Keywords Abstract
Lee, Ju, and Mi Kim. "A context immersion of mixed reality at a new stage ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 199-208. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This paper presents a novel approach to the potential of mixed reality embodied in smart phones and ubiquitous environments. We analyzed the related works to the concept of context and mobile computing and then investigated into leading companies by interviewing senior manages of the mixed reality (MR) projects in Korea. As a result, the concept of context immersion is proposed for describing the various context relationships among the real locations, objects and persons. By considering the MR environments as a converged world, this paper characterizes the context immersion as the combination of the time & location-based, object-based and user-based contexts. Through the context immersion, users can be connected to the real life, not limited to the imagery world, thus experiencing strong immersion in the MR environments. At the end, we present the development direction for the future with a focus on the MR contents rather than the technical aspects.
Lo, Chia-Hui, Ih-Cheng Lai, and Teng-Wen Chang. "A is B, displacement: Exploring linking patterns within metaphor in the design process ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 663-672. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. Design educators often apply metaphor as a teaching tool to help novice designers in their design process. Richards(1936) defines metaphor as the form “A is Bi. The most important operation in metaphor is displacement “ the linking process of moving A to B. Linking ideas is the key mechanism in the design process. By linking ideas, a graph-like knowledge represents the individual memories with the nodes and arcs that are the ideas and the links between ideas respectively. Such linking knowledge provides an interesting way to understand the operation of displacement within metaphor. This research applies a computational tool (called DIM) to produce a graph-like knowledge. Protocol analysis is then used to understand how designers organize ideas. The objective of this research was to explore the linking patterns of idea displacement within metaphor in the design process.
Yuan, Xiaofang, Ji-Hyun Lee, and Yu Wu. "A new perspective to look at ice-ray grammar ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 81-90. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. Chinese lattice designs are a rich source of interesting geometric forms and shape grammar has been used to analyze and generate Chinese lattice designs. Following the origin design intention, researchers have already defined simple and intuitively compelling shape grammar rules to generate them. However, for some self-similar ice-rays, it is difficult to clarify the design intention of them, which is why researchers still cannot define shape grammar rules for them. In this paper, we utilize the culture hints to select the lowest-level constituent for shape calculation and clarify the design intention embedded in the ice-rays. We develop our new shape grammar rules based on the design intention and validate the rules by generating an existing ice-ray window.
Fukuda, Tomohiro, Kensuke Kitagawa, and Nobuyoshi Yabuki. "A study of variation of normal of polygons created by point cloud data for architectural renovation field." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 321-330. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. Acquiring current 3D space data of cities, buildings, and rooms rapidly and in detail has become indispensable. When the point cloud data of an object or space scanned by a 3D laser scanner is converted into polygons, it is an accumulation of small polygons. When object or space is a closed flat plane, it is necessary to merge small polygons to reduce the volume of data, and to convert them into one polygon. When an object or space is a closed flat plane, each normal vector of small polygons theoretically has the same angle. However, in practise, these angles are not the same. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to clarify the variation of the angle of a small polygon group that should become one polygon based on actual data. As a result of experimentation, no small polygons are converted by the point cloud data scanned with the 3D laser scanner even if the group of small polygons is a closed flat plane lying in the same plane. When the standard deviation of the extracted number of polygons is assumed to be less than 100, the variation of the angle of the normal vector is roughly 7 degrees.
Chae, Hee, Ju Kim, and Xiangyu Wang. "A work service model of the ubiquitous office ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 375-384. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. In recent years, office environments adopt ubiquitous computing with a focus on collaboration and mobile communication to promote real-time enterprises. Within this context, this study deals with a significant issue on the ubiquitous office environments by understanding human behaviours and works. We propose a ubiquitous office model considering the correlation between ubiquitous computing technologies and work services in the office. Two attributes are focused, collaboration and mobility, as identifier for categorizing the work types. The classic types of work services have variations in the amount of communication and the proportion of working outside of the office. The proposed work service model includes territorial and non-territorial services for the ubiquitous office to enable workers in and out of the office to interact with each other. The findings in this paper would be a theoretical basis for embodying the intelligent office which supports office works efficiently and effectively.
Santo, Yasu, John Frazer, and Robin Drogemuller. "Active buildings: What can we do about buildings that simply stand still?" In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 301-310. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This paper presents background of our research and result of our pilot study to find methods for convincing building users to become active building participants. We speculate this is possible by allowing and motivating users to customise and manage their own built environments. The ultimate aim of this research is to develop open, flexible and adaptive systems that bring awareness to building users to the extent they recognise spaces are for them to change rather than accept spaces are fixed and they are the ones to adapt. We argue this is possible if the architectural hardware is designed to adapt to begin with and more importantly if there are appropriate user interfaces that are designed to work with the hardware. A series of simple prototypes were made to study possibilities through making, installing and experiencing them. Ideas discussed during making and experiencing of prototypes were evaluated to generate further ideas. This method was very useful to speculate unexplored and unknown issues with respect to developing user interfaces for active buildings.
Sharaidin, Kamil, and Flora Dilys Salim. "Affordable, performative and responsive: Designing affordable responsive architectural prototypes through physical and digital modelling ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 113-122. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. The significance of this research lies in the investigation of agglomerating issues of affordability in responsive architecture to achieve long term performative and cost-saving benefits. Conventionally, performance analysis of responsive design is evaluated using simulation of digital model. The inaccuracy of most building performance simulation leads to a huge prediction error in the actual building performance, which yields miscalculation in the building operational cost. This paper proposes a novel method for delivering a cost benefit analysis for responsive design. Two different strategies are explored in parallel. Firstly, hands-on approach through fabrication of physical models which directly associated to digital models, whereby the fabrication and operational costs of the physical prototypes are measured and monitored. Secondly, qualitative approach through cost benefit analysis of real world building projects which employ responsive architectural components.
Jalalian, Arash, Stephan Chalup, and Michael Ostwald. "Agent-agent interaction as a component of agent-environment interaction in the modelling and analysis of pedestrian visual behaviour ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 555-564. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This multidisciplinary project involves concepts from architectural design, statistical learning, machine vision, and human ecology. The focus is on analysing how pedestriansi dynamic behaviour in space is influenced by the environmental design of different architectural scenarios. This paper presents a multi-agent pedestrian simulation and analysis system that supports agent-to-agent interactions, different spatial desires, and interpersonal distance. The system simulates and analyses pedestrian spatial behaviour with combined focus on movement trajectories, walking speed, and the visual gaze vector. The analysis component relies on learning a statistical model characterising normal/abnormal behaviour, based on sample observations of regular pedestrian movements without/with the impacts of significant visual attractions in the environment. Using the example of Wheeler Place in Newcastle (Australia) our pilot experiments demonstrate how pedestrian behaviour characteristics can depend on selected features in the visual environment. The presented system will allow architects and urban designers to obtain better assessment of planned urban spaces and streetscape characteristics and their impacts on pedestrian behaviour.
