Keywords Abstract
Schnabel, Marc Aurel, Steve Kuan, and Weidong Li. "3D Transformations - 3D Scanning, Digital Modelling, Rapid Prototyping and Physical Depiction." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 227-238. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. We investigate the creation and reinterpretation of an architectural design process using a variety of digital and physical media. We study how tools for design influence perception, comprehension and creation of spatial volumes within both Virtual Environments (VE) and physical realms. We explain how designers translate spatial volumes and communicate architectural design ideas by using VE and conventional models. In a series of reinterpretation of architectural meanings we examine the translation of threedimensional design from virtual to tangible depictions and vice versa. We conduct a design-studio in order to explore issues of quality, understanding, communication and building of architectural compositions. VE can be an environment for design distinguishable and facilitating reality. We test this statement by interchanging both realms to that extent that the boundaries of each one are nearly dismantled. Virtuality and reality are both used in alternative formand design-finding exercises in order to gain an overall conclusive design.  
Huang, Shu-Hui, Teng-Wen Chang, and Chung-Jen Kuo. "A data model for representing chinese garden." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 347-362. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. There are many discussions about spatial consensus or  further to “reusei the design of Chinese Garden in the modern context.  For addressing this question, we need to be able to represent the  spatial elements of Chinese Garden digitally. However, only few  researches in computational design field start to tackle the problem.  Furthermore, most of literatures we found are basically the description  of abstract or sometime vague concepts. The scope of this research ? spatial composition, an efficient description of spatial elements of  Chinese Garden in literatures and their relations will be the goal of this  research. In this research, we analyze on spatial elements and  characteristics of Lin Family Compound to create a suitable database  that can offer further researches. For organizing the information we  collect, we propose a system called DiGE using the EntityRelationship Data Model. In addition, we will use natural language  processing to deal with the unclear data of words depiction.   
Choi, Hyun-Ah, and Han-Jong Jun. "A Fundamental Study on Analysis of Interaction by Sketches and Acts of Creative Design in Architectural Design Process - Focusing on Emergent Shapes." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 133-144. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. One of the characteristics of design process in the area of architectural design is the use of a number of different types of sketches. Designers place a great deal of emphasis on sketches often because it is thought to be associated with innovation and creativity. The emphasis has come to drive researchers to increasingly focus on sketch and its role in designing. Firstly, this paper is to review closely related researches that have looked at the role of sketches in design process. And then, this study is to review analogy and emergence that can be effective in facilitating creative design. Mutational emergent shapes are introduced in the last stage.  
Lan, Ju-Hung. "A Preliminary Study of Knowledge Management in Collaborative Architectural Design." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 35-48. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. Collaborative design has been suffered by dealing with huge amount of undesired information today. The variety of information stored in a collaborative design system actually provides a knowledge repository across multiple design domains. This paper presents an information mining approach to capture hidden knowledge within collaborative design information. The discovered knowledge is used to develop an information service mechanism for helping collaborators to access related information during collaborative design processes.  
Lim, Chor-Kheng. "A Revolution of the Design Process." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 571-583. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. Along with the development of computer technologies and CAD/CAM, digital tools are increasingly adapted in architectural design. Developed thus far, functions of digital tools are no long limited to two-dimensional drafting or final presentation, they have become tools that can assist design thinking. Because of the involvement of digital tools, the design process has been greatly affected, or, one may say that digital tools liberated the confines of forms and structuring of architectures. This research aims to explore the procedures in the design process using digital tools. In the conclusion, we found that in an attempt to abridge the gap between design ideas and actual implementation, the designer used the digital reality simulation function very frequently to assist in decision making, and in order to process more complex and freer forms, the designer relied on the 3D design environment to carry out his thinking process and amendments. In addition, the digital design process is mainly conducted through the methods of 1, 3D modelling, 2, Simulation, 3, Generation, and 4, Fabrication. The steps and methods in the digital design process are obviously different from the traditional ones, which focus mainly on mass-production of 2D drawings, therefore, it is certain that the new tools will change the outcome of the designs.  
Chen, Chiung-Hui, Hui-Tin Lin, and Mao-Lin Chiu. "A Scenario-Based Agent System for Digital City Interaction." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 693-706. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. Urban design involves coordination and communication for collecting consensus among citizens and developing the design strategy and spatial program. While these are web-based systems for representing the real world actions, there is lack of human interaction for receiving feedbacks during the process. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to introduce the agents into the participatory design process (PDP) based on scenarios. This paper has developed a webbased system prototype to demonstrate how the agent can interact with users and how the interface facilitates incremental design. We present a participatory design project in an old street to illustrate how the Scenario-Based Agent System (SBAS) model functions in a real application. Meanwhile, four issues will be discussed in regarding with building a learning interaction agent as an actor.  
Gero, John S., and Wei Peng. "A Situated Agent-Based Design Assistant." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 145-158. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This paper introduces a situated agent-based design assistant. The agent is wrapped around an existing design tool in order to adapt that design tool to its use. Current design tools are unchanged by their use and as a consequence as the designer develops experience in using the tool, the tool remains the same. Such an agent is able to learn from its interactions with environments through its “experiencei. This learning is based on situated representation mechanisms and a constructive memory system. The agent wrapper will be able to adapt the toolis behaviours to its use and as a result improve the toolis usability.  
Yeon, Hyun-Young, Uk Kim, and Young-Kyou Soung. "A Structural Planning Modeler of Informal Shape Building Design." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 647-654. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This study aims to implement a design tool that can help architects predict space configuration along with structural member location in complex shape buildings. Architects can use the tool to confirm spatial allocations and configurations as they apply structural members to building shape. The modeler is based on the object hierarchy of structural members in order to grab and to edit them conveniently.  
Lai, Ih-Cheng. "A Teaching Model for Integrating Conventional Design Curriculum with Digital Media." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 467-476. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This paper presents a teaching model called “e-Space” for integrating conventional design curriculum with digital media. e-Space is composed of a set of exercises that emphasize the use of digital media to enhance spatial sensibility and understanding. Also, e- Space explores spatial composition including organization, interpretation, representation, transformation, and logicality. Simultaneously, diverse digital media applications integrated with design-thinking enables students to have conversation with ideas between two design spaces ? real and virtual. Finally, we use an introductory digital media course as an example of our model in accompaniment with conventional design studio learning.  
Ibrahim, Magdy, Robert Krawczyk, and George Schipporiet. "A Web-Based Approach to Transferring Architectural Information to the Construction Site Based on the Bim Object Concept." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 613-622. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. The current means of transferring architectural data to the construction site depends mainly on the drawing either manually or electronically drafted both in physical or digital formats. The printed or manually drafted drawing is being replaced with the digital version that can be accessed with a PDA. There are many benefits of the digital form over the physical form. However the full potential of this medium has not yet been fully exploited. The new CAD paradigm, BIM (Building Information Modelling), suggests that all the building information can be represented as a digital database that constitutes the information about the building elements as three-dimensional geometry, as well as, properties and specifications in the form of objects. This paper describes the process to convey the information about the CAD objects to the construction site through the web by extracting the properties of the objects into an XML file which can be queried for the needed data.  
