Keywords Abstract
Li, Biao. "A Generic House Design System: Expertise of Architectural Plan Generating." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. This paper presents the process and decision of producing software named “Gen_housei that generates high quality sketches of architectural design tasks. The result of a successful project combining research, development and education in both Europe and Asia is achieved in order to ease the practice demand of considering multiple aspects within a design process. The software employs principles and methods of self- organization, agent based solutions and natural sciences, which brings them to the field of architectural design.
Lai, Ih-Cheng, and Teng-Wen Chang. "A Study in Linking Interactions for Supporting Idea Association." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Idea association is an interactive behaviour that will invoke different levels of linking interaction in the conceptual design stage. For understanding the mechanisms of the linking interaction, this research explores the phenomena of linking interactions within idea association during the conceptual design stage. Based on the mechanisms (representation, recall and communication) found from the phenomena, we integrate the mechanisms with the computational technologies (case-based reasoning and software agents). Finally, a preliminary computational mechanism of linking interaction for supporting idea association is proposed.
Biloria, Nimish. "Adaptive Corporate Environments." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007.

The research paper illustrates an attempt to envision computation aided architectural responsiveness (spatial and informational) towards contemporary forms of corporate organizations. Architectural substantiations for such corporate bodies embodying dynamic business eco-systems tend to be rather inert in essence and deem to remain closed systemic entities, adhering to a rather static spatial program in accordance with which they were initially conceptualized. Architectural renditions supporting such emergent forms of organizations hence need to be re-thought: a need to break apart from the inherent closed system typology of architectural materiality needs to be visualized. The research paper, addresses such issues by specifically focusing upon developing intelligent reconfigurable spaces (in accordance with customized activity oriented spatial preferences of its occupants) and an interactive user interface as a front end of the system (for inputting preferences and 3d space visualization purposes). A space cluster, completely user centric, equally dynamic, and flexible, as compared to the dynamic activities which the space sustains is thus developed. The papers content is explicitly based on the output of the authors PhD research work conducted at the TU Delft, Netherlands.

Wang, Xiangyu. "Agent-based Augmented Reality System for Urban Design: Framework and Experimentation." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Urban design is traditionally regarded as a highly collaborative activity and its costly nature dictates that errors and oversights could easily induce budget overflow and time waste. Augmented Reality (AR) technology, the addition of virtual entities into the real world view, once complemented by the versatile nature of embodied intelligent agents, is envisaged to be promising for supporting design assessment and collaboration within design team. The paper presents a visualization and simulation framework for an intelligent agent-based AR system, called Augmented Reality-based Urban Designer (ARUDesigner), which could allow designers to assess virtual urban designs in a real and familiar workspace. The paper also presents the initial prototype of ARUDesigner and the experimental evaluation results from a pilot study.
Porter, David, and Raid Hanna. "An Empirical Investigation into the Influence of Media Types on Design Cognition and Methodologies." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. This paper reports on the findings of an empirical investigation into the impact of different media on design methodology. The statistical sample included 49 fourth year architecture students, divided into three groups: the drawing group, the physical model group and the computer group. They were given a problem of designing a façade in an urban context in Glasgow over a two week period. The design process of each group was monitored over that period through observations, recordings and attitude measurement via a questionnaire survey. The results were analysed using the Statistical Programme for Social Sciences (SPSS). The dendrograms from cluster analysis revealed that there were well established perceptual dimensions, or clusters, for the façadeis design variables within the three groups because of using different media. The impact of media on design creativity, both as a process and a product, was investigated. All three media types yielded a positive correlation between “media made design decisions more creativei and “media made design scheme more creativei- with a correlation coefficient of 0.708 which was significant at the 0.01 level, p
Anbusivan, R.. "Automation of Passive Solar Design System." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. This research, focus on the automation of passive solar design system using computational method. The quantitative nature of passive solar design system makes the automation possible. The automation is done in stages, because implementing the passive solar design system is not an isolated process, but intertwined with the overall design process. The first phase of automation concentrates in conceptual stage, to avoid major deviations in later stages of the design. The conceptual stage use Eco-grammar (A preset Design guidelines for corresponding climate) and user inputs for initial form generation. The second stage of automation is done after the user finalize the model with respect to its position rotation and arrangements. In this stage manipulation of vertex, edges and faces of the forms were manipulated using genetic algorithm. The value of mutation or crossover done in genetic algorithm is suggested by knowledge engine (preloaded design knowledge). Until the form obtains or reach closer to the desired values of performance the loop between analysis and mutation, crossover will be continued. On the basis of analysis result further manipulations may change from the previous which is guided by the knowledge engine.
Qian, Jingping, and Chiu-Shui Chan. "Beijing Xidan business street plan evaluation." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. In the international cooperative research project of “Utilizing Three-Dimensional Data in a Virtual Urban Environment to Support and Evaluate Planning Decisions” in Beijing, a digital city is constructed, and a set of planning regulations is established. This paper will give you a brief introduction to the programming of evaluating the city planning with ObjectARX accompaning AutoCAD. By loading the application programmed in Visual C++ on AutoCAD software platform, you can design a building and let the tool evaluate the design to generate graphic suggestions.
Chung, Daniel. "Best Practice for Achieving Real-Time Virtual Reality Architectural Visualization." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Real-time rendering is the most fundamental aspect of the virtual reality technology, which is always, a balance between hardware advancement and efficient software algorithm upgrades on the one hand and the demands of the quality output on the other. As architects who utilize this technology, what we can do as users is to optimize the parameters we can control in the files we input to run the simulation. Thus the identification of the few variables we can control to prevent a lagging performance or ghosting which is no longer realtime. The frame rate above all is the measurement to determine whether a simulation is real-time or not. The research aim is to identify the biggest contributing factors among the few identified. The intention is to save time and effort by optimizing the selected factors in projects so that we do not have to optimize all of them. The workflow will also be a lot faster and projects can be done efficiently. The final part is to run satisfaction tests among users to evaluate those biggest contributing factors and the qualities acceptable by users. This is to eliminate the added processing power needed to run bigger files if they do not contribute much to improved quality.
Ambrose, Michael. "BIM and Integrated Practice as Provocateurs of Design Education." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Building Information Modelling (BIM) obfuscates the role of composition, scale and abstraction by displacing the primacy of abstract conventions of representation with a methodology based on simulation. BIM subverts, while simultaneously clarifying, the holistic relationships of the parts to the whole in the architectural design of form and space. Architectural design education has great opportunity and risk in how it comes to terms with re-conceptualizing design education pedagogy as the profession struggles to redefine the media and methods of architectural deliverables in the age of BIM. The paper examines the foundation issues proposed by Integrated Practice. The paper questions how BIM and modeled simulation of architectural assemblage might transcend current definitions of convention in design and construction representation. This paper explores how the academy might prepare students of architecture for a digital practice that focuses on the virtual building model and database management. BIM and Integrated Practice viewed as provocateurs of design education provide great potential for critical analysis of how architectural design is taught. The associated pedagogies are transforming the way in which architectural education engages issues of design and representation and creates opportunities to question the roles and rules of traditional conventions. The paper seeks to engage issues of design specificity and ambiguity related to the assets and liabilities of digital modelling as the primary means of design and representation that BIM represents.
Kouide, Tahar, and G. Paterson. "BIM as a Viable Collaborative Working Tool: a Case Study." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. For the majority of design practices in the construction industry the use of CAD systems have been used to merely automate hand drafting (Cohen 2003). This is the traditional way of working that has changed very little since the introduction of commercial CAD systems. These practices as means of communication are being replaced by a virtual building model environment which encapsulates all of the information for an entire construction project and thereby enables computer-supported co-operative working practices. (Newton 2003) This study aims to determine whether Building Information Modelling (BIM) can, and whether it will, replace traditional communication media as the standard in the industry for computersupported co-operative working practices in the Architecture Engineering and construction (AEC) sector. The bulk of the research comprises an extensive literature review looking at the principal reasons behind the development of BIM, the potential advantages and drawbacks of the technology, and the barriers and obstacles which inhibit its adoption as a means of computer-supported co-operative working. The findings of the study have been validated and analysed against current practice in the field through a live case study analysis of the on-going Heathrow airport Terminal 5 Project in London (UK). The Terminal 5 case study demonstrates that present software tools, although usable, still present significant implicit technical constraints to wider implementation among Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The case study has also shown that in practice, the success of BIM depends just as much on the working practices and ethos of participants in the project chain as it does on the capabilities of the software itself, in particular the willingness of practitioners to change traditional working practices. The case study has shown that the present investment, in terms of time, cost, and effort required to implementing the technology means that BIM is unlikely to be adopted on small simple projects where conventional CAD is still adequate. It also highlighted that BIM tools currently available are not yet adequately developed to satisfy the requirements of the many procurement and especially contractual arrangements which presently exist and many firms will be frightened off by the unresolved legal issues which may arise from implementing BIM in their practices.
