Keywords Abstract
Mahalingam, Ganapathy. "A Case for Architectural Computing: Computing Using Architectural Constructs." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 125-131. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This paper is about the potential of architectural computing. Architectural computing is defined as computing that is done with computational structures that are based on architectural forms. An analysis of works of architecture reveals the embedded forms in the works of architecture. A uniform, connections-based representation of these architectural forms allows us to derive computational structures from them. These computational structures form the basis of architectural computing. In this paper a case is made for architectural computing, ideas are provided for how it could be done, and the benefits of architectural computing are briefly explored.
Biao, Li, Xue Rong, Liu Chang, and Gao Qin. "A Generative Tool Base on Multi-Agent System: Algorithm of “HighFAR” and Its Computer Programming." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 335-342. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. Utilizing the principle of multi-agent system by computer programming, the paper presents achievement of an architectural generative design tool which implements intelligent architecture design with the focus of the layout in Asian high density “Floor Area Ratio” (FAR). Applying with the software, architects can get a high density FAR planning design in several minutes. From macroscopic position of building agents in geography to encode the agents by computer programming, the paper expounds the process of the generative tool and its mathematics algorithms.
Lee, Juhyun, and Hyunsoo Lee. "A Sensor based context-aware inference algorithm for ubiquitous residential environments." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 93-102. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. As the development of a computer and the internet have changed social and economic activities related with the human life style. According to these changes, ubiquitous residential environments have been discussed. This paper presents ways of interpreting the situation in association with human interaction with residential environments. This paper deals with various operations of architectural components based on a sensor based context awareness. The methods adopted in this paper for suitable services corresponding to residentsi requirements are Pattern Driven Inference(PDI), Rule Driven Inference(RDI) and Case Driven Inference(CDI). In summary, this paper describes processes how services are provided. And Context based residential management is main research issue.
Huy, Nguyen. "A Simulation Image of Urban Heat on Solar Absorption Cofficient by AutoCAD and GAUSS Matrix Blur Method." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 647-653. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. Many professional software simulated urban heat. However, the simply software for student or beginner of urban planning is very rarely in practice. From viewpoint of an architectural student, this paper is an attempt to a simple method to simulation image of urban heat on solar absorption coefficient by AutoCAD and Gauss matrix blur method, which is simple and suitable with architectural student and beginner of urban planning design
Li, Li, Jingwen Gu, and Jing Ma. "A solution of geometric security based on autoCAD." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 180-184. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. There are numerous electronic blueprints used in engineering today. The geometric security of these blueprints is a big problem to be solved. Based on the research on CAD system mechanics, this paper gives a solution that makes geometric access and use secure,, and gives an implementation on AutoCAD system. It designs a new encryption system compatible with the built-in encryption according to the exploration of variants and commands mechanism in AutoCAD system, and the analysis of structure of drawing database. The solution provides a safe access to files for different level users, and it places the control of edit authority on special geometrics via adding customized objects which contains authority information and password to the graphic information database.
Lertlakkhanakul, Jumphon, Seoyoung Lee, and Jinwon Choi. "A Study of the Effects of Placeness on Collaborative Virtual Workplace." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 572-578. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. So far, there is no empirical study on how “placeness” can affect virtual workplace model. This problem has continuously been overlooked. The research objectives are to verify the effectiveness of “workplace metaphor” and to find out factors that constitute “placeness”, the properties of being a place, in collaborative virtual workplace. An experiment was conducted to test the framework. At the end, different virtual workplace settings can result in dissimilar user behaviour in terms of teamwork and attitude toward the workplace as disparate settings imply different requirements on function, organizational culture, and social meaning. In conclusion, if architectural elements are carefully applied to the virtual office, it cans strengthen teamwork and enhances social interaction.
Merrick, Kathryn, Mary Lou Maher, and Robert Saunders. "Achieving adaptable behaviour in intelligent rooms using curious supervised learning agents." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 185-192. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008.

Multiple devices, both hardware and software, may come and go at any time in a given room. Software controlling the behaviour of these devices must be able to adapt to encompass new devices or the removal of existing devices. This paper presents a model for curious, supervised learning agents that address the issue of adaptability at a behavioural level in an intelligent room. Curious, supervised learning agents comprise a curiosity module and a supervised learning algorithm. The curiosity module identifies interesting devices on which to focus the agentis learning. The supervised learning component realises behaviours by observing, modelling and mimicking human actions. Our framework is demonstrated in a virtual meeting room in Second Life. We show that the curious learning agent can adapt its behaviour to identify new learning goals in response to new devices and activities.

Gu, Ning, Singh Vishal, London Kerry, Ljiljana Brankovic, and Taylor Claudelle. "Adopting Building Information Modeling (BIM) as Collaboration Platform in the Design Industry." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 53-60. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This paper discusses the preliminary findings of an ongoing research project aimed at developing a technological, operational and strategic analysis of adopting BIM in AEC/FM (Architecture-Engineering-Construction/Facility Management) industry as a collaboration tool. Outcomes of the project will provide specifications and guidelines as well as establish industry standards for implementing BIM in practice. This research primarily focuses on BIM model servers as a collaboration platform, and hence the guidelines are aimed at enhancing collaboration capabilities. This paper reports on the findings from: (1) a critical review of latest BIM literature and commercial applications, and (2) workshops with focus groups on changing work-practice, role of technology, current perception and expectations of BIM. Layout for case studies being undertaken is presented. These findings provide a base to develop comprehensive software specifications and national guidelines for BIM with particular emphasis on BIM model servers as collaboration platforms. 
Gül, Leman F.. "Affordances of Virtual environments do design media change the interaction with the design representation?" In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 213-220. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. The paper focuses on characterising design environments and on identifying design behaviour in different collaborative virtual environments and discusses the behaviour change based on the affordances theory. In this paper, we present two designers collaborating over three different design environments and report a comparison of those environments with face-to-face (FTF) sketching, using protocol analysis. The analysis of the protocol shows that different virtual environments provide different affordances.
Kacher, S., and Gilles Halin. "An analyse of experiment results to improve an image indexation method: Application to the design process." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 391-398. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. In our research work we proposed a method to construct an image data base from which designers can find solutions for their design problem. In our approach, an image is not only a media representing existing objects or existing scenes, but it is a support which allow the designer to advance in solving his problem. In this paper we tackle the particular question of the analyses of the results obtained thanks to an experiment which aims to validate a method to index and retrieve images. The objective of this experiment is to evaluate the real contribution of the images retrieved by our system to the designer when he looks for solutions to a design problem. By the analyse of the indexation terms we aim to evaluate the real help that this reference image database can bring to the designer during his creation work.
Gu, Ning, and Jerry Jen- Hung Tsai. "An Interactive Graphical System for Collaborative Architectural Design in 3D Virtual Environments." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 601-608. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This paper presents the development of an interactive graphical system applicable to collaborative architectural design in 3D virtual environments and its preliminary application for a building design project. This interactive graphical system integrates the spatial system and the stylistic system and specialises in styles representation and exploration in architectural design.