Gero, John S., and Jerry Jen- Hung Tsai. "Application of Bond Graph Models to the Representation of Buildings and their Use." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 373-385. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This paper presents some early research on developing a representation for buildings that has the capacity to integrate a number of disparate design domains. This representation is developed based on bond graphs. Its goal is to represent not only steady state topologies of spaces in buildings, but also building dynamics, people and other flows within those spaces.  
Wen, Kuo-Chung, and Wei-Lung Chen. "Application of Genetic Algorithms to Establish Flooding Evacuation Path Model in Metropolitan Area." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 557-570. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This research has shown the difficulties associated with the GIS and the flooding evacuation path search through the huge searching space generated during the network analysis process. This research also presents an approach to these problems by utilizing a search process whose concept is derived from natural genetics. Genetic algorithms (GAs) have been introduced in the optimization problem solving area by Holland (1975) and Goldberg (1989) and have shown their usefulness through numerous applications. We apply GA and GIS to choice flooding evacuation path in metropolitan area in this study. We take the region of Shiji city in Taiwan for case. That could be divided into four parts. First, is to set the population of GA operation. Second, is to choose crossover and mutation. Third, is to calculate the fitness function of each generation and to select the better gene arrangement. Fourth, is to reproduce, after evolution, we can establish Flooding Evacuation Path that more reflect really human action and choice when flood takes place. However we can apply GA to calculate different evacuation path in different time series. Final, we compare and establish real model of evacuation path model to choosing flooding evacuation path.  
Chakraborty, Somen. "Archimetrics: a Necessary Discipline for Obtaining Objective Values from Architectural Subjective Values." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 443-452. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. If we are serious about using CAAD then many subjective design steps normally performed by the architect apparently creatively using subjective values are to be performed by the computer. To fulfil this purpose a tremendous research work is necessary to transform subjective design methods and values to objective design methods and values which should give realistic design solutions not less efficient than that produced by human being. For this purpose it has become imperative now to develop new methods or borrow methods from other disciplines like statistics and psychometrics so that this kind of transformation can be done effectively. It appears that this may form a distinct discipline by itself which may be termed as “archimetrics” keeping parity with similar terms like psychometrics, econometrics, anthropometrics etc. With this view in mind the author has attempted to develop few methods and concepts by virtue of which some of the subjective design methods and values can be transformed into objective design methods and values. The author describes here some basic concepts required for this purpose.
Morozumi, Mitsuo, and Riken Homma. "Assessment of the Use of 3D-Viewing and Mark-Up Tool for Rich Network Design Communication." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 589-600. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. Though there have been many successful examples of Virtual Design Studio, there still exist unsuccessful cases in which participants felt dissatisfied or even frustrated, especially at synchronous stages of design communication. A discussion that required designers to refer to 3D models was one of the situations where technical support was insufficient to satisfy the expectation of designers. Assuming that an interactive viewing of 3D models and use of a mark-up utility on a shared PC window could enhance such design communications (though this also requires network bandwidth and computational power) the author conducted experiments in design discussion between two designers to test the capability and effects of these tools for network collaborations. This paper discusses the framework and results of the experiments, and proposes the next step for system developments.  
Gonavaram, Shivani, and So-Yeon Yoon. "Basic Design Pedagogy with Digital Media." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 477-482. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. How can we motivate students to learn? This is a question that educationalists have always tried to find the answer to. This leads to the question what are students interested in? Games, they are fun, interactive and very popular with students. Therefore we attempt to tie the technology of games with the learning process. Technology has always played an important role in trying to connect the academic experience that a person experiences with the professional world. Especially in architecture a gap exists between the design studios and the various software classes that students take.  
Chiu, Mao-Lin, Rui-Lung Wu, Rui-Zhang Peng, and Chih-Chun Huang. "Being there: from the phisical to virtual environments." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 969-981. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. The creation of virtual environments is becoming an important issue in digital design. The purpose of this paper is therefore to explore the transformation from the physical to the virtual environment from a social and behavioural point of views, and the process is demonstrated by a museum exhibition project. We had built both the physical and virtual environment, and studied the human behaviours and experiences from their presence at both environments. Agent-based interface is adopted in the virtual environment to enhance people-to-people and people-to-place interactions. The development process, the observation, the interface agent, and discussion based on the findings are presented.  
Seichter, Hartmut. "Benchworks - Augmented Reality Urban Design." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 937-946. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. The problems of inspecting urban design proposals are different to that of architecture. The larger context is a crucial aspect in urban design. Generally the issues are not of detailed design but rather understanding space and spatial features. Discussions about proposals use plans and large urban design models. The models are cumbersome and access difficult for collaborative consultation. This paper introduces a prototype for an Augmented Reality system for analyzing and representational design in an urban design scale. The system is designed as a workbench for collaboratively and dynamically exploring in an urban design model.  
Chen, Hong-Sheng. "Case-Based Simulation as a Technique for Assisting Architectural Design." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 189-198. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. In this research, I propose a case-based simulation method for experimenting with a set of models aimed at analyzing the behaviour of a dynamic system. Owing to the assistance of CBRWorks4 software, this idea is successfully tested and implemented on the Internet. A set of evacuation simulations, which model complex human behaviour in a building in certain emergency situations, leads to some discoveries and conclusions.  
Kim, Jin, and Yongwook Jeong. "Collaborative Caad: State-of-the-Art and the Future - a Comparative Study of CAAD, Product Development, and Group Support Systems." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 117-132. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. In this paper, we identify requirements of the design collaboration systems through a comparative study of CAAD, product development, and group support systems. Compared with the architectural design domain, we identify that research on productdevelopment systems has made strong point in systematic concept generation and selection, reflecting customer needs into design decisions, and analyzing their influence on the overall cost. We also find immediately applicable research result on the coordination structure from the group support systems domain. Based on this observation, we propose functional requirements of the next generation collaborative CAAD systems.  
Jupp, Julie, and John S. Gero. "Computational Differentiation and Categorisation of Design Drawings." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 303-318. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. In this paper we present an approach to the differentiation and classification of two-dimensional design drawings. Our model is based on a qualitative encoding scheme and information theoretic measures. The model utilises information-theoretic tools to measure the similarity and complexity of a hierarchy of drawing descriptions. The descriptive and analytic power of the model is demonstrated by evaluating the different measures for a series of simple sketches and studying the time evolution of architectural plans produced by Frank Lloyd Wright.  
Chen, Xiaolei, and Atiba Phillips. "Construct a Narrative About a Building Using Video - a Prototype for Computer Aided Building Documentation Video Production System." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 803-814. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This paper proposes a prototype for a computer aided building documentation video production system, which is based on building characteristics and certain cinematic rules and best practices, to assist non-technical video producers without significant prior filmmaking knowledge in the process of producing video documentaries about buildings and potentially furthermore, the recorded media can be retrieved and re-sequenced for multiple purposes.  