Mokhtar, Ahmed. "BIM as Learning Media for Building Construction." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. A fundamental module of any recognized architecture curricula is the understanding of buildings construction. A major component of such understanding is learning how to put together a structure system for a building. The difficulty most students find is not in knowing these structure systems in their abstract form, rather in applying this knowledge while making design decisions. Selecting the appropriate system and adapting it to the difficult conditions that accompany a particular design is the more challenging aspect to grasp. Instructors use various techniques to help students overcome this challenge. These techniques range from simply showing photos to requiring students to construct a building. This paper describes a new technique experimented with by the author. It is based on using Building Information Modelling (BIM) software as a learning media to help students face the challenge. The paper discusses the technique and the details of the experiment through a case study. The paper eventually reports on what the experiment reveals regarding the advantages and disadvantages of using BIM as a learning media.
Jacobs, Zhya. "Capturing the Infinite: Bottom up CAD - CAM Technology for Regenerative Development." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. In most design practices there is a division between the generation of information to describe buildings and the production of information to construct them. Today architects are in charge of the design of the building (aesthetics) while the contractor is accountable for the means of construction (tectonics). The advent of digital technologies within the field of architecture however has begun to cause and will continue to cause fundamental changes within the AEC industry. The Paper describes a possible scenario where a Bottom - Up, part to whole approach to architecture can be adopted using the freedom afforded by Parametric Design within the CAD-CAM environment. This approach is explored through the design of a smart block in concrete that is integrated into a wall system.
Sawasratanathon, Putthinun, and Pinyo Jinuntuya. "Collaborative Cooling Load Analysis Software for Public Participation on Energy Conservation." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. This article is part of a research on developing cooling load analysis software for energy conservation. This research focuses on developing the system of Collaborative Design and Public Participation System which allows property owners, architects, engineers as well as others outside the field, to contribute to design process based on the concept of energy conservation within the collaborative virtual environment. The combination of the two ideas between collaborative virtual environment and Analysis Engine of cooling load calculation changes the traditional working processes in which architects and engineers work separately. From the traditional process where both architects and engineer redevelop the whole project  from the beginning when redesigning is in need, this new collaborative process requires less time and energy from both parties due to the simultaneous participation of architects, engineers as well as other contributors. In this research, Microsoft© Direct3D - - API based Virtools - is used to develop Real-Time Simulation and its internal script in the calculation process. Through the implementation process, the study aims to develop the 3 components of 1) urban area database illustrating simulating maps for users 2) Graphic User Interface (GUI) connected to other software modules for further expansion and 3) Virtual Network Environment allowing multiple users to log in and use the programme at the same period of time.
Du, Rong, and Yuan Gao. "Collaborative Design Practice with New Concept." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Collaborative design is increasingly important in the design and building industry. These kinds of communication have been lagged in the institutes of China because of the lack of correlative software and hardware equipments or research funds. The paper describes the collaborative design between TUD and SEU in 2005.  
Singh, Vishal, and John S. Gero. "Computational Modeling of Temporary Design Teams." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. This paper presents a framework for a computational model of temporary design teams (TDTs). The framework is based on the situated Function-Behaviour-Structure (FBS) ontology, which is used to describe the different aspects of a TDT. This paper demonstrates how TDTs can be represented and reasoned about in terms of the FBS variables. A situated social agentis architecture is introduced. At the agent level the social attributes that are considered include agentis motivation, threshold point, attitude and beliefs. This agent is built on the idea of constructive memory. Constructive memory gives the situated agent the ability to adapt to the changing environment, which in this case is the team structure, team goals, and the other agents. This allows the framework to be used for studying the social aspects of changing team structures and team composition, which are characteristic of TDTs and the changing work culture that are facilitated by improved communication and IT tools. This research aims to lay the computational foundation for a means of studying temporary design team behaviour.  
Chen, Liang. "Constructing Structural Shape Grammars." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Shape grammar has been shown to be a frame of work applicable to design issues in various fields. Almost all published grammars work only on the bottom level of shape replacement, however in practice, when using grammars to generate designs, the designer may work on different levels of abstractions, concerning about the hierarchy of the design as well. This suggests that, to make the generating process more coherent, the grammar itself need be able to work on different levels, too. This paper introduces the research work that aims at proposing a set of guidelines for writing shape grammar with which the designer could write structured shape grammars that will be easily automated for generating designs.
Kaga, Atsuko, and Hahm Joohyung. "Construction of the Dynamic Environmental Knowledge Web for a Sustainable Environmental Design." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. This research considered position information and described the construction of an environmental knowledge website of the dynamic user participation type that can collect and send information, and that allows discussion about ecology, the environment, and sustainability. By perusing the distribution of the knowledge using position information on a 2D map and a 3D virtual space, an environmental knowledge website which can grasp spatial distribution was built.
Neuckermans, Herman, Mathias Wolpers, and Ann Heylighen. "Data and Metadata in Architectural Repositories." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 180. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. In many schools all over the world, teachers as well as researchers have been developing digital learning contents. These contents exist mostly in isolation, that means in and within a school or in the personal files, although it would be much more profitable to the community of teachers in architecture to share the results of all these efforts. In this paper we present and discuss two different strategies regarding this ambition: The first develops digital pedagogical material and tries to invite others to contribute in order to create a big repository. As an example we will present DYNAMO, a dynamic architectural memory on-line built over the last 8 years, with to date more than 600 architectural projects fully documented with plans, pictures, texts and a fairly developed category search engine. In the second approach every owner of a repository keeps his/her data and shares its content with others through a central search engine. As an example we will present and discuss a recently launched EU-programme called MACE - Metadata for Architectural Contents in Europe - which aims at enhancing the metadata of as many as possible different repositories in order to allow searches by distant partners. Real access conditions to the data still will remain those specific for each repository. The purpose of this paper is to share information and (similar?) experiences in Asia or outside Europe in general.
Lan, Ju-Hung. "DECADE: an Issue-based and Process-oriented Internet Aided Design System ." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. The research proposed a mechanism to manage design communication information in an internet aided design system based on an issued-based and process-oriented approach. A system prototype with enhanced searching mechanism, named as DECADE, is presented to deal with the ill-structured problem of design communication data. The system performance is evaluated and shows effective results by empirical studies.
Huang, Joseph Chuen- Huei. "Decision Support System for Modular Houses." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Presently, only a small percentage of people in the world typically hire an architect to design and build a home which is tailored to their preference. Besides the architectis fee, clients also need to wait an interminable time for design and construction. Factory-made prefabricated housing systems tried to solve this problem previously. However, most pioneers failed to address the issues of variability and individual needs (Kieran & Timberlake, 2004). Plants closed because they produced more than the market demand, and prefabricated housing provided less flexibility than the traditional stick-built housing. The advanced digital technology makes it possible to communicate design ideas and concepts to others more effectively. The project delivery process leads itself to customization, embodying principles of lean production (Pine, 1993), flexible computer-integrated design interaction with clients, and reduced cycle times, all effecting rapid response between consumers and producers.  
Yan, Wei. "Design Thinking Visualization." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. In this paper we advocate design thinking visualization and present two visualization case studies for design thinking. The objective of the research is to visualize design thinking process for the study of this process, which is generally fairly complex. The significance of the work lies in that the research can advance the current design visualization from design product visualization and design data visualization to design thinking visualization, which can be applied to education and practice of design.
Tse, Kenny, Andy Wong, and Francis Wong. "Design Visualisation and Documentation with Building Information Modelling." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007.

Building Information Modelling (BIM) is an emerging technology in the architecture/engineering/construction industry. This paper presents a case study of the implementation of BIM at the precontract stage of a small scale in-door swimming pool project in Hong Kong. It aims at reviewing the workflow between consultants and the impacts on design visualisation, drawing documentation and bills of quantities. A practicable approach to transform designersi traditional 2D drawings to BIM with the support from a BIM manager is unveiled. In addition to the results, this paper also highlights some issues such as hardware requirements, the shortfalls of the BIM tool and the supply and demand of skilled BIM personnel. There are other unanswered questions to be addressed in the near future.