Ambrose, Michael, Carl Lostritto, and Luc Wilson. "Animate education Early Design Education Pedagogy." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 29-35. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This paper presents a novel approach to the introduction and use of animation and motion graphics in foundation design education. Design inquiry and understanding as generated from, and translated by, movement is the focus. This work explores animation as a design methodology in the first weeks of architectural education. The proposed design exercise discussed here will probe the concept/context and spatial/visual literacy of the learned sense of space-time in architectural design education and representation. Here the digital application of animation and motion graphics is intended to be process driven to encourage students to find an attitude about solutions rather than a solution to the design project. The intention is to examine the relationship between form and space through a structured exploration of movement within a kit-of-parts design project that explores a three-dimensional spatial construct. Animation as a design method poses unique potentials and pitfalls. Animation and motion graphics, as a collection of instances, is both questioned and exaggerated. This project creates a threshold experience of learning that puts in motion an exploration of integrated digital process and design product.
Lowe, Russell. "Beyond the boundary object: sketches, computer games and blogs facilitating design development." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 544-551. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. Developing Frostsi understanding of Leigh Staris (Star 1989) concept of the boundary object this paper seeks to answer the question “would multiple boundary objects employed simultaneously facilitate design development?” The paper reflects on and critically reviews the design, implementation, and outcomes of a first year Architectural Design course that privileged architectural representation in the form of design sketches, blogs and contemporary computer gaming technology. The review process is supported by an in depth survey of students experiences both prior to and during the course. With a large number of students enrolled in the course (158) the findings from this survey can be seen to offer a statistical reliability which is in contrast to the more usual anecdotal approach.
Diniz, Nancy. "Body tailored space: Configuring Space through Embodiment." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 510-517. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. With this project I propose that embodiment can be more emphasized and better supported in space-design frameworks. This paper presents background on several theories of embodiment since the beginning of the twentieth century to recent developments of the concept in tangible and social computing and anticipate that this reveals pathways for designing new embodiment framework systems for architecture. I suggest that architecture and interactive computing can share a common theoretical foundation in embodied interaction. The main thesis is for designers to use the body as an interface to understand how the interaction between a person and his/her surroundings arises and how our embodiment reveals other rich spatial qualities during the conception phase of design. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for embodied interaction based on the creation of real-time systems in order to instigate a framework for interactive processes that can help designers understand architecture phenomena and the performance of space. I present a design experiment on embodied performance space entitled “Body Tailored Space” where the boundaries of the human body are metaphorically extended into surrounding membranes.
Bin Yang, Wun-, and Ji-Hyun Lee. "Building a Colour Image Database to Recommend Architectural Colour Scheme using Case-Based Retrieval Mechanism." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 103-109. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. The purpose of this study is to develop a digitized Taiwanese colour image database for architectural colour scheme in Taiwan. This paper uses adjectives to present each colouris contribution to the colour image. The system uses the “colour difference formula” from the CIEDE2000 method, which calculates the difference between the two colour perceptions represented by the two given points. Using the “Group Nearest Neighbouri algorithm, the retrieval mechanism obtains a similarity measurement. This approach can help designers to know the meanings of colours and their associated colour images, which will help them develop the building image.
Fukuda, Tomohiro, Atsuko Kaga, and Takanori Terashima. "Citizen participatory design method using VR and a Blog." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 271-277. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This research concerned the establishment of a citizen participatory design method using VR and CGM. For this, problems in the citizen participatory design are addressed, and the continuous study method using VR and a blog is shown. Then, evaluation is conducted by considering an actual design project as a case study. Furthermore, VR functions needed through the case study are developed. Using this method, a small patio on which parasols were permanently and lawfully set up on a road lot was completed.
Kosavinta, Satakhun. "Collaborative Financial Feasibility with CAAD for Residential Development." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 594-600. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. Computer Aided Architectural Design software is a necessary tool for the architectural design of a visible object or model. In residential development, an estimation of time/cost corresponding to the design is needed in order to complete its successful project. But available feasibility supporting tools usually lacks ability to share their information. To solve this limitation, this research proposes a design of Graphic User Interface (GUI) for collaborative financial feasibility through an architectural design process in housing project. The development of the GUI starts from collecting some information and requirement from National Housing Authority of Thailand. A heuristic decision making approach based on financial analysis are then designed for both design processes and feasibility processes of the project. Finally, design of the GUI is an integration of CAAD engines, design standards and financial feasibility analysis. Proposed GUI for collaborative financial feasibility is also tested and verified with some information from sample past projects of the National Housing Authority. From the experimental results, This GUI allows designers to improve the design of the project in real-time by inspecting the result of their design via the part of the architectural design-oriented GUI called myMonitoring and Scratch Pad. Together with planning, collaborative financial feasibility is focusing on the four main financial parameters which illustrated the possible chance of the project: Net Present Value (NPV), Benefit-Cost Ratio (B/C), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), and Payback Period. The core system was developed on Java Technology such as JSP and Swing empowered by 3D game engine. In addition, “Virtools” as an authoring tool was applied to improve interactive 3D virtual environment and explore rapid online system prototyping.
Gero, John S., Kazjon Grace, and Robert Saunders. "Computational Analogy-Making in Designning: a Process Architecture." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 153-160. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This paper presents a model of computational analogy-making in designing based on the notion of situated similarity. Situated similarity is the idea that the relationship between two concepts is dependent not only on what the agent knows about those concepts but also on the way the agent is looking at them. Analogy-making is modelled as three interacting processes: formulation, matching and mapping. The model is developed and then its implications for developing situated analogy-making systems in design are discussed.
Oh, Yeonjoo, Mark Gross, and Ellen Yi- Luen Do. "Computer-aided Critiquing systems Lessons Learned and New Research Directions." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 161-167. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. A critiquing system helps designers improve their design artifacts by providing feedback. Computer-aided critiquing systems have been built in many fields and provide us with useful lessons. In this paper we analyze existing critiquing systems in terms of (1) critiquing process, (2) critiquing rules, and (3) intervention techniques. Based on this analysis, we suggest new research directions for critiquing systems in the domain of architectural design.
Barrios, Carlos, and Damien Alomar. "Computing with textile blocks: Symmetry Studies on Frank Lloyd Wright s Textile Block Design Patterns." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 343-349. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This research focused on generating alternative designs from the textile blocks California Houses of Frank Lloyd Wright based on regular wallpaper symmetry patterns. A computational framework was developed that generates the designs of the original textile blocks in combination with all possible wallpaper symmetry patterns. This computational framework allowed for the creation of the catalog of possible regular patterns. The development of the framework allowed for a deeper understanding of the symmetrical relationships of the blocks and the wallpaper patterns created by Frank Lloyd Wright and a large collection of new ones.
