Keywords Abstract
Ji, Guohua, Ying Xu, and Ying Wang. "3D urban space information system: a preliminary prototype based on Google Earth plugin." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 359-368. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. 2D GIS has shown its limitations in many situations, especially when it's applied in urban design. Many studies have been carried out to deal with the problem. Some attempted to link 3D visualisation to data stored within 2D GIS, and others tried to combine GIS, CAD and visualisation together. They all aim to meliorate current GIS for 3D applications. The authors of this paper developed a preliminary prototype of a 3D urban space information system based on Google Earth Plugin. It sets up a server to store and offer specific urban space information. With the desktop application that embeds Google Earth Plugin, user can upload and download models on the server, view them in the virtual 3D environment of Google earth, and make models directly in the 3D environment. A server-side database plays the role of managing information. This paper introduces the key ideas and methods of the system development, including system structure, set-up of the serve, server side information management, and interactive modelling functions.
Park, Jieun, and Ji-Hyun Lee. "A home design system based on component reusability." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 27-36. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. This paper proposes a computer-aided design system for modular houses, focusing on component reusability. By resolving user-designed house layout into its component elements, and producing lists of reusable elements and those necessary to purchase, the system assists users in need of making design changes in their modular house. The application of the strategies described here may reduce human efforts in complicated process of re-arranging components according to new layout design and help to increase the reuse of module components in practice.
Santos, Filipe, Joaquim Reis, Pedro Lopes, Alexandra Paio, Sara Eloy, and Vasco Rato. "A multi-agent expert system shell for shape grammars." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 409-414. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. This paper proposes a multi-agent rule based architecture of a computational system for supporting generic work with shape grammars. The key ideas and technologies involved are presented. This computational system is being developed and will give support to an urban and architecture research based on shape grammar theories.
Khoo, C., and F. Salim. "A responsive morphing media skin." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 517-526. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012.

Existing media faades do not function as fenestration devices. They have been used mainly for visual communication and aesthetic purposes. This paper introduces a responsive morphing skin that can act as an active fenestration device as well as a media skin. We investigate new possibilities of using form-changing materials in designing responsive morphing skins that respond to environmental conditions and act as a communicative display. The design experiment that embodied this investigation, namely Blind, serves as a new layer of analogue media brise-soleil for existing space. It communicates the relationships between interior and exterior spaces visually and projects mutable imageries to the surrounding environment through sunlight. The design process of Blind simulates the responsive behaviour of the intended architectural skin by integrating physical computing and parametric design tools. This process includes the integration of soft apertures and architectural morphing skin to introduce a novel design method that enables an architectural skin to be a means of communication and fenestration. It responds to changing stimuli and intends to improve the spatial quality of existing environments through two types of transformations: morphological and patterned.

Chien, S., and H. Wang. "A support system for integrating smart technologies into existing buildings." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 445-454. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012.

We propose a support system for infill elements that integrate smart technologies based on Open Building principles. The design requirements were collected from design practitioners. It consists of an architectural sub-system and an information sub-system. A working prototype was constructed and some smart infill components were implemented to demonstrate and examine the system design. The prototype was evaluated by design practitioners. 

Baerlecken, Daniel Michael, and Gernot Riether. "Aggregates: Digital design for design." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 607-616. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. This paper discusses an educational design methodology for undergraduate studio instruction, which uses a systematic and research based design approach. Based on Lars Spuybroek's methodology that was originally developed as a one-year graduate and postgraduate studio, a new method for undergraduate teaching has been developed. The paper will discuss Spuybroek's methodology, as developed for the graduate and postgraduate program, and explain its adaption for undergraduate studio instruction. Spuybroek's approach is based on a model that starts with research in systems in general that is them tuned to a certain set of architectural questions and developed into parametric buildings in a stepwise procedure by delaying the specifics of site and program.
Benros, Deborah, José Duarte, and Sean Hanna. "An alternative Palladian shape grammar: a subdivision grammar for Palladian villas." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 415-424. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. This paper describes a shape grammar that recreates Palladio's villas. A Palladian grammar was previously proposed by Stiny and Mitchell. However, this alternative grammar uses different parametric shape rules and methodology to test the hypothesis that different grammars can generate the same corpus of designs. The formalism is then implemented using a computerised design tool. The grammar includes subdivision rules that allow for a more economical formulation. The project is part of wider research aimed at formulating a generic housing grammar.
Markova, Stanimira, and Andreas Dieckmann. "An IFC based design check approach for the optimisation of material efficiency in the built environment." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 275-284. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. Compared to other industries, the built environment is still the largest and one of the least efficient consumers of resources. Existing measures and procedures for resource recovery and reuse are focused on the demolition phase, when the composition of materials and structures is mostly unknown and hard to be analysed. Therefore, these measures are somewhat inefficient for overall high-rate material recovery. The enhancement of the integrated semantic planning process by the introduction of the IFC unified data standard and BIM technology is a first-time opportunity to track, analyse, document and simulate all relevant players, parameters and processes with an impact on the resource and material efficiency through the entire life cycle of a building in the design phase of a building project. The presented work explores the potential of IFC to serve as a framework for achieving a higher material efficiency in the built environment. A proposed design check approach for the simulation and optimisation of material efficiency in a building over its life cycle is based on a system of key parameters and actions organised in logic trees. The parameters and actions are translated into IFC objects. Additionally required IFC objects and properties are identified and described.
Al-Saati, Maha, David Botta, and Robert F. Woodbury. "Architects on architectural film and animation." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 637-646. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. As part of our inquiry about the practice of architectural film and animation and where it might go, this paper presents the results of interviews with architects on space, and on animation. We present their rich sense of space, and explain how they structure architectural film and animation. We found that architects wish to convey the subjective impact of design, but don't know how to connect film editing techniques to architectural ends. Computational design could fill this gap with, for example, drag-and-drop editing patterns.
Gerber, David, Mohamed ElSheikh, and Aslihan Solmaz. "Associative parametric design and financial optimisation - 'Cash Back 1.0': Parametric design for visualising and optimising Return on Investment for early stage design decision-making." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 47-56. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. Cash-Back 1.0 presents research on the development of methodologies and technologies to simulate the cause and effect of early stage geometric design alternatives of buildings and the real time results upon financial pro-forma. Through the encoding of design rules and their associative relationships to financial pro-forma the research illustrates enhanced visualization of early stage building design decisions and their cumulative impact on financial goals and constraints. The research presents value an associative parametric design process affords often-disparate domains through correlation and visualization. The paper describes incorporation of a feedback loop between pro-forma and geometric models in conjunction with an optimization method. Given the level of uncertainty in early stage design decision making the research contributes partial solutions to the domain problems of design decision uncertainty and design cycle latency and is further argumentation for increased use of parametric design methods and automation to support design domain integration.
