Keywords Abstract
Morozumi, Mitsuo, T. Uchiyama, Riken Homma, and M. Tanae. "A City Model for Studies of a Citizen's Way-Finding Behaviors." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 77-87. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. This paper discusses the necessary features for a QTVR (cylinder-VR) based simulation system to study a citizen's behaviour of finding their way to particular points, as well as observations found in the case studies that used several prototypes developed as a step in the studies. The authors tested prototype systems developed for a downtown shopping area of Kumamoto City, and observed answers to questionnaires in which 30 students who are familiar with the site compared the three prototypes. After observing cognitive maps sketched by nine strangers to the site, and after virtual walks with one of those prototypes: prototype-III, the authors concluded that it could provide a necessary level of visual representation and system operations as a tool for simulating citizens'travel behaviours. 
Wu, W, E. Ng, and Jin-Yeu Tsou. "A Comparative Investigation into a Process-Based Approach to Lighting Studies Using Physical and Computer Generated Models in Design Studio." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 107-121. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. This pilot research attempts to investigate differences in process between lighting study using physical model and computational simulation. A Physical modelling team, a computational modelling team, and a monitoring and tracking team were formed to process and monitor the research by a defined workflow of the design process. Using a time schedule technique, the procedures of each of the two methods were tracked. The research reveals that the research team favoured physical modelling for its ease of use and computational simulation for its flexibly. And that the users of physical models were more aware of the need for technical knowledge whilst the users of simulation software are more contended with the virtual results without evaluating them critically. In addition, the experiment also shows that the feedback mechanism of the physical modelling process is instant, continues and intuitive, whereas that of the computational process is discrete. Preliminary results not only confirm the long established view that the computational process lacks the tactile quality required for architectural understanding, worst still, it gives inexperienced users an illusion of knowledge and claims of understanding. Due to limitations of time, the research captures only the feasibility stage of the design process, further works involving a more comprehensive design program should be conducted.
Li, S.-P., John Frazer, and M.-X. Tang. "A Constraint Based Generative System for Floor Layouts." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 441-450. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. This paper presents the current study of using a constraint based approach to solve floor layout problems. Nonlinear programming technique is used for the solution searching. This paper presents the authors'attempt to improve the nonlinear programming techniques for floor layout problems. Unlike most nonlinear programming systems, multiple optimized solutions can be provided with this system. The process of solving a layout problem, from constraint specification to solution searching, is described in detail. A case study is given in the last section before the conclusions to illustrate how the proposed model works.
Tang, Hsien-Hui, and John S. Gero. "A Content-Oriented Coding Scheme for Protocol Analysis and Computer-Aided Architectural Design." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 265-275. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. In this paper we introduce a content-oriented scheme for protocol studies of designers and demonstrate its benefit for CAAD research. The structure of the coding scheme is described. We discuss how this method can benefit CAAD research and its differences from the process-oriented method used previously. With this method we analyze data to describe the design process as the combination of sensor-driven and process-driven processes. The results emphasize the importance of the sensor-driven processes in the design process. As a consequence we are able to propose some areas for CAAD tools that are based on the cognitive behaviours of designers.
Huang, J.H.-L., Teng-Wen Chang, and Anthony Radford. "A Derivation Graph of Computer Models for the Design Process on the Web." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 307-316. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. To propose a derivation graph by utilizing Computer modelling to represent the thinking processes in the design of Akkach House that will be demonstrated on the web.  
Wowo, Ding, and Tong Ziyu. "A New Method for Structuring the Rural Settlement." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 65-75. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. As we have known that natural villages were grown up with their own environment and social structure, in terms of form language they are in random process but in the level duality of village structure they have certain regularity. By using the computer technique we designed a simulator program with environmental parameters and used this program to grow up a village. This village could be similar to the natural village and its space form will not only relate to physical environmental factor but also to local people's method of  choosing the land. 
