Keywords Abstract
Wu, Wan-Ning, Yen-Liang Wu, Ching-Chien Lin, June-Hao Hou, Hua-Lun Liang, and Yu-Tung Liu. "3D user interface study in the VR cave: Toward a Virtual City Navigation." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 379-386. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. In this research, we implemented the 3D interactive interface for city navigation, and used an infrared 3D tracker as an interaction input device in VR CAVE. The design of 3D interface was evaluated by cognitive approach while navigating with a handheld sensor in the VR CAVE. According to the results of cognitive experiment, some revised design guidelines are proposed for further 3D navigation interface.
Reffat, Rabee. "A computational system for enriching discovery in architectural design." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 169-177. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. This paper presents a computational system for enriching design discovery in the external 2D representation of architectural plans. Enriching discovery is achieved through an interpretative search process that involves emergent findings. The developed computational system employs a twofold discovery process, generative phase and an interpretative or explorative phase. In the generation phase the system allows designers to depict an initial building design in the form of 2D plans as a set of lines. The system recognizes possible components of the initial design by generating different forms of bounded shapes that are both explicit and implicit using the Hamiltonian circuit approach. In the interpretation phase the discovery process using the quest mechanism is invoked by selecting a geometrical semantic identified in the recognized shapes to generate possible alternative interpretations of the complete representation of initial design. This plays an important role in enriching discovery in the architectural design of buildings and provides a set of new moves and directions for the designer to pursue.
Kim, Mi, and Jin Choi. "A developing digital storytelling model for virtual test-bed to bed to simulate the smart office." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 331-340. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. As ubiquitous technology is introduced to the future environment, it is expected to have more convenient and comfortable environment and increase the spatial efficiency with virtual displays available in a limited space. Surrounded by such environment, the smart space can make an improved future place by using all user information input within the systems beneficially to both its user and manager. For its design, it is required that a scenario should be built on the ubiquitous environment with new technologies. In this study, we develop a digital storytelling model based on the study of scenario design and apply it to our virtual test-bed system called “V-PlaceLab”. 
Ryu, Jaeho, Naoki Hashimoto, Makoto Sato, Masashi Soeda, and Ryuzo Ohno. "A game engine based architectural simulator on multi-prjector displays." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 613-615. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. To make whole one image on screens that is generated by many computers and synchronization among computers, there is a need for a network software environment for multi-projector display system. Although the development costs increase for parallel programming for multi-projector display system, there is a possibility that the program cannot be executed at an enough speed since the network bandwidth might become a bottleneck. There are some software environments for that kind of multi-projector display system like Chromium that is latest version of WireGL (Humphreys, 2001&2002). WireGL is a kind of Client-Server Model, which one rendering server sends the data of rendering to many computers. While it can use the application without modification of source, it requires heavy network traffics. The other type of operating software is VR Juggler (Cruz-Neira, 2002), and CAVE Library that is a kind of Master-Slave Model. In the Master-Slave Model, every computer has same application programs to render the image that only keep the synchronization of rendering and events. But, these programs require a specialized skill and knowledge to modify the source of program for the certain rendering PC-Cluster system.
Lin, Ching-Chien. "A greater sense of presence: spatial interface in Vr cave." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 617-619. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Virtual environments are three-dimensional spaces presented visually. They combine the useris experience and sense of'being there'in the virtual environment. Presence is a central element of virtual reality that it is seen as a part of its definition (Steuer, 1992). Direct interactions between participants and the virtual environment generate a more enhanced sense of immersion, thus making the participants feels they are part of that environment (Witmer & Singer, 1998).
Kotsopoulos, Sotirios. "A note on the conceptual basis of designs." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 585-587. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. CAD systems have a strong influence on design theory and practice. But even though they were widely used in the process of design representation or execution, their acceptance as an aid in the creative process remains poor. Beginning from this problem the paper outlines a design framework with broader aim the use of computation in the studio.  
Oh, Sooyeon, Yutaka Kidawara, Katsumi Tanaka, and Toshio Nafafune. "A prototype system for use in designing ubiquitous environmental spaces." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 355-361. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. The advent of the “ubiquitous computing societyi, in which computing will be omnipresent, will bring about drastic changes in the design of building and the cities they form. The goal of our research is to establish guidelines for designing structures and urban spaces best suited for a ubiquitous environment. As a first step, in this paper we discuss how ubiquitous computing can be applied from both the notional and technical viewpoints, develop a prototype system using it. Then we test this system in real-project, and explore the feasibility of applying this system in a ubiquitous environment. 
Huang, Yu-Chun. "A space make you lively: a Brain-computer interface approach to smart space." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 303-312. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. This research is paying attention to the new field of “Smart Homesi. The goal of Smart Homes is to provide and more economical dwellings for humans. Le Cobusier envisioned a house as a machine for living. To enable a space to take the initiative in perceiving the demands of the user and to respond with appropriate feedback under diverse conditions, there is a new field development of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI). This research proposes, therefore, a smart space that enables the user to work in an energized way via the BCI system. When the space “perceivesi that someone is getting sleepy by monitoring the useris brainwaves, it will take appropriate action such as providing specific background music or adjusting the lighting and temperature in the room as subliminal reminders to the user to stay alert and productive.
Lan, Ju-Hung, and Mao-Lin Chiu. "A web 3D-GIS approach to develope the urban information system of virtual anping." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 479-486. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. This paper depicts the limitations of current digital cities by applying 3D-CAD or 2D-GIS technologies. The research argues a digital city should be able to not only visualize a large-scale 3D city model but also integrate useful urban information for potential usersi retrieval in a web environment. Thus, a Web 3D-GIS approach to develop the urban information system of Virtual Anping is demonstrated and important issues are addressed in this study.
Shimokawa, Yuichi, Ayako Fukushima, Tatsuo Masuta, Tomohiro Miyashita, Akihiko Tani, Shigehiko Sakao, Atsushi Sone, Mamoru Shiroki, and Dai Kawahara. "A Web-Based 3D GIS system to manage and conserve historical environments: Case Study on a historic district in Kanazawa." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 453-460. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. In this paper, we will discuss the system environment that supports management and conservation works for historical landscape and architecture. The proposed system enables both 3D map based spatial data management in urban scale and VR model based landscaping in street scale in one Web system. Moreover users can share their comments in those 3D spaces at any locations and any time. We set up this system for the historical City of Kanazawa. The system is gong to be assessed in the actual landscape planning project.
Redi, Ivan, and Andrea Redi. "A.N.D.I. - a NEW DIGITAL INSTRUMENT: for networked creative collaboration in architecture and net.art." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 101-110. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. an open source software project, has objective to develop a run-time environment with the focus on the applications for the networked international and cross-disciplinary production in the creative sphere of architecture, urban planning, design and net.art. It is a digital environment which opens the possibilities to generate advanced projects in a networked society. This new working tools will increase the creativity, productivity and competitiveness of the involved actors by drawing upon and developing technologies for virtual, augmented and mixed realities. A.N.D.I. has two basic aspects. On the one hand it is a database driven collaborative environment and on the other hand it will enable the development of future software and tools for networked creative collaboration.
Lai, Ih-Cheng. "Agent communication for role playing in the idea association process." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 151-160. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. This paper proposes a framework for the specification of communication mechanisms that regulates interactions among agents participating in role playing in the idea association process. Since agents process a sort of human-like behaviour, our approach is made taking as reference human communication characteristics through using role playing as metaphor. Therefore, we first analyze the characteristics of human communication, deriving role playing for linking ideas in the human world. By integrating with ACL mechanisms, we propose a framework to express communication mechanisms for exchanging message in a multi-agent framework called DIM-2. Finally, the framework is evaluated through an experiment. Also its computational feasibility of a support system for the distributed interactions is discussed in this paper.
Chen, Shang-Yuan, and Mao-Lin Chiu. "Agent-based smart skins: Fuzzy-logic and neuro-fuzzy approaches to smart house design." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 323-330. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Recent developments in sensor, computing, and information and communication technologies have inspired the creation of new smart devices and environments. This paper proposes a “smart skin” that is capable of actively inferring and detecting normal or abnormal status, making optimal decisions, and learning to adapt its functions to map environmental variations to occupant needs. This paper explores the potential of smart skins and proposes three key elements for their integration: (1) intelligent agents, (2) context awareness, and (3) fuzzy logic and neuro-fuzzy systems. Prototypes are demonstrated and further discussion is made.
