-Making Aspects on the Use of Virtual Reality in Volume Studies." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 437-446. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

The most common reason for using Virtual Reality (VR) as a communication medium in urban planning and building design is to provide decision makers with access to a shared virtual space, which can facilitate communication and collaboration in order to make better decisions. However, there is a risk that judgmental biases arise within the virtual space. The displaying of the VR-models and itscontent could be one way of changing the settings for the visual access to the virtual space and could thus influence the outcome of the decision making process. For that reason it is important to have knowledge of how different settings in and around the VR-medium influence the experience of the shared visual space that the VR-medium strives to achieve. In this case the decision-making process, perceptions of space, and the cognition process of decoding of information in the visual space are important. This paper investigates how reference points influence judgments of a volume study of a building and furthermore what visual cues that are used for spatial reasoning about volumes. The results show that the initial visual information has a profound impact on the decision, even when this information lacks in validity.

Zarzycki, Andrzej. "Learning with Digital and Physical Mock-ups Using BIM." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 323-332. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Computer-based tools have changed the focus and modes of design thinking in architecture. While often criticized for its overemphasis on formal expressions and its pursuit of the spectacular, digital creativity has begun to take into account a multiplicity of design factors that define architecture. These factors relate to performance simulation and analysis, constructability, and Building Information Modelling (BIM). This paper discusses the use of physical and digital mock-ups in the context of building technology courses. It uses these mock-ups as an important vehicle that provides students with a feedback mechanism regarding often digitally idealized creative thinking.

Schnabel, Marc Aurel, Tian Tian Lo, and Yingge Qu. "Manga Architecture – Developing Architectural Narratives." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 771-780. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Bi-tonal and non-photorealistic architectural depictions can be employed to develop a narrative that engages the reader with both visual aspects and other emotional reactions. Using this story-telling approach to communicate architectural design is subsequently not only represented through its factual dimensions of length, width and height, materials, structure or technical details, but is extended to intangible sensorial realms, which gains special value for laypersons and professional alike. This paper presents how architects and laypersons develop a narrative of their architectural design proposals or concepts using a visualisation and story-telling tools that generates designs akin to Japanese cartoons or manga. Our paper presents the methodology, the instruments used and highlights on the base of representative samples of how narrative bitonal depictions of architecture contributes to the overall understanding of an architectural design and how non tangible factors aid the designers in their communication.

Hansmeyer, Michael, and Benjamin Dillenburger. "Mesh Grammars – Procedural Articulation of Form." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 821-829. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

We introduce a formal grammar as a computational approach to the generation of design. While existing shape-grammars transform primitive shapes as lines or rectangles, the presented production system specifically addresses polyhedral objects described by three-dimensional meshes composed of vertices, edges and faces. The parameters of the transformation rules are sensitive to topological and topographical properties of the selected input mesh. We demonstrate that this approach allows the creation of new ornamental structures and can lead to a new language of architectural forms.

Baerlecken, Daniel, Katherine Johnson, and Alice Vialard. "Mobilized Materials – Textile Constructs." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper investigates textiles techniques and their potential for creating ornamental and structural systems investigated through a sequence of design studios. Within the paper 3 examples of textile systems are introduced that range from a Semperian approach (wall as dress) to form finding experiments with active textile materials (Frei Otto).

Pelosi, Antony W.. "Model Command – Spatial Comprehension of 3D Digital Environments." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 417-426. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

The paper explores innovative methods of navigation for experiencing and spatial comprehension of complex 3D digital environments. Common navigation modes of digital environments are difficult to learn and use within complex multi level digital models and often result in the viewer becoming disoriented or stuck. By drawing on concepts from computer gaming and spatial way finding this research will explore intuitive navigation systems. These systems enable the user to engage and experience the digital space much more profoundly than current CAD and BIM model viewing software. The paper demonstrates these navigation spatial cognition systems through three case studies.