Shih, N., and Y. Tsai. "A Photogrammetry and Perception Study of Chernikhov Fantasy No. 32 and 38." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 461-470. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. This research investigated the object composition in Chernikhov's 101 Architectural Fantasies through computer-aided visualization, for the purpose of interpreting the relationships between architectural components. In contrast to traditional simulation analysis, this research applied photogrammetry to investigate the orthogonal and parallel ambiguity of 3D objects in 2D drawings by calculating the position of matching geometries. This test took Fantasy no. 38 and 32 as examples to confirm their spatial relationship. 60 architectural students were asked to conduct 3 tests. The algorithmic approach (photogrammetry calculation) was referenced by a cognitive approach (the perception survey) as a comparison base. Photogrammetry test proved that the relation between objects was usually oriented by personal spatial experiences that did control the deduction process of an observer. Perception survey showed that orthogonal assumption existed in the interpretation process of an object's position. It turned out that a testee would still consider two linear objects intersected in orthogonal angle within a tolerance of 15 degree or parallel position between 4 and -16 degree. The finding showed that the interpretation of paper architecture drawings not only was given by the author, but tended to be re-interpreted by an observer. The interpretation process, just like modelling and rendering process, should be a two-way process that facilitates a study oriented either from 2D images or 3D models.
Chien, Sheng-Fen. "A Pilot Study of Using Generative Systems in Architectural Design Process." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 135-144. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. This paper presents a pilot study about impacts that a generative system may have on the architectural design process. The study contains two empirical experiments. The generation experiment studies how experienced and novice designers will utilize such a design system. The formulation/generation experiment observes the problem formulation and solution generation behaviours of less experienced designers. Results of these experiments highlight two issues that require further investigations: 1) domain expertise and modes of interaction that concerns the implementation of future generative systems, and 2) learning through interaction that addresses the use of generative systems in education.
Chan, Chen-Wei, and Mao-Lin Chiu. "A Simulation Study of Urban Growth Patterns with Fractal Geometry." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 55-64. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. This paper depicts the use of fractal geometry in urban simulation. Fractal geometry, L-system, the DLA model, and related urban growth theories are first examined. Then an urban simulation system based on fractal geometry and L-system, Fractal_US, is built on the web for studying urban development patterns in various conditions. The Taipei city is simulated to demonstrate the visualization of urban growth and the result is presented for further discussion.
Gero, John S., and Jaroslaw Kulinski. "A Situated Approach to Analogy in Designing." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 225-234. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. Reasoning by analogy, applied into designing, is investigated from the perspective of situated cognition. This cognitive paradigm emphasizes the importance of the environment in which a particular cognitive task is performed. The paper describes a computational system for situated analogy in designing.
Chien, S.-F., and S.-G. Shih. "A Web Environment to Support User Participation in the Development of Apartment Buildings ." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 225-231. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. In Taiwan, apartments are sold before ever been built. Apartment buyers can customize their units until the construction takes place. This customization process has become a very unique form of user participation in the development of apartment buildings in Taiwan. However, in all customizations, large amount of information has to be documented and exchanged between related agencies for each apartment unit. For an apartment building that contains over 40 units, managing the information can be a daunting task. We are developing a web environment to support the customization process and enable efficient management and timely exchanges of information. The environment provides three levels of design interaction to encourage user participation in a controlled customization process. This paper describes the framework of this web environment, illustrates its functionality through a running prototype, and discusses technical issues encountered during its implementation.
Ai, Jixi, H. Tang, and Y. Chen. "An Approach to Generate 3D Animation by Integrating Building Model into Site Pictures." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 433-439. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. The paper deals with a simple and cheap solution to represent 3Danimation of a future building at its actual site scenery. It is hopeful to be used in small or middle projects in order to get satisfy effect and save design cost.
Dave, Bharat. "Architecture of Digital Imagination." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 297-306. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. Digital technologies extend, displace or substitute entirely new elements into what has been observed so far in the traditional modes of conception, representation and communication of design. This paper examines various characteristics of digital media and representations, their impacts -constraining and liberating- on modes of conception in design, and possible shifts in design expressions and ways of designing. While much effort invested in research to date has relied upon architecture as conceived, taught and communicated in traditional modes, the use of digital technologies changes those very premises. The import of such characterisation for design computation research is to highlight emerging agendas for future investigation. 
Newton, Clare, and Mark Burry. "Building Architecture. Using sticks, stones and computer visualisation." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 511-519. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. This work explores the transformation process from drawings to buildings by inserting unusual representation techniques between traditional orthographic drawings and actual buildings. The aim has been to explore the links and gaps between architecture as drawn and as built to gain a better understanding of the translation from idea to building. Computer modelling techniques enable designs to be'built'at full scale and resolved in great detail. This type of representation was compared with built models, also at full scale, but using a mix of model making and real materials.  At one school students interpreted actual working drawings from architects and at the other school, students worked from theoretical designs. By exploring the translation from idea to building using a range of representational interventions, this research creates a nexus between current issues of representation and design/construction research.
