Keywords Abstract
Koutamanis, Alexander, and Vicky Mitossi. "A "spelling" checker for architectural drawings: Grammatical and syntactic analysis in structured representations." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 369-378. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. CAAD representations for the early design stages have traditionally focused on aspects apparently relating to design creativity. These, however, may be unconnected to the control and analysis of design constraints that affect the further development of the design. The stability and reliability of control and analysis rely on what (despite the dangers of the linguistic analogy) we might call the grammatical and syntactic well-formedness of the representation. The paper reports on the control of grammar and syntax in a representation of spatial and building elements with respect to both the syntagmatic and the paradigmatic dimension.
Kim, M., S. Cho, S. Lee, and C. Yoon. "A 3D documentation system for the korean traditional wooden structure ." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 469-477. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. A Korean traditional wooden structure is constructed under specific rules of assembly and proportion. Thus, the geometric dimensions of a wooden component as well as the proportional relations between the components can be parameterized. This paper will propose a new documentation system of Korean traditional wooden architecture using ObjectARX.
Kim, M.-J., H.-S. Lee, J.-W. Choi, M.-E. Cho, and H.-K. Kim. "A conceptual framework of virtual workplace for collaborative design." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 299-303. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. Designing is the combined efforts of various professions such as architects, clients, engineers and interior designers. Collaboration is a crucial element to the design process. We identify design activities and communication types in design processes. In accordance with these identifications, this paper discusses design of virtual workplace required for collaborative design process between various professions. In this paper, areas of the virtual workplace are divided into several territories.
Saunders, Robert, and John S. Gero. "A curious design agent: a computational model of novelty-seeking behaviour in design." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 345-350. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. This paper presents a “curious design agent”, i.e. an agent that uses the search for novel designs to guide its design actions. A computational model of curiosity based on a process called novelty detection is presented.  The behaviour of the computational model is illustrated with a curious design agent searching the space of two-dimensional patterns generated by a simulated Spirograph is reported.
Bailey, Rohan. "A digital design coach for young designers." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 311-314. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. It is the intention of this paper is to construct for the reader a suitable foundation on which to determine a digital design coach. It seeks to define this possibility by examining two ideas. The first is visual thinking, as used by designers in the process of design. The second idea, that of providing students with expert partners for the learning of design is supported by evidence from a variation on protocol analysis (developed by the author) and a related design studio conducted in New Zealand and Jamaica. Using these concepts in relation to recent advances in the development of digital tools the paper proposes what a digital coach may look like. 
Lin, Cheng-Yuan. "A digital procedure of building construction: a practical project." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 459-468. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. The process of building electric-mechanical design held only by shop drawings now. The physical models were rarely used in this field. This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. This paper foresees that digital models will become an indispensable tool for building electric-mechanical design, in the near future. 
Caldas, Luisa, and J. Rocha. "A generative design system applied to Sizaís school of architecture at Oporto." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 253-264. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. A new generative design system based on a genetic algorithm is tested within the framework of Alvaro Sizais School of Architecture at Oporto, Portugal. The system works over a detailed three-dimensional description of the building and uses natural lighting and overall environmental performance as objective functions to guide the generation of solutions. This paper researches the encoding of architectural design intentions into the system, using constraints derived from Sizais original design. Experiments using this generative system were performed on three different geographical locations to test the algorithmis capability to adapt solutions to different climatic characteristics within the same language constraints.
Dijkstra, J., Jos van Leeuwen, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "A methodology for measuring preferences of design alternatives using internet." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 441-444. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. This paper describes the design of an experiment based on conjoint measurement that explores the possibility of using Internet to measure preferences of design alternatives.
Huang, Ching-Hui. "A preliminary study of spatializing cyberspace." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 27-37. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. The spatial nature of cyberspace has not yet fully defined. This paper presents both analogous and comparative approach to reveal the spatial nature of cyberspace based on a conventional architecture theory, Space Syntax. Two types of city, the physical and the virtual, are compared in order to realize the configurational properties of cyberspace. The findings of this study indicate that the theoretical assumptions of existing architecture theories need to be altered so that cyberspace can be well interpret and understand.