Kaga, Atsuko, Yasuko Matsunaga, Kenichi Sakai, and Tomohiro Fukuda. "Construction of a design support system for the public space design in which a citizen participates: the interactive design system in a workshop." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 426-432. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. Workshops are held with local residents participation as one technique by which residents plan roads and places along a route. Because residents without special knowledge participate in such workshops, it is necessary to show the contents intelligibly so that all participants might grasp the plan contents and examine them. Moreover, for community planning workshops, because the time during which they can be held is restricted, within that time, plan- related information must be organized efficiently for rapid examination and searching of its contents. As an interactive system, a real-time simulation (RS) is sought that allows rapid drawing and that has a structure to display the contents of a plan using a three-dimensional space model in real time. The purpose of this research is to build a system that supports environmental space design, which uses RS in the workshop, and which is applicable for evaluation of an actual street space maintenance plan.
Lan, Ju-Hung, and Kai-Han Chung. "Designing a Smart Workplace to Assist Design Activity from an Emotional Approach." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 174-179. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. In this paper, we are interested in developing a smart workplace to assist design activities during design processes from an emotional approach. A key problem in this study is how to design a smart environment, which is able to detect the designeris emotional state and provides smart mechanism to assist design work. In the preliminary study, a spatial system prototype is developed to illustrate the design ideas of the smart workplace. Some triggered spatial events to describe the capabilities of assisting design activities from an emotional approach is introduced in the study. The framework of ubiquitous computing design in developing the smart workplace is introduced.
Yue, Kui, Casey Hickerson, and Ramesh Krishnamurti. "Determining the interior layout of buildings describable by shape grammars." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 117-124. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This paper describes our current research results on the general algorithm and data structures supporting the determination of the interior layout for buildings comprising rectangular spaces and describable by shape grammars.
Ham, Jeremy J.. "Developing the a+b/online Virtual Gallery." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 357-363. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. The a+b/online project is an exemplar of a comprehensive online resource that includes Virtual Galleries, resources, digital case studies and an image repository (http://www.ab.deakin.edu.au/online). Throughout its development since 2001, the project has expanded to include several thousand digital objects. This paper discusses the development of the a+b/online site and outlines some of the issues associated with its development. The current state of the project is discussed in relation to the current paradigm of citizen media including blogs. 
Fukuda, Tomohiro, Atsuko Kaga, and Yosuke Takada. "Development and evaluation of a representation method of 3DCG pre-rendering animation for environmental symbiosis design." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 14-21. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. As a method of dissemination of environmental symbiosis design towards environmental problem solutions, 3DCG pre-rendering animation (3DCGPRA) which has a high quality of representation and has a powerful appeal, is expected to be particularly effective. After arranging components required in an environmental symbiosis design, the representation targets which needed to be developed were clarified. In addition, representation methods of shade and shadow, grass, human activity, and symbiosis methods etc. were developed. In a real project, a 7i 3DCGPRA was created applying these new methods, and its validity was evaluated.
Nakapan, Walaiporn, and Somkidt Yindeeyoungyeon. "Development of a Simple Web-based GIS System for Sustainable Housing Projects VisualizatioN." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 236-243. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This paper presents a simple web-based GIS system for visualization of Baan Mankong, as known as sustainable housing projects for communities of low-incomers in Thailand. The Baan Mankong project has been so successful that numbers of projects initialized have been increasing during the past couple of years. The projects information is gathered in a huge database, but there is a lack of visualization tool to help the officers and executives to have a global view of the projects spatial distribution and to have a quick access to project information. GIS is proposed as a tool to be developed on the web for the visualization of this project. The Baan Mankongis work flow and project information are studied in order to select only necessary information to be stored in the system. Then, the geographic visualization tool development process is presented.
Kenzari, Bechir. "Digital Design and Fabrication." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 61-67. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. The universe of digital fabrication does not only allow buildings to be produced as quick, precise, multiply-generated objects (prototypes) but also reduces, in a very specific way, their presence as original entities. This implies a radical disjunction between the past and the future of the building industry, with all the intrinsic changes and transformations that might affect both the architectural product and the maker. Drawing mainly on Walter Benjaminis work on technical reproducibility and information, but also on Barthesi theory of fashion, the present paper will try to analyze the theoretical and practical implications of these transformations.
Schnabel, Marc Aurel. "Disparallel Spaces: Parametric Design Experience." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 459-467. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. Disparallel Spaces was an architectural design exhibition showcasing creative digital design techniques. It explored how the coupling of architectural design with digital modelling and fabrication methods allows for a deeper comprehension and experience of space and form. The participating designers proposed architectural solutions that challenged and defied gravity, dimension, space and volume in unprecedented ways, resulting in novel designs created with freedom of innovation, interpretation, and definition without boundaries. The notion of non-conformity was the core of this collection of works, held together by the idea of spatial concepts in disparallel configurations and unconventional methods in the process of design.
Kan, Jeff, and John S. Gero. "Do computer mediated tools affect team design creativity?" In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 263-270. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This paper presents the results of a quantitative analysis to measure the development of creative design ideas in design protocols. It presents a working definition of design creativity used in the analysis followed by the method of study. Five sets of video and audio data were collected from experiments that involved two designers designing similar tasks in three different settings: face-to-face, an Internet GroupBoard, and a 3D virtual world. The most creative pair was selected for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Our result shows that designers developed more design ideas in the face-to-face setting than in the 3D virtual world settings.
Theodoros, Dounas, and Kotsiopoulos Anastasios. "Dynamic (Shape) Grammars." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 22-28. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. The research presented in the paper explores the creation of custom shape grammars with animation tools, either as learning or educational tool or for the purposes of architectural design. Standard shape grammars contain an initial shape or design and one or more transformation rules. In a simple scenario the designer just applies the rules in the initial design or in a complicated scenario has to choose which rule to apply. Dynamic shape grammars on the other hand use animation tools to produce dynamic rules of transformation, or even dynamic - parametric initial shapes on which to apply the rules on. The dynamic state of the rules in our system allows the designer to change the rules during designing without having to abandon a core idea or concept. Furthermore the implementation with an animation tool allows the design system to be form-independent and express the underlying structure of an architectural idea with non-graphical connections like parent and child relationships, or other deformation rules. It can be shown that in a computation context dynamic shape grammars are actually groups of standard shape grammars where the grammars in the group share the classification of the transformation rules they contain. The system that we present allows the designer to change between the grammars in one group in a transparent way without expressing the grammar formally but by only manipulating simple objects inside the animation software package. This transparency focuses the effort of the user in simply design and keeping track of the formal declarations of shape grammars while the multiple dynamic grammars remove the obstacle of conforming to a single set of rules. The benefits of this effort can be especially seen in actual architectural design where the focus is in developing a concept idea and not strictly adhering to the rules.
Lam, Selina. "Enhancing Realism in Exploring in Virtual Environments." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 662-628. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. A virtual environment is a place which requires context, content and actors to promote realism in the exploration process. With the advancement in technologies and computing power, the context of virtual environments could be sculpted in finely. Referencing movie and video games, it would not be difficult to draft the content. The only component being overlooked is the actor.  In this paper, I will address the mechanism and challenges in the implementation of autonomous agents as actors in virtual environment so as to promote social sense and enliven the environment, hence enhancing realism in the exploration. 