Tan, M., B.K. Tan, and J. Ngahtemin. "By Rhyme or Reason. Rapid Design Thinking by Digital Cross Referencing." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 399-410. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. A prime objective of a visual database for design thinking is to support trains of thought.  The game of “Rhyme or Reason” provides a clue for the cognitive basis for mind racing.  In particular, it shows why in creative design speed matters, why we need memory cues, why reasoning by lateral association and conceptual positioning are as important as logical pattern matching.  Unlike a conventional database, such as a banking system, which is concerned with the correct convergence on specific records, visual databases for design thinking need to support divergent exploration. The paper presents a method of “multivalent” tagging of discrete items in the database. It provides for knowledge of relations. This achieves two things.  Firstly, it enables the search engine to return a specific database item in different exploratory contexts because of the multiple ways it can meet the search criteria. Secondly, the different tagged aspects of the item can be used to trigger new exploratory routes.  The user can explore other tagged aspects whose relationship to the original search criteria need not exist in the indexing system. Short of this, a search is dependent on direct literal or other variants of pattern matching to retrieve only parts of a database. The strategies for sustainable input-output, and for search-storage of a visual database demand high modularity and generic structures which are not dependent on specific software or computer system.  The paper specifies its open structure and its transparent and re-configurable methods. These are non-trivial design issues.
Inanc, Sinan. "Casebook. an Information Retrieval System for Housing Floor Plans." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 389-398. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. Floor plans are representations of choice for spatial information in architectural practice. They are expressive, readable, and familiar. My research examines possible uses of floor plan layouts in architectural information systems. Classification problems that arise are addressed by lazy computation. A prototype in the domain of residential units, CaseBook, has been developed and implemented. CaseBook uses graphical floor plans as core representations for storage, classification and retrieval. To reflect the plasticity of interpretations inherent to the complex and ill-defined architectural domain, the focus is on the flexibility of classification schemes. Flexibility is achieved through the application of adaptable automatic feature extraction and classification-on-demand by user-selected criteria. Queries can be graphically expressed in example layouts. The system ranks layouts according to their similarity to a query based on weighted nearest neighbor algorithm.
Woodbury, Robert F., Andrew Burrow, Robin Drogemuller, and Sambit Datta. "Code Checking by Representation Comparison." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 235-244. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000.

In current computational building design theory and practice, representation schemes depend upon a set of formal operations for creating, changing and querying a representation. With a few notable exceptions, these operations do not provide ways of comparing representations to determine how representations are alike and how they are different. We have developed a theory for and a formal representation scheme that supports representation comparison. This theory opens new approaches to unsolved problems in computational building design, notably the long-standing issue of automated building code checking.

Fukuda, Tomohiro, Ryuichiro Nagahama, Atsuko Kaga, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "Collaboration Support System for Nightscape Design Based on VR Technology." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 501-510. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. This paper reports the collaboration support system for nightscape design based on virtual reality (VR) technology. The developed system consists of two subsystems: a) the semi-spherical screen VR system, b) the desktop VR system. The schematic design of Asagiri pedestrian bridge has been done using these systems. 
Kaga, Atsuko, K. Nakahama, S. Yamaguchi, T. Jyozen, S. Oh, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "Collaborative Design System for Citizen Participation." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 35-44. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. Citizens are becoming increasingly aware of the issues involved in public utility projects. Therefore, it is becoming important for public works departments of local governments to obtain consent from the residents concerned. We established the collaborative design system for citizen participation with using computer graphics. With using the system we found that the related persons have some requirements about collaborative design system. It can be effectively done with network and multimedia technologies. This paper presents the requirements for new collaborative design system.
Tzonis, Alexander. "Community in the Mind. a Model for Personal and Collaborative Design." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 14-Jan. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. The present paper will discuss a landmark historical change that occurred during the last decade redefining architecture from an insular, solitary, and private activity into a distributed, cooperative, and community-based one. It will inquire into the reasons for this shift and explore the need to develop a new framework for personal and collaborative design and the opportunities resulting from it. How do we reason together in design? What are the criteria for selecting the technology to be used? How is knowledge acquired in such interactive framework? What are the new problems that emerge out of Collaborative Design? What are the new criteria to be applied when evaluating new design methods in the new context of Design Community? The paper will also examine some ideas related to a model for Personal and Collaborative Design and explore cognitive aspects of Community in the Mind. It will raise some basic question concerning new directions for research: The relation between Collaborative Design model to the cross-cultural design practice and the relation between cognitive organization of the Design Mind and the social organization of the Design Community.