Li, Thomas. "Contextual Modeling for Integrated Design Environment - Using Structural Design as an Example." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 633-646. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. The aim of this research is to identify a notation format which is suitable for building an integrated environment with different types of applications for early design stages. Several existing architectural notations are compared in this paper, and VRML is found to be the most appropriate for this purpose, even though it has certain limitations. The problems of using VRML for architectural data notation are addressed in this paper with workable solutions suggested.  
Kalay, Yehuda. "Contextualization and embodiment in cyberspace." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 14-May. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. The introduction of VRML (Virtual Reality Markup Language) in 1994, and  other similar web-enabled dynamic modelling software (such as SGIis Open  Inventor and WebSpace), have created a rush to develop on-line 3D virtual  environments, with purposes ranging from art, to entertainment, to shopping,  to culture and education. Some developers took their cues from the science  fiction literature of Gibson (1984), Stephenson (1992), and others. Many  were web-extensions to single-player video games. But most were created as  a direct extension to our new-found ability to digitally model 3D spaces and  to endow them with interactive control and pseudo-inhabitation. Surprisingly, this technologically-driven stampede paid little attention to  the core principles of place-making and presence, derived from architecture  and cognitive science, respectively: two principles that could and should  inform the essence of the virtual place experience and help steer its  development.  Why are the principles of place-making and presence important for the  development of virtual environments? Why not simply be content with our  ability to create realistically-looking 3D worlds that we can visit remotely?  What could we possibly learn about making these worlds better, had we  understood the essence of place and presence?   To answer these questions we cannot look at place-making (both physical  and virtual) from a 3D space-making point of view alone, because places are  not an end unto themselves. Rather, places must be considered a locus of  contextualization and embodiment that ground human activities and give  them meaning. In doing so, places acquire a meaning of their own, which  facilitates, improves, and enriches many aspects of our lives. They provide  us with a means to interpret the activities of others and to direct our own  actions. Such meaning is comprised of the social and cultural conceptions and  behaviours imprinted on the environment by the presence and activities of its inhabitants, who in turn, “readi by them through their own corporeal  embodiment of the same environment. This transactional relationship between the physical aspects of an  environment, its social/cultural context, and our own embodiment of it,  combine to create what is known as a sense of place: the psychological,  physical, social, and cultural framework that helps us interpret the world  around us, and directs our own behaviour in it. In turn, it is our own (as well  as othersi) presence in that environment that gives it meaning, and shapes its  social/cultural character. By understanding the essence of place-ness in  general, and in cyberspace in particular, we can create virtual places that can  better support Internet-based activities, and make them equal to, in some  cases even better than their physical counterparts.   One of the activities that stands to benefit most from understanding the  concept of cyber-places is learning “ an interpersonal activity that requires  the co-presence of others (a teacher and/or fellow learners), who can point  out the difference between what matters and what does not, and produce an  emotional involvement that helps students learn. Thus, while many administrators and educators rush to develop webbased remote learning sites, to leverage the economic advantages of one-tomany learning modalities, these sites deprive learners of the  contextualization and embodiment inherent in brick-and-mortar learning  institutions, and which are needed to support the activity of learning.  Can these qualities be achieved in virtual learning environments? If so,  how? These are some of the questions this talk will try to answer by  presenting a virtual place-making methodology and its experimental  implementation, intended to create a sense of place through  contextualization and embodiment in virtual learning environments.
Lai, Yoke-Chin. "Contribution of Semantic Web to Collaborative Design." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 91-106. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This paper focuses on a lightweight ontology-based knowledge management system, which is a prototype that aims at enhancing the collaborative activities in the early building design phase. Technologies with respect to de facto standards proposed by industry group W3C are implemented to develop this knowledge management system. Resource Description Framework (RDF) associated with its Schema (RDFS) is selected as the ontology language used in the system. RDF(S) with its embedded reasoning techniques provides a rich set of constructs to facilitate the generation of ontologies so that the annotated information can be machine readable. Approaches of how the domain knowledge is represented in RDF(S)-based ontology, is shared and retrieved among stakeholders of building project will be described and illustrated in the paper. A proposition with respect to the contribution of this prototype system to collaborative activities undertaken in the early building design phase will also be discussed in the paper.  
Lin, Chieh-Jen , and Mao-Lin Chiu. "Design Knowledge Discovery in Cases - the Machine View Vs. the Human View." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 265-274. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. In the previous study, we had applied the data mining techniques and ontology methodology to develop a keyword-based schema to extract and represent the implicit information within a case library, Case Base for Architecture (CBA). To improve the ability of our keyword-based schema on extracting and representing design knowledge within cases, we proceeded some experiments to understand the designis mental behaviours in extracting knowledge from cases. Through protocol analysis, we attempted to establish a knowledge discovery model of extracting design knowledge from cases, and to propose methods to apply this model to improve our keyword-based schema. Through collecting adjective keywords to restructure our design dictionary, we attempt to make our system more sensitive to design knowledge, and more sensitive to useris intensions by extending the ontology of our keyword list.  
Beilharz, Kirsty. "Designing Generative Sound for Responsive 3D Digital Environment Interaction." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 741-758. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This paper examines three key areas of responsive sound interaction in 3D Digital Environments: designing generative sound that derives its composition and relevance from social and physical human interaction within a digital environment, the relation of sonic structure to the digital visual and spatial experience, and responsive, reactive real time sound generation activated by environmental conditions and human behaviours. The primary purposes for responsive sound design are: (1) to provide navigational cues supporting way-finding and spatial orientation, and (2) to provide realtime generative environmental sound that reflects social behaviour in a way that is meaningful and recognisable. The applied contexts for navigational cues and environmental generative sound include online (multi-user), synchronous Virtual Environments and Digital Installation Spaces (e.g. intelligent rooms, virtual reality and immersive environments). Outcomes of responsive sound design include: a trigger system of aural alerts, warnings and guidance, a computational system for generating sound in real time activated by spatial location and social interaction, and an audio (non-visual) tool aiding spatial orientation and way-finding interaction in 3D immersive Digital Environments.  
Kim, Ju-Yeon, and Hyun-Soo Lee. "Developing a Color Adaptive VR Interior Design System Based on Psychophsiological Responses." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 857-870. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This research utilizes vision-based affective recognition and sensing technologies, which are tested in order to interpret what emotional moods people experience with visual spatial images, these tests help to automatically provide feedback on the natural ways to manipulate affective intelligent communication. That is, the primary objective of this research is to realize an adaptable architectural virtual reality (VR) model whose color attributes can be changed dynamically according to the identified emotional state of the user. Eventually, this research addresses how to capture a specific useris emotional states through the system and use it for modifying an architectural VR model, mainly for its color adaptation. In the applicability process, this system proposes towards user oriented smart environment such as the colors of an interior space are dynamically changed according to a characteristic affective response of a user.  
Biloria, Nimish. "Developing Concept Prototypes for Electronic Media Augmented Spatial Skins - an Investigation into Biotic Processes, Material Technologies and Embedded Computation for Developing Intelligent Systemic Networks." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 159-172. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. The recurrent issue of materializing a responsive architectural spatiality, emergent, in its conception and the need for collaborative substantiation of the design process, utilizing a multidisciplinary approach towards developing intelligent architectonics are exemplified upon in this research paper through a design research experiment conducted by the author: Developing concept prototypes for electronic media augmented spatial skins. The skin is conceptualized as a synergetic merger of scientific investigations into the fields of Bio-mimetics, control system, material technology and embedded computation techniques.  