Vaz, Carlos, Gabriela Celani, and José Duarte. "An ontology representing Roberto Burle Marx s landscape design solutions ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 389-398. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. The objective of this undergoing research project is to propose a new approach to landscape design education, based on design cognition and computational design theories, such as patterns, shape grammars and parametric design. The system is based on an ontology that contains classes of design concepts and examples of their instances. This paper shows specifically the development of the ontology that will structure the whole system. The information necessary to understand each of the design concepts is represented by a schematic shape grammar rule. Each concept will be illustrated by a good example of application, extracted from the work of Brazilian landscape designer Roberto Burle Marx. A prototypical implementation of the system is being developed, with a hierarchical taxonomy of the concepts and examples.
Bernal, Marcelo. "Analysis model for incremental precision along design stages ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 19-18. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. With current energy analysis tools, architects and engineers cannot rely on the results of energy analyses because they do not report their level of precision. In addition, current tools also do not deliver feedback in real time. Thus, this research addresses the challenge of obtaining feedback in real-time while gradually increasing precision along design stages. For this purpose, this study merges parametric modelling (PM) technologies and the performance-based design (PBD) paradigm into a general design model. The model is based on a parametric and an energy analysis model that share the parameters of a building. The modular architecture of the model involves four main function types: an input processor, optional analysis functions embedding different calculation methods, a decision-maker, and a report generator function. For every step of the design evolution, the decisionmaker function generates a specific tree of analysis functions.
Grace, Kazjon, Robert Saunders, and John S. Gero. "Applying interpretation-driven association to design domains ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 453-462. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This paper presents a computational model of visual association- making. Our model focuses on the interaction between the processes of representation and matching in association. Re-interpretation of the objects being associated changes the landscape in which the matching process is searching for potential mappings between those objects. We call this process interpretation-driven search. We demonstrate the capabilities of our system through some examples of previous work in simple shape domains, then discuss ongoing research into applying this system to design domains.
Roudavski, Stanislav, and Sonya Parton. "Architectural creativity in commercialised cyberspace ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 365-374. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This paper is written for architectural researchers, practitioners and educators who explore the potentials of networked, location- aware, rich-media computing. Augmented and networked environments open new possibilities in urban and architectural design. At the same time, their adoption by the mainstream is underpinned - and constrained - by commercial motivations. To be able to counter the consumerist interpretation of inhabitable augmented environments, the field of architecture needs to foster a critical discussion of cyberspace. In turn, architectural education needs to provide students with the knowledge necessary to adopt cyberspace for creative purposes. The purpose of this paper is to invite further discussion and experimentation in this area.
Zhang, Wei, and Yiping Wang. "Architectural space information scale: a new way of understanding architectural space ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 653-662. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This paper presents a proposal for digitalizing architectural space. For this aim, the analysis of space properties in terms of an information scale is suggested as a new way of understanding architectural space. Information scale in this paper is a new concept integrating the body scale, behaviour scale and time scale in traditional conceptions of space. Through the process of information transfer, forms, behaviour, history, design, experience, evaluation etc. in architectural space are integrated into a well-arranged and operational approach. BIM plus SIM (Space Information Model) thus constitutes an integral architectural information model.
Al-Kazzaz, Dhuha, and Alan Bridges. "Assessing innovation in hybrid designs using shape grammars ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 545-554. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. Al-kazzaz et al (2010) described hybrid adaption technique to generate innovative designs from heterogeneous precedents using shape grammars. An evaluation of the degree of innovation in the hybrid designs gave feedback to grammar users before and after applying a rule. Innovation was assessed using variables derived from the internal structure of the grammar such as: the number of antecedents in the corpus having the same rule, the number of rules in a subclass rule set having the same geometry, etc. However, the validity of the innovation assessment was unclear and the use of the feedback measures was not demonstrated. Accordingly, this study aims to verify the credibility of the innovation measures and to identify the independent variables that a user can control to achieve a significant impact on each innovation measure as a dependent variable.
Pérez, Edgar, and Tomás Dorta. "Assessment of design tools for ideation ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 429-438. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. Designers interact with a wide range of design tools, in a variety of ways, in order to support their work. Any attempt to produce digital tools aimed at supporting ideation raises the question of the kind of information considered account and what is appropriate to the needs and expectations of designers. We developed and implemented an assessment method for digitally supported conceptual design based on reflective conversation, flow, cognitive ergonomics and activity theory. Our approach opens up the evaluation spectrum to include parameters beyond performances factors for conceiving new digital design tools. This assessment approach considers user (the designer), action (ideation) and object (the tool) in the ideation process, namely the designeris experience interrelated to the needs of the task and the characteristics of the tool. In this paper we present the results of several research protocols in which we observed, analyzed and successively acted upon five different stages of the interface of a design tool as it was being developed, the Hybrid Ideation Space (HIS). Taken as a whole, these results suggest the limits and support of designersi optimal relationship with an ideation interface.
Pourmohamadi, Morteza, John S. Gero, and Robert Saunders. "CAD software as customisation tools: Using FBS protocol coding scheme to understand the behaviour of mass customisers ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 399-408. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This paper explores the use of CAD software as tools in mass customisation systems and discusses using protocol study methods to analyse the interactions between customers and customisation tools. Current uses of CAD software as customisation tools will be presented. The use of the Function-Behaviour-Structure coding scheme to analyse protocols from customisation sessions is discussed. A protocol from Puma footwear customisation is analysed using the LINKOgrapher software and the results presented. The paper concludes with a discussion on the utility of computational support tools to study designers/customers utilizing CAD tools for mass customisation.
Toth, Bianca, Flora Dilys Salim, Robin Drogemuller, John Frazer, and Jane Burry. "Closing the loop of design and analysis: Parametric modelling tools for early decision support ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 525-534. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. There is a growing need for parametric design software that communicates building performance feedback in early architectural exploration to support decision-making. This paper examines how the circuit of design and analysis process can be closed to provide active and concurrent feedback between architecture and services engineering domains. It presents the structure for an openly customisable design system that couples parametric modelling and energy analysis software to allow designers to assess the performance of early design iterations quickly. Finally, it discusses how user interactions with the system foster information exchanges that facilitate the sharing of design intelligence across disciplines.
Neisch, Paulina. "Colour-code models: the concept of spatial network ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 707-716. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. The main goal for the architects or planners is to understand a perspective of the user. The foundation of the design process is to create buildings and environments, which will be both innovative and functional for all types of users, including adults and children. While planning the environments for children the particular aspects should be considered. The important questions are: What kind of contact does child have with the city, urban places and buildings? How does the child construct the picture of the city? What kind of urban or architectural spaces contributes to the relation that a child has with the environment? Most of the previous studies concentrating on creation of spaces for children have focused on the perspectives that have adults. According to CAADRIA 2010 paper, the objective of our study was to “learn about” (get to know the) childrenis perception of everyday places. The main goal of the project was to define an appropriate tool for the design process. We identified three elements, which were considered to be the most important for childis identification with environment: home, school, and the journey from home to school. For this purpose, children living in a residential community in Bangkok were surveyed. Contrariwise to the quantitative approach (Neisch, 2010), the concept of Colour - Code Models of space propose a qualitative development of this research - a graphic language which allow to understand the childrenis spatial world, the novel way to analyze and present space, useful for educate architects and planners.