Gero, John S., and Robert Saunders. "Constructed Representations and their Functions in Computational Models of Designing." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 215-224. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. This paper re-examines the conclusions made by Schön and Wiggins in 1992 that computers were unable to reproduce processes crucial to designing. We propose that recent developments in artificial intelligence and design computing put us in a position where we can begin to computationally model designing as conceived by Schi¶n and Wiggins. We present a computational model of designing using situated processes that construct representations. We show how constructed representations support computational processes that model the different kinds of seeing reported in designing. We also present recently developed computational processes that can identify unexpected consequences of design actions using adaptive novelty detection.
Achten, Henri, B. De Vries, and J. Jessurun. "DDDOOLZ. a Virtual Reality Sketch Tool for Early Design." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 451-460. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. This paper presents DDDoolz, a desktop-VR three-dimensional voxel sketchtool. DDDoolz is developed in the Design Systems Group to explore the use of Virtual Reality technology in the early design stage. The aim is to offer a sketch-like environment in VR with an unobtrusive interface. The paper presents DDDoolz, how it is used in education and with partners in architectural practice, and some future developments.
Tang, M.-X., John Frazer, and H. Liu. "Design Concept Learning Using Inductive Learning Techniques in an Integrated Design Support System." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 201-213. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. Design and learning are closely related activities.  Conceptual design is characterized by the uncertainties of the issues related to the design problem, design requirements, design constraints, and design solutions.  Organizing design information to define an area of design problem within which these issues are gradually structured involves an inductive learning process.  This paper tackles this learning process during conceptual design by utilizing inductive learning and concept formation techniques.  The paper presents the architecture and the implementation of a Design Concept Learning System (DCLS) within a multi-agent architecture.  It then reports on how the DCLS can be applied to conceptual design tasks in different domains. 
Maher, Mary Lou, S. Simoff, N. Gu, and H.K. Lau. "Designing Virtual Architecture." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 481-490. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. Virtual architecture as the design of functional virtual places is not well understood. Most virtual places are created by programmers rather than designed a places in the sense that buildings are designed. As a result, we are in the era of vernacular virtual architecture. While current virtual architecture fulfills certain needs of online users, a well-designed virtual place is becoming essential to cope with the growing complexity and demand in virtual worlds. This paper presents a basis for the design of virtual places that draws on our knowledge of architectural design. 
Gu, J., X. Huang, D. Shen, G. Wang, and J. Lee. "Development and Implementation of Architectural Design Schema Management System Based on IIS." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 331-339. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. The Intranet/Internet based Web computing has been one of the most exciting applications to everybody in any fields. Unfortunately most of the commercial CAD systems or engineering management information systems today lack adequate supports to Intranet and Internet. In this paper we will introduce our recent research and developing work on the Architectural Design Schema Management System (ADSMS) that is essentially a WEB application and is a multimedia engineering information management system. It is first designed to meet the needs of architects to support their design work via Intranet/Internet, and at the same time to lay a solid foundation for further development of the CAAD system that is based on internet.
Song, Y, K. Han, and Mark Clayton. "Documenting Design Rationale Using Web Technology. Combining Graphics and Narrative Arguments for Building Operations." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 367-377. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. This research investigates the feasibility of using Web technology to capture and represent the design rationale for use in efficient facility operations. This research illustrates how current Web technologies can document and represent design rationale information. This paper introduces a new approach utilizing in current Web technologies to integrate 2D and 3D graphic with narrative design rationale information.
Kamat, Vineet. "Enabling 3D Visualization of Simulated Construction Operations." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. Simulation modelling and visualization can substantially help in designing complex construction operations and in making optimal decisions where traditional methods prove ineffective or are unfeasible. However, there has been limited use of simulation in planning construction operations due to the unavailability of appropriate visual communication tools that can provide users with a more realistic and comprehensible feedback from simulation analyses. Visualizing simulated construction operations in 3D can significantly help in establishing the credibility of simulation models. In addition, 3D visualization can provide valuable insight into the subtleties of construction operations that are otherwise non-quantifiable and presentable. New software development technologies emerge at incredible rates that allow engineers and scientists to create novel, domain-specific applications. This study capitalized on a computer graphics technology based on the concept of the Scene Graph to design and implement a general-purpose 3D Visualization System that is Simulation and CAD-software independent. This system, the Dynamic Construction Visualizer, enables realistic visualization of modeled construction operations and the resulting products in 3D and can be used in conjunction with a wide variety of simulation tools. This thesis describes the Dynamic Construction Visualizer as well as the Scene Graph architecture and the Frame Updating algorithms used in its design.