Coorey, Ben. "Erosive fluidity Exploration in generating digital architectural form." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 36-41. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This paper explores emerging digital technologies and their application in architectural design. It investigates the tools and techniques that are currently available and produces some interesting work that is both inspiring and interesting. A series of three scenarios were explored via a digital design studio at the Faculty of Architecture, Design and Planning, The University of Sydney. The final work appeared in the “Disparallel Spaces” exhibition, University of Sydney in May/June 2007. This paper will explain these scenarios and offer a look at some emerging trends in architectural design.
Penttila, Hannu, Markus Peter, and Dietrich Elger. "Evaluating VBE AND BIM-frameworkS a Cost Estimation Case Study and Reflections to Environmental Issues." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 81-88. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008.

This paper describes and evaluates two recently emerged concepts, Virtual Building Environment VBE and Building Information Modelling BIM, fitting them into the context of contemporary design and construction. Both are elementary concepts in modern digitally “reinforced” design and construction. A case study of cost estimation is presented to illustrate how discipline related issues are currently managed within VBE and BIM. An environmental aspect is presented as a corresponding domain to evaluate the other use cases of building related information. Other similar domains to be evaluated perhaps in further case studies could be the functional user aspect, the project management aspect and the regulating aspect by the society and authorities. A hypothetical assumption is, that methods and technologies which are currently used within VBE and BIM, mainly by designers, can well support various data extractions from BIM-models, but they may not serve all construction process participants in the most beneficial way. Also wider scale building portfolios are requested as conceptual extensions to VBE and BIM. This study is based on ongoing PhD studies on building information modelling and environmental life cycle assessment.

Park, Hyoung-June. "Evolution + Bim: the Utilization of Building Information Modelling at an Early Design Stage." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 552-559. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. The paper introduces an experimental design studio that explores the optimal use of current digital technologies in order to allow the adoption of Building Information Modelling at an early stage of the design process. Based upon outcomes from the aforementioned studio, the paper discusses issues regarding the adoption of BIM.
Pan, Cheng-A, and Tay-Sheng Jeng. "Exploring Sensing-based Kinetic Design for Responsive Architecture." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 285-292. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This paper outlines the features of responsive architecture with emphasis on sensing-based kinetic design. The emphasis of our work is mainly on developing kinetic design methods that apply to responsive architecture. The kinetic design method is demonstrated by an experimental system called Mimosa. Mimosa is a responsive architecture prototype that can alter its shape in response to climate conditions. The implementation, experience, and lessons learned from the development of sensing-based kinetic design for responsive architecture will be reported in this paper. 
Otani, Makoto, and Tatsuya Kishimoto. "Fluctuating patterns of architecture façade and their automatic CREAtion ." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 375-382. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. Today, buildings with monotonous façade fill the city. However, many buildings which the elements constituting their façade are changed were seen in work designed by architects. This paper aims at examining the potentiality of automated fluctuating design creation focused on architecture façades, by analysing the design trend of architectural fluctuating designs and creating a fluctuating façade automatically based on the analysis.
Rügemer, Jörg. "Form Follows Tool: How the mere existence of a 2D laser cutter does influences architectural design in education?" In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 529-535. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. The paper is aimed to examine the influence of a digital laser cutter on the design process within the College of Architecture and Planning, University of Utah, Salt Lake City. The tool functions as a peripheral output device within a simple “CAD-CAM” model manufacturing process in the area of architectural model making. It is a 2D laser cutter, accessible to the students since four years. The paper has a critical look at how the machineis availability, its possibilities, as well as its promising time saving potential has changed the way students develop their design and process their projects. Rapid prototyping is becoming more and more an integral and important part of our design studios. With the adoption of the laser cutter, the model making procedure has changed from a relatively time-consuming, but immediately controllable process, to a procedure where one has to spatially re-think the elements that need to be produced, in order to adapt to the necessary digital workflow or process.
Gero, John S., and Nick Kelly. "How can CAAD tools be more useful at the early stages of designing?: Towards Situated Agents that Interpret." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 309-316. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This paper describes how designers can be supported in the early stages of designing through more flexible representations. It presents situated agency as a means to address this problem. Interpretation is a necessary process to give meaning to data before creating a representation. A framework for situated interpretation agents is outlined, with a focus on push-pull and the process of situation. An example for creating a CAAD representation from a raster image is used to illustrate this framework. This research lays a foundation for further work on situated interpretation agents.
Tayyar, Bahram. "Impacts of ITC technologies on Neighborhoods: Typological Study." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 244-250. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. As the former infrastructures such as roads and electricity deeply transformed qualities of neighbourhoods, the new ITC technologies exert some fundamental changes over them. This paper, which is based on a master by research thesis, explores the newly emerging ITC-based lifestyles to understand the social and spatial impacts that they are seeking or may cause in their living environments. The study is typological and emphasizes on similarities and differences between different neighbourhood types (as physical contexts) and lifestyles (as human contexts). 
Koba, Norio, Koji Koizumi, and Tatsuya Kishimoto. "Impression Analyses of Building Form and Streetscape in Nihonbashi-Chuo Street Using Virtual Reality: Streetscape Analysis which aims at creating unique streetscape using virtual reality." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 609-617. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. Recently in Japan, streetscapes have been changing by repeated deregulations and redevelopments. In this paper, the desirable building forms and facades in Nihonbashi is examined through experiments using the VR system. Firstly the changes of impression in three streetscapes whose buildings forms and height are different are investigated. Secondly, the difference in impression of facades in the cases they are seen in streetscapes or seen individually is examined. Thirdly analysing the correlation of physical components and unique facades, the relation between attractiveness of streetscape and building forms and facades is clarified. From these results, way of design to create lively, emotional and unique streetscape in Nihonbashi is suggested.
Loemker, Thorsten. "In-situ Analyses of Buildings by means of Smart Devices and Location Based Services ." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 635-641. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. In this research we examined if it might be possible that a client accomplishes an ad-hoc analysis of an existing building with the intention of prospective revitalization. The aim is to give a client who incidentally faces a building the possibility to run an in situ usability simulation. To accomplish this we recommend Location Based Services that can be accessed by common remote sensing devices. These devices should automatically connect to server-based applications, which compare the requirements of the client with the existing building and run remote simulations on concrete further utilization. The newly generated information will then be passed back to the clientsi device. In the paper we address a scenario of a prospective client who visits a city where he hits on an unused building he might be interest in. The client wishes to gain immediate and accurate information if the building is able to meet his demands regarding the space needed for his company. Different techniques investigated, their assets and drawbacks will be described that could accomplish suchlike tasks.
Puttipong, Nuttawut. "Instant Message Application for Collaborative Work in Architectural Office via Network System." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 536-543. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. his developed software has objectives to improve and develop working style of architectural organizations to suit the world nowadays and to increase capability and convenience in working of coordination and assignment as well as following up task progression in drawing works to be finished timely the determined schedule so that would reduce problems due to time and distance. All participating parties can work and coordinate together whereas such colleague may be in another place or another time. The software designed by us is to be used in operation via network system supporting operation in collaborative working style. 