Shuvo, Faysal Kabir, and Patrick Janssen. "Modelling Informal Settlements Using a Hybrid Automata Approach." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Automata based modeling of urban environments focuseson the bottom up emergence of particular phenomena through interactions at the disaggregated level. Two popular approachesare Cellular Automata (CA) for modelling fixed automata and Agent Based Modelling (ABM) for modelling mobile automata.However, certain urban phenomena cannot easily be modelled by either CA or ABM alone. This research focuses on one suchphenomenon, referred to as leap-frog development, which is a discontinuous and dispersed type of urban growth. A hybridautomata model is proposed for modelling such phenomena that combines both CA and ABM into a single integrated model. Theproposed model is demonstrated by applying it to a case-study in Dhaka city for simulating the growth of informalsettlements associated with the readymade garment industry.

Themistocleous, Theodoros. "Modelling, Simulation and Verification of Pneumatically Actuated Auxetic Systems." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper presents the development of an SLS 3D printed auxetic structure actuated to a predefined form by an embedded pneumatic network through an iterative process of feedback between digital simulation and physical testing. This feedback process is critical to the development of a more accurate predictive model, and to compose the geometry of the suggested structure. An approach based on the emergence of the final structure from the convergence of the behaviour of sub-structures and a methodology based on the analysis and synthesis of the simplest sub-system is the core of this research. The results indicate a promising simulation environment and a novel methodology for the design and fabrication of auxetic structures with embedded pneumatic actuation. This exploratory research suggests a fertile space for investigation within the field of adaptive architecture and soft kinetic design.

Segard, Achille, Jules Moloney, and Tane Moleta. "Open Communitition – Competitive Design in a Collaborative Virtual Environment." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 231-240. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

The recent enthusiasm in popular culture for massively multiplayer online environments has proven that eclectic online communities have the potential to develop powerful problem solving capacities, through the enactment of a collective intelligence. Foreseeing a radical change in the identity of the architect, becoming but the designer of open systems of emergent communal design environments, this paper aims at making the case for an alternate CAAD model. Rather than a fully collaborative approach, the open system proposed here encourages direct competition within a shared online environment, based on an established precedent in an associated design field known as ‘communitition’. After establishing this alternate position for collaborative CAAD, outcomes from a pilot study are discussed and the specification of a full case study is presented.

Rekittke, Joerg, Yazid Ninsalam, and Philip Paar. "Open to Ridicule – Deploying Plaything Technology for 3D Modelling of Urban Informal Settlements in Asia." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 541-550. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

As technology affine urban landscape researchers,working in Asian mega cities, we roam through crowded and narrow, widely informal city layouts, where we apply digitalfieldwork equipment and conduct design work. We use low cost cameras and camera drones, tools that had been developed asgadgets for outdoor freaks or plaything for nerds. In this paper, we describe recent advances in the development of amethod of on-site data and image gathering, which allows the processing of concrete 3D models of informal city spaces. Thevisual quality of these models is still moderate, but the resulting three-dimensional spatial puzzlemakes a widelyinaccessible and undocumented piece of city terrain visible, understandable and designable. The software used is free.

Santo, Yasu, Susan Loh, and Ruwan Fernando. "Open Up the Building – Architectural Relevance of Building-Users and Their Participations." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

As buildings have become more advanced and complex, our ability to understand how they are operated and managed has diminished. Modern technologies have given us systems to look after us but it appears to have taken away our say in how we like our environment to be managed. The aim of this paper is to discuss our research concerning spaces that are sensitive to changing needs and allow building-users to have a certain level of freedom to understand and control their environment. We discuss why, what we call the Active Layer, is needed in modern buildings; how building inhabitants are to interact with it; and the development of interface prototypes to test consequences of having the Active Layer in our environment.