Lee, Seongki, and Ludger Hovestadt. "Complex adaptive residential quarter planning using multiobjective optimization: an agent-based modeling approach ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 443-452. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This paper presents a complex adaptive residential quarter planning software. It is developed using Java object oriented programming language and targeting at configuring the tower-type apartment in a dense area during early design stage. Rules are analyzed and formulated based on building code and zone ordinance. Moreover we develop an agent-based modelling with multi-objective optimization algorithm. In this modelling, each agent acts independently according to the rules that are designed to solve the complex geometric problems that are related to physical constraints. At the end, we present a simulation outcome of a case study.
Okabe, Aya, and Tsukasa Takenaka. "Computational landscape design with the seed scattering system: a case study in the Sony forest project." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 49-58. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This paper proposes a computational landscape design method, called the seeds scattering system (SS system), which enables us to manage various environmental parameters in design processes, to create the “natural forest” in urban environments. First, this paper discusses the drawbacks of the conventional methods for landscape design. Second, the paper outlines the components of the SS system together with the design process of the SONY forest project in Tokyo, and shows its advantages, including broad applicability to conceptual design, and capability of environmental simulations and spatial optimizations. Last, the paper summarizes the effectiveness of the SS system. By managing fundamental rules behind geometries in forest growth processes, the SS system showed us capability for constructing interactive relationships between design and their surrounding environments to produce design inherent in its site.
Indraprastha, Aswin, and Michihiko Shinozaki. "Computational method for mapping quality of architectural space ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 473-482. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. The key aim of this paper is to develop a computational method for mapping architectural space used for visual openness analysis. We suggest that the result will offer possibilities for quantitative design analysis particularly on spatial quality influenced by architectural elements. The proposed method consists of two stages: determination of subdivided enclosed spaces and measuring quality using visual openness parameters on each subdivided enclosed space. We advise new approach to determine subdivided enclosed spaces on architectural plan by determining two factors: bounded space and circulation space. Computational procedures applied to analyse architectural plan and then determine map of subdivided enclosed space by analysing relationship of these two factors. The concept underlying this method is that architectural space is composed of subdivided enclosed spaces, which each of them have distinct physical properties and therefore become possible to develop mapping of evaluation regarding the quality of architectural space. Our finding on orthogonal architectural plan provides ranking index of subdivided enclosed spaces that could help for analysing spatial quality of architectural space.
Kelly, Nick, John S. Gero, and Robert Saunders. "Constructive interpretation with examples from interpretation of floor plans ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 633-642. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This paper describes the role that interpretation plays in facilitating situated design and presents an implementation that shows a system interpreting floor plans. Designers often see more in what they produce than they intentionally put there. Cognitive studies suggest that this helps develop design ideas. Interpretation is described as the use of expectations to construct an internal representation of an external representation (such as a sketch). An implementation is described. As an example of its capability the system, primed on floor plans, looks at a randomly generated image and can find a floor plan within it. The system produces different results with the same image if it has different expectations. This is used to discuss the notions of a space of possible designs and the two way relationship between expectations informing interpretation and interpretation changing the expectations (design ideas) of a designer. Further work is suggested and the ideas are discussed.
Ostwald, Michael, Josephine Vaughan, and Stephan Chalup. "Data flow and processing in the computational fractal analysis method ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 493-502. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. One of the few quantitative methods available for the consistent analysis of architectural form is the “box-countingi approach to determining the approximate fractal dimension of a plan or elevation. In its computational form this method has been used to analyze the plans and facades of a wide range of buildings. The data points produced are synthesized by the software into a series of fractal dimension (D) values that are in turn compiled in various ways to produce a series of composite results describing a complete building. Once this process is complete the data may be coded with additional information producing a set of mathematical results that describe the form of a building. This paper offers the first complete description of this important analytical process from the point of view of information flow, algorithmic operations, review options and data magnitude. No previous paper has detailed the full scope of the data used in the computational method, or the way in which various stages produce different types of outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the way in which this particular computational method, drawing its inspiration from the complexity in natural systems, may be used to process different types of information and produce various forms of quantitative data to support architectural design and analysis.
Gallas, Mohamed-Anis, Didier Bur, and Gilles Halin. "Daylight and energy in the early phase of architectural design process: a design assistance method using designer s intents ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 761-770. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. The integration of daylighting from the beginning of the design process can help designers to create buildings that respect their environment benefit from the solar gain thus giving an answer to illumination and energy needs (Bodart et al, 2002). This paper proposes a declarative assistance method/tool designed for the early design phase. This method assists the designer in integrating the daylight and its energetic impact from the beginning of the architectural design process by means of intents. The intents are related to the daylight, energy and spatial configuration aspects of the architectural project. The method translates the designeris intents into potential solutions. They are the first formal representation of the architectis intents that could be customized and altered during the next architectural design phases.
Khoo, Chin Koi, and Flora Dilys Salim. "Designing elastic transformable structures: Towards soft responsive architecture ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 143-152. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This paper discusses the issues of designing and building environment involving spatial conditions that can be physically reconfigured to meet changing needs. To achieve this architectural vision, most current research focuses on the kinetic, mechanical systems and physical control mechanisms for actuation and structural transformation. Instead of the “hard“ mechanical joints and components, there is an unexplored “soft” approach using lightweight elastic composite materials for designing responsive architectural skins and structures. This paper investigates the new possibilities for the manipulation of various architectural enclosures using “soft” and elastic transformable structures, in response to environmental, communication and adapting to various contexts. This approach intends to minimise the mechanistic actuations and reduce weight for such operations. Therefore, this research introduces two modules (a tetrahedron and a cube) as responsive spatial models to test the potentials and limitations for the implementation of elastic materials with responsive capability towards reconfigurable architectural enclosure. Despite their individual differences, these experiments identify a trajectory for new possibilities for elastic architectural components that are more appropriate for “soft” responsive architecture. We argue that this approach can provide an early hypothesis for design responsive architecture with a mix of passive and active design strategies.
Davis, Daniel, Flora Dilys Salim, and Jane Burry. "Designing responsive architecture: Mediating analogue and digital modelling in the studio." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 155-164. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. Prototyping digitally responsive architecture requires that architects know how to program and design electronics. Normally they donit. The challenge for teachers is to teach these skills whilst maintaining a focus on the design potentials of responsive architecture. One method is to teach students to use Input-Output-Process (IPO) diagrams and parametric modelling as pathways into the logic of responsive architecture. The paper discusses the work of students taught this way during a semester long elective. Our analysis shows that IPO diagrams lead to reactive architecture, which matches the current technical limitations of responsive architecture. We argue that mediating analogue and digital models is an essential aspect to successful responsive architecture.