Wu, Wei, and Edward Ng. "Accuracy and usability of daylighting simulation for designing buildings in urban sites." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 211-216. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. The unique urban environment of Hong Kong presents designers and students alike unique challenges. Firstly, rules of thumb not longer apply. Secondly, few design tools, mostly developed for low-rise open sites could be used. Advanced computational lighting simulation software could be used to address the design need of information. This study examined the accuracy of two daylighting simulation software: Lightscape and Desktop Radiance, under heavily obstructed urban conditions in Hong Kong. In addition, it evaluates the performance and usability of these two software packages from the designer's perspective. It can be reported that, with due care, both software give reasonably accurate results. However, from the designeris perspective, the look and feel of the two software, and the need for a priori knowledge of lighting design determine their eventual adoptability.
Woodbury, Robert F., and Sambit Datta. "An approach to Search and Exploration through Mixed-Initiative." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001.

Generative design environments need support for human intervention as well as sound computational formalisms. A systematic approach to integrating the two, formal generation and the exploratory, is lacking. In this paper, we posit the possibility of a design support system that combines formal search with user driven exploration. Our approach is to cast the interaction between the user and the generative formalism as agent collaboration in a mixed-initiative environment. We describe the role of interaction and agency in an experimental mixed-initiative design support system, FOLDS and demonstrate its application.

Chen, Sheng-Chih. "Analysis of the use of computer media by expert and novice designers." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 71-80. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. This paper is based on an experiment of protocol analysis. In order to investigate the differences in models designed under various circumstances, the paper attempts to find out how expert and novice designers develop their designs with computer media.  It also compares expert designers with their novice counterparts by analyzing and generalizing some cases in their thinking and designing process. Thus a designer who is very familiar with software and have expertise in design must apply different strategies to their design. This is indeed the cause of changes in the process of promoting from a novice to an expert designer. Therefore, the differences between novices and experts can be one of the foci of educating novice designers.
Gu, N., and Mary Lou Maher. "Architectural design of a virtual campus ." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 158-161. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. The design of a virtual campus, while considering the role of technology in education, also can be influenced by the of place that more traditional architectural design provides. This approach need not result in a virtual campus that looks like a physical building, the main concept is to intricately link learning with an experience in a place with other people.
Eshaq, Ahmad Rafi Moham, and Mohd Fazidin. "Army War Game Simulation (AWAS) system - Utilising architectural knowledge in virtual environments." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 435-438. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. This research briefly examines the importance of collaborative design in developing a multi-user, multi-tiered, networked and real-time information base system. Aspects such as navigation, interaction, communication, movements (objects or virtual camera), control, level of details, spatial design and virtual spaces will be explained to show their importance in the development of virtual world. This paper will further explore the aspects of collaborative design in the context of Army War Game Simulation System (AWAS). A generic collaborative design-based framework will be demonstrated to simulate the overall operations of a war in command-control structure of the force. 
Donath, Dirk, T.M. Lömker, and Katharina Richter. "Boundary debates: Extensions from analog to digital spaces." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 241-249. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. Our research focuses on the evaluation of digital space and its prospective use as a functional space for future architectural planning tasks. Through the existence of digital technologies the authors consider that architects will have to expose themselves to new - planning tasks, which are not comparable to traditional architectural duties. This requires us to rethink architectural terms and their meaning in digital space. It demands us to extend the borders within which we think, work and design. The paper presents exemplary projects that demonstrate the applicability and added value of these mergers as an extension of solid architectural buildings. Focus is laid onto digital architecture that either extends its analog counterpart by providing functionality that does not exist in the “reali world or which doesn't have an analog counterpart at all. The paper aims at the definition of new tasks for architects to be developed. It describes methods and strategies architects have to be aware of to be capable to offer an extended field of activity. Finally it presents exemplary projects which show the possible added value clients could gain from buildings to be established as mergers of analog and digital spaces.
Cong, Wu, and Zhang Hongran. "CAD system for chinese traditional architecture." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 331-335. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. This paper discusses an undergoing project for an AutoCAD based CAD system for Chinese traditional architecture (CTA) called ARCHISTORY. It covers three main aspects of CTA research: field survey, structural and constructional research, and preservation and restoration design.
Urbanismo, Todos. "Centennial Web Site Villanueva - the Use of the World Wide Web Technology for the Promotion of the Centennial - Carlos Raul Villanueva and the Declaration of University Campus Caracas as World Heritage." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 204-215. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. The UCV Architectural and City Planning Faculty, as a key part of a broader project, focused on compiling, registering, analyzing and diffusing the study of Carlos Raul Villanueva and his architectural work, offers you the following website: Sitio Web Centenario Villanueva (www.centenariovillanueva.web.ve), which is the first digital multimedia documented work that covers the life of this venezuelan architect, as well as the universal values that his maximum masterpiece represents: la Ciudad Universitaria de Caracas, all of this in a context of a holistic, permanent, globally free available and interactive informational system that will be permanently updated.