Biswas, Tajin, Tsung-Hsien Wang, and Ramesh Krishnamurti. "Integrating sustainable building rating systems with building information models." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 193-200. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. The transition from conventional to sustainable building depends on a number of factors?  technological, environmental, economic and social.  From a computer-aided design perspective, the first two are perhaps the most significant. We are working on a project with an emphasis on developing tools, to evaluate environmental consequences for design decision-making. Our current thrust is given to reducing energy usage as well as carbon emissions in buildings.
Jinuntuya, Pinyo, and Prittiporn Lopkerd. "Interactive 3D VE-CAAD system for Collaborative Design Automation using Ruby on Rails Framework." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 629-634. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This paper presents our 2 commercial CAAD solutions, to evaluate the suitability of tools and programming techniques for enhancing collaboration in design automation process
Reffat, Rabee, Yaman Khaeruzzaman, Emad El-Sebakhy, and Putu Raharja. "Interactive Architectural Compositions in 3D Real-Time Virtual Environments." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 587-593. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This paper presents an interactive computational system for developing architectural compositions within a 3D real-time virtual environment. The features of implemented system within the interface of Activeworlds platform includes (a) providing a set of 3D building objects that are made available within the virtual environment and can be utilized by the user to construct architectural compositions, (b) allowing users to modify both geometrical and non-geometrical properties of these objects, and (c) maintaining interrelationships between these objects using constrain-based rules automated by the developed system in real-time. The developed IAMVE (Interactive Architectural Modelling in Virtual Environments) system provides more flexibility to architectural designers and develops an edge to multi-user real time 3D virtual environments to be better utilized in the context of architectural design
Kaewlai, Pornpis, Pinyo Jinuntuya, and Pizzanu Kanongchaiyos. "Interactive Feasibility-based CAAD System for Infrastructure and Open Space Planning in Housing Project Design." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 143-148. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. The decision support system developed in this research is aimed to the conceptual scheme of project focusing on infrastructure planning and open space design in the architectural context for housing project. Alternative design sets are provided within the limitations, and possibilities to be further evaluated appropriately. This system helps architects and developers to analyze relationships of physical environment, architectural requirements and the overall of project-related factors with real-time cost estimation. Factors for cost estimation derived from the beginning to the end of project will be manipulated simultaneously. Architects and developers can use this design simulation to address the physical data with real-time cost estimation, provide alternative results, and design evaluation for overall projectis feasibility. The software of our research is not just a tool for design & planning automation in feasibility analysis. It will be an interactive decision support system for both developers and planners aspects. The system was developed by SketchUp Ruby Application Programming Interface. The results will be presented into two ways. Firstly, 2D and 3D modelling will be used for interactive visualization in design and planning of the beginning process. Subsequently, numbers and additional factors in details will be used to show relationship between architectural environment and feasibility-based information to help architects and developers collaboratively analyze the land use planning and open space design for housing project. In evaluation process, the developed software is tested with the project preceding and the future project of Bangkok area under constraints and regulations of Building Control Act of Thailand. In conclusion, this system will make effectiveness in design process and management of the construction knowledge. The decision support systems should be designed to makes explicit use of both planning analysis aspect and knowledge-based decision making.
Chevrier, C., and J.P. Perrin. "Interactive parametric modelling: POG a tool the cultural heritage monument 3D reconstruction." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 487-493. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. Historic monument and archaeological site 3D reconstruction is nowadays often required for many applications (scientific and architectural studies, virtual visits for a better understanding of the monument, etc). This task is very time-consuming. Automating the modelling of the most common components could ease this 3D work and produce accurate, consistent and re-usable models. Based upon compound rules of architectural elements but also upon various other data sources such as photographs and 3D laser scans, we have conceived and developed an interactive tool for virtual 3D reconstruction of heritage monuments. It allows a quick modelling and accurate adjustments to the measured data. This tool could be a great help for architects and archaeologists. Research first has began with the study of classical architecture, and has gone on with other architectural styles. Architectural elements are described with parametric data, then generated by our tool. Our main application context was the town of Nancy in France where there are lots of classical architecture buildings which allow us to test our tool. It will be further extended to be applied to other architectural styles and will be combined with photogrammetry methods.
Schoch, Odilo, and Peter Russell. "Kanban as a Supporting Tool for the SUSTAINABLE Design and Operation of Smart Buildings the potential of the Toyota Production System in Architecture." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 68-74. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This paper describes the translation of the process management tool “Kanban” and its adjacent Toyota Production System into an architectural design supporting tool in the context of computer integrated buildings. The triggering question is: “How can architects handle requirements and services of ubiquitous computing in relation to their cursory knowledge about networked services and its unpredictable future development?”. The paper develops a system called “Ubicomp-Kanban” based on the characteristics Toyota Production System. It is suitable for both design and operation of binary networked services in built environment in selected architectural scales and selected functions. The application of the system allows more precise planning and resource optimized operation of academic buildings. The paper does not intend to set up a new approach for building information models (BIM).
Champion, Erik, Andrew Dekker, and Petra Thomas. "Lazy Panorama Monopoly Table: Take Your City for a Spin." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 662-669. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. While conventional information displays are still effective, a lack of integration between descriptive and contextual information means they cannot be used independently of additional external information. New digital systems such as Google Maps are increasing in popularity. Unfortunately these present some limitations in terms of understanding both route and survey information, and in particular navigation and orientation, such as intuitively understanding a plan view no matter which way one is facing, so visitors can quickly and intuitively learn how to get to specific buildings or to specific facilities. Digital systems may also alienate older and non computer literate users, and they display contextual information inside an interface which limits the possible range of interaction methods offered by physical interaction. Our solution was to create a 3D physical model that one could spin, which would in turn display digital panoramas that spun in rotational alignment with the physical city model. Further, the user could place category tokens in intersections of the city model, which would bring up digital panoramas on the screen and highlight facilities linked to the category chosen. Rotating the token would also rotate the digital panorama.
Moorapun, Chumporn. "Methods for Validating the use of virtual simulation generated from a computer game for environment and behaviour research." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 642-646. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This paper shows that computer game technology can generate virtual environments for use as research settings in environment and behaviour research. It illustrates the development of a simulation of a retail shop generated by the game engine Counter-Strike. In addition, this paper suggests methods to interface with this virtual shop. Lastly, it proposes methods to assess the validity of the simulation of this virtual shop
Bhatt, Anand. "Modeling conventional Architectural Processes: Maintaining Knowledge created by Institutions Situated in a Historic Context." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 132-142. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008.

In this paper we present a knowledge representation infrastructure that is being tested in collaboration with several institutions. This infrastructure is designed to map the structure of institutions dealing in Architecture and related disciplines, their interrelationships, and knowledge constructed by institutionalized processes in a given historical context.