Kim, Jong Bum, Mark J. Clayton, and Wei Yan. "Parameterize Urban Design Codes with BIM and Object-Oriented Programming." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

There has been a significant need for the new urban design apparatus that carries out performance analyses of the urban models, since the code reform movements focused on the sustainable urban developments. This research explores the use of parametric Building Information Modeling to enable stakeholders to intuitively understand the implications and consequences of urban design codes. We investigate whether key regulations can be captured as algorithms and ontologies in parametric BIM and Object-Oriented Programming. Then we present our prototype of parametric urban models in a BIM platform that explains (1) the extent which urban design code information can be parameterized in BIM and (2) the methods how parametric models can hold code information. The results show that our prototype enables real-time manipulations of code requirements and interactive visualization of code allowances.

Dai, Qun, and Marc Aurel Schnabel. "Pedestrian Thermal Comfort in Relation to Street Zones with Different Orientations – A Pilot-Study of Rotterdam." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper presents the impacts of different street orientations and street zones of a typical Dutch residential area on micro-scale human thermal comfort. The spatial and temporal variation of mean radiant temperature (T mrt ) of a typical summer day in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, is simulated by using an established long- and short-wave 3D radiation fluxes model (SOLWEIG). This model calculates human radiation load and expresses this as a T mrt . Hereby we simulate and analyse the T mrt variations for three zones of a street consisting of a centre area for cars and the adjacent pedestrian zones for pedestrians and bicycles. The streets are azimuth rotated. The simulation and analysis results show various T mrt patterns of the three zones in the different orientations at different periods during daytime. We show that the spatial distribution of T mrt at street level strongly depends on street orientation and street zone. This is crucial since optimizing street configuration will directly influence the human thermal comfort in relation to street orientation and street zone. Finally we present a time adjusted framework of thermal comfort and classify the various T mrt for each zone and orientation.

Turrin, Michela, Rudi Stouffs, and Sevil Sariyildiz. "Performance-Based Parameterization Strategies – A Theoretic Framework and Case Studies." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

In this paper, alternative approaches to structure the parametric geometry in relation to information on various performances are described and exemplified. They relate to different levels of knowledge that concern the performances considered in the process and which are available to the designer while the parametric model is being set. A theoretic framework embeds the different approaches, for which the use of parametric modelling is structured in three phases: strategy-definition; model-building; and solution-assessment. The phases and their interrelations are discussed. Finally, four case studies are presented, focusing on the relation between the knowledge available in strategy-definition and the exploration occurring in solution-assessment.

Erhan, Halil I., David Botta, Andy T. Huang, and Robert F. Woodbury. "Peripheral Tools to Support Collaboration: Probing to Design Collaboration Through Role-Playing." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 241-250. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Peripheral devices like smart phones offer an opportunity to lower the barrier to spontaneous collection and sharing of information during distributed collaboration. We have completed development of guidelines and a framework that focuses on peripheral devices in collaboration. In order to explore the design space generated by our principles, we conducted a role-playing experiment about commissioning a building, in which an “on-site” team and a “design” team were expected to find and resolve discrepancies between requirements, design documents, and the actual site. The teams were given Styrofoam panels to act as pretend smart peripherals to invoke play and help probe the design space. We found that “reflection on action” (debriefing and subsequent brainstorming) was fruitful for ideation and theorem building about interaction, but “reflection in action” failed. Yet, reflection in action, particularly with such probes, is important to capture the “mechanics of collaboration”. Therefore, we are considering adapting improvisational theatre to our study of distributed collaboration.

Mueller, Volker, Drury B. Crawley, and Xun Zhou. "Prototype Implementation of a Loosely Coupled Design Performance Optimisation Framework." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Integration of analyses into early design phases poses several challenges. An experimental implementation of an analysis framework in conjunction with an optimization framework ties authoring and analysis tools together under one umbrella. As a prototype it served intensive use-testing in the context of the SmartGeometry 2012 workshop in Troy, NY. In this prototype the data flow uses a mix of proprietary and publicised file formats, exchanged through publicly accessible interfaces. The analysis framework brokers between the parametric authoring tool and the analysis tools. The optimization framework controls the processes between the authoring tool and parametric engine on one side and the optimization algorithm on the other. In addition to some user-implemented analyses inside the parametric design model the prototype makes energy analysis and structural analysis available. The prototype allows testing assumptions about work flow, implementation, usability and general feasibility of the pursued approach.