Chen, Hong-Sheng, and Chan-Jui Liu. "An adaptive design support system for interactive image searching with data mining methodology." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 561-563. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. This study explodes a domain where the use of pictures is essential [Sabrina Kacher 2002]. Designers need a way to rapidly get image. Recent years, there are more and more companies start to store and sale images for designers. They try to use hypermedia or website system to support designers when they need images.
Shih, Wingly, Hua-Lun Liang, June-Hao Ho, and Yu-Tung Liu. "An Auto-Composing virtual heritage system." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 487-493. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. This paper proposed an auto-composing virtual heritage system. By means of GIS data, media could be composed without time-consuming authoring process and easily integrated into an interactive virtual environment.
Huang, Kuo-Hsien, and Ching-Hui Huang. "Applications of the digital model database for taiwan city and architecture: the interactive entertainment platform." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 581-583. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. In Taiwan, the National Science Council (NSC) has launched the “National Digital Archives Program” (NDAP) since 2002. We participated in two projects: “The 3D digital museum of Taiwan city and architecture” and “Digital model database and professional service for Taiwan city and architecture”. The first one attempted to build a virtual museum for Taiwan city and architecture through the past four hundred years. The second one was a value-added project which intended to further apply the digital contents of the previous one. This project was consisted of 3D refined data, digital knowledge database, and architecture professional service. We were responsible for the 3D refined data. As a result, the digital model database included three cities: Hsinchu, Chiayi, and Tainan, as well as sixty-four architecture models. The interactive entertainment platform is an important leisure in our daily life. In general, the interactive entertainment includes five types: arcade game, PC game, on-line game, TV game, and mobile entertainment. This research pays attentions to the arcade game which presents dynamic interactions between machine and users. Following the improvements of design techniques, we have opportunities to experience many arcade games with different purposes, such as drum game, dance game, and fishing simulator. However, we further apply the digital model database to create an interactive entertainment platform for a racing arcade game.  
Schoch, Odilo. "Applying digital smart technologies for a sustainable architecture: Pervasive computing allows the design of sustainable architecture." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 261-268. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. One of the major advantages of'pervasive computing'is its positive sustainable impact. This paper introduces an approach for architectural design related to'pervasive computing', which is named'future ready'. It is a discussion on the sustainable impact of pervasive digital devices within architecture. It illustrates its idea, its application and evaluation and shows examples from Europe and Asia.
Swathika, Anandan, So-Yeon Yoon, and Mohammed Saleh Uddin. "Architectural animation and cinematic interpretation." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 197-202. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Cinemas have always communicated beyond space and time. However, the illusion of being in a synthetic environment in cinema seldom exists in an architectural animation. The same digital animation technology may have been used, but the method of engaging the viewers and capturing their interest in cinemas, distinguish them from architectural animations. The focus of this paper is to examine the essential elements in cinematography such as mies-en-scene, collage, and entourage which can effectively transform one animation style to another. Depending on the storytelling and use of cinematographic elements, the built environment can bring the sense of immersion that is, the thread of emotional connection between the audience and the animation. The topic explores ways to permit the vieweris immersion in the presented environment for architectural animation. Transforming the style of the animation allows us to experiment with different ways of capturing audience attention, translating design concepts and articulating information rather than being another form of transcription only in motion. In this paper, the attempt is to bring the reflex of an architectural project in animation by introducing the cinematic depth rather than being a narrative knowledge transfer.
Kwee, Verdy, Anthony Radford, and Ian Bruton. "Architecture | Media | Representations Survey- (Exigencies at a Media Crossroad)." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Architectural information has been presented in a myriad of ways through various media for the purpose of public education. Rapid technological change tremendously affects the modes and techniques of communication media necessitating a reassessment of these vehicles. This paper suggests that if the medium should continue to be the “massage” (McLuhan, 1967), it is imperative that we should understand the implications our choice and use of various media for communication of specific data, especially in relation to a targeted audience.  The paper presents the results and analyses of an online user survey (please refer to http://cumincad.scix.net/data/works/att/8d88.content.09055.pdf) which considers the use of currently available media, their roles and performance in the delivery of information of architectural works. It proposes suggestions for the manner and reasons these factors fashion usersi preferences. It also highlights several aspects of architectural data (e.g. forms, lighting, materials, etc) as well as those of the respective media used to represent them while indicating how significant end-users perceive these aspects in the process of understanding architecture. The interpretations of the results outlined in this paper may suggest some answers to the questions relating to current media use, but they may also pose more questions about the types of and the manner in which information should be delivered to architecture enthusiasts/readers. This reassessment is intended to help anticipate future directions in the application of these media in presenting architectural information. Special attention is particularly paid to the opportunities afforded by the digital platform.
Nilkaew, Piyaboon. "Assistant tool for architectural layout design by genetic algorithm." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 641-643. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Architectural design is a very complicated process. It contains many sequences within the design process that the architects have to take into considerations. Within the process, the architect will look for every feasible schematic to make the best decision for developing the final design process. However, the preliminary design involves both conceptual and schematic design that concern about quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis. The objective of this research is to utilize an assistant method or tool to help form a preliminary design and a thinking process by using genetic algorithm to find the feasible solutions for conceptual and schematic design.
Yan, Wei. "Balancing freedom and control for walkthrough in virtual architecture: a Smart and Comprehensive Navigation System." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 387-396. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. This paper presents a new navigation system that integrates a perspective view for walkthrough and an interactive map for path planning. The interactive map allows users to draw paths and improves path planning by employing either a 3D aerial view that enables users to zoom and examine or a 2D smart map that possesses knowledge about the usability of design elements in the environments. Path control is merged into users'interactive walkthrough seamlessly and intuitively to achieve a balance of freedom and control. Further more, the paths with all related information can be saved in real-time over the Internet by a user and can be loaded and replayed later by other users. Two case studies demonstrate the application of this system in Virtual Architecture.
Ito, Toyo. "Change the geometry to change the architecture." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 18-Jul. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Over these last hundred years since the beginning of the twentieth century, the world's population has increased from 1.6 billion to 6 billion. At the same time, people have concentrated in urban areas in ever greater numbers. As a result, society has suddenly been obliged to construct quantities of buildings rapidly and economically. In responding to this challenge, the demand has been for architecture independent of any special regional or environmental character, simple homogeneous spaces that could be factory-produced. Modernist architecture gave theoretical bases to societal demands as well as a normalized aesthetic mean. Under the ideological banner of Mies van der Rohe's dictum “Less is more,i the Modernists drew up beautiful continuous spaces on a uniform grid. While Le Corbusier's assertion that “The house is a machine for living in” found concrete expression in an idealized architecture of pure geometric forms--circles, cubes, cylinders. 
Griffith, Kenfield, and Lawrence Sass. "Computing and Materializing non-uniform shapes: an evolutionary approach to generate and digital fabricate non-uniform masonry walls." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 227-235. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. A novel evolutionary system used for the production of design information for digital fabrication is presented. This program generates information for physical construction as architectural models of double-curved walls built from unique masonry units. We present a series of computer programs and physical models as examples of straight and curved walls generated from an evolutionary system built for design. The wall examples here are built of non-uniform, interlocking units. This project is an exploration of evolutionary design tools that construct double-curved structures in CAD for fabrication with a 3D printer.
Yeshayahu, Shai, and Maria Vera. "Cut, Copy, Paste Society." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 47-52. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. You and I were not born in the 1990's thus our experience about the true modalities of circulation and communication that have substantially transformed the methods that form and inform us today, are not really “purei. Why? Because we know how slow time was before the communication boom of this last decade and because some of us still believe that we must read to be inform and thus, visit a bookstore, library or friends house and get peeks inside a subject of matter. So experiencing life as we bypass the book _ thatis a story of a brand new era! Taking note of the enormous changes this era brings, is fundamental to our current pedagogic undertakings. We seek data about the differences that lie in the way individuals, which never knew a world before or between analogue and digital zones, process information. It signals a dramatic shift in cognitive realms that is deeply imbedded in our emerging socio-economic spheres. So, you say “hypothesizing that economic, technologic, and cultural fluxes fabricate new means to learn and think, is not a fresh idea”_ True.  But, it led us to ask one fundamental question _What are the upcoming learning habits employed by the “post digitali society?  We noted that the post digital generation is an avid cut, copy, paste society that is able to extract information from infinite resources and mix, remix in diversified modes, through time and in real-time. We think these abilities are strengths, which will permit students to multitask yet they strongly differ from the academic agendas that are concerned with meditative processes and qualitative interdisciplinary task. As aspiring academics interested in the reconfiguration of current pedagogic formats we seek a creative intervention for future design generations, one that can benefit both the upheavals of the cultural world and the integrity of the academic setting where a pedagogy that links extended fields of knowledge with shifting cognitive habits can emerge. In this arena where cognition plays an important role, our goals are challenging and difficult, especially in the beginning years when the foundations set forward leaves lasting impressions. Thus, letting go of familiar grounds and tuning to continual alterations of the immediate surroundings enables us to seek means that facilitate important readings for our current learning/teaching processes. Demystifying changes and embracing differences as design potentials for new interventions are basic programmatic elements that permit us to incorporate a rigorous research agenda in the design exercises.  Our presentation will project the current state of our teaching modality and provide examples of current studio work. It will demonstrate how everyday rituals, journeys and research observations, are documented by a society that heralds a new academic setting.