Wiboonma, Wiboonsiri, Pinyo Jinuntuya, and Pizzanu Kanongchaiyos. "Multi-Directional Interrelationship Approach for Hybrid Interactive Design Tool for High-Rise Building." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 110-116. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. The role of computers in architectural design is constantly increasing, as may be seen in the efforts to develop generative design tools which are focused on helping create innovative results. Some of these are generated by sets of rules, constraints, theoretical models and algorithms, for which the computer is used as the implementing tool. This research introduces a new approach in hybrid interactive design tools, which are focused on the clustered and hectic urban context in the modern age, meaning that architecture is continuously developing vertically, in high-rise buildings. The main point in this research will be the abandoned gap in connecting the internal functions and external appearance. This is another main point which cannot be ignored in designing high rises, which ideally contain both internal and external perceptive aesthetics.  The scope of this research will cover three aspects: Function, Perception, and Proportion. Therefore, the work flow of this design tool will be a multi-directional interrelationship between these three steps: 1) internal function and external form generation by various types of constraints, 2) internal function and external form inspection, and 3) internal function and external form modification by the users.
Fischer, Thomas. "Obstructed Magic: on the Myths of Observing Designing and of Sharing Design Observations." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 278-284. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. Much design research, including much research in the computer-aided architectural design field, is based on the assumption that the process of designing is observable and that what happens in designing can be known, explicitly described and shared. In this paper I examine this assumption from my subjective viewpoint and conclude that designing occurs behind a blind spot. It can be concluded that existing design process models used in the “science of design” are based on invention rather than on empirical evidence, which in turn suggests that science should be studied as a form of design instead of studying designing scientifically.
Martens, Bob. "Of Digital Eggs and the Chicken's Metamorphosis: How Digital Representation Influences the Built Reality." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 654-661. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. In this contribution we explore the relationship between the use of digital representations and the reception of architectural design. We will try to show that visual simulation, typically preceding the actual built reality, can have a lasting impact on the built reality that follows in its wake. Beyond the chicken-and-egg issue, we focus on the potential and the restrictions of ongoing developments based on a wide variety of contemporary architectural design features.
Lin, Chieh-Jen , and Mao-Lin Chiu. "Open Ontology: a Self-Organizing Tool for Knowledge Acquisition in a Case Library ." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 328-334. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This paper is aimed to establish a sufficiently formalized, expandable metadata authoring tool of a case library based on ontology methodologies of AI. This tool cannot only self-organize facts of cases features, but can also guide users to arrange those facts into a formalized structure to facilitate design reasoning. Then knowledge experts, such as design instructors or project managers, can apply this tool to author and organize metadata of casesi features in order to build knowledge templates for special situations. Beginners, such as students or assistants, can apply those templates to indicate and analyze facts of collected cases features and acquire essential knowledge in solving problems. Finally, through easily recognized semantic relations of metadata, facts of casesi features can be self-organized, and the system can apply data mining techniques to detect and discover hidden knowledge patterns among facts of casesi features.
Al-Haddad, Tristan. "Parametric modulations in Masonry." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 221-228. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. The focus of the research presented in this paper asks how a designer can create a flexible system of physical making which can accommodate multiple programmatic functions within a smooth whole, rather than creating an a priori singular formal object.  This adaptable system of construction works through the development of an intelligent CAD model that can be mapped to a flexible manufacturing mechanism, i.e. a reconfigurable mold.  This system of manufacturing can be used to cast totally unique solid modules without creating a unique mold for each part by manipulating the topological structure of the system.  This approach takes the notion of mass-customization beyond the expensive and unsustainable one-offs that the design world has seen recently, and into a new paradigm of a sustainable, economically viable world of mass-customizable form and space.
Muramoto, Katsuhiko, Sonali Kumar, Michael Jemtrud, and Danielle Wiley. "Participation, Intersubjectivity, and Presence in a Digitally Mediated Workspace: a Participatory Design Studio between Pennsylvania State University and Carleton University." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 364-370. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. A paradigm shift in the world of architecture brought by the recent developments in visualization and communication technology not only offers us drastically different ways to collaborate, but also questions traditional location dependent collaborations. This new technology offers us new possibilities for a more phenomenologically rich mode of creative activity and participation. The goal of the Participatory Design Studio was to allow architecture students in multiple locations to collaborate in real-time by sharing computational resources, geometric datasets, and multimedia content including high-definition video. The technologies involved in this research include the National LambdaRail (layer 3, PacketNet with 1Gb/s connection) and CA*net 4 (Canadian broadband layer 2 with 10gb/s lightpath connectivity) allowing Standard Definition videoconference, utilization of Deep Computing Visualization, Remote Visual Networking (RVN) and Web Service access and control of the APN devices through the dashboard solution that makes integration seamless to the workflow and transparent to the user.
Pellitteri, Giuseppe, Salvatore Concialdi, and Raimondo Lattuca. "Performative Architecture: New Semantic for New Shapes?" In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 300-208. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. Two innovations have more deeply changed the building process: the operational continuity of the design and construction phases and the software allowing not only the representation but also the autonomous creation of complex shapes never before thought, just because they could not be represented. This last innovation introduce to a “Performative Architecture” that addresses to emerge a new kind of architecture. Building performances (structural, environmental, energetic) are guiding design principles, adopting new building performance-based priorities for the design of cities, buildings and landscape. This emerging architecture places broadly defined performance above form making, It utilises digital technologies of quantitative and qualitative performance-based simulation to offer a comprehensive approach to the design of the build environment. Some aspects of “Performative Architecturei theories are critically examined and we report two experiments made using these procedures. The results try to give a contribution to detect some misunderstandings in relation to recent building projects shown.
Chien, Sheng-Fen. "Probing elders needs for smart technologies in the domestic environment." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 75-80. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This paper presents an initial investigation into developing smart homes for the elderly. Smart homes refer to domestic living environments that equipped with “sensiblei and “responsivei facilities, which employ smart technologies, to provide occupants a sound and comfortable living. Designers and sociologists have observed reluctances and even rejections to these technologies from the elderly. A Cultural Probes study shows that the elderly welcome new technologies but reject robotic companionships. In addition, a questionnaire survey concludes that smart technologies for home safety and security, energy conservation and usage monitoring, as well as health care and maintenance, are desirable.
Watanabe, Shun, and Yu Nishikawa. "Production Method of Accurated 3d Urban Models with Digital Photogrammetry." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 564-571. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. A convenient method for creating accurate 3D urban models without expensive survey equipment is developed by introducing digital photogrammetry. As a matter of logic, the 3D models for urban landscape simulations are expected to limit errors to several dozen centimeters. The proposed method is examined in order to reproduce the actual urban landscape and to provide accuracy that is sufficient to meet the theoretical requirement.
Ambrose, Michael, and Lisa Lacharité. "Representation and re-Presentation: Emerging Digital Conventions of Architectural Communication." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 437-444. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This paper examines the theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of digital architectural representation. Emerging digital tools, processes, and methods are sponsoring new conventions for the communication of architectural ideas and motives. New conventions yielded through digital media offer fresh and currently uncodified ways to communicate. These new conventions attempt to communicate the same ideas as the old, sometimes subverting the imperative for drawing as the representation does not refer to information in the abstract, but literally is the information. This research explores the use of architectural conventions, such as plan, section, and perspective, to examine re-presentation “ not only a way to convey form and content, but to also to be used as a form of communication. The emerging digital conventions are forms of communication situated between representation and re-presentation.