Brennan, AnnMarie, Suleiman Alhadidi, and Geoff Kimm. "Quokka: Programming for Real Time Digital Design Platform." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper introduces an interactive 3D scanning tool (Quokka) that generates real time point clouds and surfaces in a design program (Rhinoceros). It explains the use of this tool through a detailed experiment, suggesting a new mode of design using a dynamic, three-dimensional grid.

Pitts, Greg, Holly Farley, and Sambit Datta. "Research in Practice – An Exercise in Generative Urban Massing." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

The following paper explores practice based research as a means of identifying issues within current urban design methods. It considers the application of parametric systems as a means of addressing these issues. These systems are developed and tested across both Australian and international urban design projects within Grimshaw Architects. A methodology is proposed for the development and application of these parametric tools across multiple scales of design resolution. It reports on the application of a set of parametric urban scale massing tools in real world design projects. This exploration is carried out in distinct phases of design defined by the scale of resolution. The phasing allows for discrete problems to be addressed more effectively at different stages of the design process while still encouraging a seamless, bi directional workflow through a digital master model.

Pedersen, Jens, and Andy VanMater. "Resource Driven Urban Metabolism – How Can Metabolic Scaling be Used in Urban Design?" In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 561-570. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

City scale projects are complex multivariable problems and have previously been addressed using a variety of organisational principles, whether it be the infrastructural grid, used by Ludwig Hilbersheimer in his project “Hochhausstadt” or the spinal organisation of the Tokyo Masterplan done by Kenzo Tange and the Metabolist Movement. This project strays from traditional methods of structuring a city and investigates a novel self-engineered anticipatory model, which focuses on the use of generative and genetic algorithms to develop a new associative system to develop coastal cities in arid climates. The system functions as a negative feedback loop, analysing existing conditions, and by a series of mathematical functions, projecting the new growth patterns for major components of a city, such as building envelopes, road networks, canal networks and public space distribution as a result of the cities internally generated resources.

Kolodziej, Przemyslaw, and Jozef Rak. "Responsive Building Envelope as a Material System of Autonomous Agents." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

The paper represents the concept of an abstract model of the Responsive Building Envelope (RBE), founded on pre-programmed material’s behaviour. The assumed model of the responsive building envelope is based on the idea of material autonomous agents that control default parameters of building’s energies like ventilation, humidity, light volume, radiation, temperature, etc., by materials’ geometry deformation. The agent is a material system, built with the Electroactive Polymers (EAPs) actuators which react to the environment’s fluctuations continuously and independently from other agents. The model of a responsive envelope is a cluster of self-reliant units which control the primary characteristic of the building environment in an analogous way to the homeostasis system of a living organism. By decentralization the system becomes more stable and reliable. The CFD simulation was created from the schematic model of the RBE’s performance to test the presented design concepts.

Kaftan, Martin, and Milena Stavric. "Robotic Fabrication of Modular Form-Work – An Innovative Approach to Formwork Fabrication for Non-Standard Concrete Structures." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 75-84. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

In this work we address the fast and economical realization of complex formwork for concrete with the advantage of robotic fabrication. Under economical realization we mean reduction of production time and material efficiency. The complex form of individual formwork parts can be in our case double curved surface or complex mesh geometry. We propose the fabrication of the formwork by straight or shaped hot wire. We illustrate different approaches to mould production, where the proposed process demonstrates itself effective. In our approach we deal with the special kinds of modularity and specific symmetry of the formwork.