Fukuda, Tomohiro, Ryuichiro Nagahama, Atsuko Kaga, S. Oh, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "Collaboration support system for nightscape design based on VR technology." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 103-111. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. This paper reports the collaboration support system for nightscape design based on virtual reality (VR) technology. 3D-CAD is converted into lighting simulation software. The schematic design and detail design of the Tokushima Shinmachi riverside promenade have been done using this system.
Paranandi, Murali. "Computer-Aided Daylight Simulation - a Hybrid Approach to Recording and Exploring Ideas." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 534-539. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. Accuracy and facility for iterative exploration are two of the most appealing promises of computer use in architectural design. In this paper, we discuss daylighting visualization, a very important aspect of the architectural design process, where computers do not yet fulfill these promises. We initiated a project to understand the reasons for this and to develop methods to deal with it in architectural design education. We report our work in progress, which combines creative thinking with scientific procedures to resolve the bottlenecks in computer graphics technologies making them suitable for design exploration. Our strategy seeks to fill the gaps in the science of photo realistic visualization with time tested physical modelling techniques. We present some of our student work based on this strategy.
Dokonal, Wolfgang, Bob Martens, and R. Ploesch. "Continuing work on a 3-d city model for architectural education." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 319-322. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. This paper describes continuing experiences with the creation of a 3D-City Model at Graz University of Technology. It presents an innovative approach in establishing a city model with the substantial support of students in the study fields of architecture and surveying. Doubtlessly other projects already revealed similar issues, but so far without direct collaborative input by students.
Lee, C.H., C.C. Pang, and Tay-Sheng Jeng. "Controlling inter-process coordination in a web-based collaborative environment." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 113-124. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. This paper presents a rule-based mechanism for mediating design processes in a web-based collaborative environment. This mechanism is developed based on a logical description of flexible declarative inter-dependency relationships between collaborative design activities. We address design coordination problems by focusing on overlapping problem solving within dynamic workflow. A system prototype is presented to demonstrate our approach. This prototype is part of “DECADE”, a long-term project to develop the needed technologies supporting design collaboration.
Silva, Neander. "Design computing education: Developing a post-grad CAAD curriculum based on specific desing project." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 315-318. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. The idea of teaching design computing through design-based approaches has been increasingly adopted over the past 15 years. However, most of the resulting experiments have been limited to specific courses within larger programmes. This approach has rarely affected CAAD curriculum. A glance at the syllabus of some CAAD programmes may reveal their non design-based nature. We describe here a post-graduate programme that has been structured around a specific design project through a set of courses in which the emphasis falls on the needs of the design process rather than on software categories.
Tisma, Alexandra. "Designing and deciding: Development of a decision support system for citizens' participation in spatial decision making." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 451-455. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. Nil
Saunders, Robert, and John S. Gero. "Designing for Interest and Novelty. Motivating Design Agents." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 725-738. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. This paper is concerned with the motivation of design agents to promote the exploration of design spaces. A general form of motivation common to designers is a curiosity to discover interesting designs. This paper presents computational models of interest and curiosity based on the detection of novelty. We illustrate the behaviour of our model of interest by developing a design agent that is motivated to explore the effects of emergent crowd behaviours on the performance of doorways.
Jeng, Tay-Sheng, S.-C. Chen, C.-H. Lee, J.-Y. Chiang, and .-Y. Huang. "Developing asynchronous collaborative design environments: an experimental study." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 291-294. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. Our interest is in the development of design environments that incorporate means for representing ill-structured design knowledge and processes for use in design education. This paper describes the experiment in developing the foundations for generating a new paradigm for digital design studios, allowing significant movement toward coordination and process design.
Lin, Ying-Tzu, and Mao-Lin Chiu. "Digital cinematheque:Designing the virtual environment with issues of the context and atmoshere." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 51-61. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. The rise of virtual environments (VEs) is made possible due to the recent rapid development of the Internet and virtual reality (VR) technologies. The purpose of this study is to explore the possibilities of the virtual environment design by examining the characteristics of VE, and comparing its differences from physical environments. In the illustration of a design project “digital cinemathequei, the context and atmosphere of virtual environments are thoroughly studied, and the feasibilities and directions of developments of virtual environments are subsequently enlightened with the proposed design concepts and related issues.