Okada, Masayuki, Kazuhisa Iki, and Sadayuki Shimoda. "Development of CAFM System for LCM on Building Maintenance and Management." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 681-692. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. The purpose of this study is to develop a Computer Aided Facility Management (CAFM) system to assist the optimal Life Cycle Management (LCM) business, especially in the repair and renewal planning works of the inhabited building Life Cycle Cost (LCC). This system is also useful for annual, mid and long term facility maintenance budget planning. Major steps of this study are as follows: (1) A Study on the actual process of the LCM business was undertaken to determine the required functions of the CAFM system. (2) We surveyed the calculation process of the LCC and examined the data processing method in order to determine an efficient LCC calculation method for the CAFM system. (3) Based on the above result, we developed each function required for the CAFM system. (4) The CAFM system was developed by unifying the above functions in a network browser environment such as data transaction management between database, LCC calculation and graphical representation applications. (5) We evaluate the CAFM system by using case studies of LCM works on actual buildings. This system contributes to the efficient maintenance works of the LCC, and is able to support the appropriate scheduling of LCM works.  
Sosa, Ricardo, and John S. Gero. "Diffusion of Design Ideas: Gatekeeping Effects." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 287-302. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. Designers and design managers are interested in gaining a deeper understanding of the complexities of creativity and innovation (Langdon and Rothwell 1985). These two phenomena can be seen as complementary dimensions of a differentiation cycle where design plays a key value-adding role that gradually reduces through commoditisation. However, there is a lack of relevant evidence to explain the link between creativity and innovation. Creativity is increasingly considered as occurring in the interaction between the individual generator of an idea and a group of evaluators (Sawyer et al 2003). However, most studies have regarded the generation of a solution -and not its social impact- as the outcome of the creative process (Runco and Pritzker 1999). Accordingly, computational modelling of creativity has been mainly conducted in a social void (Boden 1999).  
Murty, Paul, and Terry Purcell. "Discoveries Throughout Conceptual Design." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 319-334. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This paper describes current progress of an interview study of architects which considers how these individuals design, focusing on breakthroughs and unexpected discoveries made throughout conceptual design. The study considers creative outcomes that occur while these individuals are not intentionally designing, as well as when they are, with the intention of identifying and evaluating evidence of latent creative activity. While not described in this paper, issues of insightfulness, based on a Gestalt perspective, are also considered in the study. The completed interviews described in the paper suggest that, in order to achieve breakthroughs, designers adopt distinctive methods of disengaging from currently unproductive designing. These may be categorized by degree and type of disengagement, or subsequent re-engagement. In general, disengaging, instead of persisting in designing, when apparently stuck, appears to be the rule rather than the exception. Statements by the interviewees suggest that discoveries during, or just after, times when they are not actively designing, referred to as cold discoveries, are more important than is currently recognized, which is scarcely at all. Statements describing interviewee experiences of discovery and providing indications of the genesis of discoveries are included in the paper. The paper discusses implications of the wide range of perceptions and experiences of each individual. One interesting finding is that individuals appear to experience and appreciate cold discoveries regardless of differences in key aspects of the way they design, described in the paper. This suggests that the genesis of cold discoveries may be as complex as that of discoveries in general.  
Dorta, Tomás. "Drafted Virtual Reality - a New Paradigm to Design with Computers." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 829-844. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This paper proposes a new technique for designing spaces, called Drafted Virtual Reality (DVR), to be used in interior, architectural or industrial design. It proposes the construction of virtual panoramic environments through the QuickTime VR (QTVR) Panorama platform (Apple), starting from sketches made by hand using traditional pen-on-paper techniques. To construct these drawings, the designer uses the computer to build a graphic panoramic template. Using this technique, the designer takes advantage of both approaches, the capacities and possibilities of the computer using VR (3D environments, interaction and real-time), and those of free-hand sketches (abstraction, inaccuracy and ambiguity). These last elements are essential for the first steps of the design process in contrast to the conventional techniques of 3D modelling interacting with mouse and menus. In the development of design computer solutions, it is important to know the user well. However, most researchers propose systems very different than how designers actually work. The DVR doesnit try to simulate analog tools by computers (digital pens), but takes advantage of hand drawn sketches created using analog techniques that are already known by designers and improved by VR visualization. A review of the implication of this technique on the design process. Not only is the technique fast and easy to learn, the results show that the designer can express their individuality and the idiosyncrasies of their personal sketches, important elements hard to achieve with conventional 3D modelling techniques. Finally, this technique can be perceived as a new paradigm in the way we work with computers in design. The limitations of interfaces and usage of current technology are seen when the designer outputs information from the system to process using other analog techniques. The proposed solution marries the existing competencies and techniques of the designer with the advantages of the computer processing. The quality of the virtual experience of this technique is consistent with current designeris intentions within the traditional design process.  
Reika, Sato, Wookhyun Yeo, Yasuyuki Yuda, Sooyeon Oh, Atsuko Kaga, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "Dynamic Visual Reference System (Nez System) for Assisting Environmental Design." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 483-492. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. In a design process, it is necessary to recognize the circumference environment, analyze human activities in the environment, and consider the locations and space where the activities occur. Dynamic Visual Reference System(Nez system) is a useful reference tool for these purposes in environmental design. The system enables the direct visualization of various proposed reference multimedia data or analysis of human activity and thus the thorough comprehension of the client. The architect and the client may therefore communicate with each other at ease, which in turn facilitates the reflection and creativity of the environmental designer.  
Park, Ramesh. "Flexible Design Representation for Construction." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 671-680. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. A high percentage of overall defects in the built environment occurs during the construction period. Some of these relate to design and the others relate to construction. The detection and reasoning of defects requires involvement of multiple expertise. Researchers in the School of Architecture, the Robotics Institute, and the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Carnegie Mellon University are investing ways to integrate suites of emerging evaluation technologies to help find, record, manage, and limit the impact of construction defects. As part of this effort, the researchers have conducted case studies on construction sites near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Each case study serves as a test-bed to measure the feasibility of our approach and to discover problems. In this paper, we discuss the overall project work flow in which we emphasize the importance of a flexible representation for construction, and describe our solution using a concept of representational flexibility named sorts.  
Lai, Ih-Cheng. "Framework for Case-Based Reasoning to Support Idea Association in a Brainstorming Session." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 209-222. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This research makes use of a cognitive approach to explore a mechanism for associating ideas in a brainstorming session. Firstly, we propose a linking model integrating three principles of idea association (similarity, contrast and contiguity) with two processes of case-based reasoning (retrieval and adaptation). Based on this linking model, an experiment is conducted to elucidate the interactions between ideas and cases, and their mechanisms of retrieval and adaptation. Finally, a framework for case-based reasoning to support idea association called Idea-Maps is proposed, and its mechanism is elucidated.  