Siong, Choo Thian, and Patrick Janssen. "Semi-Transparent Building Integrated Photovoltaic Facades – Maximise Energy Savings Using Evolutionary Multi-Objective Optimisation." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

The optimisation of semi-transparent building integrated photovoltaic facades can be challenging when finding an overall balanced performance between conflicting performance criteria. This paper proposes a design optimisation method that maximises overall energy savings generated by these types of facades by simulating the combined impact of electricity generation, cooling load, and daylight autonomy. A proof-of-concept demonstration of the proposed method is presented for a typical office facade.

Adamantidis, Ermis, Madhav Kidao, and Marios Tsiliakos. "Siphonophore – A Physical Computing Simulation of Colonial Intelligence Organisms." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 355-364. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper sets out to document the procedural design and implementation of “Siphonophore” a multisensory digital ecology, mimicking colonial-ordered behaviour systems. The exploration of the notion of “self” in a complex system of highly integrated individuals with reference to the emergence of behaviours from the human-machine-context interaction, is engaged by this open system’s hierarchical articulation of electronics, Arduino boards, sensors and programming routines. User interaction and recorded statistics from the system’s core algorithm are assessed, in relation to the capacity of this prototype to provide an alternative methodology of describing collective intelligence, while presenting a non-standard perspective of body-space interaction and design as entertaining art. The overall impact is discussed in relation to the examined observations, towards a potential advancement to a system of superior contextual understanding.

Janssen, Patrick, and Vignesh Kaushik. "Skeletal Modelling – A Developmental Template for Evolutionary Design." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Evolutionary designis an approach that evolves populations of design variants through the iterative application of a set of computational procedures. For architecture and urban design, the developmental procedure typically needs to be capable of generating bounded variability, whereby design variants are both highly variable and highly constrained. This paper proposes a template for creating such developmental procedures. The template uses decision chain encoding techniques in order to generate a sparse skeleton model, and then uses standard parametric modelling techniques in order to generate a detailed form model. A demonstration is presented where the template is used to create a developmental procedure for generating design variants for a large residential project.

Reinhardt, Dagmar, William Martens, and Luis Miranda. "Sonic Domes – Solving Acoustic Performance of Curved Surfaces by Interfacing Parametric Design, Structural Engineering and Acoustic Analysis." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 529-538. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper addresses the acoustic performance of complex curved surface geometries that are commonly known to pose problems of sound concentration, thus affecting speech intelligibility and audience experience in spaces of temporal arts performance. It reviews an open system of design research in which parametric design process, structural analysis and acoustic analysis are deployed to improve the sound of ellipsoidal structures in relation to sound source and audience positions, by adapting the height, dimension and centre point of a dome structure, consequently improving the acoustic behaviour of the performance space. The paper discusses an iterative design, analysis and optimization processes, in which a number of generative form variations were developed in Grasshopper, and reworked in McNeel Rhino, tested in engineering software (Strand7), and evaluated in acoustic simulation (ODEON). This allowed an interdisciplinary team to develop, test and evolve a design proposal that shows one solution for avoiding sound concentration and consequently improving acoustic performance in complex intersecting and curved geometries of a multifunctional building.

Alston, Mark E.. "Space Emergent Field." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 715-724. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Architecture has always been founded upon ideologies. However could the influence of human interactions create a new perspective for space form evolution? To create a spatial adaptive system, to the influence of culture and behaviour of human being? The output of this spatial system is the determination of optimised values for spatial configurations by biomolecular, self-assembly computation for emergent spatial forms.

Schrems, Maximilian J., and Toni Kotnik. "Statically Motivated Form Finding Based on Extended Graphical Statics (EGS)." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 843-852. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

In the 19th century it was common to use graphical methods for study the relationship between form and force. The central element of all drawing methods for representing the inner flow of forces was the investigation of the dependence of equilibrium and force polygons, as well as their representation in two geometrically dependent diagrams with different units. This research is part of an on going project to extend the methods of ‘graphical statics’ of Carl Culmann (1866) to the third dimension in order to overcome some of the 2D-limitations of this approach. It is focused on the construction of resulting force within 3D and the utilization within discrete space frames (tetrahedrons) in equilibrium. The objective of the EGS is to focus on constructing in contrast to calculating. That means that the logic of the inner force flow leads to a process-oriented and visible approach of design, which gets computationally accessible. With the use of digital tools and increasing importance of performative methods of form-finding a renewed interest in these vector-based geometric methods of construction of force flow has occurred. This may be will give the possibility to get an alternative to the common form finding methods by relaxation processes and analysis by FEM.