You, Hsiao-Chen, Shang-Chia Chiou, and Yi-Shin Deng. "DESIGN BY ACTIONS: an Affordance-based Modeling System in Spatial Design." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 363-369. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. From the viewpoint of interaction design, Gibson's affordance concept is interpreted as an emergent action possibility of the physical human-environment-system, which consists of three key components: the user, the environment, and the possible actions. It could help user to perform the suitable action within an artificial environment. This study aims to develop a formal description of affordance in spatial design. Using the formal description as groundwork, an affordance-based modelling system is then proposed to facilitate its further implementation in design and elucidate the new role of users and designers in spatial design. A simplified sink area design is used as an example to illustrate how this affordance-based modelling system works. For users of different conditions, different spatial arrangements in design will affect the performance and usersi behaviour as well. This study demonstrates how design by action can be achieved, and then simulates the action sequence of different design solutions to evaluate the system performance. 
Kilian, Axel. "Design exploration with circular dependencies: a chair design experiment." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 217-226. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. The paper demonstrates the need for advanced models of representation for circular dependency networks common in design problems that deal with multiple constraints. Constraints in a design problem are generally perceived as limitations to design exploration. The careful construction of constraint relationships can help to turn constraints into design drivers for the problem instead. Closely related to the notion that new goals may emerge from creating designs is the idea that one goal of planning may be the design activity itself (Simon 1981). The interplay of many constraints can lead to circular dependencies that make design exploration a challenge as any change causes ripples throughout the entire design construct. DiArcy Thompson (1942) describes form as a diagram of forces. The construction of design representations that reflect such dependency networks pose a challenge and are far from exact matches of the task environment (Simon 1981). The paper proceeds in mapping these abstract observations of the circular dependencies in the design process to a chair experiment from design to fabrication giving detailed descriptions of the interdependencies of material, fabrication and aesthetic constraints. The experiment shows how those constraints were instrumental in achieving the aesthetics of the full scale prototype.
Biloria, Nimish, K. Oosterhuis, and Cas Aalbers. "DESIGN INFORMATICS: (A case based investigation into parametric design, scripting and CNC based manufacturing techniques)." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 237-244. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. The research paper exemplifies a novel information integrated design technique developed at ONL (Oosterhuis and Lenard), Netherlands, specifically appropriated for envisaging complex geometric forms. The “informed design technique”, apart from being highly instrumental in conceptualizing and generating the geometric component constituting architectural form in a parametric manner, is also efficiently utilized for precise computer aided manufacturing and construction of the speculated form. Geometric complexities inherent in contemporary architectural constructs and the time spent in appropriation of such topologies, fueled the “informed design” approach, which caters to issues of timely construction, precision oriented design and production (visual and material) and parametric modelling attuned to budgetary fluctuations. This design-research approach has been tested and deployed by ONL, for conceiving “the Acoustic Barrieri project, Utrecht Leidsche Rijn in the Netherlands and is treated as a generic case for exemplifying the “informed design” technique in this research paper. The design methodology encourages visualizing architectural substantiations from a systems perspective and envisages upon a rule based adaptive systems approach involving extrapolation of contextual dynamics/ground data in terms of logical “rules”. These rules/conditionalities form the basis for spawning parametric logistics to be mapped upon geometric counterparts exemplifying the conception.  The simulated parametric relations bind dimensional aspects (length, width, height etc.) of the geometric construct in a relational manner, eventually culminating in a 3D spatial envelope. This evolved envelope is subsequently intersected with a “parametric spatio-constructive grid”, creating specific intersecting points between the two. The hence extorted “point cloud” configuration serves as a generic information field concerning highly specific coordinates, parameters and values for each individual point/constructive node it embodies. The relations between these points are directly linked with precise displacements of structural profiles and related scaling factors of cladding materials. Parallel to this object oriented modelling approach, a detailed database (soft/information component) is also maintained to administer the relations between the obtained points. To be able to derive constructible structural and cladding components from the point cloud configuration customized Scripts (combination of Lisp and Max scripts) process the point cloud database. The programmed script-routines, iteratively run calculations to generate steel-wire frames, steel lattice-structure and cladding panels along with their dimensions and execution drawing data. Optimization-routines are also programmed to make rectifications and small adjustments in the calculated data. This precise information is further communicated with CNC milling machines to manifest complex sectional profiles formulating the construct hence enabling timely and effective construction of the conceptualized form.
Tung, Chen. "DESIGN ON SITE: Portable, Measurable, Adjustable Design Media." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 565-567. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Space designers usually look for information on site before proceeding design. They image any possibilities of design, while they are on site. Restricted to traditional design media, if they want to develop their ideas further, they have to go back to desks. This kind of design process can capture only part of information of the site. Why not do some developments directly when designers are on the site? That is the starting point of this paper. The whole situation of site is very complicated, so it is very difficult discussing all the possibilities. In order to understand how to design on site, reducing the variations is needed. Tsai and Chang (2005) proposed a prototype about design on site, which focuses on land forming. So I chose interior as the site to reduce the variation and have more controllable factors. Still there are many factors effecting design on site, scale is very unique and very important factor of them. Beginners are difficult to really feel how long it is on the plan drawing, and even most advanced VR equipment still canit fully present the rich information on the site. To experience the site though body, the main idea is how to propose a portable device that can support space designer to do design on site directly, with intuitional body movement and precise scale, and get feedback immediately.
Araya, Sergio. "Designing and fabricating continuous complex curved strctures from flat panel materials using a flexure approach." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 253-259. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. This paper describes a procedure that combines scripting and modelling in a parametric environment to design and manufacture complex double curved structures from rigid flat panels using rapid prototyping tools and CNC machining. It engages generative design techniques and programming while extending the digital design and fabrication possibilities for curved structures.
Kvan, Thomas. "Designo ergo sum." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 19-26. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Reviewing a decade of research from the University of Hong Kong, the paper traces a path that develops understandings of communication in design activities. 
Maher, Mary Lou, Michael Rosenman, Kathryn Merrick, Owen Macindoe, and David Marchant. "Designworld: an augmented 3D virtual world for multidisciplinary, collaborative design." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 133-142. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Large design projects, such as those in the AEC domain, involve collaboration between designers from many different design disciplines in varying locations. Existing tools for developing and documenting designs of buildings and other artifacts tend to focus on supporting a single user from a single discipline. This paper introduces DesignWorld, a prototype system for enabling collaboration between designers from different disciplines who may be in different physical locations. DesignWorld consists of a 3D virtual world augmented with a number of web-based communication and design tools. DesignWorld uses agent technology to maintain different views of a single design in order to support multidisciplinary collaboration and address issues such as multiple representations of objects, versioning, ownership and relationships between objects from different disciplines. 
Kawasumi, Norihiro, Arisa Ooba, and Yong Sun. "Developing design archive and visual navitagion interface for digital environment." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 125-132. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. The digital media is most convenient technologies to realize collaborative design environment on the world wide network. A lot of practical Virtual Design Studio projects have been already executed in the world and lots of researchers try to develop more efficient web-based design systems for Virtual Design Studio. On these systems, the digital bulletin board is generally used to support for group discussion and exchanging design proposals via the network. But it is only possible to store and refer design proposals on the web. Its interface and operation are not well-optimized for architectural design activities. Then we consider that itis necessary to develop the design information archive and visual interface to support digital design activities. The APEX and VPB system is the integrated design environment and we report the results of our experimental design studio using with it.