Chen, Shang-Yuan, and Mao-Lin Chiu. "Friendly Aliens Encountered: Major Problems and Principles in Digital Design Teaching." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 419-432. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. Because of the recent opening of the Kunsthaus Graz and the later coming digital design projects, those so-called friendly aliens brought more concerns on the prospects of digital design and especially the impact on architectural education. Should we stop to teach CAAD or to reconcile ourselves to the status quo in schools? This paper proposes a more compatible and feasible “Design-Oriented CAAD teaching Class (DOCC)” to transform the function of CAAD in design studios. We surveyed various CAAD teaching pedagogies in the past and also observed the status quo in Taiwan in order to develop an analytic framework for DOCC. Those investigations help us to decide strategies and understand their constraints, when CAAD is taught as a foreign language. The teaching principle and process is introduced in the undergraduate courses at NCKU. The design cycle, in which a design methodology engaged, is divided into tree stages: prototype, transformation and adaptation. A design project is implemented to demonstrate the rationale and raise later discussion.  
Lee, Jin, and Hyun-Soo Lee. "HCIS: the Housing Context Inference System Model for Smart Space." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 759-776. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This research is about the basic methods in making computers understand human behaviour in an architectural space in regards to reaction to interaction between the machine and human. Its ultimate objective is to analyze the related technology making this series of works possible synthetically on the basis of information system within architectural territoriality. In the end it is expected to offer a theoretical basis to embody smart space, up-to-date and intelligent architectural space. There are two issues that motivate this research: what are the Housing Context and its Inference System, and how smart space can infer the Housing Context and react with proper response. The Husing Context consists of 1) state of user, 2) state of physical environment, 3) state of computational environment, 4) history of user-environment interaction and 5) architectural territoriality. Especially, spatial information of architectural territoriality is a significant key of HCIS. Spatial divisions and boundaries made of architectural elements or facilities determinate their own micro-territorialities. Ontologies are used to describe the Housing Context predicate. In this paper, we can say that the Housing Context and the Housing Log(history of user-environment interaction, a set of the Housing Context) written by ontologies can be a beneficial model of HCIS. Furthermore, we can develop the Housing Log Databases and its variable applications that have enabled to make simulating and analyzing tool of design, the Augmented Web Presence and the other helpful applications.  
Wang, Chia-Yu, and Teng-Wen Chang. "Information Sharing for Small Design Studios - Ubiquitous Information Flow Approaches." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 391-404. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. While balancing the feasibility of management as well as design quality, design offices with strong focus on design are getting smaller and more compact. Mobility and dynamic information flow are two key issues for information sharing in design studio. In this research, we discussions about these concepts of ubiquitous computing, workflow and information model on small design studio. The goal of this research is trying to use available digital equipments as a ubiquitous device for sharing information dynamically no matter where and when they are. Use such digital equipments as well as server to store information and improve human interaction to achieve better interaction between human and technology. For these issues, we analyze three components of our system - the types of information, the interactive behaviours using roles as a metaphor, and ubiquitous devices that are available for small design studio. Within this research, we propose a system call Ubiquitous Information Flow Tool (UIFO) based on Java and Web technology for testing and reifying the concepts of ubiquitous information flow.  
Bunyavipakul, Monchai, Raktum Sallakachat, and Ekasidh Charoensilp. "Integrating 3D Game Engine to Online Interactive Presentation for Collaborative Design Work on Pda - Collaborative Works Anytime, Anywhere." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 107-116. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. In this research, Quake Engine on PDA (Pocket Quake) is modified and developed to make an appropriate environment for collaborative design work in the representation phase for the architectural design teams. The system is being designed for working in the centralized environment by using central server, such as when the designing team has changed 3D Model Information and uploaded to the server then the PDA client will change the same 3D Model automatically. Game Engine will be used to develop this presentationis tool by designing new user interface and functions for working in PDA. The trial project, The Victory Monumentis Area Development Project, will make the Online Interactive Presentation by using 3D Game Engine on PDA to reconstruct around The Victory Monument in Bangkok. Hopefully, this will make the Virtual World Online anywhere, anytime being more available and give the comparison between the site existing and the new architectural form which designed on the site for good understanding about what the design answers.  
Tan, Beng-Kiang. "Integrating Digital Modeling and Full-Scale Construction in Design Studio." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 433-442. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This paper presents the observations of a design studio for undergraduates that adopted a hands-on, experiential approach where students combined both digital modelling and full-scale construction in their design process. The studio was designed as team-based to encourage peer learning and collaboration in design. The students used multiple media and engaged in tactile experience and through the process discovered by themselves the issues of translating digital design into full-scale construction and achieved a better understanding of construction, scale and materiality.  
Lee, Jaewook, Yongwook Jeong, Seung Kim, and Yehuda Kalay. "Intelligent Behavior Control of 3D Objects in Virtual Environments." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 845-856. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. Cyberspace is more malleable than a physical environment, so it can afford much wider range of responsiveness. By applying the concept of place-making, we are experimenting virtual environments which are responsive to their usersi context-specific needs. Since objects are essential components that anchor the usersi various activities, having interactive objects in a 3D virtual environment is a major design concern for developing a dynamic and experience-rich virtual environment. We propose a layered agent model for intelligent behaviour control of 3D objects, based on constraint solving process.  
Shih, Sheng-Cheng. "Interoperable Co-Design System." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 79-90. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. Project Alliances is a new alternative to A/E/C traditional project delivery systems, especially in the commercial building sector. The interoperable model of Co-design process and systems characteristics that is required to reduce the adversarial nature of most construction projects. Interoperable Co-Design System was just used successfully to complete the Si-soft Research Center of Taiwan. This project-alliancing project was analyzed as a case study to evaluate the validity of the system. Three key paradigms of the Co-Design were reviewed and numerous examples from the management of this project were cited that support the theoretical recommendations of this model. It was concluded that the system use wild client/server network architecture embedded with peer-to-peer agent technology to provide an open, familiar and easily extended co-design system.  
Yoon, So-Yeon, Mustafa Tutar, and Mohammed Saleh Uddin. "Issues of Interactivity on Architectural Representation Tools - a Comparison Study Between a Computer Game and a Non-Game Web3d Environment." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 601-612. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This paper investigates the advantages and disadvantages in representing a building with the Virtual Reality (VR) functions of the QUAKE III game engine and the Web 3D facilities of EON Reality software. For the purpose of comparison, interactivity in architectural representation in these two environments is studied.  
Lee, Yun, Il Lee, and Jin Choi. "Location Modeling for Ubiquitous Computing Based on a Spatial Information Management Technology." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 787-802. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. Location modelling, which generally has influence on location-aware applications, is a critical and interesting aspect. In the ubiquitous computing, location modelling has been discussed as one of fundamental research subject, because a location is a very essential element of contexts and useful information for other applications related with ubiquitous computing. Especially, location modelling in architectural space should be defined through the comprehension of the physical environment, because the users'(or objects) location does not only mean numerical coordinates, but also refers to the situation related to users'(or objects) physical contexts. In other hands, location model for architectural space should be based on the simplification of complicated physical environment, the consideration of corresponding various changes, and also the definition for the relationship of spatial information. Traditionally, those issues have been actively studied in the fields of CAAD (Computer Aided Architectural Design) research and could used effectively for ubiquitous computing system. This paper proposes the location model and its utilization method which can be applied on making the ubiquitous computing system in the architectural space based on CAAD theories. At the end of the paper, we present a CAAD system, called “Vitruius”,  in order to define architectural spaces appropriately and manage them easily for the ubiquitous computing environment.  