Chok, Kermin. "Automation at scale: Geometry, analysis and post processing." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 17-26. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. Our team is currently engaged in the peer review of a large steel stadium dome roof. The roof has a diameter of approximately 300m and rises to over 70m in elevation. In addition to its size, the roof also contains a moveable component which can be deployed during inclement weather. The roof structure comprises of approximately 32,000 beams with 10,000 nodes. This paper overviews our efforts in scaling digital design techniques with regards to automation and parametric geometry to expedite the verification of structural members and geometrically complicated connection nodes. The paper will discuss two realms where automation was deployed. The first realm is the verification of Type 1 node connections where less than eight members intersect at a single work point and is relatively geometrically simple. Type 1 nodes were checked against published code requirements. Type 2 connections consisted of nodes where more than eight members intersected or bracing angles did not meet code guidelines. Type 2 nodes were verified using the finite element method and large scale automation of node geometry creation to structural analysis post processing was employed.
Fukuda, Tomohiro, Ayako Taguchi, and Lei Sun. "Availability of a distributed and synchronised type meeting by using cloud computing type VR for spatial design study." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 203-210. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. The mobility of people's activities, and cloud computing technologies are becoming advanced in the modern age of information and globalisation. This study describes the availability of discussing spatial design while sharing a 3-dimensional virtual space with stakeholders in a distributed and synchronised environment. First of all, a townscape design support system based on a cloud computing type VR system is constructed. Next, an experiment of a distributed and synchronised discussion of townscape design is executed with subjects who are specialists in the townscape design field. After the experiment, both qualitative mental evaluation and quantitative evaluation were carried out. The conclusions are as follows: 1. Users who use VR frequently and who use videoconferencing consider that the difference with face-to-face discussion is small. 2. A Moir pattern may occur in a gradation picture. 3. The availability of distributed and synchronised discussions with cloud computing type VR is high.
Symeonidou, Ioanna, and Utssav Gupta. "Bending curvature: a design tool for interactive complexity." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 547-556. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. Bending is a phenomenon that occurs with great frequency due to the presence of natural forces like gravity, wind. It occurs whenever an element is subjected to an external load applied perpendicularly to its longitudinal axis. Every known element, independently of its stiffness, exhibits certain amount of bending. This paper explores this phenomenon not as a failure mode to provide tolerance for, but as a tool to design with. The design research presented here emerged from a combination of digital explorations calibrated through analogue experiments of bending rods. The aim was to create a model that would incorporate the interaction between bending rods and the transfer of forces. Rods were connected to each other with rings that allowed for certain degree of freedom, though limiting them to be in contact with each other at all time. The rods started bending in various planes, their curvature is negotiated with that of their neighbours and thus a process of self-organisation with multiple parameters was present until equilibrium was attained. Intrigued by this observation, this research seeks to look at bending as a possible design tool. Understanding the behaviour of a single element in its simplex situation and simulating this behaviour in a computational environment has been the starting point for building up a model where complexity is built progressively as a result of local interactions among several bending rods.
Lertsithichai, Surapong. "Building Thailand's tallest Ganesh: CAD/CAM integration in conventional metal fabrication." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 337-346. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. Ganesh (Ganesa or Ganesha) is a Hindi god well known for his distinguishable elephant head and widely revered as the god of success or remover of obstacles.  Patrons in Thailand have worshipped Ganesh and respected him by means of erecting statues of Ganesh in various poses and sizes throughout the country. In late 2008, the people of Chacheongsao, a province located East of Bangkok, decided to create Thailand's tallest standing Ganesh statue made with bronze reaching heights up to 39 meters and situated on the Bangpakong river bank overseeing the city and its people. The author and design team was approached by representatives from Chacheongsao and commissioned to advise the process from conception to construction. The challenge started with seeking appropriate computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies and innovative processes to guide the design team throughout the production. The 0.60-meter bronze cast sculpture of the Ganesh was scanned using a 3D optical scanner to generate a solid model of the statue. A surface model was then extracted from the 3D model to firstly determine the most efficient structural support within the statue and secondly to generate surface strips for the foundry to create actual bronze casts. The construction of the project began early 2009 and the statue has since been erected from its base to currently its head. During construction, the author and design team has encountered several problems translating pixels to parts. Several errors have occurred during the mould and cast production process as well as construction errors on site causing mismatches of the structure and surface, misalignments, and protruding structural supports and joints. The lessons learned from this project is documented and analysed with hopes to create a more effective process for future projects with similar requirements. 
Wang, Yiping, and Wei Zhang. "CAAD education in the panorama of architectural education system: a research on visualisation of the educational tools." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 579-588. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012.

The significance of CAAD begins with tools. However, the values of CAAD to architecture education are not only in increasing subjects associated with CAAD in the teaching but in improving comprehensive digitisation of architecture professional education. When CAAD develops into the level of BIM, the value of information emerges. And as the exchange mechanism of build information share data at the same time, BIM already has User-Facing Exchange Models and Vendor-Facing Model in NBIMS. Educators are more sensitive to the happening process of professional education and BIM should and can have Education-Facing Model and two inferences about the comprehensive digitisation of architectural education system including the visual organisation to architecture knowledge and the establishment of teaching process management digitisation system for whom a direct derived research is the application of AEIM (Architectural Education Information Model). This paper is a preliminary study of the possibility of such a model and its value as a tool of design education, and further research can be conducted to study the systematic structure of the information model and methods of its visualisation.

Kelly, Nick, and John S. Gero. "Computational modelling of the design conversation as a sequence of situated acts." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 121-130. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. This paper describes the design conversation as a sequence of situated acts. It distinguishes the research questions that require attention for the computation of a more situated design conversation, in terms of design actions and design interpretations. It presents an architecture for “more situated” systems and describes some examples of implementation. The limitations and complexities of what has been achieved are identified.
Kaijima, Sawako. "Computer simulation for intuitive structuring." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 369-378. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. Computer simulation methods have opened up new possibilities for design and research by introducing environments in which we can manipulate and observe. For instance, architects utilise three-dimensional modelling tools to simulate architectural geometries, and engineers use Finite Element software to simulate structural behaviour. Simulation tools make certain aspects of architecture efficient, but, on the other hand, they have brought new types of challenges into the field. One such challenge is the structuring of so-called complex geometries. These forms are often conceived in an environment where gravity, scales, and material are absent and calculated in a model where geometries are frozen and static. As a result, there exists little understanding between the two disciplines in solving the design to come to a well-negotiated form. In the context thereof, our work focuses on the development of interactive simulation environments that induce intuition towards the specific counter-intuitive problem of structuring in the early stages of design. The paper gives insights into aspects of simulation relevant to architectural design and structural engineering. Subsequently, three simulation environments that we have developed are presented to demonstrate our strategies.
Grace, Kazjon, John S. Gero, and Robert Saunders. "Constructing computational associations between ornamental designs." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 37-46. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. This paper presents the application of a computational model of association to the domain of real-world ornamental designs. The driving principle of the model, interpretation-driven association, is discussed with respect to its suitability to design applications. An implementation of the model is presented, in which associations are constructed based on topological and typological relationships within each design's structure, rather than based on literal similarities. Results are presented which demonstrate that the implementation and the model from which it was derived are capable of associating between real-world design objects.