Gu, Ning, Leman F. Gül, and Mary Lou Maher. "Designing within the Design: a Pedagogical Case Study of 3D Virtual Worlds in Design Education." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Within most architecture and design schools, 3D virtual worlds are traditionally perceived and used as a CAAD tool for modelling and collaboration. Building on the understanding of virtual worlds as the extension of our physical environments where people can inhabit and participate in a variety of activities, we teach designing virtual worlds as a design subject which considers 3D virtual worlds as a different kind of environment design other than a technical tool for supporting design simulation and collaboration. This paper reports on our teaching experience, as well as discusses the principles for designing and teaching in 3D virtual worlds.
Fukuda, Tomohiro, Atsuko Kaga, Masahiro Kawaguchi, and Wookhyun Yeo. "Development of Soil Calculation Function in 3-D VR System for Environmental Design." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. When performing an architectural design or an environmental design with complicated geographical features, soil calculation is needed to study the soil balance between the amount of cut and the amount of bank. In recent years, construction activities involving small environmental load have been called for. Therefore, it is necessary to stop the discharge of surplus soil. Moreover, the result of soil calculation can show that the landscape after completion may change greatly. A system which can study soil calculation and landscape simultaneously is called for. Furthermore, to correspond to the citizen participation type design process, a system which can allow understanding of a plan by stakeholders who do not have professional knowledge is called for. This research studies landscape and soil calculation with the aim of developing a possible system. A 3D-VR system which studies environmental design is extended and a soil calculation function in which high precision calculation and visual expression are possible is developed.
John, Elys. "Digital Ornament." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Gaming and visualisation software has a history of developing economical and creative methods to deal with hardware limitations. Traditionally the visual representation of gaming has been a poor offspring of high-end architectural visualisation. In a twist of irony, the paper proposes that game production software leads the way into a new era of physical digital ornament. The toolbox of the rendering engine evolved rapidly between 1974-85 and it is still today 20 years later the main component of all visualisation programs. The development of the bump map is of particular interest, its evolution into a physical displacement map provides untold opportunities in the appropriation of the 2D image to a physical artifact. Contemporary Architects in tandem have been mapping to the façade a new era of complex three-dimensional sculptural representation. The Architect, Designer and Artist now have the opportunity to appropriate the image map and use advanced visualisation technologies in the application of digital ornament.  
Fang, Lixin, and Qi Zhou. "Digital Tectonics in the Shape Finding of Spatial Structures." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Spatial structures should be designed to acquire appropriate forms so that they can correctly function to the earthquake loading or the wind pressure as well as the dead loading through their load carrying capabilities. The paper probes deeply into the fundamental principle of digital simulation with structuresi mechanic/material tectonics in architecture design and explore its capability for shape-finding in various structure systems through full-size virtual model experiments.
Tayyar, Bahram. "Digitally Supported Neighbourhoods." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. The new infrastructure of digital telecommunication and ubiquitous computation enables people to work, communicate, and entertain via electronic networks from their living places. Therefore, understanding the nature and design of digitally supported neighborhoods is likely to emerge as an increasingly important research question. This study investigates how neighborhoods in Melbourne can be more appropriately designed for new technologies and other convenience, especially for new residents with different life styles. It adopts Sidney Broweris (1996) typology of neighborhoods and explores social, spatial and technological implications of new emergent lifestyles, according to Cliffordis (2002) classification, on every type. Key Words - Digitally Supported Neighborhoods, Implication of Modern ICTs, Telecommunication Based Lifestyles, Typology, Scenario Based Study.  
Villalon, Rachelle. "Dynamic Changes in DNA to Dynamic Architecture (with NiTi Shape Memory Alloy)." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. This research presents a design process that implements digital methodologies from design concept to the fabrication of smallscale prototypes. The prototypes themselves are user interactive objects employing Nickel Titanium Shape Memory Alloy. At a larger context, this research not only responds to material and fabrication constraints, but addresses the user-to-building interaction, instead of users interacting with a building, the building can now interact with its user by way of transforming its spatial configuration.
Barrow, Larry, and Shaima Arayedh. "Emerging Technololgy - Dilemma and Opportunities in Housing." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Digital Technology has transformed industrial manufacturing and production, and an array of Industrial Design products provide increasing comfort and benefit to millions of global citizens via ergonomic and mass production/customization strategies. Yet, housing needs of a rapidly growing global population are rarely affected by digital technology. Shifts in societal demographics, from rural to urban city centres, and concurrently Global Warming and ecological changes are exacerbating the world housing situation. Millions are homeless, live in inadequate shelter, or as in the US Manufactured Housing (MH) market, live in nondurable poor quality “manufactured” houses that are detrimental to health, at best, or during extreme weather events, suffer catastrophic damages often resulting in death to occupants. Nevertheless, housing concepts and related living units have benefited very little when compared to architectureis related manufacturing industries counter-parts (i.e. automotive, aerospace, marine industries, etc). While Technology has vividly expanded the shape language of architecture (i.e. Free-Form-Design), some may argue that Free-Form- Design buildings generally have beauty that is only “skin deep” and typically focus on providing signature statements for both the designer and elite clientele. In this paper, we will briefly review the role of the architect in the US Manufactured Housing industry, additionally, we will identify the major problems that plaque the US Manufactured Housing Industry. Further, we will review how architects and Industrial Designers use technology in their respective fields and draw larger designmanufacture principals for issues of global housing. Our findings and analysis suggest that an Industrial Design approach, applied in architecture for mass housing, offers a means of improving the architectis role and technology in manufactured housing for the masses.
Chan, Chiu-Shui. "Evaluating the Cognition in a Work Space Virtually." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. In any built environment, there exist certain subtle stimuli that affect the occupants cognitive processes and performance. This research intends to identify: (1) what environmental stimuli an office building would generate that could affect the habitants cognitive ability, and (2) how the habitants react to these stimuli. The goals of the study are to develop a new method for using immersive virtual reality to represent a built environment for simulating environmental impact, and to discover factors that could influence habitants cognitive performance in a space. It is expected that the discoveries could advance the application of virtual reality to study human cognition in architecture.
Varghese, Paul, and Arif Merchant. "Exploring the Interaction of Rules with Shapes and their Boundaries." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. The interaction of rules and the generation and interaction of shapes and their boundaries is explored. The effects on the design processes especially in the shape grammar formalism are examined.  
Yue, Kui, and Ramesh Krishnamurti. "Extraction of Building Geometry from Range Images of Construction Sites." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Modelling from range images offers promise for cost effective digital modelling of construction sites. However, most commercial software lack support for automatic alignment of range images and automatic geometry extraction - nor also do they deal with the time-dimension. This can hinder automatic digital modelling. In this paper, we describe a solution that addresses these drawbacks.
Kui, Yue, and Ramesh Krishnamurti. "Feature-Based Prediction of the Interior Layout of Building." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. A system using exterior observable features to predict the interior layout of those buildings, whose space and topology can be described by shape grammars.
Yu, Chuan. "From Instrument to Interface: the Change of the Relationship between the Designer and the Media of Architectural Design." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Different from the traditional tools for architectural design, the new design media provides higher efficiency and quality by use of a set of digital techniques. The more important is that the relationship between the designer and the design media has been changed. The changes described here mainly lies in two aspects: firstly, compared with the traditional drawing tools which can only be used as a “purei instrument with single direction response, the integrated digital design media provides an interface which generates great interaction between designer and the tools, secondly, through the interface with a broader sense, the digital media can join a design process itself by linking the architects with other designers, or even the whole AEC industry, through the ways like collaborative design and/or Internet Aided Design, which the traditional media never could accomplish. Thus with the changes from instrument to interface, the thinking mode and the process of architectural design currently are quite different from the traditional one. And the relationship between architects and relative professions like engineering and construction has also been enhanced through the system based on BIM or CIBS. In addition, the cause and outcome of such a change should also be emphasized in the architectural education.
Kenzari, Bechir. "From the Advanced Model-Making Lab to the Construction Site." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. If the building industry wishes to take advantage of the extensive capabilities of CAD-CAM that have been exploited in the aeronautics/aerospace, automotive and shipbuilding industries, then it has to look at whatis happening in the advanced model-making lab. The current exploitation of cutting-edge technologies by modelmakers points to potential applications on the construction site, both at the constructional and organizational levels.  