Parlac, Vera. "Surface Change: Information, Matter and Environment – Surface Change Project." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Over the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in exploring the capacity of built spaces to respond dynamically and adapt to changes in the external and internal environments. Such explorations are technologically and socially motivated, in response to recent technological and cultural developments. Advances in embedded computation, material design, and kinetics on the technological side, and increasing concerns about sustainability, social and urban changes on the cultural side, provide a background for responsive/interactive architectural solutions that have started to emerge. This paper presents an ongoing design research project driven by an interest in adaptive systems in nature and a desire to explore the capacity of built spaces to respond dynamically. The paper underlines architecture’s inseparable link to technology and projects a vision of architecture that, through its capacity to change and adapt, becomes an integrated, responsive, adaptive and productive participant within larger ecologies.

Sousa, José Pedro, and João Pedro Xavier. "Symmetry-Based Generative Design: A Teaching Experiment." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 303-312. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Throughout history, symmetry has been widely explored as a geometric strategy to conceive architectural forms and spaces. Nonetheless, its concept has changed and expanded overtime, and its design exploration does not mean anymore the generation of simple and predictable solutions. By framing in history this idea, the present paper discusses the relevance of exploring symmetry in architectural design today, by means of computational design and fabrication processes. It confirms the emergence of a renewed interest in the topic based on two main ideas: On the one hand, symmetry-based design supports the generation of unique and apparent complex solutions out of simple geometric rules, in a bottom-up fashion. On the other hand, despite this intricacy, it assures modularity in the design components, which can bring benefits at the construction level. As the background for testing and illustrating its theoretical arguments, this paper describes the work produced in the Constructive Geometry course at FAUP.

Manferdini, Elena, and Anna Maria Manferdini. "Tempera." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper explores the characteristics of painting developed during the Nineteenth century, and specifically updates the use of matter and brushing techniques invented by a group of painters called “Impressionists”. In that period, impressionist artists began to brush “tempera” on a canvas as a malleable matter able to emphasize an accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities. Thick brush strokes left on the painted surface revealed the master’ gesture and completely changed the way to represent reality. Stimulated by the recent advancements in digital technologies, this paper looks for methodologies able to transfer impressionistic painterly innovation into a contemporary digital 3D environment and investigates how paint behaves when morphing from a photorealistic depiction of Nature to a disfigured one. In particular, reality-based 3D information, first frozen by a laser scanner into a digital geometry, slowly melts into liquid paint on a colour palette. While colours mix, the geometrical matter that constitutes the photorealistic scanned reality and its details disappear into primitive paint clog that are mixed and brushed into new colours and shapes able to create novel atmospheric and chromatic effects.

Wang, Tsung-Hsien. "Tessellating Freeform Surfaces with Boundary – Driven Analysis." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

In this paper, we look at the surface tessellation problem, in particular, the problem of meshing a surface with the added consideration of incorporating constructible building components. When a surface is tessellated into discrete counterparts, certain conditions usually occur on the surface boundaries that are caused by trimming operations; for example, irregularly shaped panels at the trimmed edges. We present an algorithmic approach to tessellating quad-dominant mesh surfaces to deal with such irregular boundary conditions, and demonstrate its application through surface subdivision examples.

Sosa, Ricardo, and John S. Gero. "The Creative Value of Bad Ideas – A Computational Model of Creative Ideation." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 853-862. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper analyses two ideation principles: idea accessibility and idea connectivity. Access refers to the likelihood to generate a particular idea or set of ideas for a given design task. Connectivity refers to the likelihood of one idea leading to other ideas. These principles are evaluated through a computational model. The results suggest new metrics to assess the value of new ideas. Evaluating new ideas by their accessibility and connectivity has the potential to transform current idea generation practice and research.