Lan, Ju-Hung, and Tay-Sheng Jeng. "Enhancing shared understanding in collaborative design communication - an XML approach." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 285-289. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. The goal of this work is to enhance shared understanding in a collaborative design system. In this paper, we present the approach to applying XML technology to represent multiple views of design information. A web-based system prototype that incorporates XML technology is demonstrated.
Gero, John S., and Vladimir Kazakov. "Entropic-Based Similarity and Complexity Measures of 2D Archtectural Drawings." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. In this paper we construct an information-theoretic model ofarchitectural drawings. This model is then used to quantify and measurethe complexities and similarities of drawings. The approach is appliedwithin a linear qualitative shape representation but can be generalized toother types of representation. The descriptive and analytic power of theproposed methods are demonstrated by studying the time evolution ofthe architectural plans produced by Aalto and Kahn and by comparingthem to each other.
Gatermann, Harald. "First step to augmented reality: Combining vrml and pano-photos." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 219-230. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. VRML as a world-wide standard for describing 3D-geometry is enhanced by using panorama-photography for realistic backgrounds - other than in quicktime-vr it is possible to move around by using several vrml-nodes.
Janssen, P.H.T., John Frazer, and M.X. Tang. "Generating-predicting soup: a conceptual framework for a design environment." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 137-148. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. A framework for the development of a computational environment that supports generative design is proposed. This environment is referred to as a generating-predicting soup. This paper discusses such an environment at a conceptual level. The research focuses on the architecture, engineering, construction, and facilities management (AEC/FM) domain. The general framework is however applicable to many design domains. 
Chitchian, Davood, and Jan Heeling. "How to assist designers in the urban design process." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 445-449. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. A lot of CAAD programs and design applications exist to assist designers. They hardly support the whole urban design process. Although those programs are useful for the architectural design process but are not suitable for urbanistic design. We have been working on the Urban-CAD application to assist designers with urbanistic design activities.
Kokotovich, Vasilije, and Terry Purcell. "Ideas - the Embodiment of Ideas, and Drawing: an Experimental Investigation of Inventing." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. The term visual reasoning, in cognitive psychology, oftenrefers to the use of visual spatial relations in making inferences aboutcorresponding conceptual relations. The conclusion is that external visualrepresentations have special properties, which can aid reasoning abouthigher order abstract concepts. The design literature is more specific andoften sees visual reasoning as synonymous with drawing, and considersthis a core activity in resolving design problems. The research to bereported examined visual reasoning and design, by investigating the rolethat drawing plays in the practicality and creativity of inventions. Themost striking finding was that using only mental imagery produced morecreative and practical inventions than the use of drawing and that this wasdependant on the area of expertise of the participants. This appears to runcounter to the views found in both the visual reasoning and designliterature regarding the effectiveness of visual representations anddrawing. This has implications for our understanding of both the visualreasoning and design thinking processes.
Godart, C, Gilles Halin, Jean-Claude Bignon, C Bouthier, O Malcurat, and P Molli. "Implicit or explicit coordination of virtual teams in building design." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 429-434. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. This paper describes the conclusions of a reflection driven by a virtual team, composed of three research teams (one in computing at LORIA, one in telecommunications at France Telecom R&D, and a last one in building construction and design at CRAI) in the context of a common project. The topic of this project is the coordination of a virtual team in the context of a virtual enterprise, with experiments in the field of building construction. More precisely, our goal is to define a model of cooperative work allowing the partners of a building construction to coordinate their efforts in an efficient way. 
Christiaans, H, and J Restrepo. "Information processing in design: a theoretical and empirical perspective." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 63-73. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001.

The research mentioned in this paper has been conducted in the sub-Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering at Delft University of Technology during the last seven years. This research belongs now to a big research program called “Ambition”. Ambition is a program focused on three main topics: Product Conceptualisation, Intelligent Products and Sustainability. Information Processing is part of the Product Conceptualisation topic.

Product Conceptualisation has a special focus on the designer’s thinking and behaviour in the conceptualisation of a product. Design thinking in the conceptual phase of the design process is aiming at the development of concepts through analytical, visual and conceptual activities. Although these activities are part of one process, they are seen here (for methodological reasons) as three parallel processing elements, i.e. (1) information processing, (2) visual thinking, and (3) conceptual thinking. The three elements all show a common ground and are linked together in focusing on the initial phases of the design process, dealing with aspects of one and the same activity: optimising the process which develops from the definition of the design task to the conceptualisation of a design solution.