Shih, Naai-Jung, and Chin-Hui Su. "Manipulation of an Automatic Guided Vehicle with 3D Software and Remote Control." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 927-936. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. The purpose of this research is to build a simulating operation system of automatic guided vehicles (AGV) at a construction site, which including (1) construction path planning system (2) real-time vision information, and (3) simulation system of automatic guided vehicles at the construction site. This paper proposes an efficient method that provides VR-based AGV path guidance with Caligari Truspace 3D software and Python Script. We designed an interactive vision information interface by using LEGO Mindstorms Vision Command combined with Visual Basic ActiveX, and also built an automatic guided vehicle with the functions of obstacle avoidance by LEGO Robotics Invention System. The majority of this research is to develop an effective construction site management model, and develop a construction path planning and a real-time system.  
Kuo, Chyi-Gang, Hsuan-Cheng Lin, Yang-Ting Shen, and Tay-Sheng Jeng. "Mobile Augmented Reality for Spatial Information Exploration." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 891-900. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. In this paper, we present an augmented reality system that integrates real and virtual worlds for outdoor sustainable education in campus. We develop a mobile spatially-aware computational device as a visualization aid to students learning outdoors. We apply the mobile augmented reality technology to a newly constructed ecological garden in our campus. Users can virtually see the underlying water cycling system outdoors and map the virtual objects to physical reality through embodied interaction with the computational device. The objective is to make invisible information visible to users to extend interactions with our “livingi environment. Keywords: Augmented Reality, Mixed Reality, Mobil Computing, Information Exploration.  
Ryu, Jaeho, Naoki Hashimoto, Shoichi Hasegawa, and Makoto Sato. "Multi-Projection Display System D-Vision for Architectural Design Evaluation." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 901-910. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This is a paper about the introduction of architectural design evaluation application and pre-experience system of walkthrough situation in urban and street design. For this purpose, we developed a new multi-projection display system, D-vision, which has hybrid screens. D-vision is a kind of new virtual environment system that has high immersion and high resolution display performance with multi-modal interfaces. In our system, the user can experience the high sense of presence through the self-walking behaviour to move and force feedback manipulation of objects with the high-resolution image created from the tiled-projection system that is composed of twenty four projectors.    
Lu, Kia-Tzu. "Navigating 3D Information Space with 6 Degree of Freedom Devices." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 777-786. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. The purpose of this research is to identify how to intuitively operate 6 DOF Input Devices for interactive data storage in 3D virtual environments through the virtual Internet world generated by Image, Text, Animation, Model, under the condition that the role of the computer is to simulate the way people sense the real space, so users may instinctively utilize this simple device to explore the possibility of data recurrence and reorganization, and designers may receive timely inspiration in the process of architectural design.  
Wu, Yen-Liang, Yu-Tung Liu, Ying-Shiu Huang, Peiling Wu, Chien-Hui Wong, Tsung-Hsien Wang, Wan-Ping Gao, and Wen-Li Shih. "New Interaction of Digital Exhibition - Figures and Spaces." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 731-740. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. The developments of digital media make the exhibition in museum different from the traditional one. According to this case study of the digitalization of sculptures, we attempt to create more interactions between each digitalized sculpture, and to display them in the media of Internet and of the VR CAVE.  
Wu, Pei-Ling. "Playful and Creative Learning - a Preliminary Model for Digital Design Studio." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 405-418. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. Hutt (1966) demonstrated that familiarity, clarity, simplicity, and congruity are four stimulus characteristics eliciting play. When the participant reaches this status of an activity, in which is at this point that the playfulness element enters into play, and play is an important ingredient of the creative process. Correspondently, the characteristics in digital design studios which are rapid and broad exploration, systematic design process, the use of suitable digital media, and problem solving system reveal the analogical qualities with play. Since creativity is crucial in design processes, it is worthwhile to study relationships between play and digital design studio to discover possible means to benefit and facilitate digital design learning.  
Lee, Ji-Hyun, and Wei-Feng Hong. "Postmodern architecture vs. Feng-Shui." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 335-346. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. We start with two paradigms, Postmodernism and FengShui, which seem to be no commonalities between them -western and  eastern, new and old-. In both, however, they deeply root in the  essence of “place” interweaved culture and social interaction with  physical design. Hence, this paper presents a particular viewpoint and  method to examine the coherency between the two paradigms. In  accordance with the evolution of information technology, a full of  metaphoric phenomena and codes within Feng-shui and postmodern  architecture is able to visualize by means of computational knowledge.  This gives a flexible knowledge-based system to trigger captivating  concepts, which are seeds of creative thought.  
Kvan, Thomas, and Song Gao. "Problem Framing in Multiple Settings." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 453-466. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. In order to improve pedagogical effectiveness, this study aims at gaining an insight on architectural studentsi problem framing activities using digital versus paper media. The role of problem framing in design process and its contribution to design learning has been variously studied. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the role of problem framing under three settings namely online co-located, online remote and paper-based co-located. Students were asked to spend 40 minutes in solving a wicked design problem collaboratively. The results show that in the online remote setting the activities of problem framing are significantly different compared to those in the other two co-located settings. We find more density of framing activities happened in the online remote setting than in the other two settings. We also find there is no significant difference of problem framing between online co-located and paper-based colocated settings. Through this study we suggest that multiple design tools need to be considered to support design learning and teaching.  
Wang, Tsung-Hsien. "Propagating Figures - a Genetic Algorithm Approach." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 505-518. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. In order to make the computer media get involved into the process of evolving design rather than merely serve as a presenting tool, this study aims to propose a computer-aided design (CAD) tool that could show a great capacity of evolving design and be particularly utilized throughout the early conceptual phase. How to accomplish this objective will start from taking advantage of the cognitive point of view regarding emergent subshapes to assisting designers in reconfigurating/restructuring shapes and figures computationally. Ultimately, by means of using genetic algorithm, this research could conduct a CAD tool, facilitating designers in the very early conceptual phase. In other words, this tool could be employed by designers in generating subshapes or reconfigurating shapes and subshapes during the process of developing concepts.  
Park, Soo-Hoon. "Qualitative Shape Representation and Featurebased Comparison of Architectural Drawings." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 239-252. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This paper explains the qualitative shape representation scheme and generic shape analysis procedure based on shape feature categories. It takes two different groups of architectural drawings and compares them. Validation of qualitative shape representation scheme is suggested using statistical methods. Linear regressions are used in characterizing the shape featural relationships of two shape groups.  