Fukuda, Tomohiro, Nobuaki Okamoto, Wookhyun Yeo, and Atsuko Kaga. "Development of an asynchronous distributed type design process support system using a blog and real-time simulation technologies." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 625-627. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. In this research, which focused on the design process of architectural or urban design field, an asynchronous distributed type process support system by blog (weblog) technology was developed, and an actual design project performed application evaluation. Then, in order to resolve the issues which arose, a “3Dblog” system to which the blog system and the real-time simulation system were linked was developed.
Ise, R, Riken Homma, and K Iki. "Development of the knowledge-sharing sheet system for collaborative city master planning." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 645-647. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. In recent years, citizen participation has begun to progress in administration plan development. However, preparations for argument are not enough so that the citizen who is non-expert participates to administration plan development. In addition, arguments among experts are not understandable to citizens. In sum, experts cannot explain to citizens plainly. They often show only a result and a conclusion of their argument. Therefore the result of their argument cannot obtain sympathy of citizens. As a result the effectiveness of the administration plan has been deteriorated. For citizen participation, it is necessary to represent the process of an argument by arranging the information and ranking them for an argument. The purpose of this research is to adopt the knowledge management in planning a city master plan and to develop the systematic tool for the consensus decision-making in planning a city master plan. This tool supports a resident group for making a city master plan.
Oxman, R.. "Digital design thinking: inthe new design is the new pedagogy." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 37-46. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Theories and methods of digital design can no longer be conceptualized as the merging of computational tools with conventional formulations of design. A new orientation to understanding the impact of digital media on “digital design thinkingi and pedagogy is presented discussed and demonstrated.
Pan, Yen-Chun, and Teng-Wen Chang. "Digital making - a model making process triggered by clay-like media." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 287-294. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. The respect of haptic media like digital clay, Designers can feel the physical material through the digital clay. According to this feeling they can make the model in the virtual space. The traditional make-mode ways are almost in software. Compared with this ways of past, the intuitive interaction way is more intuitive than traditional way that use mouse/keyboard to adjust the node of model. In this research, we propose a capture mechanism using the characteristic of physical material to explore 3D form.
Huang, Ching-Hui, Yu-Li Chang, and Yu-Tung Liu. "Digital model database and professional service for taiwan city and architecture: the 3D refined data." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 433-442. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. The objective of this research is to explain major procedure of creating the digital model database, and to discuss the future studies and applications of the results. We also describe some detail working process and results of one of the cities within the project. As a result, the digital model database includes three Taiwan cities, as well as sixty-four architecture models around the island. The significance of digital archive is not simply a collection, but critical for additional research and application. The outcomes of the project pointed out several implications.
Koutamanis, Alexander. "Digital sketching: means and ends." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 277-286. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Sketching is one of the few analogue design practices that persist in the digital era. The transfer of architectural sketches and sketching to the computer presupposes a demarcation of applications and representations on the basis of specifications relating to the mechanical, paradigmatic and syntagmatic dimensions of drawing.
Knight, Michael, Andre Brown, and J.S. Smith. "Digital terrain meshes from gps in urban areas: a Practical Aid to City Modelling." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 443-451. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. The work presented here brings together two core interests that have been developed by the first two authors over recent years. The first is the development of city models for use in a range of applications where different data sets and different levels of detail may be appropriate. The second is the development of low cost systems that can deliver useful tools to help address Computer Aided Architectural Design problems. In addition the involvement of a colleague in Electrical Engineering and Electronics reflects a long standing belief in the benefits of cross-disciplinary and interdisciplinary work between architecture and parallel research fields. The product of the collaboration is a system that can aid in the production of terrain models that, in our case, are particularly important as the base for a city model (Brown et.al, 2005).
Chen, Chun-Cheng, and Teng-Wen Chang. "Ezperiencing the contextual environment with sketch media." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 577-579. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Contextual information, as we believe, is significant for its surrounding environment. It is difficult for designers to capture the exact ambient of the site, even they have inspected several times or done the relevant sketches of the site. The reason of not being able to picture the complete contextual information of the site is because most people seem to have the disadvantages of short term memory. Therefore, sensing the contextual information of the surrounding environment while designers are in workplace is helpful in terms of creating design ideas.
Chang, Wei-Tsang, and Teng-Wen Chang. "Folding space with time-based operations." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 569-571. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Folding is not only a design operation of shaping but also a philosophy theory from Deleuze (Deleuze 1988) which was adopted by architecture. Basically, folding constitutes to forming and topology, which often delivered a mathematical and philosophical expression in generating 3D architectural form. For instance, the work of Eisenman (Eisenman 2003), Libeskind and Lynn (Lynn 1998), they use folding as inspiration to explore the textural folding and bifurcation meaning in the process of form-making. While exploring the meaning of folding, their ideas are expressed by the form using computational tools. Therefore, if a suitable or inspirable tool like our Folding Space (FoS) could be available, such action -fold can be expressed further in the form exploration process.
Yeh, Yu-Nan. "Freedom of form: the oriental callgraphy and aesthetics in digital fabrication." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 589-591. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) / Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) related research has been discussed since the 1960's (Ryder, G. et al, 2002, Mark Burry, 2002). Indeed, both Frank O. Gehry and Toyo Ito utilized CAD/CAM to create rich architectural form and in so doing gave birth to a new type of aesthetics. The visualization and liberalization of form space is the single most important characteristic attributable to the use of computers as a design tool. By the 1980's, Laser cutting and Rapid Prototyping techniques developed from CAM, became important new digital tools when researchers and designers discussed the development of form in architecture.  
Mitchell, William. "From sketchpad to city of bits: a Story of Shifting Intentions." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 5-Jan. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. By my count this year marks the fiftieth birthday of the field of computer-aided design. It is, therefore, an appropriate moment to look back on how the field has developed in its first half century and then to consider what we might expect in the coming decades - the decades that will see the continued development of what I have called the City of Bits. The story is, as we shall see, one of shifting intentions, at each stage in the evolution of computer-aided design, the technology has found niches in practice determined both by its capabilities at that particular historical moment and by prevailing economic and cultural imperatives.
Hofmeyer, Herm, and Jan Kerstens. "FULL 3D STRUCTURAL ZONING OF SPACE: Using a Geometrically Related Reducer and Matrix Coupling." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 161-168. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Structural zoning is the recognition of forms in spatial designs. It can be used by a structural designer to develop a structural system. This paper will start with the presentation of a proof that neither user action nor a two-dimensional approach -two existing approaches of zoning- are able to recognize all possibilities for the application of a structural design to a spatial design. Only full three-dimensional structural zoning is considered to be an appropriate instrument to give useful solutions. Two new concepts will be presented to overcome problems for three-dimensional zoning: (1) Geometrically Related Reducers and (2) Matrix Coupling. These concepts are first defined in a general form and thereafter the definitions are condensed into a practically applicable format. Both concepts are demonstrated when finding rectangular zones in spatial designs up to 44 separate spatial entities. They are programmed procedurally using the C++ computer language and are used for a comparison between structural designers and computer performance.
Chen, Hong-Sheng, and Yu-Shu Chen. "Generating virtual landscapes by detecting human-environment interaction: for Assisting Disabled Passengers at Airports." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 425-431. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. The goal of this research is to explore a potential application of human-environment interaction at international airports. It is a system for generating delightful interior virtual landscape from the sensors, which are sensitive to the passengers various movements. For the disabled passengers, this research analyses how to assist them for visual relaxing and entertainment.
Kitchley, Jinu Louishidha. "Generative evolutionary design and evaluation of cluster settlement patterns." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 637-639. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. This project proposes a generative model for a layout of an organic settlement, in particular fishermenis settlements. It attempts to harness and integrate some of the qualities of organic design process into computer-aided design, capture the complexities of an organic solution and apply it to the housing design decisions. The two complementary fields of Shape Grammar and Generative Evolutionary Design have been converged for this purpose. Shape Grammar is used to extract the style and aspects of organically evolved fishermanis housing settlement. Generative Evolutionary Design which uses genetic algorithms as a search mechanism is used to explore alternatives and to evaluate the generated design for its functional and usability values and identify the fitter solutions.