Cheng, Ron. "Inside Rhinoceros." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. Master the ins and outs of building curved surfaces and organic shapes while sharpening your knowledge of the mathematics used in contemporary computer-aided engineering applications. Inside Rhinoceros provides readers with an all-inclusive introduction to 3D computer modelling using the newest release of Rhinoceros - Rhino™, Release 2 - with special emphasis on understanding NURBS surfaces and boundary-representation methods.  
Wong, C.-H., Yu-Tung Liu, S.-C. Chen, K.-W. Chang, T. Lai, H.L. Lee, and Y.-Y. Chang. "Is cyberspace a space? a preliminary exploration of the spatial phenomena in the internat." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 189-194. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. This study attempts to join the current interdisciplinary discussion on the issue of “space“, and to obtain new definition as well as insightful understanding of “space”. As a preliminary exploration, the main objective of this study is to discover the elements involved in Internet space creation and to examine the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces. In addition, this study also attempts to investigate whether participants from different academic disciplines define or experience Internet spaces in different ways, and to find what spatial elements of Internet they emphasize the most. We hope that our findings would ultimately be also useful for contemporary architectural designers and scholars in their designs in the real world and virtual world.
Wyeld, Theodor, Robert F. Woodbury, and S.J. Shannon. "Leitmotif cases for design learning." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 401-409. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. We have developed several deep cases based on actual and hypothetical built environments and have used these in a strongly student-centred instructional style. On reflection, our approach seems qualitatively different from norms in architecture schools and from other case-based learning practices. We introduce it here under the rubric of the Leitmotif Case, explain its structure and compare it with other approaches.
Brown, Andre, and Michael Knight. "NAVRgate: Gateways to architectural virtual reality - a review and thought on future directions." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 195-198. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. A core element in the success of a virtual environment is the ease and appropriateness of the navigation process. Navigation is a two part process which consists of a facility for enabling movement [Locomotion] and sensory input to aid the navigator in finding they way around [Cognition]. Our work has focussed on Navigation in Virtual Environments for Architecture and that work is summarised here.
Alvarado, Rodrigo García, Juan Marquez, and G.V. Vildosola. "Qualitative contribution of a vr-system to architectural design: Why we failed?" In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 423-427. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. The paper exposes the development of a Virtual-Reality system for modelling timber structures, and evaluations with students about its contribution to the architectural project. 
Papanikolaou, Maria. "Respace: a virtual environment for rethinking about space." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 391-400. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. ReSpace is a teaching module, which entices students in a playful way to work with computers and motivates them to think more deeply about the abstract idea of space. The goal of ReSpace is to enhance the concept of space by augmenting its content with additional levels of information like statements about emotions, by referring to senses, delineating impressions or telling stories and inducing memories. ReSpace takes advantage of the possibilities offered by virtual environments in the transfer of information and suggests space as a metaphor for the communication of ideas, knowledge and experiences about space. In this paper the module ReSpace taught by the author is described. Its central theme is the representation and communication of oneis notion, perception, and interpretation of space with the help of a 3D, interactive, virtual, environment. http://alterego.arch.ethz.ch
Tang, Hsien-Hui, and John S. Gero. "Roles of knowledge while designing and their implications for CAAD." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 81-89. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. This paper outlines some roles of knowledge while designing based on experimental results from studying novice and expert designers. The implications of these experimental results on future CAAD systems are discussed.
Tuzmen, Ayca. "Self-Sustainability of Effective Team Performance in a Collaborative Design Environment." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 122-131. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001.

A number of studies have contributed to the design and development of effective collaborative design environments. They have focused on the communication of interrelated team members, the creation of shared understanding and vision, and shared discovery of design solutions. However, only few studies have focused on the design or the development of collaborative design environments that would allow all the members of the design team to plan their processes, enact according to their plan, monitor and influence their performance in following the planned processes, and prevent them from deviating unconsciously from their desired performance. This paper introduces the constructs of a distributed process management environment (DPME) which was designed to stimulate self-sustainability of effective team performance in an collaborative design environment by supporting: (a) the shared creation of a process plan, (b) the enactment of a process according to its plan, (c) the monitoring of the outcome and process of the team, and (d) the control of the team performance. It presents the findings of a study conducted for evaluating the effectiveness of the DPME in meeting the conditions required for collaborative building design.

Osman, Yasser. "Shape studies: Remodeling Bilbao museum." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 337-341. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. This paper is a study of shape, attempting to understand the effect of computer-aided architectural drafting and design on the geometry of form. This study also is a part of larger question: When the tools of presentation change, does form generation necessarily change as well? The study is in two parts: Remodelling Bilbao Museum and Editing a Cube.