Ji, Peng. "From Traditional Graphic of Architecture to Digital Graphic of Architecture." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. In Southeast University (SEU), the traditional instruction has been used in the course of Graphic of Architecture for more than 20 years. Today, the traditional instruction canit reach the curriculum requirements completely. So it is very important to realize the necessity of the network instruction of Graphic of Architecture by using the multimedia and network technology in the digital age. Actually, Graphic of Architecture network instruction is a research item in the School of Architecture in SEU. This paper is intended to discuss the course from traditional Graphic of Architecture to the courseware, then to the e-classroom. So the point of the paper is how to use homepage manufacture software and cartography software to exploit the multimedia courseware and set up a e-classroom for the course of Graphic of Architecture.
Schnabel, Marc Aurel, Xiangyu Wang, Hartmut Seichter, and Thomas Kvan. "From virtuality to reality and back." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. There has been a growing research interest in investigating techniques to combine real and virtual spaces. A variety of “reality” concepts such as Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality and their supporting technologies have emerged in the field of design to adopt the task of replacing or merging our physical world with the virtual world. The different realities can be tailored to enhance comprehension for specific design activities along a design life-cycle. This paper presents state-of-the-art applications of these “reality” concepts in design and related areas, and proposes a classification of these realities to address suitability issues for the effective utilization of the concepts and technologies. Their potentials and implications in certain design activities are also discussed.
Lee, Ji-Hyun, and Tian-Chiu Li. "Fuzzy-Based Direct Manipulation: Focused on User Participation in Apartment Plan Design Process." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Physically-based manipulation can be recognized as a promising approach to implement interactive computational tools to solve the user participation problems. To support the designeris justifications as well as to clarify the innately ambiguous expressions provided by the clients, we propose to build a fuzzy-based expert system integrated with a 3D physically based manipulation. This paper focuses on a system prototype for the client customization process in apartment plan design to exemplify our concepts.
Dounas, Theodore, and Kotsiopoulos Anastasios. "Generative Systems Based on Animation Tools: Structure and Form of Core Ideas in Architectural Design." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. The goal of the research described in this paper is the formulation of a generative system for architectural design, where a structured core architectural idea is the input and alternatives to that idea are the output. Specifically we present a production pipeline of architectural / spatial configurations using the context of animation and time based design tools. Our model consists of “time” and space design constraints of boundaries / objects affecting a given architectural design, thus producing an alternative solution for every timeframe of the animation cycle. Initially the designer shapes an idea using animation software tools, where each tool is actually a constraint or a grammar rule defined informally by the user/designer. The influence of the tools can vary according to time, speed, location, configuration of the object and/or the constraint itself. In some of these animations the designer has the ability to sidestep partially the issue of emergence by providing specific key - frames for the solution to follow. The use of animation tools [shape driven curves, speed and time-line functions, parent child relationships] in the shape generation of our model empowers the user/designer to configure whole sets of shapes and designs interactively and without the need to define every solution independently. Simultaneously, a different, time-focused view of our model describes its use on designs that develop different configurations over time. Thus a duality of our model is established: the animated schema may be either a sum or a family of various designs or the animated time-line may represent a single design which changes over time. Finally the possibility of a structured graph representing each solution is discussed, where the designer can evaluate the merit of an individual solution in terms of conforming to the initial core idea or where alternative spatial configurations evolve in a different structure from the original design. 
Shivshankar, P.G., and Vennila Thirumavalavan. "Greencity: a Cognitive Game." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. The project is about simulation of a sustainable urban scenario, which is developed as a game, that would also serve as a pedagogical tool for sustainability in urban context. The interface is a simulation based city-building game, where the player acts as a townplanner focuses on building a bigger city, while the game design aims at developing it, as a sustainable urban model. This is achieved by encoding sustainable urban development concepts with the sequence of simulation (development) process, through which the game operates sensitively towards sustainability.
Kós, J.R.. "History and 3D City Models: an Analysis of Digital Representations of the City Evolution." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Through the evaluation of advantages and limitations of 3D historic city models, this paper aims to analyze the contribution of those tools to the city history representation. One should overcome limitations such as incomplete information, impediments to acknowledge hypotheses representations, intense labor requirements or difficulties to encourage a historical reflection. We argue that creative systems that are carefully planned towards historyis thorough understanding are more effective than those applications which focus on the development of high quality images. Those issues are illustrated by the system prototype “Rio-Hi,  which presents an alternative to communicate the history of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  
Shaheen, Abeer, and H. Elkadi. "ICT and Reflective Education in an Environmentally ResponsiveArchitecture Studio." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. The current debate of architecture education in UK Schools of Architecture is reviewed with special emphasis on environmental ingredients of the traditional and progressive curriculum. Environmental approach to design has far more benefits than just informing students of the basics of the ecological and urban settings. Traditionally, UK Schools of Architecture address these issues via required courses (RIBA, 2003) However, environmental forces, wide array of educational innovations and a number of conditions and performance criteria that are set by Royal Institute of British Architects RIBA, for architectural education curriculum are essential drivers that necessitated transforming architectural pedagogy. As a result, new themes are being woven across existing courses, and more attention is being accorded to pedagogical methods of delivery using Information and Communication Technology ICT.
Sat, Reika, Bin Lu, Oyama-Higa Mayumi, Tsuneo Jozen, and Katsuya Nagae. "Impact of Design Tools with Game-Like Function on Designer." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Various visualization design tools such as CG and VR have been widely used in the process of architectural design and urban planning. The applications of these tools not only assist the designers but also make it possible to involve other relevant professionals and ordinary residents. In order to enable more convenient applications of the tools in the design process and instigate the interests of additional parties of relevance, we add entertainment function to the design tools. In order to test the results of such design tools resembling computer games, we examined the status of users during the design process when these tools being employed. Comparison of the results of questionnaire and collections of physiological data indicated the unique effectiveness of game-like design tools. Pulse detection at ear was used to check the changes of blood supply for left and right hemispheres. The data collected were then visualized by complex Chaos analysis. Comparison of the processed data indicated the different brain status when a user applies these tools in the design and showed the effectiveness of the tools and their impact on the designer. Our results support the usefulness of game-like design tools and may lead to further developments of contents and methods to advance such tools.
Nicholas, Paul, and Mark Burry. "Import As: Interpretation and Precision Tools." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. This paper presents research on the relationship between digital tools and design communication, focussing on the interaction between architectural and lighting design. Early design integration often involves negotiating between different levels of resolution to inform a design that is still in formation, and part of the challenge is doing so in a manner appropriate to that phase of exploration. This paper describes some of the technical and social issues of translation and reports a project in which a generative design process supported the interaction between architectural design and lighting analysis, domains in which geometry is not necessarily a common ground.  
Koutamanis, Alexander, Gilles Halin, and Thomas Kvan. "Information Standardization from a Design Perspective." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. One common assumption concerning the digitization of architectural processes and products is that it should be supported by extensive standardization of design and building information. This standardization should extend beyond pre-existing conventions of the analogue period in terms of scope, integration, continuity, flexibility and adaptability. From a design perspective standardization refers to three distinct information types with different origins: geometric, categorical and project-specific information. Such information is accommodated in standards and building models either top-down or bottom-up, resulting into different possibilities and limitations.
Koszewski, Krzysztof, Jan Slyk, and Stefan Wrona. "Information Technology in Rescuing Wooden Religious Buildings - the Possible Further Step." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Preservation of architectural monuments is the discipline, which encountered recently many theoretical problems due to its emerging international character and globalization issues. In this paper we try to point some relations between these problems of the discipline itself and usage of information technology. The need of using appropriate tools and methods related to cultural variety and diversity is discussed according to certain relevant problems of contemporary preservation of monuments of architecture.  