Fok, Wendy. "Cross pollination of ideas: Design fabrication and experimentation." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 589-598. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. The following pages show a selection of studio projects which explore the opportunistic collaborative process between commercial fabricators, material sponsorships, and the institution. The articles speaks about the intersection of design experimentation and significance of fabrication within the contained process of [design | optimisation | fabrication]. Within this process the article intersects between practice, commercialisation, and design-research, into the development arena of architectural academic outcomes. The demonstrating fact within much of the research and development also touches upon intricate details of modularity, and designing with optimisation in mind for the purpose (and ease) of fabrication, prototyping, and “real-life” production. While the focus of the academic studios deliberates and uses parametric design systems through digital and analogue modelling to contribute to a full scale designed installation, and actively working with a commercial fabricator and material sponsor (Luxx Newhouse & LG Hausys HI-MACS). The aim of the courses were to acquaint students with theoretical and practical conditions needed for the creating of experimental relational modularity between geometry, scale, and materials as well as the ability to negotiate between quick intuitive studies and definitive quantifiable decisions.
Toth, Bianca, Stefan Boeykens, Andre Chaszar, Patrick Janssen, and Rudi Stouffs. "Custom digital workflows: a new framework for design analysis integration." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 163-172. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. Flexible information exchange is critical to successful design integration, but current top-down, standards-based and model-oriented strategies impose restrictions that are contradictory to this flexibility. In this paper we present a bottom-up, user-controlled and process-oriented approach to linking design and analysis applications that is more responsive to the varied needs of designers and design teams. Drawing on research into scientific workflows, we present a framework for integration that capitalises on advances in cloud computing to connect discrete tools via flexible and distributed process networks. Adopting a services-oriented system architecture, we propose a web-based platform that enables data, semantics and models to be shared on the fly. We discuss potential challenges and opportunities for the development thereof as a flexible, visual, collaborative, scalable and open system.
Biswas, Tajin, Tsung-Hsien Wang, and Ramesh Krishnamurti. "Data sharing for sustainable assessments: Using functional databases for interoperating multiple building information structures." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 193-202. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. This paper presents the development and implementation of an automatic sustainable assessment prototype using functional databases. For the practical purpose, we use Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) as the exemplar standard to demonstrate the integrative process from building information aggregation to final evaluation. We start with a Building Information model, and use Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBie) as a bridge to integrate LEED requirements. At present, the process of sustainable building assessment requires information exchange from various building professionals. However, there is no procedure to manage, or use, information pertaining to sustainability. In our research, we translate rules from LEED into computable formulas and develop a prototype application to produce templates for LEED submission.
Fischer, Thomas. "Design enigma: a typographical metaphor for epistemological processes, including designing." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 679-688. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. Presenting a hard-to-predict typography-varying system predicated on Nazi-era cryptography, this paper illustrates conditions under which unrepeatable phenomena can arise, even from straight-forward mechanisms. Such conditions arise where systems are observed from outside of boundaries that arise through their observation, and where such systems refer to themselves in a circular fashion. This illustration aims to show the dilemma of scientific design research: Objective outsiders are mystified while those subjectively involved understand.
Lin, Yifeng, and Shanshan Shen. "Designing a performance-oriented house envelope based on a parametric approach: an integrated method." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 507-516. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. Conventional house envelope design methods often generate few alternatives related to meeting living comfort and building environmental requirements. However, these design methods are increasingly facing difficulties in following the dynamic climate change and advanced building performance conditions in the early stage of the design process. This paper attempts to introduce an integrated method for designing a performance-orientated house envelope in New Zealand which adopts the parametric approach. This approach can guide and assist designers to make a well-informed decision, which can satisfy both aesthetics and energy performance, and gain more efficiency for the design process in the early stage of housing performance simulation.
Gerber, David, and Shih-Hsin Lin. "Designing-in performance through parameterisation, automation, and evolutionary algorithms: 'H.D.S. BEAGLE 1.0 ." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 141-150. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. Design is both a goal oriented and decision making activity. It is ill-defined by nature as designing includes weighing and understanding trade-offs amongst soft and hard objectives or in other words vague or imprecise and computationally definable criteria and goals. In this regard designers in most contemporary practices face a crisis of sorts. How do we achieve performance or sustainability under these large degrees of uncertainty or with limited design cycle times? Fundamentally design collaborations, teams of domain experts, are not typically given enough time to design-explore, generate design alternatives in order to find or evolve solution quality through expansive design search spaces. Given these limitations of time and the ever more complex criteria for “designing-in” performance our research approach provides a computational strategy to expand the solution space as well as pre-sort and qualify candidate designs. The research presents a novel methodology and technology framework and an initial implementation that was developed to enhance the human activity of design exploration, domain integration, and further evolve design process for performance goals. The research does so through generating and optimising a highly correlated solution space in conjunction with a near simultaneous evaluation of design alternative fitness. 
Karakiewicz, Justyna, and Thomas Kvan. "Diagramming in a digital environment." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 151-160. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. Research into digital design environments has explored modelling, generating and testing design propositions. When considering the broader design literature, however, we notice that a significant contribution to design is absent, that of diagramming. In the realm of architectural theory discourse in the past few years, diagramming has been much discussed with many interpretations of the activity. This paper will demonstrate that the development of digital techniques can change dramatically our ability to conceptualise and produce generative diagrams as previously not possible. The paper will follow the work done at the in the Melbourne School of Design. We will demonstrate how students are introduced to diagramming techniques and shown how to formulate a concept, then a program generator and to test a final proposal. The paper will also demonstrate how digital techniques can dramatically change the way we conceptualise and approach design problems. In this repeated teaching technique, we illustrate how digital systems contribute to conceptual diagrams and this contributes to the larger theoretical debate on diagramming techniques by introducing digital perspectives. The paper will therefore contribute to discussion on the ways in which digital systems can be engaged in substantive architectural teaching beyond the rote application of proprietary software and representative approaches. 
Braumann, Johannes, and Sigrid Brell-Cokcan. "Digital and physical computing for industrial robots in architecture: Interfacing Arduino with industrial robots." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 317-326. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. Customisation is one of the most important topics in architecture, as architects generally work on individual prototypes instead of mass-produced designs. By using customised design and fabrication tools, architects are able to individually respond to challenges, instead of relying on universal software tools. This paper proposes new software components for interfacing industrial robots with physical computing microcontrollers, thereby allowing the customisation of physical tools for industrial robots. By pairing physical computing with rapid prototyping, architects are able to design and prototype individual fabrication processes for industrial robots.