Sass, Lawrence. "Rapid Prototyping Techniques for Building Program Study." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 655-670. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This paper is original research that demonstrates new design possibilities for evaluation in the schematic phase of design through the use rapid prototyping as a tool of representation verses 2D drawing. These program shapes are created from CAD files using a threedimensional printing and laser cutting CAM tools. This way of working is in response to two dimensional plan representation and evaluation (Mitchell 1976). This research combines the best of the visual aspects of plan representation and the formal representation of solid block modelling. The models in this paper demonstrate the buildingis physical scale of spaces, building use and overall form. Resulting models will demonstrate a new way of designing in CAD one that combined physical and visual ways or representation.  
Tuzmen, A.. "Requirements-Based methdology for the evaluation of the computer supported collaboration environments." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 19-34. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. Literature consists of research identifying the benefits and pitfalls of the use of computer supported collaboration tools and environments to support collaborating design teams (Kvan, 1998, Maher et al, 2000). However, we donit find enough information in literature about the methodology needed for evaluating the performance of a collaboration environment in meeting the needs and expectations of the collaborating design teams. There are no uniformly accepted methodologies or metrics for evaluating the performance of a design collaboration environment. This paper introduces a requirements-based methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of design collaboration environments. The requirements-based methodology was developed and implemented during a process which involved: a) the use of various synchronous and asynchronous collaboration environments, and b) comparison of those against each other each other by an evaluation methodology. The evaluation methodology proposed in this study is experimented during a course entitled Computer Supported Collaborative Design at the University of Sydney. 
Park, Jinwon. "Retrieving and Browsing Information of Building Equipment Using Augmented Reality Techniques." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 911-926. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. Current research on AR (augmented reality) tends to focus more on fields other than architecture. However, the AR technology will also affect architecture and will become more powerful than it is now. In this study, we have attempted to develop a new system called “Building Scanneri that recognizes an area and information of building equipment frequently on a single floor using AR techniques and enables a user to browse/retrieve more naturally and easily. For this system, our study proceeds in the following three steps, 1) Develop an object-oriented CAAD system, 2) Develop building equipment database and input system, and 3) Visualize 3D building equipment data on AR. We believe that our attempts can generate a new powerful tool with a wide range of applications for architecture. Further research includes improving information of building equipment input methodology, user interface designs for the Building Scanner, and constructing other information for broader applications, etc.  
Ong, Henry. "Role of Computer Visualization as a Support for Architect-Client Design Collaboration." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 65-78. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This paper discusses the role of computer based visual simulations in the context of bridging the communication gap between client and design team, based on years of practising architecture in the Sumatra region, Indonesia. Its principal objective is to identify steps in design process to assess the design collaboration between bodies with different culture backgrounds, so that greater understanding and agreement can occur. It also attempts to facilitate and foster effective communication which will lead to improved design collaboration practise, in a region famous for its rich vernacular architecture. Two finished projects located at different sites in North Sumatra in which the author was involved, will be included as sample cases.  
Tedrumpun, Todspol, and Walaiporn Nakapan. "Site Measurement with Combination of Pocket PC and Global Positioning System for Preliminary Architectural Design Process." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 717-726. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This paper presents an alternative method of site measurement for an early design phase. In an early design phase, we consider geomantic information, a kind of technical information crucial for design decision, which can be gathered by a survey. The frame work of this project is originated from a problem of Thai architectsi practice, where we propose GPS system for survey solution. In present day, GPS technology presents various tools to use in survey. However, a high precision GPS device is extremely costly. In this paper we propose low cost devices that give information precise enough to use in an early design phase. To increase accuracy of information, differential equation is used to reduce error of signal altered by atmosphere. Also, information from GPS contains world coordinate information: latitude, longitude, altitude and time, which allows creating 2D map and 3D land form. Architect can instantly use results of site information for many purposes, such as on-site meeting, early design planning and layout design.  
San Liew, Pak-, and Mary Lou Maher. "Situated Case-Based Reasoning as a Constructive Memory Model for Design Reasoning." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 199-208. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This paper describes an extended case-based reasoning model that addresses the notion of situatedness in designing through constructive memory. The model is illustrated through an application for predicting the corrosion rate for a specific material on a specific building.  
Hsu, Ying-Chun, and Robert Krawczyk. "Space Adjacency Behavior in Space Planning." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 253-264. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. Digitally supported space-planning techniques have been researched and developed for decades. By processing space adjacency data with existing space-planning techniques, an objective space relationship diagram or schematic layout can be produced. These results represent the functional aspect of each project, which can be used as a reference for further design development. With these results, designers can enhance plan layouts with the preferences established by their client or themselves, as well as design styles. In this research, the author proposes a new method of applying personal preference to modify the objective layout, which imitates human interacting behaviour as space organizing categories, Space Character.  
Shih, Naai-Jung, and Pin-Hung Wang. "Study on Construction Inaccuracies Between Pointcloud and Building Construction Models." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 623-632. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This research uses a 3D scanner to scan the construction process at a building construction site in order to produce point-cloud information to compare with the 3D-computer model from a shop drawing. In the check process, we can find construction inaccuracy, and measure the value of the inaccuracy. This will help us determine the precision of the construction methods.  
Maher, Mary Lou, and Mijeong Kim. "Supporting Design Using Self-Organizing Design Knowledge." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 957-968. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This paper presents the potential of swarm intelligence models as an alternative to cognitive models in the representation of design knowledge to develop a model of a self-organizing design environment. The presented framework for design knowledge provides the basis for an incremental development of swarm intelligence models for responding to design changes.  
Gao, Wan-Ping. "Tectonics? a Case Study for Digital Free-Form Architecture." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 519-534. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. During this information age, spatial form in the field of architecture has advanced to a new level. Digital free-form space is commonly seen as the use of computer media has increased. Computers are used in various stages of this process with regard to form, structure, supplies and planning. Many designs seen now are computer generated and have come about as a result of the development and implementation of new computer software and hardware. Tectonic knowledge representation of construction, which emphasizes structural joints and attention to detail in creativity, displays architectural form by means of poetry of construction. However, present day digital architecture emphasizes dynamic surface, with its three-dimensional curves, and the interior and exterior continuity of its topological spaces. This is all quite different from the spatial form produced by traditional tectonics view, making it impossible to explain these modern designs within the field of traditional architecture. This study uses the FEIDAD Award as a basis for analysis, and attempts to define the phenomena and aspects of digital tectonics. This study reflects the technique and mechanism of the process of digital design production, which, through the use of computers, becomes digital tectonics. Digital free-form architecture can only be understood through digital tectonics. 
Yeo, Wookhyun, Yasuyuki Yuda, Sooyeon Oh, Atsuko Kaga, Tsuyoshi Sasada, and Reika Sato. "The Development of an Environmental Design Helping System Using Real-Time Simulationguide." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 947-956. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. We developed a synthetic environment design system which not only checks the design but can also create design in realtime. This is significant since there has yet been no existing tool that can accomplish such a task. Along with the development of the tool, we are currently refining the system by applying it to the China Qingdao Jiaonan City Environmental Design Project.  