Heidrich, Felix, Peter Russell, and Thomas Stachelhaus. "Intervision3D: Online 3D Visualisation and Conferencing." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. The use of Internet communication technologies in distributed teams has been carried out for well over 10 years. In this time, various methods to communicate and transfer information have been developed. A large amount of effort has been placed on enabling normal conversation to take place and it could be said, that with technologies like Skype, this is established. This enables planning partners to discuss, but we still need to convey what they are discussing. In short, the contents are still lacking. Technologies exist to allow users to share files or images, however this does not nearly reach the intensity or quality of discussions when partners are sitting together in front of a drawing or model. At best, screen sharing allows participants to see the same image but with low resolution and bad system response. The goal of the Intervision3D project is to allow distributed team members to discuss design issues with a common 3D model where participants can manipulate the model together in real time. In contrast to screen-sharing solutions, the Intervision3D project uses a server, which delivers a copy of the model to each conference participant. The server then coordinates the perspective views of all conference participants. One of the participants (usually the first) is initially designated as the speaker and he or she controls the views of the model through an intuitive walk/fly-through interface. The speed of the system is also buttressed by the simplicity of the application: as a Java applet, it is possible to start the Intervision3D system in any browser or as a separate applet on any system. As such, none of the participants need to install anything. The resolution of the model is optimized for each participant's browser and computer display. Currently, Intervision3D can import.3ds files and then render them using the JOGL Engine (Java Bindings for Open GL). JOGL allows the full Open GL suite to be used in rendering the model including lighting and textures: even normal PCs can do this quite well. The first implementation of the system is within an existing internet-based Design Studio and the paper elucidates how the first uses of the system have (partially) helped to increase the exchange of design ideas over the Internet. Through the Intervison3D system, the participants who have been separated by distance can once again discuss the same 3D model.
Murty, Paul, and Terry Purcell. "Latent Preparation - do Great Ideas Come from Out-Of-The-Blue?" In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Some designers have a knack of making design look easy, producing concepts, seemingly from nowhere. Other designers, suspicious of pie-in-the-sky ideas, prefer to design methodically. Are novel design ideas simply thoughts from out-of-the-blue, or are they insightful, resulting from deeper understanding? This paper reviews statements from a recent interview study of architects and designers, which assessed the extent to which conceptual designing is insightful. Most respondents stated that insights contributed to their designing, but two affirmed rational design processes and appeared skeptical of discovery based concepts. Analysis of the respondent statements generally, indicates that: 1) there are different levels of insightfulness, 2) insighful discoveries are also qualitatively different and 3) many appear to be an outcome of latent preparation (an incubation-like mental activity that ranges between active conscious designing and passive apparent unconscious activity), rather than arbitrary, out-ofthe- blue inspirations. The paper concludes by considering prospects for further research and implications for both education and digital media.
Saunders, Robert, Mary Lou Maher, and Kathryn Merrick. "Learning Models for a Curious Place." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. A “curious place” is an intelligent environment that is motivated to behave in a curious manner about activities that happen within the space. Recent research into self-motivated agents supports the development of physical places that can respond with curiosity towards novel events. This paper presents learning models suitable for developing curious places using agents and agent societies. These models are discussed with reference to a “curious research space” we are developing as an example of a curious place.
Holzer, Dominik, Mark Burry, and Richard Hough. "Linking Parametric Design and Structural Analysis to Foster Transdisciplinary Design Collaboration." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. The investigation presented in this paper focuses on the following questions: How can engineering and architectural expertise guide a process of digital optimisation and add structural “awareness” in real time to aesthetic considerations (or vice versa)? How can building geometry be set up computationally in order to render it “sensitive” to structural input? Which tools are required to foster this interaction? The authors of this paper form a team of researchers and practitioners from architectural and engineering background who combine their efforts to address the issue of interconnecting design intelligence across disciplines and advancing work methodologies in practice assisted by academic research. A live case study project is presented as a test scenario in order to find answers the above questions.
Oxman, Neri, and Jesse Rosenberg. "Material Based Design Computation." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. The paper unfolds the association between geometry and material behaviour, specifically the elastic properties of resin impregnated latex membranes, by means of homogenizing protocols which translate physical properties into geometrical functions. Resinimpregnation patterns are applied to 2D pre-stretched form-active tension systems to induce 3D curvature upon release. This method enables form-finding based on material properties, organization and behaviour. A digital tool developed in the Processing environment demonstrates the simulation of material behaviour and its prediction under specific environmental conditions. Finally, conclusions are drawn from the physical and digital explorations which redefine generative material-based design computation, supporting a synergetic approach to design integrating form, material and environment. 
Jeng, Tay-Sheng, Hsuan-Cheng Lin, Yang-Ting Shen, Cheng-An Pan, and Chun-I Chen. "Modular Prototyping of Smart Space through Integration of CAD/CAM and Physical Computing." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. This paper outlines new techniques and methods for physical prototyping of interactive space. The proposed methods address three important issues: seamless integration, explicit representation, and physical prototyping. We report the experience and lessons learned from a research project called Smart Living Space. Our goal is not to propose a smart space in any detail, but rather to describe how the interactive techniques can be integrated into design practice. Finally, we illustrate how the methods can be deployed in a real-world example of interactive space.  
Wutthikornthanawat, Worawut, and Pinyo Jinuntuya. "Multi-User Tangible Interface for Public Participation Development of Low-cost Housing Project Design and Planning." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. This paper proposes the community-based computer aided design and cost estimation software development for low-cost housing project. The content attempts to create a new user interface system by participating access to multi-user tangible interface system for community members. To solve the problem of presentation media change form that watched through computer monitor or projector into conference surrounding creation about a requirements of collaborative design group on the surface using interactive drag and drop device according to suit the life style pattern of the housing. The method of design is as follow, developed using virtools - for design, planning and estimation overall project as define community planning, housing planning, construction, and appropriate financial capacity of the users that base on developed community sustainable.
Mannan, Ashik, and Mohammed Saleh Uddin. "Natural Behavior and Computational Logic for Optimization of Architectural Design." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. In recent years much avant-garde architectural work has been dominated by a process based theoretical paradigm, inspired largely by various thinkers, critics, and philosophers. This particular “process practice” attempts to address the paradox at the heart of contemporary production, by looking dialectically at the relationship between structure and ornament in nature with brainstorming and use of computer simulation.
Tan, Beng, and Daniel Chung. "Optimising Real-Time Virtual Reality Architecture Presentation." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. In real-time virtual reality walkthrough, there is a minimum frame replacement rate needed to maintain the "smoothness" of walking through a scene. This paper identifies the variables that affect efficient real-time walkthrough of architectural models on an affordable PC platform. Experiments were conducted to determine how each variable affects the frame rate and memory consumption. The results will help guide architects and students to better manage their CAD model in order to achieve smooth real-time walkthroughs in their presentation.
Erhan, Halil, and Fatiha Jebbar. "Pair-Colloborated Usability Study of RaBBiT in Requirements Modeling and Generation." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. The traditional manual methods of programming in architectural design have definite disadvantages that could, in part at least, be overcome by computational support. We have developed RaBBiT, a support tool for programming that can be easily adapted to various programming styles end terminologies. In the present paper, we report on the evaluation of its usability in requirements modelling by expert designers. The evaluation is performed through the following steps: (a) measuring usefulness of RaBBiT and its effectiveness in requirements modelling and generation and (b) assessing the usability of RaBBiT by applying “pair-collaborated usability evaluation using heuristics”.
Liu, Huai-Wie, and Ji-Hyun Lee. "Personal Assistant: Autonomous Agents Base on Multi-Agent System among Different Industrial Design Stakeholders." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. To deal with complex communication problems, requires both a web-based collaborative system and a multi-agent system (MAS) integrated with knowledge management architecture. Agents have been acknowledged as a promising approach through the metaphor that an agent can act as a personal assistant. In this paper we proposes an approach to develop personal assistant agents, each of which can represent a different stakeholder and load different domain knowledge inside. To demonstrate our proposed concepts, we focus on a prototype system for notebook design for the company ASUS, a leading notebook manufacturer based in Taiwan.
Alvarez, Paul. "Petroglifos de cantas pitis la mezana y la laja." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007.
Lo, Chien, Mao-Lin Chiu, and Ming-Nan Liu. "Play with Parts and Joints-Digital Design supported by Rapid Prototyping." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Digital architectures are emerging because of the advancement of information and communication technologies. Rapid prototyping becomes important for digital design in the early conception stage because of the complexity of geometrical relations. The paper is aimed to examine the design teaching issues of dynamic structure by rapid prototyping in experimental studies. Our goal is to integrate the process with rapid prototyping in generating variety types of joints adapting different conditions. This study proposes the digital design process by “playing with parts and jointsi approach for the educational purposes. By introducing in design studios, the findings and discussion are reported.  