Smith, Gregory, and John S. Gero. "Situated design interpretation using a configuration of actor capabilities." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 15-24. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. A designer looking at a drawing sometimes notices things not originally intended. Conversely, not all implications of a design action are considered before each depiction action is taken. This paper describes an approach to understanding and reproducing this behaviour based on a situated interaction with an external representation. 
Chiu, Mao-Lin, S. Yamaguchi, and Mitsuo Morozumi. "Supporting collaborative design studios - scenarios and tools." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 125-134. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. Design collaboration requires formal organization as well as technologies in supporting design communication and process. This paper documents the experience of a collaborative design studio held among three institutions. It briefly describes the scenarios and tools applied in the CDS, and the resulting design process.
Chiu, Mao-Lin, Y.-M. Lin, C.-H. Lee, and P.-H. Tsai. "Teaching rapid prototyping in cad studios for creative design." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 307-310. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. This paper is intended to study the characteristics of digital tools and applying the rapid prototyping (RP) technology to the architectural design studio. The examples and experience of using RP are presented.
Chang, Teng-Wen, and J. Huang. "The acting roles model of web-based learning - Web-based Architectural Learning Envirnoment (WALE)." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 323-327. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. Some useful aspects are learned on the asynchrony characteristics of Web and a crucial exhibiting space so-called gallery composed by students creation proposes a positive virtual learning space. In this paper, an acting role-interplayed system (WALE) is demonstrated through a CAD subject for third-year architectural students at Ming Chuan University will reveal and evaluate the potential or drawback of such environment. WALE is based on a game-playing learning environment for students to interact motivated and to evolve the design potential of individual. This study of WALE is facilitated with CAD tools and developed to help students to explore possible design alternatives by acting multi-role in the process of design.
Huang, Y.H., Y.T. Liu, C.Y. Lin, Y.T. Chen, Y.-C. Chiu, S. Oh, Atsuko Kaga, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "The comparison of animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting in the design process ." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 231-239. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. Evolved from freehand sketches, physical models to computerized drafting, modelling, animations, and virtual reality, different media are used to communicate to designers or users with different conceptual levels. This study investigates the similarities and variances among computing techniques, interacting principles, and their applications. Different computerized media in the design process are also adopted to explore related phenomenon by using these three media in the renew project of old Hsinchu, Taiwan. Finally, similarity and variance among these computerized media are discussed. This study not only provides insight into the fundamental characteristics of the three computerized media discussed herein, but also enables designers to adopt different media in the design stages. 
Stouffs, Rudi, Bige Tunçer, and Sevil Sariyildiz. "The customer is king: Web-based custom design in residential developments." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 149-157. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. Two residential development projects are described and discussed in which the Web provides a communication link for designers to probe the preferences of their customers and for potential clients to portray their wishes to the designers.
Tuzmen, Ayca. "The effectiveness of a distributed_process management environment for collaborative design." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 481-490. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. This papers introduces the constructs of a distributed process management environment (DPME) which was designed to stimulate collaborative design by supporting: (a) the communication of team members, (b) the shared creation and discovery, (c) shared understanding, and (d) self-sustainability of effective team performance. An evaluation study was conducted for assessing the effectiveness of the DPME in meeting the conditions required for collaborative design. In the DPME evaluation, a groups of experts (N=13) were asked to discuss the current needs and expectations of the design teams from an effective collaborative design environment by identifying the capabilities and limitations of the currently employed collaboration methods and tools. The findings of the evaluation study illustrated that the design teams require to work in a collaborative design environment which not only allows the exchange of information regarding the artifacts being designed but also the communication of interrelated team members, the creation of a shared understanding of the team's vision and progress, the shared creation and discovery of artifacts and vision, and the monitoring and controlling of effective team performance.
Chow, B., S. Lam, and Jin-Yeu Tsou. "The impact of computer-based design tools for daylighting simulation and prediction for a built environment." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 169-179. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. This paper investigates the application of computer daylighting simulation to provide qualitative assessment and comparison for designers to improve the built environment especially for non-technical architecture students. A comprehensive study was carried out to evaluate different daylighting design tools and to identify the limitation of current systems in the academic field.  The paper will focus mainly on the dynamic information exchange between scientific visualization and the design decision-making process.  Both architectural design studio environment and practical design problems in the real world setting were experimented and evaluated. Two case studies are presented: a proposed gallery space for a museum, and a detail architectural design of a community church. Architectural design alterations are proposed, simulated and discussed. The recursive feedback of the designers are studied and documented. Through a combination of qualitative assessment and comparison, designers can evaluate and compare different design options in the computing environment before implementing in the real world situation.