Hsieh, Chun. "The Emergence of Creativity in Digital Development of Architecture." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 173-188. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. Research into the various forms and processes of creativity has been a topic of great interest in the design field for many years. However, most studies avoid questioning whether digital architecture is inherently creative in a larger social context. This study proposes to use the interacting creativity model of Csiksentmihalyi as the basic structure, to establish the major criteria of testing creativity in the digital era. There are two objectives: first, whether digital architecture can pass the test in society and culture to become an architecture that embodies creativity, second, to find out the role of digital media in Csiksentmihalyiis interacting creativity model.  
Lin, Chi, and Yu Hsu. "The Influence of Digital Architecture on Virtual Furniture Design." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 493-504. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This exploration attempts to address a new concept, a condition in which digital architecture has started to have a significant impact on the ways in which we live and design. Working practices, social interaction and many other facets of contemporary life have been radically changed. As a time when architecture is becoming digital through the use of computers in the design process and the architecture has became digital through an increasing application of three-dimensional simulated environments to understand and navigate digital information in space. The digital and architecture are being invisibly integrated in a process that is not even apparent to most architects. It makes us aware of the many opportunities that exist between these two design approaches. Instead of trying to validate conventional design thinking in a different realm, the strategy should be to infiltrate design with other media and disciplines to produce a new crossbreed profession. Through an exploration of outstanding digital architecture the detail of generative form, sculptural and curvaceous form, and zoomorphic form, which will have a significant impact on virtual furniture design, can be discovered.  
Huang, Ying-Shiu, and Jainyou Lee. "The New Combination of Digital Sketching and Modeling Process in Idea-Developing Stage." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 545-556. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. With the introduction of the computer into different forms of digital applications in the design process, Mitchell strongly recommended a wider application of the new technology in the design process -- implying the mutual influence between physical architecture and the sketches, and between physical and digital models. Most important is the possibility of using computer aided design (CAD) to develop ideas in early design stage. During the developing idea stage, the traditional design process from sketching drawings to forming ideas has been transformed to a process where the idea directly proceeds to computer modelling. The aim of this approach is to tackle the above issues created by the introduction of computer technology, trying to produce the same possibilities during the computer modelling process as that in the cognitive behaviour of sketching. Also, the designer usually realizes the abstract concepts with the aid of the 2D sketches and the 3D physical models, but between the traditional sketches and the models, a large degree of disagreement always exists. Therefore, this work aims to develop a new formula for employing digital media, which will enable the designer to envisage 2D sketches and computer models simultaneously. In this scenario, the designer can remain aware of cognitive behaviour in sketching while constructing computer models.  
Kwon, Yong-Moo. "Toward Comprehensive Heritage Exploration Through Real and Virtual Museum." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 363-372. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This paper addresses a comprehensive heritage exploration issue through real and virtual museum. Our research experiences on virtual heritage technology for the virtual museum service are introduced. The role of the virtual museum is investigated while comparing with that of the real museum based on the ICOMis definition of museum. The virtual museum interface schemes are presented in view of comprehensive heritage exploration through real and virtual museum.  
Herr, Christiane, and Thomas Fischer. "Using Hardware Cellular Automata to Simulate Use in Adaptive Architecture." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 815-828. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. In this paper we give an account of our development of a hardware machine-readable cellular automata model for simulating dynamic patterns of use and adaptation in vernacular high-density architecture. In a hypothetical architectural setting that draws its formal expression from illegal façade extensions in Hong Kong and its conceptual framework from the Open Building movement, we examine state evolutions in monotonous matrices of adaptable residential units. The primary objective is to gain a better understanding not only of architectural form but also of dynamic processes in the built environment and hence of the factors that cause adaptive architectures to tend towards different types of overall attractor states. The paper gives a discussion of the projectis theoretical background as well as a detailed description of the hardware model and its modes of application.  
Kalay, Yehuda, Yongwook Jeong, Seungwook Kim, and Jaewook Lee. "Virtual Learning Environments." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 871-890. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. Cyberspace, an information space created through ubiquitously networked computers, has been transformed from fiction to fact in the past decade thanks to the advent of the World Wide Web. Although it can only be experienced through the mediation of computers, it is quickly becoming an alternative stage for everyday economic, cultural, and other human activities. As such, there is a potential and a need to design it according to architectural principles, rather than the prevailing document (page) metaphor. This need is most evident in learning environments, which rely on social and contextual attributes as much as they rely on content. This paper describes the underlying theory and our efforts to develop such virtual learning environments, and the software that allows users to access and inhabit them.  
Hamid, Bauni. "Visualizing Urban Resettlement Project in the Context of Community-Based Development." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 707-716. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This research was focused on visualizing new housing model and its customization based on peopleis option as part of implementing community-based development principle. There are two significant research findings that are discussed in this paper that will be basis for developing a user-friendlier digital model as part of longterm research in visualizing whole resettlement process. The role of local person who is authorized to handle the model and to customize it to other inhabitants in the resettlement area is very essential in order to achieve the maximum versatility of the model. Another significant finding is potential of VRML model as information nodes for other digital modelling alternatives in an integrated information system for urban revitalization project.  
Martens, Bob, Wassim Jabi, T. Cerovsek, Tomo Cerovsek, H. Penttilä, and Hannu Penttillä. "Web-Based Platforms for Collaborative Submission and Review of Shared Information." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 49-63. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. The focus of this paper is the implementation of web-based data platforms for CAAD research and education. This review is based on three case studies that use different software environments for the creation of the specified data platforms: eCAADe/FileMakerdatabases, ACADIA/CAMEO-WebObjects environment and SciX/WODA-language.
Chen, Guan-Ye. "What is Intention Structure? - Represent Invisible Information of Spatial Depicts." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 275-286. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. The significant problem of this paper is how we convey spatial information to represent concrete meaning of mental imagery. For replying the above problem, we are developing a spatial information structure called “Intention Structure”. Intention structure is used to represent some spatial experience of a particular person and awareness of the aura into some spatial depicts at that physical place. The meaning of “intention” is implied into a sequential relation when a navigator moves and gazes something in a place. This sequential relation can be described into two ways of spatial representation: one is the action of human body including “moving the body” and “moving the head”, another is converting the visual information into spatial memories through the behaviour of gaze, including “the sight focus” and “the snapshot glancei. Otherwise, we also consider the limitation of topology at that physical place. Based on the above ideas, we use XML technologies in Java language to represent spatial data of intention structure for the describable usages of invisible information. we implemented this idea on a project of spatial analysis with Taiwanese traditional garden, the Lin family garden in Banciao, Taipei County, Taiwan.  
Yuda, Yasuyuki, Wookhyun Yeo, Sooyeon Oh, Atsuko Kaga, Tsuyoshi Sasada, and Reika Sato. "“Plug-In” Method as Used in the Initial Study Stage of Design." In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 535-544. CAADRIA. Seoul, Korea: Institute of Millennium Environmental Design and Research, Yonsei University and The Korean Housing Association, 2004. This paper will propose a new design method “Plug-in”. 3DCG is a powerful medium for presentation and design in environmental design. However, in the initial stage of a design, we are not able to use it easily since there is no reference data required for 3D modelling such as drawings in that stage. This method will solve the problem and help a designer to get inspiration by use of 3DCG from the very early stage.