Kim, Jason, and Hyoung-June Park. "Digital catalogue: a computational implementation of Korean joinery system in the design of a transformable disaster shelter." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 61-70. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. With the help of Building Information Modelling (BIM), the digital catalogue of all the 44 components of Korean joinery system is developed for the application of their tectonic principles in the design of a transformable disaster shelter. Based upon the components of three primary bracket styles (Jusim-Po, Ik-Gong, and Da-Po) of traditional Korean joinery system in the catalogue, the parametric modifications of the components and their rearrangements are performed for various iteration of the disaster shelter. The usage of Korean joinery system in assembling and disassembling the components enhances the transformability and the reusability of the shelter. This paper demonstrates the computational implementation of Korean joinery system and the design process of a transformable disaster shelter.
Webb, Nicholas, and Andrew Brown. "Digital forensics as a tool for augmenting historical architectural analysis: Case study: the student work of James Stirling ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 505-514. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. Digital techniques in architecture have developed rapidly over the last 25 years. This has enabled digitally mediated visualisations to become increasingly complex, and potentially more beneficial to the user. In architectural critique this creates an opportunity to reanalyse and re-interpret paper and photographic records of architectural artefacts. The information available to construct models of lost or unbuilt designs is almost always incomplete, therefore interpretation of material requires parallel study into the architect, their influences and the contemporary context they operated within. This can prove to be a rich exercise in augmenting a critical architectural analysis of an architect, a built product or building type. The process of constructing a model and its subsequent analysis can be referred to as scenario building, or informed extrapolation. This paper uses the reconstruction of an unbuilt scheme by Sir James Stirling as a vehicle to explore and illustrate the techniques, implications and limitations of the process.
Schnabel, Marc Aurel, and Yingge Qu. "Digital manga depiction ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 741-750. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. Same as rich colours in a painting that deliver the artistis thoughts and ideas, the variety of textures and patterns in sketches gives drawings different significance. Using rich sets of texture screens to represent chromatic images, the visual perception can be preserved by using the texture pattern verities. In our work, we present a harmonic representation from chromatic space to textural space, to generate architectural sketches and their details, including colours, textures, and tones. We present a rendering appearance for the communication of architectural design akin to Japanese cartoon depictions. In our results we demonstrate successfully that our method generates sketches from architectural images that preserve architectural key-elements, such as surface or material properties and simulate a chromatic correct perception. This allows for novel depiction and story telling in architecture.
Ko, Kaon, and Salvator-John Liotta. "Digital tea house: Japanese tea ceremony as a pretext for exploring parametric design and digital fabrication in architectural education." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 71-80. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This paper reviews the Digital Tea House, a joint workshop in August of 2010 held at the University of Tokyo, Department of Architecture, together with Columbia University GSAPP. Three pavilions for hosting ceremony were designed and built in less than one month, in an attempt to bridge technology and culture not only through design but also fabrication. Issues addressed in the process included applications of computational design, interpretations of tradition and culture in spatial or activity oriented expressions, structural stability, to practical solutions for quick physical materialization. Three teams comprised of 6 to 8 students, each a blend of different nationalities, ultimately produced 3 full-scale tea houses with the same software, primary material, budget, and principal fabrication method.
Matthews, Linda, and Gavin Perin. "Exploiting instability: Reconfiguring digital systems ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 463-472. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. The transmission technologies of digital environments propagated by the Internet, specifically the ubiquitous webcam system, present new material to mediate peopleis engagement with civic space and simultaneously offer new ways to materialize its three-dimensional form. Recent research shows that the technical functionality of the webcam can be extended through deliberate intervention within the performance of contemporary camera optics. This suggests the development of new techniques for design intervention that operate in direct relationship to the evolution of the very technologies they exploit. With specific focus on the optical and chromatic translational capacities of the camera, the paper will discuss how the manipulation of its colour receptor mechanism not only provides the designer with an opportunity to exceed the constraints of commonly available colour palettes, but also it will show how this digital disruption actively capitalises upon the discrepancies that govern design strategies applied to formal production within coexistent virtual and real-time space. Through the deployment of colour filter array patterns, this new technique is able to extend the working gamut of RGB colour space in a way that that allows chromatic selection for exterior and interior urban space to be linked to programmatic distribution across duplicate environments.
Dorta, Tomás, Yehuda Kalay, Annemarie Lesage, and Edgar Pérez. "First steps of the augmented design studio: the interconnected Hybrid Ideation Space and the CI Loop ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 271-280. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. Professional or school design studios are essential environments for design supporting free exploration of materials and representations, analogue or digital. New technologies have moved into the studio with mixed results. Paradoxically, the use of portable computers, using Internet as collaboration channel, has actually individualized the design work and limited the support to co-creation, reinforcing individual work. The Augmented Design Studio argues for the implementation of hybrid technology, such as the Hybrid Ideation Space (HIS), in the design studio to compensate for the absence of collective local or remote efficient ideation space. This paper presents a case study showing the primary results of distant synchronous and asynchronous design collaboration supported by the interconnected HIS during an ad-hoc project and assessed by the improved Collaborative Ideation Loop (CI Loop) methodology. The HIS was installed in two universities located in different countries. We ran a research protocol in the format of a design charrette where two teams (team a: two architecture students, team b: two industrial design students) participated in the ideation of a bus shelter. This case study shows that teams were able to co-design while they were virtually “teleportedi into each otheris representations.
Anderson, Jonathon, and Ming Tang. "Form follows parameters: Parametric modeling for fabrication and manufacturing processes." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 91-100. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. As the architectural field continues to explore the possibilities of parametric design it is important to understand that architectural computation has evolved from representations to simulation and evaluation. This paper explores the digital processes of parametric scripting as a way to generate architectural artefacts that can be realized in the physical landscape through various digital fabrication and industrial manufacturing techniques. This paper will highlight the important discoveries of the geometries and the implications the script has on the construction processes. One benefit of using parametric modelling as a component to the manufacturing pipeline is being able to explore several design iterations in the digital realm before ever realizing them in the physical landscape. Furthermore, parametric modelling allows users to control the production documentation and precision needed to manufacture. As a result, the design pipeline presented in this paper seeks to eliminate the construction processes that hinder the physical act of making architecture.
Herr, Christiane. "Gains, losses and limitations in designing parametrically: a critical reflection of an architectural design studio in China ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 569-578. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This paper argues that learning to design parametrically in the architectural studio entails gains but also losses, since the parametric design approach tends to and encourage certain patterns of thought while discouraging others. This investigation complements previous research focusing mostly on technological aspects. Based on observational data from a parametric design studio in China, this paper discusses how parametric designing can pose challenges to existing design values and approaches, specifically within a Chinese context. It further draws attention to the limitations of parametric designing, which in the observed cases required both students and teachers to break and extend parametric models besides and beyond parametric variation to make them work architecturally. This paper aims to inform educators employing parametric designing in their architectural design studios as well as researchers who examine such studios.