Gün, Onur Y.. "The Executed and the Observed in Sketches: Visual and Computational Processing for Explorative Drawings." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 801-810. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Drawing is expressing. The mind’s eye works with the drawing to materialize ideas via transforming them into visual abstractions. The genuine supremacy of drawing emerges from its potential to evoke, not from its ability to represent. Computers are harbingers of unprecedented and enriching drawing environments. Yet they also introduce ambivalences since they suppress drafter’s bodily and perceptual engagement with drawings. This paper aims to delineate the similarities and differences between hand drawing and (via-computer) algorithmic drawing for design. The goal is to discuss the altering role of eyes and hands in long-contrasted virtual and material environments of drawing. The outlined comparisons of algorithmic and hand sketching should encourage research for blending digital and analogue modes of sketching.

Knapp, Chris. "The Hand and the Machine: A Hybrid Approach to Complex Construction in a Work of Sir Peter Cook." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper describes and provides a critique of the design and implementation of the “scoops” – a set of bespoke multifunctioning architectural free-form concrete elements that are a highlight of the new Soheil Abedian School of Architecture by the office of Sir Peter Cook and Gavin Robotham (CRAB). The development includes the transfer of analogue design processes into digital 3D modelling, which is then analysed and rationalized via an exchange with consultants and procurement contractors. The complexity of the concrete works necessitated the use of digital fabrication to make their implementation affordable and within time constraints, with said complexity creating a variety of challenges for many aspects of the entire delivery team. The 3D model played a critical role in communicating intent and accuracy at all stages. The use of site-based craftsmanship combined with computer aided design and fabrication overlapped to realize the project.

Neves, Isabel Clara, João Rocha, and José Pinto Duarte. "The Legacy of the Hochschule Für Gestaltung of Ulm for Computational Design Research in Architecture." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 293-302. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Nowadays the use of computational design processes in architecture is a common practice which is currently recovering a set of theories connected to computer science that were developed in the 60’s and 70’s. Such pioneering explorations were marked by an interest in employing scientific principles and methodologies many developed in Research Centres located in the US and the UK. Looking into this period, this paper investigates the relevance of the German design school of the Hochschule für Gestaltung (HfG) Ulm to the birth of computation in architecture. Even thought there were no computers in the school. It is argued that the innovative pedagogies and some distinct professors have launched clear foundations that can be understood as being at the basis of further computational approaches in architecture. By describing and relating the singular work by Tomas Maldonado (educational project), Max Bense (information aesthetics) and Horst Rittel (scientific methods), this paper describes the emergence of analogical ways of computational design thinking. This analysis ultimately wishes to contribute for inscribing the HfG Ulm at the cultural and technological mapping of computation in architecture.

Gün, Onur Y., and Elliot E. Greenblatt. "Tran[s] Quillity: The Dynamically Mediated Façade." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 955-964. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Media façades grant infinitely many faces to a building and can change the architectural meaning of what a façade is. They can also help to transform the face of the building into an over-size communication device for public (Borras, 2010). Contemporary media façades mostly rely on the content of their screens, and only a small number of them physicality of the screen itself. Precedent building façades that incorporate moving componentsareunable to function as displays. In this paper we present a media façade design, titled“Tran[s]quillity”, in which we fuse reconfigurable building com-ponents with display technologies to achieve a unique design. As well as fulfilling the function of a regular media wall -as a crisp screen- we imagine Tran[s]quillity as a transformable kinetic sculpture that can act as a screen of physical depth to introduce greater functionality and interactivity.