Chiu, Mao-Lin, Binsu Chiang, Guan-Cheng Lee, and Hanyun Tseng. "HOUSE SENSE: Designing smart houses with intelligent interface design." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 313-322. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. The research and development of smart houses are emergent because of the information and communication technological development and the search for better living quality from occupants. This paper therefore explores how smart technologies are applied into smart houses within the living context. Through a pilot study of cases and technological innovations to address the new living context by technology-interface-design strategies, a development framework of smart house is formed by three major elements, i.e. smart materials, technologies, and design. In order to actualize house senses, the prototype for smart houses is evolved. When space and wireless smart components are integrated, the living environment becomes more flexible and adaptable to accommodate or support activities digitally, and users can interact with space via context aware computing for acquiring and assimilating information in order to enhance their living experience.
Onishi, Yasunobu, Mitsuo Morozumi, Riken Homma, and Yuji Murakami. "Image data archive system for reference materials in architectural design education." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 537-539. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. In architectural design education, timely referencing visual materials is important for stimulating studentsi imaginations and design activities. In a lecture or design studio, teaching staff generally present various materials to students, such as photographs of cityscapes and architecture, environmental design handbooks, sketches drawn by famous architects or past works from the design studio. Most laboratories are filled with reference materials such as numerous photographic papers, books, drawing papers or colour slides. Because of the spread of digital cameras or scanners, the storage space required for reference materials has recently begun to decrease. However, the hard drives on the PCs used by each member of the teaching staff have generally been filled with huge amounts of image data files instead. With the increase in the volume of image data, handling such huge amounts of image data has generated the following problems.  
Hamid, Bauni, Yehuda Kalay, Yongwook Jeong, and Emelie Cheng. "Investigating the role of social aspects in collaborative design." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 91-100. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. This paper basically describes part of our current research on the role of social aspects in collaborative design. Most part of this research, up until this stage, is theoretical research, which is our attempt to imply theories in social psychology in collaborative design. In order to step further towards empirical research we needs tool for the investigation. Discussion on this paper is built upon our attempt to develop this tool. Considering this context the discussion can be observed into two sections. First part is basically summary of our theoretical research to this point. Based on these theoretical backgrounds we discuss our research on defining and developing the tool in the second part. The tool is basically a prototype of design process representation system which is expected to be used as our tool for next stages of this research, investigating the role of social aspect in the real practice of collaborative design.
Kaga, Atsuko, Atsushi Miyagawa, Masahiro Kawaguchi, Wookhyun Yeo, and Tomohiro Fukuda. "Landscape evaluation sysyem using a 3D space model and a cellular phone with gps camera." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 503-512. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. In recent years there has been a demand that local residents take part in the planning of environmental designs from the initial stages. On the issue of understanding the local environment, it is desirable to accumulate and share information and to enable it to be reused. To this end, attention has been focused on the cellular phone which can provide position information and picture information in addition to serving as a tool of general communication. For several years now it has been increasingly common for cellular phones to be equipped with an E-mail function, a web browsing function, a camera function, a GPS function, etc. Using such cellular phones, it will become possible to quickly accumulate local information with detailed picture information and position information. On the other hand, it is desirable to look at and understand an environment interactively from various points of view from the initial stage of a project. For that purpose, examination using 3D space which makes real-time simulation possible is required. In this research, using a cellular phone with a GPS camera, scene image data is collected with the aim of constructing a local scene evaluation system which can perform a picture display using a 3D space model.
Erhan, Halil. "Learning fron masters: academic apprenticeship model for computational design education." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 53-61. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Education is taking a new shape for the emerging needs of society. A considerable number of schools and disciplines are adapting active and cooperative learning to foster critical thinking and cognitive skill gaining. Design computation discipline also has to search for new models in education and experiment with these to evolve. This paper presents the current status in other disciplines. The lessons learned are used to develop the Academic Apprenticeship Model for teaching design computation courses.
Homma, Riken, Mitsuo Morozumi, K. Iki, and Y. Deguchi. "Map-Based bulletin board system for the architectural design studio." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 63-69. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. This paper discusses the development of a Web-based mapping system (MapBBS) to support the discussion of field surveys in an architectural design studio. It supports a hierarchical discussion of student groups according to the scale of the map.
Huang, Joseph Chuen- Huei, Robert Krawczyk, and George Schipporeit. "Mass customizing prefabricated modular housing by internet-aided design." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 203-208. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. By collecting and evaluating clientis requirements with web technology, a methodology can be developed that can generate design options based on the clientis needs and available modular components in the market, and simulate the final design before beginning manufacturing. In this proposed model, a process of providing mass-customized prefabricated housing based on computer-aided design and a web-based product configuration system will be presented. How prefabricated housing design can be evolved from a mass repetitive production level to a mass customization level to meet variability and personality is the primary issue to be explored in this research. 
Balakrishnan, Bimal, Loukas Kalisperis, Katsuhiko Muramoto, and George Otto. "Multimodal virtual reality environment for architectural design (re)representation." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 513-519. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. The diversity of representations and the complexity of capturing and communicating the design process and its rationale present a challenge to architects. This paper proposes a multimodal virtual reality environment (MVE) aimed at utilizing the inherent advantages of distinct media, as opposed to a stand-alone virtual reality environment. Virtual reality is seen here as one of the tools in the larger milieu of interactive multimedia tools available to architects. The theoretical framework underlying its development explores the role of digital tools in the design process, their adaptability to existing workflow and issues of representation and perception, especially how design ideas are represented, evaluated and manipulated in the mind. The development of MVE followed a cycle of design, usability studies by a focus group and redesign.
Haase, Matthias, and Alex Amato. "ND modelling for sustainable envelopes: the sustainable dimensions of envelope design." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 269-276. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Sustainable development issues are currently the driving forces in many building projects. The building envelope is critical for the architectural expression as well as large parts of the environmental performance. This study tries to investigate the advantages of multidimensional computer aided modelling and simulation for a sustainable facade design approach. A first step towards nD modelling for sustainable design is to establish a list of parameter which are used as design criteria: Environmental performance, thermal visual and acoustic comfort. Computer simulation and analysis of different building elements can help to determine the performance according to a set of design parameter. Environmental impacts due to energy consumption are an important parameter but it is believed that comfort criteria need also to be accounted for.
Lim, Chor-Kheng, Ching-Shun Tang, Wei-Yen Hsao, June-Hao Hou, and Yu-Tung Liu. "NEW MEDIA IN DIGITAL DESIGN PROCESS: Towards a standardize procedure of CAD/CAM fabrication." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 597-599. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. In 1990, due to the traditional architecture design and construction method difficult to build the complicated and non-geometry free-form Fish Structure in Barcelona, architect Frank Gehry started learn from the field of aerospace to utilize CAD/CAM technology in design and manufacture process. He created the free-form fish model in CAD system and exported the digital CAD model data to CAM machine (RP and CNC) to fabricate the design components, and finally assembled on the site. Gehry pioneered in the new digital design process in using CAD/CAM technology or so-called digital fabrication. It becomes an important issue recently as the CAD/CAM technology progressively act as the new digital design media in architectural design and construction process (Ryder et al., 2002, Kolarevic, 2003). Furthermore, in the field of architecture professional, some commercial computer systems had been developed on purpose of standardizes the digital design process in using CAD/CAM fabrication such as Gehry Technologies formed by Gehry Partners, SmartGeometry Group in Europe and Objectile proposed by Bernard Cache. Researchers in the research field like Mark Burry, Larry Sass, Branko Kolarevic, Schodek and others are enthusiastic about the exploration of the role of CAD/CAM fabrication as new design media in design process (Burry, 2002, Schodek et al., 2005, Lee, 2005).
Sato, R., Wookhyun Yeo, Atsuko Kaga, and M. Oyama. "New methods for urban design and architecture using the VR technique and analysis of the psychological influence." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 495-501. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Urban plan and architecture require the use of VR systems. We adapted the buildings into a VR system, and then performed a virtual realization in the worldis largest dome at Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd. Walking or flying through life-size space was enabled. We viewed the planned future scenes that featured real size, space composition, and a simulated environment. The construction, the materials and colors of the building were examined. In addition, VR system on PC was applied to city planning and architectural design and a number of novel functions were added to the VR system by plug-in, which assisted and facilitated the design process. The stereoscopic thinking mode in 3-D space can inspire and comprehend more directly the ideas of design, and confirm the intended effects. We accordingly carried out a further study on users operating the VR system to investigate their responses of “like” or “dislike” towards the real time adjustments of design effect at identical viewpoints. Fractals analysis was conducted to demonstrate physically the influence of real time 3-dimentional design and presentation on the psychological trends of subjective judgment. Our findings pave the way for future research on monitoring psychological impacts on observers of VR system during design process.