Kozlova, Karine, M. Roham, Lyn Sheikholeslami, and Robert F. Woodbury. "Graph visualization in computer-aided design: an exploration of alternative representations for GenerativeComponentsTM Symbolic View ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 133-142. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. In this paper we explore graph models used to illustrate the relationships between elements of designs in computer-aided design (CAD) systems. We discuss common limitations and ways to make such representations more usable and interactive. In order to study common problems of symbolic representations in CAD systems, we conducted a survey of a number of CAD applications that employ graph representations in their interface and provided comparative analysis of the properties of graph representations in these systems. As a case study we used Bentley GenerativeComponentsTM (GC) system - a parametric CAD application that uses graph (“symbolic”) view to visualize the structure of design. We conducted series of interviews with expert GC users that revealed many limitations of the GC symbolic view. To address these limitations, we developed alternative representations of symbolic view that aim at enhancing user experience with the system and reviewed these with expert GC users. As a result of our study, we developed a set of interactive prototypes using SHriMP1 visualization tool and Processing programming language. These provide improved ways of user interaction with symbolic representation, including better readability of the graph and, as a result, an improved support for design model analysis.
Reffat, Rabee. "Impact analysis of digital-based architecture curriculum on students learning ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 609-618. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This paper reports the findings of assessing the impact of current digital-based architecture curriculum in architecture at KFUPM on studentsi learning primarily from studentsi perspectives. The paper addresses both generic and specific impacts of current digital-based architecture curriculum on studentsi learning. The specific impacts include: level of achieving better understanding of the architectural issues of buildings, and impacts of media qualities on understanding architecture. The paper introduces a performance improvement plan aimed at enhancing studentsi learning in the digital-based architecture curriculum and to accommodate the evolving nature of information technology applications in the building and construction industry.
Champion, Erik, and Andrew Dekker. "Indirect biofed architecture: Strategies to best utilise biofeedback tools and interaction metaphors within digital architectural environment ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 241-250. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This paper explains potential benefits of indirect biofeedback used within interactive virtual environments, and reflects on an earlier study that allowed for the dynamic modification of a virtual environmentis graphic shaders, music and artificial intelligence (of Non Playing Characters) based on the biofeedback of the player. It then examines both the potential and the issues in applying biofeedback (already effective for games) to digital architectural environments, and suggests potential uses such as personalization, object creation, atmospheric augmentation, filtering, and tracking.
Hua, Hao, and Ting-Li Jia. "Interaction in terms of individuality and intelligibility ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 281-290. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This paper points out that “interactioni is not only a scientific issue but also a social-cultural issue. The relationship between the user experiences and the behaviours of the system should be emphasised. The “Individual-Intelligiblei coordinate system is created to compare and evaluate the interactivity of various systems, it provides a new design space for researches or students experimenting with interactive systems. Four experiments are discussed with the new formulation of the interaction.
Barker, Tom, Nicole Gardner, Hank Haeusler, and Martin Tomitsch. "Last train to trancentral: from infrastructure to 'info structure: a case study of embedding digital technology into existing public transport infrastructures." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 335-344. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. The research presented in this paper is an investigation into how ubiquitous computing technologies can contribute to improving the quality of existing public transport environments through the integration of responsive technologies. The paper argues that given the significant challenges associated with transport infrastructure expansion including cost, disruption, energy use, and implementation periods augmenting existing transport environments offers alternate measures to manage demand and improve the user experience. The paper proposes improving transport environments by integrating smart, or responsive, digital information into the existing physical fabric in a coherent architectural and spatial context. This approach offers an opportunity to shift away from the static nature of public transport infrastructure to the dynamic notion of public transport “info” structure. The research uses an architecture graduate studio as a foundation to investigate the objectives. The contribution of this paper is an investigation of ways in which digital technologies and networked communications can transform and augment public transport infrastructure, allowing new forms of intelligent, adaptive, interactive and self-aware architecture to be developed.
Matsumoto, Yuji, Yusuke Okada, Nagisa Kidosaki, Ryusuhe Naka, and Shigeyuki Yamaguchi. "Memo Externalizer: Support environment for bridging from personal ideas to group discussions in design meetings." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 677-686. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This paper describes our development of a face-to-face design meeting environment that considers the integration of IT and architectural space. The Memo Externalizer (ME), proposed system, focus on how to externalize personal ideas in group discussions. The ME is a very simple system using lightweight technologies, web cameras which film each participant's memos and monitors which are set up over the heads of each participant to show their memos to each other. Through analysis from a comparison experiment, we discuss the effectiveness of the ME.
Tan, Beng-Kiang, and Jung-Ho Yeom. "Mirrored message wall: Bridging the real and virtual community ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 311-320. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. The Mirrored Message Wall is a cross-world digital public display located in both real and virtual world, for collective sharing of thoughts and messages and serves to connect the real world and virtual communities. The wall was installed at a university library foyer and concurrently at a 3D virtual campus for user studies. This paper presents its design, social factors considered in the design, implementation, and the findings of the user survey and observations. The results confirm that such an installation does encourage people to interact with each other and the results will inform a better design for the next version.
Merrick, Kathryn, Ning Gu, Muhammad Niazi, and Kamran Shafi. "Motivation, cyberworlds and collective design ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 697-706. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. Collaborative design is characterised by small-scale, carefully structured, professional design teams. The increasing popularity of social computing and mass communication supported by cyberworlds suggests there is now also a strong possibility of design through mass participation, beyond small-scale, collaborative design scenarios. However to achieve collective intelligence in design, there is a need to motivate large groups of users to contribute constructively to design tasks. This paper studies different types of cyberworlds to classify the motivation profiles of their user bases. We compare these motivation profiles to those required for the emergence of collective intelligence and develop a list of technological requirements for cyberworlds to support collective intelligence and design.
Fischer, Thomas. "One-behind-the-many metaphysics and the myriad things ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 623-632. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. In this paper I identify the metaphysical assumptions underlying much of the science, technology, education and design thinking practiced in contemporary CAAD research in Asia as a Western import. Citing some traditional Asian complements to such assumptions and offering an alternative model, I hope to enable a discussion about assumptions underlying our field as well as an awareness of different standards of thought and responsibility between which CAAD research in Asia may operate.
Muslimin, Rizal. "One-piece weaving: Reconfiguring folding and knotting algorithm in computational design ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 18-Se. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. A beneficial symbiotic relationship between traditional crafts and new technologies may be achieved when computational designers view the existing traditional art and craft as partners to collaborate with and when traditional cultures are willing to accept new technologies in an enthusiastic yet critical manner. This research aims to reconfigure computational design paradigm at the intersection of traditional and digital technology by evaluating a series of relatively recent computational design experiments aimed at reconceptualizing weaving as a combination of folding algorithm and knot theory with respect to the apparent dialectical tension between traditional context and computational theories in architectural design.