Fischer, Thomas, and Christiane Herr. "Probing Tool Use in the Practice of Generative Design: a Postgraduate Design Workshop Report." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. This paper investigates whether generative design tools can perform their intended functions after being passed on from the contexts of their production to different application contexts similar to the way that other tools such as hammers or bicycles are. We report on a design studio application of two generative design tools and relate observed design processes and outcomes to our toolmaking intentions. Our findings suggest that, at least in the case of the examined tools and workshop, tool use in generative design tends to defy toolmaking intentions. We discuss the consequences for generative design toolmakers and conclude with some speculations on possible solutions.
Lertlakkhanakul, Jumphon, Choungkyu Ryu, and Jinwon Choi. "Providing Interactive Usability Framework and Scenario in Virtual Architecture: Ubiquitous Virtual Working Place Case Study." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. In virtual workplace, two-dimensional system with desktop metaphor can provide only limited functions and interactions. It is indispensable to create a framework that can change traditional computer generated 3D model into interactive virtual architecture exploited by end users. However, such framework cannot be established without fundamental understanding of the new virtual architecture. The aim of this research emphasizes on how to design a virtual working place supporting actual office activities to extend the boundary of the conventional office through “Digital Space Labi case study. To achieve our goals, potential usability of virtual architecture is investigated. The next step is to design the virtual working place. After that, a set of scenarios indicating how the end users will utilize our interactive workplace is demonstrated. Eventually, the result serves as basis knowledge to construct a usability framework for the novel virtual architecture.  
Sarkar, Somwrita, John S. Gero, and Robert Saunders. "Re-Thinking Optimization as a Computational Design Tool: a Situated Agent Based Approach." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. This paper presents a situated agent-based tool for design optimization. A situated agent captures, learns from and re-uses the interactions which it has with its external environment, forming the basis for experience-based knowledge building in an agent. An agent is developed for design modelling, reformulation and algorithm selection - a class of tasks in design optimization traditionally performed by humans based on their experience, and hard to automate.
Li, Li, and Jingwen Gu. "Research of the Multimedia Courseware Creation System Application in Architecture Education." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. A new teaching model is constructed in the study, which can make students fully involved in the learning activity while keep the guidance from instructors. Compared with traditional courseware technology, it excels in following metrics: A framework to build multimedia courseware is constructed in the system, which helps instructors to customize their own courseware in a fast and convenient fashion _ The system can be used to build flexible knowledge structure and complicated information trees, which matches the practical architectural knowledge system and excels the traditional one-way flowing process_A flexible database is built within the system. The courseware created by this system can read from the database and take information out of the database at any time.
Schnabel, Marc Aurel. "Rethinking Urban Parameters." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. This paper describes an urban design studio that explored digital methods of design thinking, expression, form finding and communication. It reports on the goals and outcomes of the studio and the educational approach is portrayed: the way urban design tools can make use of parametric design methods, and the process and outcomes of the studio. It discusses implications on design education as well as understanding and communicating of complex design tasks that are digitally responsive to a variety of parameters. The studio continues a series of investigations that explore parametric design methods in architectural design.
Moloney, Jules. "Screen Based Augmented Reality for Architectural Design: Two Prototype Systems." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Augmented Reality (AR) technology has the potential to improve visualisation at the early stages of architectural design. The advantages of screen based AR systems over existing head mounted display AR, animation and virtual reality is discussed in terms of (1) improved contextual evaluation (2) social interaction and the integration of analogue media during design review. We describe two complimentary AR systems that explore these advantages: strollAR, a mobile set up for use on site, and video-datAR, a video database linked to a non-mobile three screen projection system. Outcomes from a prototype implementation are reported.
Tang, Zhong. "Show or Use: the Usage of VR for Complex Space Recognize Research." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. VR technology can represent the space of architecture and urban study in an acceptable way. Itis not only for the visualization of the architecture and urban planning but it also can be used in the essential research of architecture space. After the installation of a big scale VR system for the College of Architecture and Urban Planning in Tongji University, weid like to introduce an application of VR in the complex space recognition research and bring forward a concept of Pure Space for the architecture research in VR system.
Arpornwicharnop, Kittisak, Pinyo Jinuntuya, and Pizzanu Kanongchaiyos. "Simulation Software Development for Urban Landscape Possibility Analysis." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. This research paper proposes a simulation software development for possibility analysis of urban landscape development project. Normally, analysis of land potentiality and feasibility study for investment are necessary pre-processed for supporting urban planning, developing and architectural designing. However, most available tools are usually tailor made for each process individually, causing difficulties in information interchange between each processes. In this research, we propose a policy making support system for urban planning project development providing several functions such as testing land use and its physical character which are important to urban expansion and architectural design based on impact analysis of urban comprehensive plan. The proposed integrated system consists of a topological analysis module, constraint checking module and geographical information processing module. First, Geographical information stored in 3D graphic file format is converted to object-oriented data model and stored in a database. With several constraint and regulations, the stored information is then checked in the landscape topological analysis module. In evaluation process, the developed software is tested with geographical information of Bangkok area under constraints and regulations of Building Control Act of Thailand. While controlling building properties, the software can model the buildings and generate urban physical character. The result is then checked by several urban landscape planning experts. Experimental result shows that proposed system provides flexibility in information interchanging with constraints and regulations updating without system reconfiguration. The system also provides internet accessing for public participation in the process of making urban comprehensive plan.
Cheng, Yuan-Bang, and Teng-Wen Chang. "Solving Design Puzzle with Physical Interaction - a Collage Table Implementation." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Design process can be treated as a puzzle exploration process. With puzzle exploration as the interactive metaphor and mechanism, design collage reframes the design visual information as an interactive puzzle-solving game. Based on the design puzzle researches, this paper adapts an intuitive interface approach - physical interaction. A system using multi-touch technology (FTIR) called Collage Table has been implemented as the device to combine a design collage game with the physical interaction. The mechanism for invoking the search is developed and elaborated, and the implementation (both in software and hardware) and possible interaction are also documented in this paper. 
Chiu, Mao-Lin, and Guan-Cheng Lee. "Spatial Cypin: Smart Interface Design for Context Awareness and Event Reminding." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. The emergence of ubiquitous computing and smart technologies become the impetus for novel spatial design in the information era. Smart living interface becomes important for usercentric spatial design. This paper depicts the research framework and demonstrates the design concept “Spatial Cypin” as a metaphor of smart living interface in a ubiquitous computing environment that reminds users of events. “Mind Garden” is created as a test-bed for representing the memory landscape. The prototype and findings are reported.  
Chitchian, Davood, and H.C. Bekkering. "Sustaining Design Decision Makers in the AEC industry." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Todayis typical decision making problem such as strategic planning, portfolio analysis, resource allocation and human resource management involves a variety of tangible and intangible strategic goals, conflicting constraints, dozens or hundreds of alternative initiatives to be pursued, and limited resources. A decision maker cannot meaningfully combine all of this information to make right decisions. To sustain decision makers in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry, this paper proposes a tool to transfers a complex problem into a concept of hierarchical structure consisting of goal and its criteria and sub-criteria. Irrespective of the applied domains, this tool provides a flexible means for tackling the complex decision making process. It embeds a mathematical model for prioritization and decision making which is based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP).
Sherif, A., and Ellen Yi- Luen Do. "TangiCAD: Tangible Interface for Manipulating Architectural 3D Models." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. This paper presents an interface for interacting with tangible objects to produce and edit architectural 3D models, called TangiCAD. TangiCAD is a tangible/virtual construction kit which allows architects to manipulate virtual models using easy hand control of tangible cubes, as an alternative interface for 3D modelling. It consists of a set of tangible cubes representing architectural elements, such as walls, columns, slabs,etc., in addition to some editing operations. With more developed versions, the paper argues that architects could use tangible interfaces to carry out 3D modelling in an intuitive way, using their “flip-the-box” hands-on movement.  
Chiu, Hao-Hsiu. "Telepinup System: Supporting Dynamic Remote Interaction in Design Reviews." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. This paper addresses a pilot study in proposing a series of interface design solutions as integrated parts of a virtual communication space prototype: Telepinup System, which intends to enhance dynamic and seamless experiences for distributed architectural design discussions through digital interaction. Aiming to support graphic-centered, nonlinear, and contextual way of visualverbal communication suitable for design discussion, the prototype tool is developed to demonstrate various interface solutions and to be evaluated within the actual use contexts in two user experiments for its efficiency and effectiveness of underlying design criteria and proposed solutions. Interaction patterns during the experiments are recorded in the database and immediately visualized at the end of each test for participants to give instant feedback and for later analysis. The initial result shows that the collaboration between some critical interface solutions helps seamlessly synchronize graphical, verbal and social information exchange.