Kawasumi, N, Mitsuo Morozumi, Y. Shounai, and Riken Homma. "The study of design interface for network collaboration." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 295-298. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. In this paper, we discuss about the design interface for the Virtual Design Studio projects and intend to develop the experimental prototype to evaluate our idea. Web pages and simple script, such as the digital bulletin board, are generally used for the network collaboration. But these systems require the extra work for designer to present his proposal on the web. So we propose the Visual Pinup Board that is possible to handle the registered design proposal like the actual pinup board and it can be used with common web browser.
Yip, Michael, and Jim Plume. "The use of digital spatial narratives to express design ideas and concepts." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 351-355. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. This paper reports on work undertaken by design students over the past couple of years experimenting with the advanced use of digital media to understand and express complex design concepts. The students are required to move beyond the conventional use of such tools to model design intents, and to challenge preconceptions of the nature of representation through spatialisation of the relationship between signifier/signified/referent, and through digital 3D sketches. These have become known as digital spatial narratives. The purpose of this paper is to expose and reflect on the outcomes of these thematic explorations.  It discusses both the techniques that have emerged in their formation as well as the broad range of animation types that have resulted from that process.
Tang, S.-K., Yu-Tung Liu, C.-Y. Lin, S.-C. Shih, C.-H. Chang, and Y.-C. Chiu. "The visual harmony between new and old materials in the restoration of historical architecture: a study of computer simulation." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 205-210. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. This research is based on a historical architecture restoration project (the Taiwan 921-earthquake damaged Chi-chi train station). The objective of this research is to construct a computerized procedure for allocating roof tiles. We attempt to simulate different combinations of new and existing roof tile layout through the application of computer simulation prior to the actual construction. This computer simulation process assists the professional and non-professionalis analysis and evaluation to achieve a visually harmonious and ready for construction solution.
Choi, J.-W., H.-S. Lee, J.-E. Hwang, and M.-J. Kim. "The Wooden Construction data modeling of korean traditional architecture - Focused on the structure of Gongpo in Buseoksa MuRyangsujun." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 265-274. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. Finding national identities from its traditional heritages might be an important research issue especially for Asian architects and researchers. Nevertheless, it is noticed that the structure of Korean traditional architecture has not been fully explored in a systematical or computational manner and its information is not shared efficiently. This study thus explores a computational way of structuring construction knowledge and building information of Korean traditional architecture. To do this, we select a well-known old temple building, Buseoksa Muryangsujun, one of the oldest Buddhist temple in Korea, as a prototype. We first build an accurate  three-dimensional model of the building with an aid of a traditional building expert, categorize its building components, and then analyze their connectivity and the connectivity patterns and rules by especially focusing on the capital order system, called Gongpo. The result of the study shows several schema diagrams representing the wooden construction data model carefully designed for an intelligent building simulation and generative system that will be developed in the near future.  The paper also demonstrates a way of computationally describing some shape grammars that explain the components&apos, connectivity.
Segers, Nicole, B. De Vries, Henri Achten, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "Towards computer-aided support of associative reasoning in the early phase of architectural design ." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 359-368. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. The early phase of the design process is a seemingly chaotic, complex process, involving many methods and representations. In supporting this process, a computer system that can follow the architect in his/her actions may be helpful. Such a system should assist architects in maintaining an overview of the development of their ideas over time, show the current state of the process, and support and stimulate the generation of new associations whenever required. This paper will discuss the rich information structure in the design process and cognitive processes handling this structure. Further there will be a discussion on the features of a system that can handle this rich information.
Yan, H., B. Ong, and G.T. Lim. "VBFRED-IVY: the development of a computational tool to model the thermal performance of plants on buildings in the Singapore climate ." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 159-169. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. This paper reports the development of VBFRED-IVY, a computational tool that is used to model and analyze the thermal effects of plants on buildings under Singapore climatic conditions. In VBFRED-IVY, the vegetation-air temperature and surface temperature of a planted wall and a non-planted wall are investigated respectively. Climatic data of Singapore are input to do the parametric testing. Then field measurements are carried on three planted walls in different orientations, and statistics method is applied to evaluate the simulation program. The results show that VBFRED-IVY is efficient. 