Ambrose, Michael. "Digital conception(s): Architectural concepts of digital design and making." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 699-708. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. This paper presents an investigation of probative works of architectural thought and production executed in various forms of digital design and computational media. The applied design research focuses on an examination of the procedure or process constructed to both develop exact, precise digital models and constructed processes that result in design outcomes that cannot be pre-visioned. The changing position of the conceptualisation within the design process continually changes the relationship of the digital work and the computational framework. The work challenges one to interpret design processes of translation and transformation, through the continual oscillation between developed in pursuit of known results and constructed methods for making, in an effort to unravel the pretext of the singular point of view to reveal the intention of the design conception(s). The projects discussed here focus on relationships between the projection of space in architectural representation and the production of architectural form through complex geometries relative to discontinuities and the way in which they agitate and alter one another. DIGITAL conception(s) operate across three primary areas of research, animation, conceptualisation and fabrication. The work oscillates between digital and physical artefacts that intertwine digital/physical workflows while simultaneously engaging temporal issues of time based media through motion graphics and animate constructs.
Schnabel, Marc Aurel, and Yingge Qu. "Digital Manga Virtual Environment: Bi-tonal visualisation for texture-mapped virtual environments." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 619-628. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012.

Bi-tonal and non-photorealistic architectural depictions can be employed to develop a narrative that engages the reader with not only the visual aspects, but also other sensorial feelings. Architecture is subsequently not only represented through its factual dimensions of length, width and height, but is extended to intangible sensorial realms. This paper presents a modified rendering appearance of the graphical depiction of a Virtual Environments (VE) -software to communicate design akin to Japanese cartoon (manga) depictions whereby we expand the two-dimensional manga-images into a three-dimensional VE. The modified visualization can be used for storytelling and developing a narrative that professionals and laypersons alike easily can access, understand and interact. The bi-tonal depictions offer users to experience both, visual richness of the original model, as well as enhanced design communications.

Globa, Anastasia, and Michael Donn. "Digital to physical: Comparative evaluation of three main CNC fabrication technologies adopted for physical modelling in architecture." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 327-336. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. Recently, digital fabrication, being a logical extension of computer-aided technology to the material world, was introduced into the field of computational design in architecture. The objective of this experimental study is to investigate and systematise data regarding the production issues and limitations of the main Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) fabrication technologies adopted for physical modelling in architecture. This study also aims to observe the value of potential feedback to the design process from different types of digitally fabricated architectural models. This experimental research systematically explores digital fabrication as a computer-aided modelling tool, using two international architectural competition projects as case studies: the design of a skyscraper and relocatable schools. Developed by authors especially for this research paper, each case study acts as a test bed to compare and evaluate digital production techniques adopted for physical modelling in architecture. Designs go through a process of refinement using CNC fabrication as an integral part of the design process. Each step in the process is closely evaluated as to its effectiveness according to a matrix of feedback criteria.
Chang, Teng-Wen, Heng Jiang, Sheng-Han Chen, and Sambit Datta. "Dynamic skin: Interacting with space: an inter-media interface between people and space." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 89-98. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. Space in its physical form provides the major architectural experience for the people inside the space. How people interact with their surrounding space dynamically is a noteworthy research topic. Architectural skin (or “skin” in this project) is the physical interface between people and their surroundings. The skin in this sense represents an inter-media that receive/sense the interactive behaviours of people and react back into space. Further, the skin needs to be mediated and reacted dynamically according to the interaction behaviours. With the case studies, the knowledge of skin design has achieved and then applied to develop three prototypes. In order to achieve the feasibility of skin design for dynamic skins, the multiple channels of input sensors are desired. Thus, a system called dynamic skin is proposed and details of process are evaluated. In order to incorporate the diverse scenario appeared in the cases and prototypes, a distributed system approach such as multi-agent system design is appealing to us. We propose a distributed dynamic skin platform that cannot only provide sufficient interaction between people and space, but also extending such space to the cloud and network.
Hanafin, S, Sambit Datta, B Rolfe, and M Hobbs. "Envelope tesselation with stochastic rotation of 4-fold penttiles." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 253-262. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. The challenge of developing adaptive, responsive low-energy architecture requires new knowledge about the complex and dynamic interaction between envelope architecture and optimisation between competing environmental performance metrics. Advances in modelling the geometry of building envelopes and control technologies for adaptive buildings now permit the sophisticated evaluation of alternative envelope configurations for a set of performance criteria. This paper reports on a study of the parametric control of a building envelope based on moveable faade components, acting as a shading device to reduce thermal gain within the building. This is investigated using a novel pentagonal tiling strategy considering the component design, tessellation and control methods.
Roudavski, Stanislav. "Estranged-gaze pedagogy: Probing architectural computing through multiple ways of seeing." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 659-668. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. This paper discusses the challenges of teaching architectural design theory in a world transformed by the digital revolution. Design is changing in dramatic ways and architecture is changing with it but a well-defined body of knowledge that can serve as a foundation for digital architectural design has  as yet  not been established. Relevant concepts, methods and precedents originate in many fields that are typically well beyond the scope of reading suggested to (or encountered by) students of architecture. This material is highly dynamic, often contradictory and, typically, of varying quality. Presenting this developing body of knowledge to students is a difficult challenge. A suitable pedagogical approach ought to reflect the heterogeneous and volatile nature of the contemporary design discourse enabling critical analysis of existing design practices, evidenced defence of on's own creative work and successful communication with many heterogeneous stakeholders.
Lu, Kai-Tzu, Hsin-Hou Lin, Ting-Han Chen, and Chi-Fa Fan. "Finding the vital houses information using immersive multi-touch interface." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 379-386. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. This paper discusses the creation of natural behaviours for multi-touch house information (MTHI) system using Frustrated Total Internal Reflection (FTIR) technology. After analysing how APPLE and Microsoft defined their touch behaviours we discovered that not enough were responding of commercial application. Therefore using basic touching functions as reference we developed some new gestures and GUI for the real estate market. This system was launched to assist real estate salesmen in Taiwan.  
Elkhaldi, Maher, and Ellen Yi- Luen Do. "Generative synthesis systems: a framework." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 399-408. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. Responses delivered by a generative synthesis system (GSS) vary between creative solutions and unusable outcomes. The type of GSS response is driven by many factors such as: the design context, designer's interpretation, implementation environments, design language, and the GSS composition, among many factors. In this paper, we describe a GSS framework to provide a recipe for delivering responses, which can be qualified as solutions. The framework focuses on GSS composition. It includes descriptions for: building blocks, components, and building strategy. The framework is informed by generative design literature and by our experimentation. We present the framework through: a brief background to GSS, metrics, building blocks, components, and building strategy. We also show an example of GSS implementation and offer a brief discussion. 
Ham, Jeremy J., and Marc Aurel Schnabel. "How social is the virtual design studio? a case study of a third year design studio." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 173-182. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. With the advent of social networks, it became apparent that the social aspect of designing and learning plays a crucial role in students education. Technologies and skills are the base on which learners interact. The ease of communication, leadership opportunity, democratic interaction, teamwork, and the sense of community are some of the aspects that are now in the centre of design interaction. The paper examines Virtual Design Studios (VDS) that used media-rich platforms and analyses the influence the social aspect plays in solving all problems on the sample of a design studio at Deakin University. It studies the effectiveness of the generated social intelligence and explores the facilitation of students self-directed learning. Hereby the paper studies the construction of knowledge via social interaction and how blended learning environments foster motivation and information exchange. It presents its finding based on VDS that were held over the past three years.