Jinuntuya, Pinyo, and Jirayod Theppipit. "Temporary Housing Design and Planning Software for Disaster Relief Decision Support System." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. There is a continuous and urgent need for disaster relief in Thailand and countries suffering from floods and tsunami impact. Based on this issue, design and planning software for temporary housing project has been developed, as well as the process and guideline for implementation. This paper describes a unique coupling of interactive 3D virtual environment with parametric designing in order to manage disaster relief project more efficiently. Architects and planners can use the functionality of software on both design simulation and project evaluation aspects. We need to provide correct information to help people making decision when they are in disaster. So the disaster relief decision support system must offer proper information of crisis management focused on people, place, and process. One of the main features of software is the relationship modelling of essential factors such as number of people, houses, budget, time, and space. This automatic temporary houses generation and space planning is simulated for land use and layout plan design with cost estimation analysis. The system components were proposed to a new disaster relief system in alternative approach. Using community-based development will not cost budget but required people participation. Our softwareis space coordination will start and centered from available space in school or temple with sufficient infrastructure. After essential factors are inputted, appropriated number of temporary houses, public facilities, and management guideline will be generated to support further planning decision. Our core system was developed on Java and Swing Technology, empowered by real-time 3D rendering CAD engine. In addition, “Virtools” as our Authoring Tools was applied to improve design interaction and explore rapid software prototyping. At the end, we discuss the comparison between real situations in Thailand and appropriate design standardization, which should be reconsidered how to manage crisis with the limitation of time and budget from government.
Hu, Youpei, Wowo Ding, and Gang Yuan. "The Adjacency Topological Model for Housing Layout and Its Generating Algorithm, Based on the Case Study of Chinese Apartment Layouts since 90s." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Our research deals with the problem of space layout planning and chooses the Chinese apartment layouts_since 90s_ as our case study objects. A new kind of data structure for building layouts is proposed which records the adjacency topological information of layouts. The most important quality of our model is that its phenotype corresponds to our visual perception about space layouts which makes possible the morphological analysis and layouts generation. Based on constraint satisfaction techniques the Generating Algorithm focused on enumerating all the possible topology models, under the constraints of program for a new housing layout design. A case study is presented before the conclusion is given.
Schoch, Odilo. "The Categorisation of Data from Smart Buildings for a positive Sustainable Application." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. This paper describes an architecture oriented approach of a categorization of information in so called computer integrated buildings (CIB). It follows an approach which seeks for the suitability of information categorization in order to achieve an energetically sustainable operation of CIBs. The CIB and its environment may exist as physical objects or as a simulation. The underlying question of this paper is: how can data of high temporal and spatial density be made accessible within a CIB with the goal of quickly delivering the most suitable answers for a specifical application. The subtitle “Google™ in the House” was chosen due to the achievable relation of a model with simple user interfaces, extendable pre-valuable data basis and high quality answers is being developed. The modelis foundation is the potential of any built context that it is very easy to position data in physical space by adding its position by Cartesian coordinates. This architectural way of pre-sorting data is defined as logical arranging. Further on, known mechanisms of information retrieving and mapping are added to the model. A preliminarily summary concludes that energetically sustainable operations are backed through means of computational categorization models.
Chen, Zi-Ru. "The Combination of Design Media and Design Creativity _ Conventional and Digital Media." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Creativity is always interested in many fields, in particular, creativity and design creativity have many interpretations (Boden, 1991, Gero and Maher, 1992, 1993, Kim, 1990, Sternberg, 1988, Weisberg, 1986). In early conceptual design process, designers used large number of sketches and drawings (Purcell and Gero, 1998). The sketch can inspire the designer to increase the creativity of the designeris creations(Schenk, 1991, Goldschmidt, 1994, Suwa and Tversky, 1997). The freehand sketches by conventional media have been believed to play important roles in processes of the creative design thinking(Goldschmidt, 1991, Schon and Wiggins, 1992, Goel, 1995, Suwa et al., 2000, Verstijnen et al., 1998, Elsas van and Vergeest, 1998). Recently, there are many researches on inspiration of the design creativity by digital media(Liu, 2001, Sasada, 1999). The digital media have been used to apply the creative activities and that caused the occurrenssce of unexpected discovery in early design processes(Gero and Maher, 1993, Mitchell, 1993, Schmitt, 1994, Gero, 1996, 2000, Coyne and Subrahmanian, 1993, Boden, 1998, Huang, 2001, Chen, 2001, Manolya et al. 1998, Verstijinen et al., 1998, Lynn, 2001). In addition, there are many applications by combination of conventional and digital media in the sketches conceptual process. However, previous works only discussed that the individual media were related to the design creativity. The cognitive research about the application of conceptual sketches design by integrating both conventional and digital media simultaneously is absent.
Maravelea, Kalliopi, and M Grant. "The Creation of Urban Form: a Normative Approach to Modelling." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. The aim of this research project is to develop a methodological process that allows the designer to assemble and create various scenarios representing an urban environment through the utilization of economical computer based methods. During the last decade different techniques have been developed to address the needs of visualisation of urban areas many being based on photographic and photogrammetric systems. The demand for 3-D urban models continues to grow and although new technologies have undoubtedly reduced the time needed for the construction of a 3D model, there are still some remaining problems related to data quality and the level of the dimensional accuracy. On the basis that these problems are primarily related to software and hardware constraints and in conjunction with the fact that the richness and complexity of an urban space is difficult to represent in a 3D context, there is a growing interest in the modelling of the urban fabric which is not dependant on heavily capitalised technology for its data. The core principle of the current research project is summarised in the process of deploying a mechanism, which will allow the visualisation of urban form without loosing its quality and architectural characterisation. This technique suggests that a selection of various building types can be collected and described by their architectural elements, textures, scale and dimensions. From each group of buildings a library of fragmented architectural components can be then derived. The accomplishment of this methodology is the formulation of a'grammar'comprised of a characteristic “syntaxi and its associated “vocabulary”. Therefore the expected outcome of this research is an approach that would allow the designer to create easily and quickly not only any desired building but additionally any imaginary cityscape.
Chotsiri, Sirin, Siwarak Suwannasan, Wipaporn Lamool, and Monchai Bunyavipakul. "The Development of E-Groupware in the Collaborative Work of Architectural Design." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. The emergence of the computer networking, especially the internet has been a very useful tool for the construction industry. The AEC (AEC: Architectural, Engineering and Construction) has adopted the computer technology to the collaboration design work (CSCW: Computer Support Collaborative Work). It used to be that people work together in the real physical space like an office or design studio but now in the virtual design place. This is to accommodate the work that is being done among the designers or construction teams that are far apart. Through Web Application these people can work together from different location.
Lamool, W., S. Chotsiri, S. Suvarnnasara, and Monchai Bunyavipakul. "The Development of E-Groupware in the Collaborative Work of Architectural Design." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. The emergence of the computer networking, especially the internet has been a very useful tool for the construction industry, The AEC (AEC: Architectural, Engineering and Construction) has adopted the computer technology to the collaboration design work (CSCW: Computer Support Collaborative Work). It used to be that people work together in the real physical space like an office or design studio but now in the virtual design place. This is to accommodate the work that is being done among the designers or construction teams that are far apart. Though Web Application these people can work together from different.
Golda, Robert. "The Global Collaborative Design Project: an Outline of Future Trends in Architectural Design." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Collaborative design in architecture has been researched heavily in the academic world, and has begun to infiltrate the profession of architecture. Due to the effects of globalization, many different industries have become involved in the current trend of outsourcing work, or collaborating globally with geographically distributed partners. Advances in information technologies and networking are making this possible, and it is proving itself extremely successful in the world of business. The academic world, however, has seen only limited experiments in distributed virtual design. Limiting factors include an emphasis on individual assessment, administrative and logistical hurdles, and an unclear system of academic benefit. To illustrate the potential of collaborative technologies and methods, I present in this paper conceptual frameworks, collectively termed “Global Collaborative Design Projecti (GCDP) that can be deployed in academia as well as in professional practice.