Garagnani, Simone. "Packing the “Chinese box”: a strategy to manage knowledge using architectural digital models ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 717-726. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. The architectural design activity has been transformed due to technological advances in building knowledge management. The research proposed is based on a three years long Ph.D. work on 3D models intended as graphical informative systems, layered according to the “Chinese box” paradigm and destined to professionals and researchers in architecture. The applied case study is referred to San Vitaleis church in Ravenna, Italy: the monument was investigated through nested digital models produced by different computer programs. Passing through evolutionary steps identified as synthesis, reduction and projection, the resulting archive lowered its Complication Ratio, a numerical value inspired by fractalis auto-similarity, indicating a recursive modification in morphologies and contents. Models so conceived are qualified as progressive knowledge-based catalogues easily interchangeable and useful to understand how new or existing architectures work. As a result of this approach, representations obtained with surveys, historical chronicles, light analysis and acoustic simulations were composed following gradual refinements: technical data were collected running parallel to bibliographic research, enriching interactive virtual models sprung from a recursive criterion destined to increase the information enclosed into an undivided, lossless, digital archive.
Loveridge, Russell. "Parametric materiality: Material properties as catalyst for design ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 165-174. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. Sustainability issues are increasingly taking more prominent positions in the hierarchy of design decisions. The combination of linked digital analysis and parametric design has emerged as an integrated method of assimilating performative characteristics into design. As these “informed design” methods evolve there is an increasing ability for architectural geometry to be rationalized, whether this is for reasons of constructive optimization, or environmental and economic justification. But the macro scale approach to geometry in design is only one mediator of the designs impact in its surroundings. This paper discusses what happens when designers fundamentally question the role of materials in design, and specifically what happens when “newi materials and their performative characteristics can be modelled and implemented into the digital design decision process. These approaches are showcased in “proof of concept” projects that have been developed using digital design and production technologies, in collaboration with material scientists and industry.
Coorey, Benjamin, and Julie Jupp. "Parametric modelling and design processes: Exploringsynthesis and evaluation using a Function-Behaviour-Structure perspective ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 39-48. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. In an attempt to extend our understanding of the design process in the context of computational parametric design tools, this paper explores the relationship between and interaction of synthesis and evaluation. In establishing the importance of their coupling in parametric design the paper then explores its consequence on the design process relative to existing models of designing. A tension between designing as planning, search and exploration in parametric design is highlighted together with a conceptual framework, which draws from a situated Function-Behaviour-Structure model of design. The purpose of the framework is to facilitate these different modes of designing and is targeted at the use of parametric tools.
Nakapan, Walaiporn, and Ning Gu. "Preliminary experiments of OPENSIM performance evaluation for virtual design studios ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 251-260. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This paper presents a technical performance evaluation of OpenSim as an alternative platform to Second Life, for virtual design studios. A number of issues that are critical for conducting virtual design studios were investigated through a series of tests and reflections from a Visual Training class. A performance test was also carried out in order to test server load against computer memory. These findings will provide valuable understanding to academics looking to use similar environments to Second Life for virtual design studio.
Lowe, Russell, Jules Cromarty, and Richard Goodwin. "Real time modelling: a solution for accurate, updatable and real-time 3D modelling of as-built architecture." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 219-228. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This paper describes a means for 3D modelling that sources photogrammetry data from publically available databases and integrates this data with a real time computer game application to construct point clouds. As the databases receive more data or as the data is updated the 3D visualisation within the computer game environment is capable of remodelling itself to reflect the changes, providing accurate representations of as-built infrastructure within an immersive 3D environment that can be interrogated and analysed in real time.
Lowe, Russell, Mark Hedley, and Richard Goodwin. "Real-time porosity: Combining a computer game engine with environmental sensors to better understand pedestrian movement in public/private space and in real-time ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 229-238. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This paper describes the theoretical context, design, implementation and evaluation of a novel method for understanding pedestrian movement in public/private space. It examines the pedestrian counting and tracking methodologies of Space Syntax and proposes an alternative methodology that links sensors embedded in real-world environments and carried by pedestrians with an environment and avatars in a contemporary computer game. In this way observers are able to closely trail pedestrians without affecting their decision making. Results from a field trial are presented where the sensors and computer gaming technology were tested within a challenging real-world environment.
Mueller, Volker, and Ivanka Iordanova. "Rethinking concept design tools: High-level requirements for concept design tools ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 409-418. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. In the architecture, engineering, and construction industry there is increasing recognition that design decisions early in the design process create significant project value with relatively small effort. It seems reasonable to investigate what decision support for designers in early phases should look like and what conclusions can be drawn for digital tools that designers employ in those early project phases. This paper introduces and discusses a cohesive set of concept design tool requirements. It explores connections between theoretical approaches in design cognition, experimental implementations, and recent developments in architectural practice responding to very pragmatic problems. The paper communicates results of academic workshops at the Third and Fourth International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, DCC'08 and DCC'10, respectively, in the context of this ongoing research. At the end, it proposes a systematised model of a desired software tool thus allowing future research to close critical gaps which have hampered progress in concept design tool development.
Biao, Li, and Li Rong. "Searching generative methods based on building environments ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 123-132. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. Architectural contexts present both resources and restrictions from local spatial environment, such as factors of sunlight, landscape, line of sight, terrain and etc. They play important roles in architectural design. Following the traditional methods, it takes the architects lots of time to analyse the relative relationships. This paper takes terrain and sunlight into consideration to illustrate how to employ generative methods at the early stage of architectural design.
Salama, Tina. "Second-order prosthesis: Human-aided design within the expanded field of ecology ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 345-354. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This paper defines second-order prosthesis in which the human subject, by virtue of her corporeality or imagination, is resourced by a technological system. Underpinning this definition is Massumiis notion of asymmetrical, symbiotic prosthesis and the second- order cybernetic challenge to objectivity. Through the case study of an immersive, sensor-based, interactive artwork, it is found that there are resonances between technology engaged in second-order prosthesis and the ideology of biology. Notions of survival, reproduction and evolution become a critical part of second-order prosthetic discourse and an expanded field of ecology is identified as the territory of analysis for resulting techno-human relations. A second case study explores computer-aided design (CAD) and virtual space. This study confirms the status of the technological in an expanded ecology as both CAD and virtual space resource imagination in the production of human-aided design.
Watanabe, Shun. "Simulating 3d architecture and urban landscapes in real space ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 261-270. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. In the present research, we have developed a system by which to simulate three-dimensional architecture and urban landscapes in any outdoor space. As the basic AR environment, we used Vizard running on a laptop PC, where the urban model component, location tracking component, and image display component work together using original Python scripts. For the urban model component, digital maps data were converted. For the location tracking component, portable DGPS and a high-precision gyroscope were introduced in order to minimize the locational error. For the image display component, optical see-through HMD was used. Stereovision was also realized with the functions of GPU on the PC. A walking experiment was performed to test the proposed system on a redevelopment plan for our university campus.