Ufnalska, Zuzanna. "On the origins of fold in three projects by toyo ito: Fold as generative method of new continuity." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 529-536. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. The change of design methods by Toyo Ito in the course of 90's is investigated toward genesis of fold. The origins of fold are outlined by analysis of 3 projects for cultural centers, in terms of mass-, space- and surface-elements, and relations of separation, fusion and difference between them. The fold as a result of consequent evolution of those relations is argued to be primarily a generative method, which is capable to include difference within continuity.
Bhatt, Anand, and Bob Martens. "On-To-CAAD: Investigating the Knowledge Contained within the Corpus of CAAD Research." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 413-424. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006.

The work presented here discusses an ongoing research in constructing a knowledge representation system founded on CAAD document repositories and investigating the network of concepts constructed by CAAD research. The approach does not rely on conceptual models or theories about CAAD research, rather a formal semantics amenable to decidable reasoning on the corpus of research in CAAD. A web-based demonstration application is illustrated in the paper in which we discuss two propositions about CAAD research discovered in the process of our investigations.

Woodbury, Robert F., S Williamson, and P Beesley. "Parametric Modeling as a Design Representation in Architecture: a process account." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006.

Disciplines outside of engineering, for instance, architecture, are adopting parametric modelling as a design representation. This paper reports on three aspects of the adoption process, which is largely being conducted through multi-day workshops outside of formal university course settings. Fist, the structure and process of such workshops may be a model for interdisciplinary learning and university-industry liaison. Second, students learning parametric modelling must master skill different from that required for non-parametric representation. Third, the parametric modelling strategies being developed in architecture may have both similarities and differences to those used in engineering.

Murakami, Yuji, Mitsuo Morozumi, Riken Homna, and Nobuyasu Onishi. "Presentation tools on the web-based communication system." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 549-551. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. With the development of network communication technology in recent years, there have been many successful examples of architectural design education using the Web based support system. Authors have developed the information exchange and sharing system, and make an improvement on it through the collaborative design studio. This paper describes the new function for collaborative design team.  
Chiang, Binsu, and Mao-Lin Chiu. "PRIVATE/UN-PRIVATE SPACE: Scenario-based Digital Design for Enhancing User Awareness ." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 601-603. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Context awareness is important for human senses of places as well as human computer interaction. The aim of this research paper is focusing on controlling the user's privacy in a smart space which is adaptive to different users for enhancing the user's awareness in his diary life. In Environmental Psychology, the definition of privacy is that an individual has the control of deciding what information of himself is released to others, and under how he interact with others. (Westin 1970) And privacy is categorized as the linguistic privacy and visual privacy. (Sundstorm 1986). Solutions for privacy control: Plan Layout, Vision Boundary, Access Control and Architecture Metaphor - the transmission of information is not ascertainable for every single user. Although information are shown in public, but information is implied by cues and symbols. Only a certain user or a group of users have access to the full context of information. The methodology is to form an analytic framework to study the relationship between information, user and activities by using the computational supports derived from KitchenSense, ConceptNet, Python, 3d Studio Max and Flash, and to record patterns built up by users'behaviour and actions. Furthermore, the scenario-based simulation can envision the real world conditions by adding interfaces for enhancing user awareness.
Tsou, Jin-Yeu, Jie He, and Yucai Xue. "Remote sensing applications in multidisciplinary urban planning: a Case Study of Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 461-470. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. This paper introduces a methodology of integrating remote sensing environmental investigations in urban greenery and urban heat island effect. It provides scientific planning supporting information through both qualitative and quantitative approaches. A case study demonstrates the implementation in a multidiscipline planning practice.
Lee, Gui-Hyun, Eun-Joo Sin, So-Young Kim, Sung Woo, and Soon-Bum Lim. "Representation technique for structure and procecss of 3D construction model." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 593-595. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. With the recent developments in computer technology studies on how to digitally restore traditional buildings to their original state are being pursued. It is highly important that the public can be educated by digitally restoring these buildings online and/or offline. However, it is necessary to develop several techniques to understand a structural order and construction process in traditional buildings. We propose new techniques that we can better understand them and fit them into society in the education and the publicity.
Dank, Richard, and Andreas Gruber. "RYUGYONG.ORG: Other Levels to the Ryugyong Hotel: an idea on architecture and geopolitics." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 605-607. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. The prestigious international monthly architecture periodical Domus opens its June 2005 issue with the lines: “A ruin of the future? The 330-metre-tall skeleton of an unfinished hotel towers like a concrete pyramid over North Korea's capital, Pyongyang.” The magazine's call “to transform the Ryugyong Hotel into a worldwide antenna for ideas” (Boeri et al. 2005, cover) was a pronunciamento we could not resist.
Lai, Cheng, Ju-Hung Lan, and Mao-Lin Chiu. "SPACE TAGS: a Digital Guide to the Cultural District of Anping." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 341-348. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Cities are filled with rich resources of fantasy and memories about the urban activities. Urban narrative is not only a way of storytelling but also a way to depict the contents of a story about the city. This paper depicts how a digital guide can be implemented in regarding with urban narratives by applying web-based and mobile technologies to navigate a cultural district and recall the experience. In this paper, we are concerned how to provide a digital platform for tourists to get related information in a cultural district during their visiting. A space tag approach is proposed to and system prototype is implemented for demonstration and discussion.
Mandour, Mohamed. "SPATIALITY AND VIRTUALITY: "Perception Virtual Urban Environments"." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 397-404. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. This paper explores how the notions of SPATIALITY `public spacei can inform the debate over VIRTUALITY “electronic mediai. It examines the metaphorical adoption of urban models to look at electronic sociality and suggests approaches: suburbanized telecities, communitarian visions and accounts that appeal to a renewed public sphere. However, instead of trying to shift these metaphors by contrasting them to a purported real world, the paper examines how they shape an electronic architecture. In this sense, the `reali city is the indefinable complexity and folding of spaces-lying outside the visualizations offered of cyberspace.
Keatruangkamala, K, and P Nilkaew. "Strong valid inequality constraints for architectural layout design optimization." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 179-185. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. In the past decades, many attempts have been made to solve the challenging architectural layout design problem such as non-linear programming and evolutionary algorithm (Michalek and Papalambros, 2002). The Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) (Kamol and Krung, 2005) was recently developed to find the global optimal solution. However, the problem can be shown to belong to the class of NP-hard problem (Michalek and Papalambros, 2002). Hence, only the small instances of the problem can be solved in a reasonable time. In order to deal with large problem sizes, this paper utilizes the strong valid inequalities (George and Laurence). It cut off the infeasible points in the integral search space by formulated the disconnected constraints involved with line configurations of three rooms. It is shown to significantly increase the computational speed to more than thirty percents. This exhibits the practical use of the MIP formulation to solve the medium size architectural layout design problems.
Yeo, Wookhyun, Tomohiro Fukuda, Atsuko Kaga, and Sooyeon Oh. "Study of making network typed real-time simulation using database." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 609-611. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Environmental design has explained the content of plan to the expert or non-professional people thru computer graphics to make them understand it easily from old times. In the mean time, participation of local residents for the environmental design field has been raised. Many people have a tendency to participate local development plan for their residential area. Thus, real-time simulation has recently used in many places in order to correspond with the request of residents in residential public forum. However, this real-time simulation has been only targeted on participants in particular place such as residential public forum.
Maher, Mary Lou, Zafer Bilda, Leman Gil, and David Marchant. "Studying collaborative design in face to face, remote sketching, and 3D virtual world envirenments." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 553-555. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. The impact of collaborative design in virtual environments on the behaviour of designers depends on the nature of the design task and the resources available to the designers. By introducing new technology, we can identify the kinds of positive impacts that should be integrated, and the kinds of negative impacts that should be eliminated, in order to improve the collaborative design environment. We studied designers collaborating in three environments: (1) face-to-face with their current design and communication tools (pen and paper), (2) a shared remote drawing system (Group Board) with synchronous voice and video conference and (3) a 3D virtual world with synchronous voice and video conference. Collaborative design sessions of 5 architect pairs were video recorded. They respectively worked on separate design briefs in the three different design settings. Protocol analysis was used to study and compare collaborative design behaviour.