Menegotto, José. "The Nazca Lines and their Digital Architectural Representation." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. This paper relates to a digital architectural design experience in 2005 for the Nazca Competition. Nazca is an archaeological site situated about 400 kilometers south of Lima, Peru. It is a large desert with gigantic millenary geoglyphs carved on the surface, which can only be seen clearly from above. The Nazca geoglyphs are made up of hundreds of lines, spirals and triangular plazas, as well as zoomorphic figures like birds, fish, spider, etc. The Nazca Competition asked for an observatory-lodge of approximately 1.000 m2 with 20 rooms, communal bathrooms, supporting areas and an observatory tower of at least 100 meters. The observatory-lodge was designed using a digital representation technique called “Genetically Constructed Structures”. The structure was created using the geometric principle of the affinity of two conic sections: circle and ellipse. The form was produced transforming the circle and the ellipse by performing basic geometric transformations (translation, rotation, reflection and scaling). According to this technique, the sequence of transformations was codified in the form of an alphanumerical string, metaphorically named the “DNA structure”. The code was inserted as extended data into the entities which shaped the structure profiles. The algorithms were programmed with AutoLISP language. The “DNA code” allowed the structure to be constructed and deconstructed from any point, generating many different forms, to be studied and compared. One year later, the same 3D model was used to test another digital technology called “musical box” where their geometrical points are captured, read and translated into musical parameters, generating music. In this paper we will present the graphical form of the tower as well as the music associated.
Huang, Chuang-Yu. "The Role of Physical Models in Digital Design Processes." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. In recent years, designers have used digital media at various points of the design process, which helps expand architectural possibilities. Digital media has changed not only the architectural style, but also the design process (Lynn, 1999). In earlier times, some researchers of design thinking have looked at how the role of physical models played in traditional design processes (Millon, 1994). However, the design process has been changed when media designers used to adjust from traditional to digital. Therefore, visual thinking and cognitive behaviour of designers also change while using physical models in design processes. From the synthesis of the two aforementioned disciplines, we can find that there exists a point of deficiency. That is the cognitive research about designers who use physical models in digital design processes is absent. This is discussed in the current paper.  
Ho, Ting-Fung. "The Spatial Interpretation of Freehand Sketch - Using Programming and Rapid Prototyping." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Freehand sketching has always been used in the conceptual design process. The importance of freehand sketching lies in its ability to freely represent various ambiguous drawing projections. This research implements a convenient sketch interpretation system called Spatial Charcoal to aid in the conceptual design process. The system interprets a designeris sketch, generates a relative digital model and then fabricates it using a rapid prototyping machine.  
Tamke, Martin, and Olaf Kobiella. "Thinking the Fourth Dimension - the E4d Design Series and the Education of Digital Design Skills." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. The e4d design series is looking for new aspects of digital technology in the education of Digital Architecture approaches - overcoming the gap between the development of architectural and the necessary digital skills. Digital Design approaches using the full variety of multimedia technology, the parallelism and crossover of analogue and digital techniques, 3d-modelling, rapid-prototyping and visualization tools and finally the presentation in artistic movies or websites are characteristic for the e4d design method. This method was refined during several design projects within the last two years. A problem based design method was developed, that enabled students to learn digital and architectural skills simultaneously in an efficient manner.
Said, Suzana, and Mohamed Embi. "Towards a Digital Representation of Vernacular Architecture - the Traditional Malay Houses in Perspective." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. This paper focuses on an effort to represent the form and style of the traditional Malay houses (TMH) in a digital form to enable proper coding and compilation of the various built forms in a computing environment. In order to develop the data structure to code the form and styles of the houses, the scope of the study is currently limited to the original TMH of the bumbung panjang (long roof) type in which the key features of the houses were easily discernible from the side view. The digital representations of the houses are in the form of a database of construction elements with construction and addition rules to recreate the style of all the various bumbung panjang built forms. With this systematic programming approach, a digital representation of the traditional Malay house could be recalled and created within seconds.  
Hoseini, Ali, and Rahinah Ibrahim. "Using Social Network Analysis for Visualising Spatial Planning During Conceptual Design Phase." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. Spatial diagramming exercises with clients are difficult when most clients are not able to visualize the end results of their requirements. This paper would like to introduce a computational tool ? Social Network Analysis (SNA) ? commonly used in the communications field to study relationships between people we believe can resolve this visualization problem. Our research intent is to affirm whether or not we can use SNA as a spatial planning tool during conceptual building design. We posit that since the nodes and structural relationships between the nodes may have similar architectural characteristics, the tool would enable architects to make changes by moving any spaces on a floor plan while safely maintaining their spatial relationships to other spaces. In this paper, we would like to develop a proof-of-concept model using an available SNA tool to facilitate spatial diagramming visualization during conceptual design phase. We tested the use of a SNA tool at four levels. The first level determined whether we could develop spatial relationship between functional spaces (such as the living room must be adjacent to the front entry). The second level is on setting priorities values for the different nodes and the linkages. The third level determined whether we could develop grouping relationship between several functional spaces that have a common characteristic (such as public versus private spaces) on one horizontal plane. The final fourth level determined whether we could develop multiple layers that are connected by one common connector (such as a staircase in a double-story house). Our models are validated intellectually by visual comparison between our model and another diagramming by Nooshin (2001) that was developed manually. We are most interested in the fourth level because complexity in the spatial diagramming exercises is caused by multi-layered spatial arrangements at the horizontal and vertical planes. We expect our study to provide us guidelines in developing a prototype for a spatial diagramming tool using SNA, which architects can use to resolve visualization problems when conducting the exercise with their clients.
Rügemer, Jörg. "Various Media in the Design Process and Methodology." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. The paper describes the mergence of traditional architectural design processes with approaches that rely on digital media and software for the creation of architectural space. The depicted projects are part of a “work in progress” process, with a recent studio that is set up to apply the so far accumulated experiences. Within the projects, focus is on those design phases where the applied media and methodology is changed and where the back and forth between different media and the depth of their implementation is perceptible in, and / or has a significant influence on the design itself. Through a line of successive experiments, the paper explains the development of a possible method that utilizes a variety of todayis accessible tools in architecture, making use of phenomena that appear when changing from one tool to another. Goal is to avoid limitations that are existent by the solely employment of one media or method, and to understand the fusion between different media as an inspiring momentum to develop the design further. The paper draws a line from an initially experienced and analyzed design method over several projects in practice and academia to conclude with a possible design method that could be established successfully in both fields of architectural teaching and practice. Initial experiences had been drawn from professional practice, in which the digital realm was limited to a support device of the design process. The first project that is described in the paper, explored the employment of digital media as a possible tool to drive the design process in a broader sense. The studio setting was organized as a laboratory for the exploration of the change of applied media. Focus was on the influence on the design progress. The design method required of the studios participants was not exclusively based on an architectural program, but on an initial, very conceptual process with an artistic approach, based on personal experiences of each participant. This was meant to detach the students entirely from architectural processes and mindsets they had picked up so far. Parallel to that kind of an intellectual process, studio participants learned to handle Maya as the 3D modelling software of their choice. Both the technical knowledge and the artistic projects were merged in a second project phase, in which participants had to further develop their work by applying a very effective mix of various design tools. Using digital media as a parametric design generator, subsequent projects were developed. The task for the designers here were to decide what kind of algorithm could be applied to which process and when it was to be stopped for the best result. Applying such an automatism successfully to the design process, the employment of traditional media and methodology remained, to adapt the digital driven schemes to the required design task. The diverse design experiments demonstrate important aspects when merging complex design and animation software with traditional design processes. To achieve good architectural design results, all examined projects showed that traditional design methods with its physical models are hardly replaceable to its full extent by other media, but digital media are able to strengthen design processes and invite designers to explore new means of design work.
Onishi, Yasunobu, Mitsuo Morozumi, Riken Homma, and Takahiro Maruyama. "Web-based Asynchronous Design Discussion Tool with Utilities for Attaching Comments to Image Data." In Digitization and Globalization: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Nanjing, China: Southeast University and Nanjing University, 2007. In todayis global, multi-faceted society, architectural design has become a collaborative effort. Often, however, team members are separated by distance and difference in work hours. In order to keep team members connected, research groups have been developing groupware for communication and data sharing using information and communication technology. The results of recent research indicate that the systems developed are useful especially in the early phases of the architectural design process. While these systems cannot support the most important process in design collaboration ?  the decision making itself ? they will enable team members to communicate effectively. The goal of this research is to develop a decision support groupware for the design team. As the first step, in order to enhance interaction among team members, we developed a web-based asynchronous design discussion tool named DesIBo: Design Interaction Board, such as Bulletin Board System. This paper deals with the development of DesIBo employing new concepts about entering and browsing comments and evaluating that system. In the future, we will add a decision-support function to DesIBo.