Baerlecken, Daniel Michael, and David Duncan. "Junk: Design build studio." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 305-314. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. The paper presents a design build studio that investigates the role of waste as building material and develops a proposal for an installation that uses CAAD and CAM tools in combination with traditional fabrication tools to design and build an installation out of waste materials. The paper describes the concept development and the construction process through the help of computational tools. Recycling is in the process of becoming an integral part of sustainable architecture. However, there are very few digital design projects that use re-used or recycled materials in combination with their architectural and aesthetic qualities and potentials. The potential of such an investigation is explored within a design build studio. What is junk? What is a building material? What are the aesthetics of junk?
Brell-Cokcan, Sigrid, Johannes Braumann, Baris Cokcan, and Martin Kleindienst. "Just in time design: Developing parametric design tools for architectural design." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 455-464. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. In this paper we will present custom design and parametric programming strategies for the design of complex spatial structures based on our applied research for a 10.000 m freeform technology centre in Düzce, Turkey. The goal is to develop intuitive, easy-to-use parametric design components for layout, analysis, optimisation and aesthetic architectural free form design.
Warnock, Finnian, and Stanislav Roudavski. "Local optioneering: Producing complex geometries through opportunistic networking." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 485-494. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. How can small architectural practices participate in contemporary architectural experimentation? One route is through engagement with complex, parametrically controlled geometries. However, the utilisation of such geometries by small practices is comparatively rare. We sought to explore the circumstances of such engagements with the hope of finding what can make them more feasible. To this end, we developed a purpose-specific methodology based on the simulation of an integrated design workflow. To develop and assess this simulation, we exposed a hypothetical project to multiple stakeholders including fabricators, engineers, architects, builders, clients, planning authorities and researchers. The outcomes suggest that the conceptual stance described as optioneering in application to large projects can also be productive at smaller scales.
Peinovich, Ella, and John Fernández. "Localised design-manufacture for developing countries: a methodology for creating culturally sustainable architecture using CAD/CAM." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 285-294. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. This paper demonstrates the production of endogenous solutions for global development when applying local workforce skills in the design-manufacturing process using available computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) tools. The methodology outlined in this paper improves technology uptake in developing countries by promoting localisation of the design-manufacture process coupled with local knowledge to promote culturally sustainable technology dissemination. This paper documents a set of design rules and manufacturing methods used to create precision moulds with locally available CAD/CAM tools. The moulds shown here were used by local craftsmen in the casting and construction of a prototypical precast architectural system deployed in the urban slums around Nairobi, Kenya.
Matthews, Linda, and Gavin Perin. "Materialising the pixel: a productive synergy." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 475-484. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. The composite photoreceptive field of the human eye receives photons emitted from a source and converts this energy into image information within the brain. The internal mechanisms of the contemporary camera imaging technologies represent yet another in a long history of attempts to technically replicate this procedure. The critical difference between the capacity of the human eye to receive quanta events or photons and that of a camera transmitting to a digital display device, rests in how much of the original signal can be recovered. This paper aims to show how the “information deficit” associated with this technological conversion can be enhanced by the deliberate exploitation and re-arrangement of the camera's image sensor mechanism. The paper will discuss how the mapping of pixel grid geometries and colour filter array patterns at the vastly increased scale of building façades, imparts a materiality to urban form that modifies the visibility and performance of the corresponding virtual screen image. The exploration of the material adaptation of pixel geometries leads to a new technique that extends the working gamut of pixel-based RGB colour space and both establishes an index to develop material performance criteria and modifies the limitations of traditional viewing technologies.
Al-Saati, Maha, David Botta, and Robert F. Woodbury. "Moving in filmic spaces: Relating camera movements to spatial archetypes in architectural animations." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 629-636. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. Architects sometimes use architectural animations to explain their designs. To probe the practice of architectural film/animation, this paper assembles filmic spaces as a conceptual tool that connects spatial archetypes with camera movements.
Kaushik, Vignesh, and Patrick Janssen. "Multi-criteria evolutionary optimisation of building enveloped during conceptual stages of design." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 497-506. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. This paper focuses on using evolutionary algorithms during conceptual stages of design process for multi-criteria optimisation of building envelopes. An experiment is carried out in optimising a panelled building envelope. The design scenario for the experiment is based on the scenario described in Shea et al. (2006) for the building envelope of the Media Centre Building in Paris. However, in their research, the optimisation process only allowed panel configuration to be optimised. In this paper, the task is to approach the optimisation of the envelope of the same building, assuming it to be in the early phases of the design process. The space of possible solutions is therefore assumed to be much wider, and as a result both external building form and internal layout of functional activities are allowed to vary. The performance intent of the experiment remains the same as that of Shea et al. (2006), which was to maximise daylight and minimise afternoon direct sun hours in the building at certain specific locations.
Herr, Christiane. "Non-trivial interactive facades." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 99-108. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. This paper presents a discussion of contemporary interactive media faades that complements the currently primarily technical framing of this field of research. Media faades, in the form of digitally orchestrated façade illumination, are discussed here as sites of potential encounter and interaction that form part of the public sphere. These aspects seem both underestimated as well as underused as media façades tend to be limited to pre-programmed and primarily ornamental trivial response patterns, or to serving as oversized displays. This paper discusses media faades from an architectural rather than a technological perspective and critically assesses the promises of interactivity as well as implications of such faades on urban public space.
Manahl, Markus, Heimo Schimek, Emmanuel Dominguez, and Albert Wiltsche. "Ornamental discretisation of free-form surfaces: Developing digital tools to integrate design rationalisation with the form finding process." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 347-356. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. The adoption of digital planning methods has given rise to an unprecedented formal freedom in architectural design. Free-form shapes enjoy considerable popularity in architectural production today. However, these shapes prove to be notoriously hard to fabricate. This paper reports on an ongoing research project investigating the approximation of continuous double-curved surfaces by discrete meshes consisting solely of planar facets, which can be constructed efficiently by using standardised, mass-produced building materials. We introduce our geometrical approach, which is based on the intersection of tangent planes to the surface, and present the digital tools we conceived to integrate the processes of design rationalisation and form-finding.
Gerber, David, and Senel Solmaz. "PARA-Typing the making of difference: Associative parametric design methodologies for teaching the prototyping of material affect." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 233-242. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012.

PARA-Typing the Making of Difference presents design research and instruction into the use of constraint based digital and analogue modelling techniques and the development of associative parametric models to simulate highly differentiated fabricated form. These design research projects were conceived as manual analogue generative processes for prototyping modularity and serial differentiation. Then through associative parametric design technologies and methodologies, modular fields were design explored and developed in concert with material properties and constraints. Utilising digital fabrication full-scale installations were designed, manufactured, and constructed as tiled walls that created differentiated space within site-specific configurations. 