Matsumoto, Yuji, Michitaka Kiriki, Ryusuhe Naka, and Shigeyuki Yamaguchi. "Supporting process guidance for collaborative design learning on the web:_Development of “Plan-Do-See cycle” based Design Pinup Board." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 71-80. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. This paper proposes the collaborative design education program on the web, based on “Plan-Do-See cycle” process model and develops the special Design Pinup Board system for running it. This program focuses on very limited environment, distributed collaboration beginners, asynchronous, first meeting, plural teams. The authors applied it to DCW2005 project and evaluated its effect from some questionnaire survey and fundamental analysis of logged data.
Tang, Wen-Yen, and Sheng-Kai Tang. "The development of a tactile modeling interface." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 573-575. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Recently, more and more researchers dedicated in the development of human computer interaction for CAD systems, such as gestural input of three dimensional coordinates (Lee, Hu, and Selker, 2005), flexible manipulation of NURBS objects (Cohen, Markosian, Zeleznik, Hughes, and Barzel, 1999, Emmerik, 1990), and the creation of force feedback (Wu, 2003). These research results indicated that the more intuitive control the device can provide in modelling process, the more creative solutions can be generated (Lee, Hu, and Selker, 2005, Schweikardt and Gross, 2000, Wu, 2003).  
Manessatid, Preecha, and Peter Szalapaj. "The development of an integrated environmental building design tool." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 557-559. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Environmental design implementations are generally applied within limited and specialised areas of environmental design making them difficult to use intuitively by designers (Maneesatid and Szalapaj, 2003). Building simulations have mostly focused on accurate parameters and physical properties of building elements. Such tools typically require numerous numerical data which is often only accurately known in the detail design stages. Conventional environmental building design systems (EBS) have typically required highly experienced users who are familiar with extensive qualitative input and output requirements. A successful architectural design solution that is both energy efficient and environmentally friendly, cannot be obtained simply by additively combining a set of discrete specialist analyses. A move towards better architectural design with environmental considerations can be achieved by allowing designers themselves to express relationships between salient environmental parameters that can subsequently be analysed in integrated ways. This presentation is concerned with the issues involved in developing a quick and intuitive interface for expression of relationships between environmental parameters.
Maher, Mary Lou, and Mijeong Kim. "The effects of tangible user interfaces on deisgners cognitive actions." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 119-124. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. This paper presents a study of the comparison of tangible user interfaces and graphical user interfaces on designersi cognitive actions. We conducted individual design experiments using the protocol analysis method. The results reveal that designers using the tabletop system with 3D blocks reasoned more about spatial relationships among 3D objects, while the designers using the keyboard and mouse reasoned more about individual 3D objects.  
Liu, Wan-Yu. "The emerging digital style: Attention shift in architectural style recognition." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 633-635. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Style'has long been an important index to observe the design thinking of designers in architecture. Gombrich (1968) defined style as a particular selection from the alternatives when doing things, Ackerman (1963) considered that a distiguishable ensemble of certain characteristics we call a style, Schapiro (1961) pointed out that style is constant forms, and sometimes the constant elements, qualities and expression, Kirsch (1998), Cha and Gero (1999) thought of style as a form element and shape pattern. As Simon and others referred to, style emerged from the process of problem solving, Chan (1994, 2001) ever devised a serious of experiments to set up the operational definitions of style, further five factors that relate to generating styles. Owing to that the greater part of sketches and drawings in the design process couldnit be replaced by computer-aided design systems (Eisentraut, 1997), designers must shift between different problem-solving methods while facing different design problems. The purpose in this research is to discuss the influences of computer usage on style generation and style recognition: The employment of certain procedural factors that occurred in the design processes that using conventional media is different from the ones that using computer media? Do personal styles emerge while designers shifting between different media in the design processes? Does any unusual phenomenon emerge while accustomed CAD-systems designers recognizing a style?
Botha, Marcel, and Lawrence Sass. "THE INSTANT HOUSE: Design and digital fabrication of housing for developing environments." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 209-216. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Through a novel method, it is possible to provide mass customized, designed housing to emergency and poverty stricken locations. A definitive need exists for a system that is rapidly deployable and scalable while fostering individuality within the larger rebuilt community. This paper describes the relationship of digital fabrication to materials and design rules by example. The paper ends with different iterations of the Instant house and an explanation of its construction method and execution.
Elger, Dietrich, Andreas Dieckmann, Peter Russell, and Thomas Stachelhaus. "The integrated design studio: a view behind the scenes:Liquid Campus 3." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 545-548. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Over 10 months ending in July 2005, architecture students from Aachen, Karlsruhe and Weimar took part in a design studio that differed significantly from other studios in that the result of the studio was a 1:1 realisation of the design. This is part of an evolution of the virtual faculty of architecture “Liquid Campus”,  founded in 2001, which has seen the complexity of the projects steadily rise and this continued in the Project “Ein Fest: Ein Dach”. The integrated studio is arranged to encourage an active, economic and transparent learning process, which encompasses design, communication and cooperation issues. The stated goal at the beginning of the two-semester process is to build and although only a few of the ideas are realised, all participants are involved in the realisation. In this case, the project was to create “roofs” for an open-air concert for 200,000 people in Karlsruhe, Germany. The planning was carried out using the Netzentwurf platform, with which the authors have several years experience.  
Chiu, Mao-Lin. "The jump of digital design thinking: Overviews of Digital Architectural Design Education." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 27-36. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Architecture design education is evolved in respond to the emergence of information technologies as well as globalization. In the new era, digital design education is becoming a design platform to integrate technology and design. This paper aims to provide overviews of digital architectural design education. Therefore, this paper proposes a framework to examine the focus of digital design education and the relationship among (1) design contents, (2) digital technologies and tools, and (3) design theory and methodologies in digital design studios. The attempts in National Cheng Kung University in the past 10 years provide the foundation for observation and discussion. The pedagogy and approaches are examined, and the trend and potential directions are reported.
Matsushima, Shiro. "The minimum threshold of information technology skills in architectural design practice: Empirical IT Benchmarks for Architectural Design Practice and Education." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 143-150. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. This paper describes what information technology skills are required in current architectural design practice. With the integration of new information technology, the new horizon of design practice offers opportunities for global, interdisciplinary work as well as new interpretations of the design and construction processes. In this context, some benchmarks of information technology literacy for practitioners and educators are defined through case study.
Liu, Yu-Lu. "The more physical network space: a preliminary experiment in VR-Cave." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 621-623. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. For now, the written word is still the most efficient communication method in network space (Anders, 1998). When designing a network space, it is necessary to let users know the concept of the space. Some researchers imitated physical space and brought a similar spatial experience into network space. The design of network space may be based on existing space in the real world. The rules of construction in physical space and network space are the same (Donath, 1997, Dyson, 1998). Consequently, the best way to explore network space is to imitate physical space (Mitchell, 1995, 1999a).
Liang, Chi-Hsin, and Teng-Wen Chang. "Toward a playful design environment - digame." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 187-196. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Computer game has the potential that helps us to realize the design. However, these particularities still has not been found and organized under the circumstance of combining computer game and designing process. We will develop from the point of the computing that discuss how to use game elements to create a suitable digital design environment. Therefore, the problem is how to let a designing process as a game playing? And the objective is providing a prototype for playful design environment called DiGame (Design in Game) for discovering the game issues within the design. The implementation of DiGame is described in details.
Watanabe, Shun. "Toward the interdependental spatial analysis and design education." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 541-543. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Now, GIS stands for not only capitals of Geographical Information Systems as computer application software but also implication of Geographical Information Science. This new territory, so called GIScience, is related to physical and human geography, cartography, topography, architecture and urban planning, civil and social engineering, landscape and environmental ecology, spatial econometrics, socioeconomics, sociology, statistics, operations research, information and cognitive science, etc., and there is a real need for reinforcement of the mutual cooperation. But we still remain in a situation of highlighting the utility of GIS as tools in individual research fields, and lack comprehensive perspective of their organic linkage.  
Lim, Chor-Kheng. "Towards a framework for digital design process: in terms of CAD/CAM fabrication." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 245-252. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. This research aims to understand deeply the unique features of the CAD/CAM media tools and their applications, and come up with an initial framework of architectural design and construction process involving the use of CAD/CAM fabrication aids.