Wakita, Akira, Akito Nakano, and Michihiko Ueno. "SMAAD Surface: a tangible interface for smart material aided architectural design." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 355-364. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. In this paper, we present Smart Material Aided Architectural Design (SMAAD), the design technique to realize intuitive shape modelling with synchronizing a tangible user interface (TUI) and a 3D CAD system. To realize SMAAD, we first implemented SMAAD Surface, the TUI that imitates the free-form surface. The TUI is a fabric device, in which flex sensors and actuators (shape memory alloys) are embedded. As a designer changes the textile shape using his/her hands, its surface data will be sent to the CAD system through the sensor and a free-form surface can be created in the PC. The operation in the opposite direction is also possible, in which the CAD surface data is sent to the fabric device to dynamically change its shape. SMAAD releases architectural designers from complex GUI operations and visual programming and enables digital model creation through natural manual operations for physical models.
Huang, Weixin, Weiguo Xu, and Tao Wang. "Structural form generation using interactive genetic algorithm ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 751-760. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. Structural form design could be considered as a bi-objective problem which should satisfy both the efficiency criterion of structural engineering and the aesthetic criteria of architects. This research tries to introduce Interactive Genetic Algorithm (IGA) in the problem of structural form design. It combines the structural analysis performed by computer and aesthetic evaluation by architects into a bi-objective IGA process, in order to generate structural forms which are preferred by the architects and at the same time structurally optimal. In this research, the structure generated consists of two kinds of members, truss and beam. Generation and evolution of structure is based on a triangular element composed of several members. Through experiment of the IGA structural form design system, it is found the structure forms are optimized as the evolutionary process proceeds, and the aesthetic preference of architect is also transferred from generation to generation. It is also revealed that the two criteria have mutual restrictions, which resulted in compromised results.
Jowers, Iestyn, Miquel Prats, Nieves Pedreira, Alison Mcay, and Steve Garner. "Supporting shape reinterpretation with eye tracking." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 101-110. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. It has been argued that reinterpretation is an essential process in design generation and idea exploration. However, computational design tools, such as computer-aided design systems, offer poor support for shape reinterpretation, and as such are not well suited to ideation in conceptual design. One of the key difficulties in implementing computational systems that support shape reinterpretation is the issue of interface - how can a user intuitively guide a system with respect to their interpretation of a designed shape? In this paper, a software prototype is presented that uses an eye tracking interface to support reinterpretation of shapes according to recognised subshapes. The prototype is based on eye tracking studies, and uses gaze data and user input to restructure designed shapes so that they afford manipulation according to usersi interpretations.
Davis, Daniel, Jane Burry, and Mark Burry. "The flexibility of logic programming: Parametrically regenerating the Sagrada Família ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 29-38. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. Flexibility is a major attribute of parametric modelling, however designers find it hard to maintain flexibility throughout their projects. One cause may be the programming paradigm of the parametric model. Currently this is dataflow programming, which makes it easy to create and flex parameters, but difficult to modify relationships. This paper investigates the implications of changing the programming paradigm in a parametric model to logic programming. A qualitative account is given of using dataflow programming and logic programming to generate a portion of the Sagrada Familia church. It finds logic programming adept at translating explicit models into parametric models, but lacking continuous flexibility. This research demonstrates there are different types of flexibility within the model and architects can privilege certain flexibility types by selecting the programming paradigm of the model.
Celani, Gabriela, José Duarte, and Carlos Vaz. "The gardens revisited: the link between technology, meaning and logic? ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 643-652. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. The objective of this paper is to compare the computational concepts present in three books published by Mitchell between 1987 and 1990: The art of computer-graphics programming (1987), which has Robin Liggett and Thomas Kvan as co-authors, The logic of architecture (1990), probably his most influential work, and The poetics of gardens (1988), which has Charles Moore and William Turnbull as coauthors. By looking at the concepts that are presented in the three books and establishing a comparison between them, we expect to show that The poetics of Gardens should not be seen as a detour from Mitchellis line of research, but rather as a key piece for understanding the relationship between technology, meaning and logic in his very coherent body of work.
Roudavski, Stanislav, and Anne-Marie Walsh. "The Headspace project: Computer-assisted fabrication as an introduction to digital architectural design ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 579-588. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. Written for architectural educators, this paper discusses whether digital fabrication can be usefully employed in early architectural education. The paper uses examples from a course that aims to introduce the fundamentals of digital architectural design to first-year students. To achieve this, the course integrates digital fabrication as the core element of the production workflow. Challenging but rewarding, early adoption of digital fabrication exposes students to the processand material-based thinking of contemporary architecture at a time when they form lasting attitudes to designing.
Hamadah, Qutaibah. "The polymorphic diagram: on mediating spatial thinking in architecture design ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 419-428. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This paper describes the polymorphic diagram, a conceptual building information modelling environment conceived to mediate spatial thinking during the conceptual design phase. In particular, the discussion is focused on how enabling multiple forms of representations can possibly support and improve “architects” cognitive capacity to reason about space configuration.
Paulini, Mercedes, Mary Lou Maher, and Paul Murty. "The role of collective intelligence in design: a protocol study of online design communication ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 687-696. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. Web-enabled collective intelligence in design invites anyone to contribute to a design process through crowd-sourcing. We use a protocol analysis method to analyse the forum data on a collective intelligence web site, studying communication among individuals who are motivated to participate in the design process. A protocol analysis allows us to compare collective intelligence in design to similar studies of individual and team design. Our analysis shows that a design process that includes collective intelligence shares processes of ideation and evaluation with individual and team design, and also includes a significant amount of social networking. Including collective intelligence in design can extend the typical design team to include potential users and amateur perspectives that direct the design to be more sensitive to usersi needs and social issues, and can serve a marketing purpose.
Schnabel, Marc Aurel, and Jeremy J. Ham. "The social network virtual design studio: Integrated design learning using blended learning environments." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 589-598. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011.

Online communications, multimedia, mobile computing and face-to-face learning create blended learning environments to which some Virtual Design Studios (VDS) have reacted to. Social Networks (SN), as instruments for communication, have provided a potentially fruitful operative base for VDS. These technologies transfer communication, leadership, democratic interaction, teamwork, social engagement and responsibility away from the design tutors to the participants. The implementation of Social Network VDS (SNVDS) moved the VDS beyond its conventional realm and enabled students to develop architectural design that is embedded into a community of learners and expertise both online and offline. Problem-based learning (PBL) becomes an iterative and reflexive process facilitating deep learning. The paper discusses details of the SNVDS, its pedagogical implications to PBL, and presents how the SNVDS is successful in enabling architectural students to collaborate and communicate design proposals that integrate a variety of skills, deep learning, knowledge and construction with a rich learning experience.