Fernando, R., Robin Drogemuller, and A. Burden. "Parametric and generative methods with building information modelling: Connecting BIM with explorative design modelling." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 537-546. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. The design of architecture, in practice, entails the collaboration of many disciplines each with their own set of tools and representations. Building Information Models aim to support interoperability between these disciplines. However current implementations require a lot of manual work involving translating parts from the various specialised descriptions to the common model format. Domain Specific Languages are a development from Information Technology that defines a mapping from the concepts used in one discipline to those used in another. In this paper, a workflow incorporating the movement between specialised languages and a central model is described. The central model is structured using the Industrial Foundation Classes (IFC). The motivation for elaborating on the interdisciplinary workflow is the desire to create a more iterative process without the need for the manual recreation of models. While it is difficult to have a description or language that contains all the information of all the disciplines, this research demonstrates how the IFC schema acts as a pivot not just between data sets, but also between concepts expressed in different representations thus giving from analysis to design.
Huang, Weixin, and Weiguo Xu. "Parametric urban design exploration in a graduate design studio." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 559-568. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. A city is a typical complex system that composed of billions of individual factors that interact with each other, and evolve dynamically. Parametric design method considers design conditions as the parameters of form generation, and introduces bottom-up emergent process in computers into architectural design. Because of such mechanism, it is supposed that parametric design can be applied in urban design problems, and brings rationality and creativity into urban design. In the year 2011, a joint design studio of Princeton University, Tokyo University and Tsinghua University is carried out. Graduate students from the three universities dive into the design of a micro-city that expands from Haneda airport in Tokyo bay area. The design studio in Tsinghua lasts for 16 weeks, and the students are asked to develop their ideas in a parametric way, and explore the potential of bottom-up generation of urban design using computer tools.
Urvi, Sheth. "Parametricism: Indian social need in complexity and chaos." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 433-442. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. Indian society living in its physical context and administrative boundaries is complex. The contemporary built environment imitating perceived advance technology where development is purely measured by material consumption is chaos. The present approach to meet dynamic and diverse demands emerging from the complexity and economical boom is fragmented and superficial. The challenge is to find order – the hidden patterns - through an approach that analysis and interprets the complexity with the holistic vision to offer contextual variety inclusive of qualitative richness in the existing chaos. Considering that Parametricism is based on algorithms and mathematics it is generally understood as quantification where as it is also important to understand its qualitative impact. The paper is an inquiry on qualitative gains of Parametricism that helps shaping society in Indian context. This is demonstrated by bringing forward understanding on qualitative gains of Parametricism exemplified with an academic exploration and inter-relating them with Indian examples to showcase the opportunities.
Diniz, Nancy. "Process-driven concepts: Digital agendas in studio teaching." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 599-606. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. This paper discusses studio design curricula using digital design as the medium to design process. The fundamental idea explored is that digital design thinking is fundamentally process driven as opposed to narrative driven and that digital design thinking leads to different way of conceptualising and solving design problems. The paper presents four studio case studies using different methodologies illustrating current digital design models. The types of studios chosen and the working methodologies adopted will be discussed in the light of understanding this shift of design conceptual thinking.
Stojanovic, Djordje. "Prototypical architecture: Design research method with full-scale models." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 689-698. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. This paper will discuss the role of the prototype in the design process, in the context of adaptive principles and iterative procedures. The starting point of this study will be the analysis of several recent projects from THEVERYMANY and their concept of "prototypical architecture". This paper aims to give an insight into both a different conception of architecture and the specific ways of research-oriented work which have redefined the role of the prototype in the design process. In the analysis presented here, the role of computer-aided architectural design is seen as fundamental in the development and further improvement of the iterative design process through faster and more affordable construction of prototypes.
Dritsas, Stylianos. "Rationalisation of complex building envelopes." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 16-Jul. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. Rationalization of architectural geometry is paramount to a design's manufacturing and construction. This paper presents a methodology of pre/post rationalization of building envelope geometry using statistical computation. 
de Leon, Alexander. "Rationalisation of freeform façades: a technique for uniform hexagonal panelling." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 243-252. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. This paper is an account of the façade rationalisation strategy developed at Gehry Technologies for mitigating the tradeoffs between project constructability and the aesthetic implications of arranging flat panels over a complex surface. The strategy outlined was developed as the result of the digital building delivery of the Museo Soumaya façade in Mexico City designed by Fernando Romero LAR. This report documents the development process of a method for obtaining relevant construction information flows enabling the assembly of the façade system by a third-party sub-contractor in support of the façade system coordination. This report concludes on a method using bespoke software for extending the parametric modelling system Digital Project in the design support role of obtaining an aesthetically pleasing arrangement of flat hexagonal panels over a freeform surface. 
Johansson, Mikael, and Mattias Roupé. "Real-time rendering of large building information models: Current state vs. state-of-the-art." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 647-656. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. With the use of Building Information Models (BIM), real-time 3D visualisations have become a natural tool in order to communicate ideas and share information between all involved parties in a project. Currently, several different BIM viewers are available for the purpose of interactive presentations and design reviews. However, as BIMs become larger and more detailed, it provides a challenge for available software solutions to manage them interactively. In this paper we present our findings from analysing three commonly used BIM viewers - Tekla BIMSight, Autodesk Navisworks and Solibri Model Viewer - in terms of real-time rendering performance. In addition we have developed a prototype BIM viewer to test modern approaches for efficient real-time rendering. Specifically, we have implemented the latest version of the Coherent Hierarchical Culling algorithm. Our results show that existing BIM viewers all share limitations in their ability to handle large and complex BIMs interactively. However, for the same test models, our prototype BIM viewer enables smooth real-time performance with no visual artefacts. The results from our tests thus shows that the technology to enable correct real-time rendering of large and complex BIMs is already accessible, but are currently not utilised by any of the tested BIM viewers.
Dutt, Florina, and Subhajit Das. "Responsive achitectural surface design from nonlinear systems biology: Responsive architectural design by computational methods." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 465-474. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012.

The fundamental processes in living systems can be a potential resource to derive nonlinear relationships that could find application in the design of responsive surface from an architectural standpoint. This research focuses on deriving a parametric relationship from a phenomenon in cell biology to generate an architectural expression of responsive surface/ faade. It further delineates the dynamic feedback mechanism from the environment and user as control factors. Through extensive investigation of cell-to-cell connections in the mammary epithelial cells and review of evident relay of communication across the entire system of cells, we could unfold the logical parameters of the biological system. Parametric modelling indicating the causality of the surface condition, changes with the change in extracellular matrix. This gives an opportunity to manoeuvre the surface parameters, contrary to the involuntary cell environment where the behaviours are under the control of a physiological process. Architecturally, the dynamic relationship of surface in a hybridised model, explains that interactivity is not a mere one to one response to a stimulus. Evidently, this interactive process can be a sophisticated loop of feedback through different materiality and componentry that play their effects (and are played back) by “active” surfaces.