Dritsas, Stylianos, and Kang Shua Yeo. "Undrawable Architecture – Digital Workflows for the Conservation of Heritage Buildings and the Discovery of Digital Tectonic." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 833-842. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper presents a datacentric perspective to historical building conservation using digital media. In particular we explore a workflow based on large volumes digital data acquired via 3D scanning technology, virtual restoration using 3D modelling and physical artefact reconstruction using 3D printing technology. We offer an alternative perspective in contrast to the prevalent approach of reverse engineering or geometric rationalization via parametric design technology; highlight the research and design opportunities as well as the challenges of the approach.

Simeone, Davide, Yehuda E. Kalay, and Davide Schaumann. "Using Game-Like Narrative to Simulate Human Behaviour in Built Environments." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 232. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Predicting future users’ behaviour and their activities in a building is a highly complex task that designers have to face during the design process. Despite its importance, few methods exist that can predict and help evaluate this type of building performance during the design process itself. Simulative approaches are gradually overcoming this shortcoming, but at present their application is limited to the representation of specific occurrences and behavioural performance aspects, such as emergency egress. Based on current developments in the video game industry, our research aims to establish a new approach to human behaviour simulation in built environments, based on a clear and reliable representation of the use processes occurring in a building. At its core is simulation based on the notion of events, defined as active entities on their own, comprised of space, people, and activities. These events entities are structured into collections called narratives, which represent and allow the simulation of the step-by-step performing of activities by users in a built environment.

Lee, Jung Hoon, and Atsuko Kaga. "Visual Analysis of the Relation Between Concentrated Districts of Knowledge-Based Industries and Third Places in Osaka City." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 581-589. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

Recently, as the changes in the economic structure, service industries have become an important factor of the urban regeneration. Especially, Knowledge-based industry is garnering attention as an engine of urban economics. Urban present condition such as location of Knowledge-based industry visualization and analysis are main issues for people as well as policymakers, urban planner and designers. This paper presents analysis of the spatial characteristics of the distribution and spatial concentration of Knowledge-based Industry, specifically Business-support Services. Furthermore, this paper is intended to describe examination of the visual relation between spatial conditions and configuration by visualization using GIS and space syntax analysis. This paper shows that business support services are likely to concentrate in specific places. Results of this study show that each type of business support services is concentrated in different districts. Results show that creative design industries are located near the park, riverfront, and such third places with high integration and connectivity with the street by space syntax analysis. Results show that concentrated districts of creative design companies at inner block show relatively high local integration values and connectivity. This study elucidates how industrial concentration and spatial configuration can be ascertained visually.

Lin, Chieh-Jen . "Visual Architectural Topology – An Ontology-Based Visual Language Tool in an Architectural Case Library." In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 3-12. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper aims to develop a tool entitled “Visual Architectural Topology (VAT)” for encoding topological information within a case library. VAT can annotate design objects and their topological in-formation within the unstructured information of a design case. By applying an ontology-based topological validation mechanism, VAT aims to establish a visual language for representing the “topological knowledge” of architectural design objects in a case library. The pur-pose of VAT is to extend the knowledge representation ability of a de-sign case library, and to provide a foundation for development of a design-assistance tool performing the conversion and processing among semantic and geometric design information.

de Freitas, Márcia Regina, and Regina Coeli Ruschel. "What is Happening to Virtual and Augmented Reality Applied to Architecture?" In Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 407-416. CAADRIA. Singapore: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2013.

This paper presents the results of a comprehensive survey of activities on research and development of Virtual and Augmented Reality applied to architecture. 200 papers were reviewed, taken from annual conferences of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture (ACADIA) and its sibling organizations in Europe (ECAADE and CAAD Futures), Asia (CAADRIA), the Middle East (ASCAAD) and South America (SIGRADI). The papers were grouped in research areas (design method, architectural theory and history, performance evaluation, human interaction, representation and process & management), emphasis (education, application, collaboration, visualization, practice and theory) and technology development stage (specification, development, application demonstration and evaluation). The period of study comprises 11 years, from 2000 to 2011. Findings for each category are described and key publications and authors are identified.