Enoki, Mariko, Yoichi Hanada, Yuji Matsumoto, Nagisa Kidosaki, Ryusuhe Naka, and Shigeyuki Yamaguchi. "The territory of the personal workspace: Development of the PWAS (personal workspace analysis system) ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 483-492. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. The purpose of this research is to consider the behaviour of workers from the viewpoint of territory. We hypothesized that “objects on the desk show territory” from our past research. First, we developed the PWAS. This system creates a territory analytical figure from interval photography pictures. And then, experiments were carried out to consider the behaviour of workers in three different conditions. We especially focused on personal workspace, one of territory, because it is very important in considering the behaviour of workers. From this research, we obtained several suggestions regarding the determinant of personal workspace in the office and the influence which physical environment has on personal workspace. From the above, this research shows that territory is very important to understand the behaviour of workers. In addition, it is meaningful that the appraisal techniques using the PWAS obtains these result to some extent.
Fraser, Matthew, and Michael Donn. "Thinking through digital simulation tasks in architectural education ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 599-608. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This study reports the activities of 80 second year architecture students at Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand for the duration of a single trimester. A central theme in this studio is the framing of day-lighting problems into a quantifiable investigation and then addressing these through the use of digital modelling and simulation tools. This study offers an insight to undergraduate architecture studentsi negotiation of digital design spaces and asks the question of how the knowledge of skill-based specialist tasks are extensible to core design studio.The mass education within a University environment of such specialist skill based techniques allows for an insight to the negotiation of quantitative and qualitative design criteria. The issue of learning skill based tasks at university level is a pertinent topic of study as the critique of such techniques is implicit to the holistic education of Architects but the level of this critique can vary greatly. This question also highlights the challenges faced to improving the design education approaches to computational thinking and applications.
Lonsing, Werner, and Peter Anders. "Three-dimensional computational structures and the real world ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 209-218. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. In this paper, we describe a system of composite images to design virtual three-dimensional structures in an outdoor environment. The system, called AmbiViewer, consists of a modeler for three-dimensional on-site sketching, and overlapping locative technologies to orient virtual objects in a real-space, real-time setting. The system employs both GPS orientation and a visual marker system to provide a realistic and interactive augmented reality interface. While it is still under development, the authors believe it can bridge the gap between sketching on site, and creating virtual models in the office.
Lin, Chieh-Jen . "Topology pattern mining: a visual approach for representing and retrieving design patterns of spatial topology in a case library ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 535-544. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This paper aims to apply the clustering analysis algorithm to analyze and classify the pattern of spatial topology of floor plans within a case library named “Open Case Study (OCS)”. Based on the results of classifications, this paper proposes a visual interface named “Topology Pattern Mining (TPM)” to present and rank searching results in response to useris queries. The purpose of TPM is to extend the capacity of OCS for representing implicit knowledge of spatial topology. TPM can retrieve and classify design patterns of spatial topology, and thereby helps users to learn the design knowledge within relevant cases.
Richards, Daniel. "Towards morphogenetic assemblies: Evolving performance within component-based structures." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 515-524. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. Performative design can be understood as the combined usage of spatial analysis simulations and form generation procedures to imbue architectural form with material characteristics and behaviours which define desirable structural, environmental and economic performance. However, to date, design processes that facilitate the integration of “form generation” and “spatial analysis” remain under-developed, making existing performative design methodologies highly reliant upon the manual execution of analysis and evaluation procedures. This paper presents an evolutionary design process that uses integrative computational pipelines and generatively defined component-based assemblies to produce performative structures in response to solar performance. The resulting structures demonstrate how performative composite behaviour can emerge within “disassociated” componential assemblies and produce complex formal interrelationships which surpass simplistic parametric logics. This offers new possibilities for conceiving highly integrated “morphogenetic assemblies” and suggests trajectories for further research within the field of morphogenetic design.
Hanafin, Stuart, Sambit Datta, and Bernard Rolfe. "Tree facades: Generative modelling with an axial branch rewriting system ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 175-184. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. The methods and algorithms of generative modelling can be improved when representing organic structures by the study of computational models of natural processes and their application to architectural design. In this paper, we present a study of the generation of branching structures and their application to the development of façade support systems. We investigate two types of branching structures, a recursive bifurcation model and an axial tree based L-system for the generation of façades. The aim of the paper is to capture not only the form but also the underlying principles of biomimicry found in branching. This is then tested, by their application to develop experimental façade support systems. The developed algorithms implement parametric variations for façade generation based on natural tree-like branching. The benefits of such a model are: ease of structural optimization, variations of support and digital fabrication of façade components.
Lesage, Annemarie, and Tomás Dorta. "Two conceptual design tools and an immersive experience: Beyond the pragmatic-pleasurable split in UX ." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 291-300. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. In a recent study, we compared two conceptual design tools supporting collaboration, a whiteboard software accessed through Internet, and a hybrid immersive system, the Hybrid Ideation Space (HIS). The result of the study appeared to favour the HIS because of its immersive qualities. In this paper, we seek possible explanations as to why immersion delivered a better experience, by looking at the mental workload in relationship to the experience. For the workload we rely on Wickensi four-dimensional multiple resource model, specifically processing codes (verbal/spatial) and visual channels, and for the experience, Csikszentmihalyiis concept of flow and our own concept of Design Flow. The designers seemed to be responding to different styles of information processing required of them by each tool, one being more experiential and the other requiring a heavier mental workload. Insight in the cognitive underpinning of a strictly pragmatic immersive experience suggests that UX has also to do with how the information is received and processed by users, without isolating the functional from the rest of the experience.
Nguyen, Thi, and Beng-Kiang Tan. "Understanding and constructing shared spaces for supporting informal interaction at a distance." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 189-198. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011. This paper discusses the support of informal interaction at a distance using shared space approach. From examining existing examples, we identified critical issues and suggested that a lack of sense of shared space might be the cause of these issues. In order to understand how sense of shared space is supported in these systems, this paper introduces a taxonomy of mediated shared space for informal interaction whose categories are classified based on the degree to which the sense of shared space is supported.
Fernando, Ruwan, James Steel, and Robin Drogemuller. "Using domain specific languages in the Building Information Modelling workflow." In Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 731-740. CAADRIA. Newcastle, Australia: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2011.

The design of architecture, in practice, entails the collaboration of many disciplines each with their own set of tools and representations. Building Information Models aim to support interoperability between these disciplines. However current implementations require a lot of manual work involving translating parts from the various specialised descriptions to the common model format. Domain Specific Languages are a development from Information Technology that defines a mapping from the concepts used in one discipline to those used in another. In this paper, a workflow incorporating the movement between specialised languages and a central model is described. The central model is structured using the Industrial Foundation Classes (IFC). The motivation for elaborating on the interdisciplinary workflow is the desire to create a more iterative process without the need for the manual recreation of models. While it is difficult to have a description or language that contains all the information of all the disciplines, this research demonstrates how the IFC schema acts as a pivot not just between data sets, but also between concepts expressed in different representations thus giving from analysis to design.