McGee, Wes, David Pigram, and Maciej Kaczynski. "Robotic reticulations: a method for the integration of multi-axis fabrication processes with algorithmic form-finding techniques." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 295-304. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. This paper addresses the design and fabrication of non-uniform structural shell systems. Structural shells, particularly gridshells, have a long history but due to their complexity and the accompanying high cost of construction, their application has been limited. The research proposes a method for integrating the design and fabrication processes such that complex double curved reticulated frames can be constructed efficiently, from prefabricated components, requiring significantly less formwork than is typical. A significant aspect of the method has been the development of software tools that allow for both algorithmic form-finding and the direct control of robotic fabrication equipment from within the same modelling package. A recent case-study is examined where the methodology has been applied to construct a reticulated shell structure in the form of a partial vault. Components were prefabricated using 6-axis robotic fabrication equipment. Individual parts are designed such that the assembly of components guides the form of the vault, requiring no centring to create the desired shape. Algorithmically generated machine instructions controlled a sequence of three tool changes for each part, using a single modular fixture, greatly increasing accuracy. The complete integration of computational design techniques and fabrication methodologies now enables the economical deployment of non-uniform structurally optimised reticulated frames.
Beorkrem, Christopher. "Running Interference: Complex Systems Intervention as Design Process." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 183-192. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. This paper presents a case study problem statement tested in the design studio with the intent of teaching methods for engaging systematic thinking as a process for deriving solutions to parametric design problems. The intent is to address the simulation environment developed through complex systems and interject a curve ball, or unexpected constraint delimiting the solution as part of the design process. This method was tested through the submittal of the projects to international design competitions. The students were asked to manipulate the competition criteria by appealing not only to the design criteria but also to the juries desire (whether conscious or unconscious) for novel sustainable processes of material usage and program. This material ecology is developed as a method for linking parametric modelling, not as a process for the application of a construction technique, but as a way to pre-rationalise material constraints and discover how program and form can operate within those constraints. In the first year of the studio two of six teams were selected as finalists and in the second year of the studio five of seven of the teams were selected as finalists. 
Schimek, Heimo, Emmanuel Dominguez, Albert Wiltsche, and Markus Manahl. "Sewing timber panels: an innovative digitally supported joint system for self-supported timber plate structures." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 213-222. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. This paper focuses on the joint system of flat panels as parts of a freeform building. This topic is a key area of the ongoing founded research project, in which we investigate nonstandard shapes, realized with standard building materials, namely cross-laminated timber (CLT). We use different discretization algorithms to overlay arbitrary freeform surfaces with ornaments consisting of polygonal flat panels. We investigate a series of ornaments and their discretization results on different surfaces. In this paper, we will present and discuss a new timber-to-timber joint system that we developed exclusively for this project. We discuss the results of the load tests that we performed recently and we take a look at the construction dependent requirements of the joint system concerning the tolerances and the geometry and also, how these constraints inform the digital process. As we will discuss throughout the paper, in earlier publications we described the form finding process and the geometrical guidelines for the discretization of a desired freeform building using ornamental flat patterns. This paper moves one step further as the digital becomes physical and it is closely related to building construction and the computational design outset. 
Fukuda, Tomohiro, Tian Zhang, Ayako Shimizu, Masaharu Taguchi, Lei Sun, and Nobuyoshi Yabuki. "SOAR: Sensor oriented mobile augmented reality for urban landscape assessment." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 387-396. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. This research presents the development of a sensor oriented mobile AR system which realises geometric consistency using GPS, a gyroscope and a video camera which are mounted in a smartphone for urban landscape assessment. A low cost AR system with high flexibility is realised. Consistency of the viewing angle of a video camera and a CG virtual camera, and geometric consistency between a video image and 3DCG are verified. In conclusion, the proposed system was evaluated as feasible and effective.
Delfosse, Vincent, John Schrayen, Roland Juchmes, and Pierre Leclercq. "Some advice for migrating to IFC." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 265-274. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. Nowadays, the BIM (Building Information Modelling) paradigm is a central topic in the CAAD community. Next to the commercial solutions, the IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) have emerged as the best open standard candidate for BIM interoperability. Despite the efforts of the community for promoting IFC over the last 15 years, it seems that its practical adoption in real-life projects has been very limited. The goal of this article is to explore how useful IFC can be today and to provide the reader with some advice for an effective adoption of IFC. Over the last year, we have conducted a project aiming at acquiring a sound understanding of IFC. It was made of two complementary investigations. On one hand, we have focused on the commercial modelling tools and the IFC support they were offering. On the other hand, we have focused on the IFC-based software developments. We have developed a tool converting IFC files into a dedicated thermal assessment based model. We will summarise the experience we have acquired in this project into some advice for users migrating to IFC. Our goal is to confront the practical aspects of the IFC developments, with both the theoretical ambitions and the commercial support currently available.
Cho, Ji. "Spatial ability, creativity, and studio performance in architectural design." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 131-140. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. Architectural design is a multifaceted discipline that requires many abilities, in particular creativity and spatial ability. In order to identify the relationships among spatial ability, creativity, and studio performance, an exploratory study was conducted at one Midwestern university in the USA. Twenty-one freshman architecture students participated in the study, which involved three tasks: (a) the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking that measures fluency and originality in creativity, (b) a group of general spatial ability tests, and (c) the computer-based Architectural Spatial Ability Test. Students scores on the tasks were compared with their studio performance grades using SPSS. Results show that studio performance correlated with the ASAT but did not correlate with the TTCT or a group of general spatial ability tests. These findings indicate that a student's performing well does not necessarily mean that she or he can generate many different alternatives (fluency) or original ideas (originality) nor that the student possesses general spatial abilities. The findings show the complexity of architectural design components and reveal beginning design students architectural abilities. 
Rajasekaran, Balaji, T. Brahmani, and C. Reshma. "Spatial personality for human space interaction: Space for change." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 69-78. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. Exploring the duality of pervasive computing and architecture in order to propose new models of interaction between people and their built environment. One of the unique "affordances" of digital media is interactivity. This word has come to stand for all manners of engagements between people and things but as McCollough (2004) reminds us the word implies deliberation over the exchange of messages. "Objects" or architecture would be exempt from this mode of communication since, in a likewise manner, we don't interact with a door, we simply open it. However, computing provides a reflexive twist for it is not only the means through which we indirectly communicate with others but also a subject with which we can directly interact. They solicit information and based on the deliberation we ask them for return responses. This quality of computing, especially as it becomes pervasive, has profound implications for architecture and urbanism. When computation becomes embedded into the very materials we build, they along with their nature as inanimate objects become questionable. Our environment itself becomes the interactive subject through which we can inquire about our condition, perform diagnostic tasks or most significantly converse to discover more about our surrounding and ourselves.