Martens, Bob, and A. Voigt. "Virtual and full-scale modeling: a collection of resources." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 201-204. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. In this paper the relationship between Virtual and Full-scale Mo-deling will be traced back. A number of publications supports the dis-semination of existing knowledge resp. experiences. Although a series of biannual EFA-Conferences (European Full-scale Modelling Association) produced a remarkable number of useful papers, the “scientific output” beyond this platform remained to be so far in the dust of gray literature. On the other hand the rapid growing interest for computer applications and tools rediscovered the working area of 1:1 simulation more or less the other way around. Although the term VR in the nineties was strongly occupied by computer-interfaces resp. -representations, soon the insight gained in importance that reality is by far more complex than some 10.000 polygons. Furthermore, some kind of unproductive competition resp. defense of good old modelling tra-ditions versus promising computer technology seemed to act as the main activity. However, the fusion of Virtual and Full-Scale Mo-de-ling could indefinitely serve as a promising field of research.
Maher, Mary Lou, S. Simoff, N. Gu, and K.H. Lau. "Virtual conference centre ." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 192-195. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. The Virtual Conference Facilities design is part of the Virtual Campus, which comprises several rooms, hallways, and resource areas. The rooms include facilities for slide projection, recording, and softbots. The three-dimensional visualization of the rooms assumes that an avatar can walk or teleport from one place to another, The design style is a derivation of the Virtual Office design, using similar framelike walls and distinctive activity areas. The facility has three main rooms: the entrance hall, the conference room, and the practice studio. The use of rooms is determined on the basis of activity and conversation privacy, since the main purpose of the facility is to provide a place for people to meet. A person can hear anyone else in the some room talk but cannot hear someone in another room.
Xiao, Z., W. Gu, and s. Hongsan. "Virtual space for cooperative design based on active server pages." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 183-197. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. This paper describes the Virtual Space System, which is a system based on Internet to help cooperative design. ASP technology is used to build the system. The system is easy to use and has nothing to do with clientslocal computers. It is also manageable and has powerful ability of extension. All these features of the system make the cooperative design more reliable and efficient. 
Maher, Mary Lou, N. Gu, and F. Li. "Visualisation and object design in virtual architecture ." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 39-50. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. The design of virtual architecture is currently ill-defined and lacks a framework for understanding existing designs. We present a basis for the representation of virtual architecture that follows from the idea of conceptual metaphor. This approach addresses the limitations of current environments for designing virtual architecture by providing a basis for combining visualisation and object design.
Morozumi, Mitsuo, Riken Homma, Y. Shounai, S. Yamaguchi, and N Kawasumi. "Web-based collaborative design studio: tools and programs ." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 93-102. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. Since 1996, Kumamoto University has repeated several experiments to apply web-based collaborative design techniques to a junior design studio aiming to stimulate studentsinteraction in the class and to enhance their design abilities. When it became clear after a two-year experiment that writing web pages and uploading them to a web server was a barrier of communication for students, the authors developed a web-based groupware called GW-Notebook, and started using it in 1998. In the fall semester of 2000, the authors introduced a new design studio program, and tested the revised version of the groupware, GW-Notebook III. This paper discusses the features of the system, and gives an outline of the studio program and some of the findings in the studio as well as the use of the revised system. 
Woodbury, Robert F., S.J. Shannon, and Tristan de Estree Sterk. "What works in a design game? Supported by student reactions to being made to play." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 411-420. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. For several years we have been using the metaphor of play to conceive and deliver our design teaching. We report here results of a qualitative evaluation study on the effectiveness of our approach. We used both a participant observer methodology and a formal survey to gather and interpret data from the classroom. The results show tentative support for a positive role for play in early design education and several insights into how to build play into the design classroom.
Chiu, Mao-Lin. "When and where is design situated in case-based design?" In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 13-Mar. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. This paper depicts the process of design operations in situated design by a cognitive approach. A serial of similar sites are tested in a design experiment to identify the design situations and make case adaptation, and two groups of designers are examined in their design moves in case-based design by freehand sketches or computers respectively. The comparative analysis from the above observation and implications are presented.
van Leeuwen, Jos, and A.J. Jessurun. "XML for flexibility and extensibility of design information models." In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 491-501. CAADRIA. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney, 2001. This paper reports on a research project that aims to develop a design support system for early design stages. The dynamic way of handling information during early design imposes special requirements on the information modelling approach for which XML-Schema appears to provide promising solutions. The paper discusses the XML-Schema implementation of the so-called Feature-Based Modelling framework.