Prats, S., M. Lim, Scott C. Chase, and Steve Garner. "Sketching in Design: Formalising a Transformational Process." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 472-478. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. The process of sketching can support the sort of transformational thinking that is seen as essential for the interpretation and reinterpretation of ideas in innovative design (Suwa 2003). In this paper, the initial outputs and findings of an ongoing project called Design Synthesis and Shape Generation are described based on experimental investigations of the mechanics of sketching from practicing architects and industrial designers as they responded to a series of conceptual design tasks. Preliminary analyses of the experimental data suggest that the interactions of designers with their sketches can be formalised according to a finite number of generalised shape rules. These rules formalise the transformations and reinterpretation of shapes for example through deformation or restructuring.
Lan, Ju-Hung. "Smart Space for Office Daily Life: a Situated Life Pattern Approach." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 168-173. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. Researches in smart space design have been focused on using ubiquitous computing technologies to provide the visions of future lives in physical spaces. However, most researches have less concern for the logical usability in creating smart spaces for the occupants. The study is interested in designing a smart space which is occupant-centric and situated-life-oriented based on ubiquitous computing technologies. A spatial system prototype with smart door, smart wall, and smart table is developed from a situated life pattern approach to support typical office life events. The design problems of integrating ubiquitous computing devices with physical spatial components are explored and discussed.
Christensen, Peter, and Marc Aurel Schnabel. "Spatial polyphony: Virtual Architecture Generated from the Music of J.S. Bach." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 501-509. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This paper documents the process and outcomes of a digital design project with the aim of translating music into architecture. Parametric software has been used to generate 48 virtual forms from the preludes and fugues of Book I of The Well-Tempered Clavier (bwv 846-869), by Johann Sebastian Bach. The paper discusses historical connections between architecture and music in the Western tradition and in relation to contemporary thought and practice.
Matsushima, Shiro, Rie Takenaka, and Daisuke Sasaki. "Study on Application of Motion Capture to Design Methodology for Generating New Geometry: Coupling Computer and Human Performance Using Motion Capture Technology for New Architectural Form and Space." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 479-486. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This research aims to develop fundamental design methodologies for human space and product design by motion capture of human activity. It is intended to generate new geometry using a motion capture system as design input device and then to develop it to design interior space and products such as furniture from data extracted from human motion. In order to produce a ubiquitous and comfortable environment, performance modelling focusing on the relationships between space and physical motion is needed. Making an object of complex shape is thought to be a new application of motion capture technology. This research proves that the numeric data of body actions can be transferred and developed to object shapes.
Paulini, Mercedes, and Marc Aurel Schnabel. "Surfing the City: Towards context-aware mobile exploration." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 383-390. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This paper describes the rationale for a navigational system that supports context-based exploration of the urban environment. While many navigational tools support wayfinding, they are based on targeted search, requiring the user to have a predetermined destination. Existing applications do not offer navigational mechanisms that base their recommendations on the useris unique context information. Customised recommendations present the user with relevant routes they may not have discovered on their own. In this paper, a parallel is drawn between wayfinding in the physical world and the virtual, with web surfing acting as a metaphor for a particular style of interaction with the physical environment. Similarly, the framework for this system presents suggested routes to the user according to their unique contextual setting, which is anticipated to allow a more explorative engagement with their physical environment.
Chen, Rui, and Xiangyu Wang. "Tangible Augmented Reality for Design Learning: an Implementation Framework ." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 350-356. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. Nowadays, it is becoming more and more popular for teaching and learning to be supported in technology-supported settings. These digital technologies create new instructional methods. Tangible Augmented Reality (AR) technology can construct an innovative and interactive learning space by merging computer-generated learning materials and stimuli of virtuality into a real space. Different cognitive and social-learning processes might be involved with different learning activities that can be potentially supported by different technology modes of tangible AR. This paper discusses an empirical research framework for designing and implementing tangible AR technologies to improve the pedagogical effectiveness of learning processes involved in architectural design education. The research framework includes the theoretical process of applying tangible AR in design learning, the devised experimentations and associated methodology. Issues and benefits of incorporating tangible AR into architectural design learning are also investigated and discussed.
Tan, Beng-Kiang, and Jun Chung H. Daniel, ii. "The Acceptable Visual Quality of Stereoscopic Virtual Reality Architectural Visualisation." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 579-586. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. The realism of VR visualisation is diminished when images look pixelated or forms are faceted instead of smooth. What constitutes acceptable visual quality by viewers?  This paper presents the survey results of what is the acceptable visual quality of triangle complexity and texture resolution for full-size VR visualisation on a large screen and serves as a guide to create VR models more efficiently.
Tantachamroon, Ruht, and Acharawan Chutarat. "The Cost Effectiveness of Typical Materials in Relation to Indoor Comfort of Passive Cooling Strategies Appropriate for Small One Story House in Chiang Mai, Thailand." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 251-258. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This study suggests that the appropriate building materials are those most common in a given locale considering simple appropriate natural passive cooling strategies for a typical small one story house to apply toward traditional living. Two different weather conditions, hot-dry and hot-humid, were selected representing seasonal climates. Computer simulations on thermal effect and ventilation were processed by CFD software, FLOVENT 6.1. Ordinary building materials have been chosen to compare relationship between outdoor-indoor temperature differences and their costs. It was found that natural cross ventilation is the best solution for a small one-story house with additional assistance of thermal mass effect. The most effective typical wall and roof materials are the conventional 10cm brick wall and 5mm corrugated fibrous cement roof which give the best performance for comfort at a unit investment cost. Simulated results also showed that the same house with typical horizontal ceiling presents better comfort than non-ceiling case.
Chen, Chiung-Hui. "The design of an interactive scenario-based agent simulator for supporting the early stages of urban design." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 42-48. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. Recently, urban planning has largely placed the user at street as the centre of infrastructural design, with significant implications for the perceived attractiveness of user environments. The urban designers faced with the task of designing such spaces, needs a tool that will allow different designs to be compared in terms of their attractiveness as well as their effectiveness. Therefore, this paper applies the selective attention theory and establishes a pedestrian behaviour model that embeds the behaviour-based rules and attributes of an agent. We call this simulation platform to be an agent-based street simulator (ABSS). Through experiments and verifications on cases of real-life urban streets, the system and its applications, and major findings are reported.
Schimek, Heimo, Milena Stavric, and Albert Wiltsche. "The Intelligence of ornaments: Exploring ornamental ways of Affordable Non-Standard Building Envelopes." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 417-425. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. The purpose of this research is to explore ornamental patterns which can be used to enhance materials characteristics in low-cost building envelopes. We use standard building materials (sheets of cross-laminated timber) and develop a parametric design framework for the assembly. Existing rules of ornamental geometry are applied to a parametric controlled structural model so as to endow the building parts both with stability and aesthetics. The concepts of mass customization and “File to factory” support the digital fabrication of a non-repetitive pattern in façade construction and lead to reduced construction costs and building time.