Beorkrem, Christopher, Niki DesImini, Mitch McGregor, and Igor Polakov. "Sphere mapping: a method for a responsive surface design." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 527-536. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. The method proposed in this project addresses the parametric manipulation of a given pattern to respond directly to a pre-defined surface. Continuing the research of Kevin Rotheroe, Yale University and founder of FreeForm Design. Rotheroe has developed a series of studies in material and surface properties. By utilising a proven pattern, the proposed method sets parameters derived from the formal properties of the original pattern and produces a new pattern that is responsive to the curvature of a complex surface. The workflow developed in this research consists of a complex blending of tools in Grasshopper and Gehry Technologies Digital Project. The intent is to achieve the aesthetics and structure offered by Rotheroe's original research and to add a responsive precision that provides an accurate adaptation of the pattern based on curvature of a specific computationally defined surface. 
Dounas, Theodoros. "Tactics of interactivity in Virtual Reality: Learning from 3d game tools." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 223-232. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. The present paper tries to explore the potential of visual-heavy tools in the creation of virtual reality worlds, with an emphasis on tools borrowed from 3d electronic games. Compared to earlier approaches in virtual reality creation the paper focuses on game design tools and provides a basic framework for interaction in virtual reality, based on classic rather than digital representations, which is then expanded using digital representations. In the second part of the paper a game creation tool is assessed based on its potential not only of usability but also on guiding the designer in specific paths to designing virtual worlds. The assessment is based on a case study of interaction design.
Dave, Bharat, and Gwyl Jahn. "Tagged and interactive diagrams of design intent and rationale." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 669-678. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. This paper describes our experiments with diagrammatic representations to think about design compositions and to learn from shared accretion of design knowledge. We describe here implementation of an online prototype that, on the one hand, offers interactive functionalities to externalize thinking about design compositions in the form of diagrams and, on the other hand, which acts also as a repository of diagrams that can be dynamically interrogated to find other proximate compositional thinking and ideas related to a particular design position. Put differently, the prototype helps both notate design thinking and draw out associations between separately notated design thinking. 
Ahmad, Sumbul. "The representation of type in grammatical design." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 425-432. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. Grammatical design is useful for the generation of a set of related designs. The concept of type aids designers in generating designs with a specified structure. However, existing studies in grammar are ambiguous in their definition of type in the language of designs generated by a grammar. Extending our previous study of defining style in grammar, this paper provides a formal definition of the concept of type in the language of designs generated by a grammar. This is done with the help of a description scheme which is developed by augmenting grammar primitives and spatial relations with descriptors. The description scheme allows the computation of descriptors for designs generated from grammar thus making possible the comparison of various design types in the language of a grammar.  Such a description scheme for defining design types is especially significant for less restricted grammars that generate a large number of designs that are varied in nature. A formal definition of type in grammars allows users to sift through designs with particular features, and thus select desired designs. 
Kato, Kody, and Hyoung-June Park. "Toward a performance-oriented architecture: an integrated design approach to a real time responsive structure." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 59-68. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. The use of digital technology in architecture has proven to be more assertive than originally thought: it has reconditioned the nature of the design process, and established new processes and techniques of fabrication. Recent applications in digital technology show inquisitiveness in the contentious subject Genetic Algorithms. This new architectural process is characterized by two main shifts: from poiesis (or poetry) to autopoiesis, and from authenticity to mimesis. Since evolutionary simulations give rise to new forms rather than design them, architects should now be both artists and operators of both Inventive and Systematic design. Inventive design: The digital media should bring about poiesis (poetry). Digital spaces reveal and visualize the unconscious desires of urban spaces, bringing forth new dreamscapes, mysterious and surreal. This implies a Freudian spatial unconscious, which can be subjected to analysis and interpretation. The tools of digital dreaming, meanwhile, have opened a window to the “urban unconscious”. Systematic Design: Digital media should bring about an autopoiesis. This approach calls into question traditional methods of architectural design that replace the hierarchical processes of production known as “cause and effect,i and propose a design process where the architect becomes a constructor of formal systems. Will the evolutionary simulation replace design? Is metric space dead? The new algorithmic evolutionary conditions give architecture an autopoiesis, similar to biological dynamics. Paradoxically, the new emerging process is more insightful. The emphasis of the exploration is on morphological complexity. Architecture, through “machine” fabrication, may become more responsive, rigorous and poetic. 
Roupé, Mattias, Mikael Johansson, Mikael Tallgren, and Mathias Gustaffson. "Using the human body as an interactive interface for navigation in VR models." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 79-88. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. The use of Virtual Reality (VR) and interactive real-time rendering in urban planning and building design are becoming more and more common. However, the integration of VR in the urban planning process suffers from the complicated interaction handling of the virtual environment. In particular, people unfamiliar to gaming environments and computers are less prone to interact with a VR visualisation using keyboard and mouse as controlling devices. This paper addresses this issue by presenting an implementation of the XBOX 360 Kinect sensor system, which uses the human body to interact with the virtual environment. This type of interaction interface enables a more natural and user-friendly way of interacting with the virtual environment. The validation of the system shows that respondents perceived the interface as non-demanding and easy to use. The implemented interface to switch between different architecture proposals gave a better understanding and spatial reasoning for the respondent. The study also shows that males perceived the system as more demanding than females. The users also associated and compared their body with virtual environment, which could indicate that they used their body during spatial reasoning. This type of spatial reasoning has been agued to enhance the spatial-perception. 
Nakapan, Walaiporn, and Supattra Radsiri. "Visual training in virtual world: a comparative study between traditional learning versus learning in a virtual world." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 569-578. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. This paper presents a comparative study of Architecture students who study in a tradition learning environment and Innovative Design students who study in a 3D virtual environment. Both groups share the same objectives. Their learning pattern went through a three-step learning process where issues related to Design Composition theory were inserted. A survey and an in-depth interview showed a discontinued creative process amongst Architecture students due to class management. It showed that Innovative Design students should have more small assignments to better understand issues related to Design Composition theory with emphasis on developing their communication skill in using Visual Training technical terms. The differences between the two learning approaches were discussed.
Lan, Wei-Hsien, and Teng-Wen Chang. "Visualising the design process with dynamic graph." In Beyond codes and pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 111-120. CAADRIA. Chennai, India: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2012. The rising of Information Communication Technology influences cities globally. “Info-city” is the very topic to be reconsidered if each city acts as a combination of the physical and virtual. This research is an attempt to understand and formalize the comprehension of Taiwan people about “Info-city”. For the sake of reliability, there are 37 interviewees from Taiwanis enterprises providing experiences of daily urban lives as a field to explore. In order to organize oral corpus, the research method applies encoding in term of cognitive semantics. Every sentence in the database is regarded as a basic unit to analyze. Besides that, thereis a framework consisted of two analytical dimensions to reveal a clear picture of the collective minds. The results are concluded that concepts of “info-city” in Taiwan value the mechanism of synergy most instead of the effect of substitution as an arbitrary assumption among urban studies.