Chen, Chiung-Hui, and Mao-Lin Chiu. "Towards a web-based urban street simulator for pedestrian behaviors study with agent-based interfaces." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 295-302. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. The urban planning has largely placed the street users at the centre of infrastructural design, with significant implications for the perceived attractiveness of user environments. The urban designers faced with the task of designing such spaces and needs a tool that will allow different designs to be compared in terms of their attractiveness as well as their effectiveness. Therefore, this paper depicts an agent interface approach for creating a street simulator of user behaviours in urban street environments. We implemented the agent interface as individual-based simulation in the proposed project called “SCALE” (A Street Case Library for Environmental design). The project is demonstrated to find out differences between the simulation and the existed environment. The methodology and findings are reported.
Yoon, So-Yeon. "USABILITY IN CONTEXT: a Framework for Analyzing the Impact of Virtual Reality in Design Evaluation Context." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 371-377. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Previous research has established virtual reality provides users with unique experience. However, litter is known how users interact with virtual reality enabled interfaces differently from other conventional interfaces and how user-system interaction with virtual reality contributes to usability. This paper proposes a theoretical frame work to better understand the usability and user experience of a virtual reality enabled interface from an integrated view of information science and human-computer interaction. Based on the framework, an experimental case study was conducted. The context was taken from an Internet based virtual reality system where viewers are asked to evaluate design of furniture. In this paper, an overview of the research method and analysis is presented. 
Wan, Ph., D. Holstius, J. Kembel, A. Hurst, and J. Forlizzi. "User awareness and user behavior in a shared space: Using plant as the information display." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 349-354. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. People are aware of objects in physical spaces to which they may act responsively. We are interested in human behavioural changes in the presence of reactive displays in shared environments. In a limited 2-week field study, using plants (both natural and artificial) as reactive displays, we observed human trash disposal/recycling behaviour. We found that there is a significant increase in recycling (p=0.08) when there are reactive display with natural plants. We also noticed increase in recycling with displays with artificial plants. These findings suggest that people can and do alter their behaviour in shared environments, and that such behavioural changes can be effected by the use of reactive/responsive information displays.
Harrison, David, and Michael Donn. "Using web 2.0 technologies to preserve design history and improve collaboration." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 111-117. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. This paper describes ongoing research into how emerging Internet concepts used in conjunction with existing Information Technologies (IT) can improve inter-project communication and understanding. The emphasis of the research is to use technology as an enabler to share personal thoughts and enhance the conversation that takes place within a development team. It stems from the observation that the emphasis of many new Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) technologies is to minimise and diffuse project conversation with highly complex, machine interpretable building information models.Project teams are usually brought together for a relatively short but intense period of time. Following project completion these unique teams are dissolved just as quickly and often are never formed again. As a consequence it is difficult to justify the investment in time and resources required to implement complex IT-based collaboration solutions. A further barrier to adoption is the differential application of IT skills across the AEC industry. Therefore in order for a new technology to gain broad acceptance and be most beneficial it must be applicable to the broadest audience with the minimum investment required from all parties. The primary objective of this research is to preserve the rich design history of a project from conception to completion. Submitted information can be intelligently searched using the meta-data sourced from syndicated data feeds about team members, project timelines, work diaries and email communication. Once indexed users can tag documents and messages in order to provide a further, far richer layer of meta-data to assist in searching, identification of issues and semantic clarification. This strategy of defining AEC semantics through social interaction differs greatly from that of more complex, computer interpretable solutions such as Industry Foundation Classes. Rather than abstracting information to suit a generic yet highly intelligent building model, the emphasis is on preserving the participantis own thoughts and conversation about decisions and issues in order to create a forum for intelligent conversation as the design evolves.
Ambrose, Michael. "Verticality and horizontality. from the pantheon to the playstation, spatial experience and the human body in architecture." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 629-631. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. This research seeks to question the assumed relationship between perspectival projection and architecture as means of investigation, representation and ultimately re-presentation of architectural idea and spatial experience. Spatial experience is primarily a product of corporeal sensation. The human body, as the site of experience reveals a conceptual contradiction between our innate senses and learned perceptions (Gibson, 1966). Verticality and horizontality are abstract conceptual and perceptual constructs used simultaneously in human sensory systems to locate one in space and time. The spatial experience as generated from, and translated by, the human body through visual sensory perception is the focus of the work that looks at first, second and third person spatial experience in architecture and architectural representation. As society continues on the path of further cybernetic extension of the bodyis sense-image, the context and spatial/visual literacy of the “learned” sense of space-time will continue to evolve, transform and alter as cultures stretch to engage both edges of the physical and virtual worlds. Vitruvius articulated the human experience (and the subsequent expression of architecture) as inherently a vertical one.
Palmon, O, M Sahar, L.P. Wiess, and Robert Oxman. "Virtual Environments for the evaluation of human performance: Towards Virtual Occupancy Evaluation in Designed Environments (VOE)." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 521-528. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. Analyzing and evaluating designs for modifications to suit the requirements of human performance is typically performed only after the architectural spaces and structures have been built and used, a process that is known as retrofit or post-occupancy evaluation. For people with disabilities, there is a special need to overcome this problem by evaluating the suitability of their home environments before the construction phase. Our work introduces a new methodology in which virtual reality (VR) is used for virtual pre-occupancy environmental evaluation (VOE). Our study demonstrates the potential of the VOE concept by developing an interactive living environments model to evaluate human performance before the construction phase. This paper presents an interactive virtual environment, “HabiTesti, as well as the initial results of a usability evaluation of this interactive environment.
Kós, José Ripper, and Jose Barki. "Visualizing architectural theory: a case-study on digital representation." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 405-411. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. This paper aims to analyze interactive multimedia and visualization techniques for architectural theory publications. Unfortunately, the available literature about multimedia, visualization, hypertext and related systems in this area is not consistent. The paper reviews the features of a research project outcome, which investigates an iconic building of the late 1930's in Brazil. It examines the differences and similarities between a hypertext/multimedia system - a CD-ROM - with a comparable non-hypertext or non-computer product - a book - that deals with a specific subject: Architectural Theory.
Takase, Y., K. Yano, T. Nakaya, Y. Isoda, T. Kawasumi, N. Kawahara, S. Tanaka, M. Inoue, A. Tsukamoto, T. Kirimura et al. "VR and WEB3D-GIS Applications using 3D city models." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 471-477. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. For the recent years the authors have developed techniques for automatic generation of 3D city models using LIDAR data, 2D digital map and aerial photograph, as well as a virtual reality (VR) viewer software with high-speed graphic engine which can deal with a large area of 3D city models on VR. The authors also have developed Web3D-GIS system which can provide transmission and reception of a great amount of urban information with interactive manipulation of detailed 3D city models linked with geographic information systems (GIS), on ordinary internet infrastructure such as DSL. Using those techniques and systems the authors have been conducting a research project called “Kyoto Virtual Time-Space” which aims at reconstruction and visualization of Kyoto at different eras on VR and on the internet, starting from the present and finally up to Heian era. 
Rigemer, Jörg. "Web based design and communication pedagogy: Group pedagogy and the implementation of web-based technologies within the design process." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 81-90. CAADRIA. Kumamoto, Japan: School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Kumamoto University, 2006. The success of the international Zollhof project in Düsseldorf, Germany, in which virtual communication played a crucial role, was the catalyst for introducing interdisciplinary digital methods in the field of teaching. The firm of Frank O. Gehry and Associates, Santa Monica, California, served as an initial field of experimentation in order to bring together a heterogeneous group of project partners to participate in the design and construction phases of the Zollhof project. The design development, construction document, and construction phase was considerably enhanced by the employment of digital media as a communication and information tool. Parallel to the design process in the office in Santa Monica, a line of information flow and management had to be established to connect the local design team with consultants that were located in Europe and specifically in Germany. This line of communication required the team to send precise descriptions of project steps to the participants abroad, as well as receiving and processing a flow of responses returning to the Santa Monica office in very short intervals. By advancing and documenting each design and development step, the project progression was clearly documented by the project teams and thus understandable to everybody involved. The process demanded a highly articulated project description in text and images that were refined and exchanged daily. This helped to strengthen the cooperation between the design team and the project consultants and started to dissolve the role of the prime architect or designer toward a more team-related and democratic structure. All participants had quick access to all necessary information, which set aside the vertical hierarchy in favor of transparent communication tools and platforms.