Wang, Xiangyu, and Rui Chen. "The shape of sound: Using mixed REALITIES to bridge music and architecture." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 494-500. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. There are structural and aesthetic components in architectural design that mirror the foundational components of musical compositions. In recent years, both architects and musicians have taken advantage of the advances in technology, allowing for new designs and compositions that would not be possible without computers. Mixed Realities, the merging of different reality worlds to create new environments where objects from these reality worlds can interact with each other in a real-time manner, is envisaged to become such technological platform bridging between space and sound. This paper discusses the interfaces of such bridging that can occur via Mixed Realities, the associated issues and possible outcomes of a Mixed Realities system that would allow for collaboration between architects and musicians.
Park, Young-Kyu, and Hyoung-June Park. "The study of environmental sustainability in the 19th century traditional korean residence, Yeongyeongdang ." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 229-235. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. In this paper, one of traditional Korean residential buildings in the 19th century, Yeongyeongdang, is selected as a model to demonstrate the achievement of the environmental sustainability in the formal composition of traditional Korean architecture. With a computational analysis on the geometric model of Yeongyeongdang using Ecotect, this paper investigates the ecological characteristics employed in the design of the traditional Korean residence and the applications of the sustainable principles for its spatial system. 
Schnabel, Marc Aurel, Xiangyu Wang, Hartmut Seichter, and Thomas Kvan. "Touching the Untouchables: Virtual-, Augmented- and Reality ." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 293-299. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This paper brings forth an overview of design and interaction within realms stretching from reality to virtuality. In recent years, architects have been exploring creative technologies and potentials using a variety of interfaces ranging from real and virtual to augmented reality (AR) and mixed reality (MR) media. The process of design and method of communication are becoming increasingly imperative for inter-disciplinary work. This highlights the need for a structured review of successful effective adoptions and settings of those realms and technologies. This paper critically reflects on lessons learned from architectural design research, which employ virtual, augmented, mixed and real environments, and address rising issues in these areas.
Herr, Christiane, and Justyna Karakiewicz. "Towards an understanding of design tutoring: a grounded study of presentation materials used in tutorial conversations." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 321-327. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. In this paper we present results of a grounded study of materials presented by students during tutorial conversations over the course of a design studio. Based on key coding categories we extracted over the course of the study, we developed a vocabulary of five notions that allow us to reflect on studentsi work from the tutorsi perspective. We discuss these notions and relate them to previous studies on graphic representations in conceptual design processes.
Wessel, Ginette, Eric Sauda, and Remco Chang. "Urban Visualization: Urban Design and Computer Visualization." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 409-416. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. Historically, the city represents not just a collection of buildings, but also the concrete cosmology of the world. The importance of geometry in this context is that one can be assured that oneis understanding of the form of the city will correspond to meaning. It is this reading that is the canonical visualization method of the city form. But contemporary urban designers are confronted by cities with overlapping systems of movement and information that has made the reading of geometry insufficient for an understanding of the city. Our interdisciplinary team of researchers has been studying issues related to urban visualization from the perspectives of urban design and computer visualization. Together, we have published work demonstrating how very large and disparate data sets can be visualized and integrated in unique ways. Building on this existing work that connects the two disciplines, this paper presents a survey of six urban design methodologies that may be useful for visualization. Each approach is described through a brief history, a conceptual overview and a diagrammatic exegesis. The conclusion presents an overview of the complementary natures of the discourses in urban design and computer visualization and a prospectus for application of the identified methodologies to computer urban visualization. We conclude that urban theories can inform urban visualization both as a method of informing generation and run-time simplification of 3D geometric modelling and in managing information visualization overlay issues for the very large, over-lapping data sets.
Eshaq, Ahmad Rafi Moham, Mastura Yunan, Mazlan Mahadzir, and Abdul Halim. "Virtual reality as a design education: a Malaysian experience." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 445-451. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This paper presents our attempts on virtual reality curriculum development for the past four years as one of the multimedia-based degrees. It will give an overview, goals and outcomes of the virtual reality (VR) curriculum with varieties of virtual reality systems, interactions and design theories used at different level of studies. It also highlights issues related to designing virtual spaces and the approach used to suggest a good storytelling. This paper will also explore, report and demonstrate the use of non-immersive virtual reality system based on a study in a problem-based learning environment of a virtual reality majoring. Following early encouraging first round results this paper concludes that experiential design could be one of the effective approaches for a problem-based learning and richer content creation of virtual environment (VE) design. It also suggests that the presence of motions, different field of views, interactivities and stereoscopic visions are attributes of three-dimensional (3D) visualization that contribute to better understanding and designing virtual environments.
Kim, Miyun, and Jinwon Choi. "Visualizing Environmental Information on the Geo-Spatial Urban Map." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 205-212. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. Environmental and residential destruction caused by urbanization and land development raises a serious issue. In addition, advanced technology has quickly changed the structure of cities, followed by revolutionary changes are growing faster these days and this requires us to turn our attention into developing a symbiotic eco-city, which will make it possible for further sustainable development. In this regard, it grows much more important to manage a flood of information from various intelligent devices and systems for environmental maintenance. The structure and meaning of modern info-oriented cities have changed their focus from tangible materials and resources, or energy into intangible information and knowledge. Now it has become the most important on how to manage and utilize a vast amount of information in order to strengthen the competitiveness and improve the life quality. This study finds methods for an effective city management and planning, or visualization of information for ecology-friendly education in order to provide a comfortable city life and develop a cleaner city, by efficiently managing information on several ecology protection areas and their sauces of pollution in the centre of a city. The goal is to help city managers or planners to be better aware of environmental information related to their work.
Economou, Athanassios, and Gernot Riether. "Vitruvian machine: Eight exercises in formal composition ." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 522-528. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. The design machine, an algorithmic structure for design, is considered within current trajectories of architecture discourse to suggest a reinterpretation of the Vitruvian discourse and to produce eight systematic studies in formal composition in architectural design.
Anuradha, V., Minal Sabnis, and Vennila Thirumavalavn. "Voronoi diagram Voro [Schemata]: Application of interactive weighted voronoi diagrams as an alternate master-planning framework for business parks." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 399-408. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. This paper explores the application of Interactive Weighted Voronoi diagrams in business park master plans through site specific testing, derivation of zoning parameters and creation of an applet. 
Park, Jae, Yunseok Kang, and Kostas Terzidis. "[SIN]uous: Developing a Pattern Fabricator Bridging between Visualization in the Digital and Fabrication in the Physical." In Beyond Computer-Aided Design: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 452-458. CAADRIA. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 2008. We describe a domain-specific design tool capable of creating and fabricating complicated curvilinear patterns within the early stages of the design.  This tool entitled “[SIN]uousi is a parametric design application that allows both the customization and fabrication of dynamic patterns created by the combination of SINE and COSINE functions.  This tool allows designers and architects to design curvilinear patterns and manufacture schematic physical models of them in a short period of time, using rapid prototyping equipment such as a laser cutter.  This tool consists of several modules, including a pattern maker, a fabricator, and a 3-D simulator.  Using this tool, patterns are generated by manipulating variable parameters and fabricated according to the assembly sequence easily and quickly through algorithms by locating nodes of intersections.  The end result is an exported computer file compatible with laser cutting technology.  We expect that this design tool will facilitate the transition between the virtual and the physical, thus resulting in a better design product.