Janssen, Patrick, J. Frazer, and M.X. Tang. "Evolutionary design systems: a conceptual framework for the creation of generative processes." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 190-200. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. Design tools that aim not only to analyse and evaluate, but also to generate and explore alternative design proposals are now under development. An evolutionary paradigm is presented as a basis for creating such tools. First, the evolutionary paradigm is shown to be the only successful design system on which this new phase of design tool could be based. Secondly, any characterisation of design as a search problem is argued to be a serious misconception. Instead it is proposed that evolutionary design systems should be seen as generative processes that are able to evaluate their own output. Thirdly, a generic framework for generative evolutionary design systems is presented. Fourth, the generative process is introduced as key element within this generic framework. The role of the environment within this process is fundamental. Finally, the direction of future research within the evolutionary design paradigm is discussed with possible short and long term goals being presented. 
Kazakeviciute, G, G Cinelis, and Z. Kamaitis. "Forming and automated energy analysis of integrated models of the public buildings and their enclosing structures ." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 147-157. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. The article concerns the modelling and energy analysis problem of the spatial and structural solutions of newly designed buildings or those under renovation. The results of that task serve as a base for defining thermal indices of the project on different design stages. The core of the developed automated system is formed of integrated graphical digital spatial models of the parts of buildings. These models include different kind of structured geometric and non-geometric (physical, economical) information about the object. The proposed method could be used by interested experts as a tool for controll thermal and energy indices at various design stages, searching for rational architectural forms and structural solutions. It takes into account the latest requirements of Lithuanian building regulations concerning heating energy saving. 
Chen, Shu-Ling. "How Verbalization Influences Design Cognition? a Methodological Study." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 317-329. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. The concurrent verbalization would affect not only the normal design behaviours but also the perceptual interactions between designers and their own sketches, while limited by short-term memory, video/audio retrospective protocols may probably induce some selective of memory trace and ambiguous verbal data, resulting in a lower accuracy of reports. This research focuses on examining the validity of video/audio retrospective and think aloud protocols, based on the qualitative comparison of the two methodologies. And we also want to understand the difference of the ability of collecting perceptual information between these two protocols. Moreover the segment and coding scheme for the drawings are primitively developed.
Li, Andrew I. - Kang. "Integrating Symbolic and Spatial Information in Shape Grammars, with an Example from Traditional Chinese Architecture ." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 245-253. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. Stiny's (1981) formulation of descriptions is applied to building sections and their descriptions found in the twelfth-century Chinese building manual Yingzao fashi. 
Chase, Scott C., and Jason Koh. "Integration of Shape Grammars with Architectural Design Studio Projects." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 169-179. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. The use of shape grammars in the context of actual architectural design projects is an area that has been under explored. This paper describes the development of grammars in conjunction with a student design project and the issues in creating grammars that respond to a specific project brief.
Huang, Ying-Hsiu. "Investigating the Cognitive Behavior of Generating Idea Sketches. Neural Network Simulation." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 287-296. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. In idea sketches, there are a number of ambiguous shapes. Designers will associate and transform some shapes into others (Liu, 1993). Then, they evaluate these shapes in terms of functions and design requirements, furthermore, they would have generated other shapes that certified the design requirements (Huang, 1999). However, not only is the idea of design composed of one element, but also consisted of varied components. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how designers generate ideas of multi-component products, and to simulate this phenomenon by neural networks. At the same time, this paper attempts to study the design cognitive behaviour of idea-generating stages, and explores the designers'cognitive phenomenon. Therefore, there are two stages in this paper: First, I conduct a cognitive experiment to realize how designers generate the multi-component product and acquire the sketches that designers generated. Second, I train the neural networks to simulate the behaviour of idea generation and explore the cognitive phenomenon in design sketches. As a result, networks associate one shape that trained before, and then generate a complete idea. This phenomenon is similar to the cognitive behaviour of designers who saw the ambiguous shape as one shape, which was retrieved from LTM. Moreover, the neural network is examined by a rectangle, which is totally different from the training patterns.  The network will associate a confused shape. But the network will associate different shapes by adjusting some critical parameters. Designers can generate variable shapes from one shape, but the signal neural network can't simulate this kind of behaviour. On the contrary, this paper proposes five sequential networks to generate variable shapes from the same shape and simulates how designers develop ideas.  
Garner, Steve. "Is Sketching Still Relevant in Virtual Design Studios? ." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. Sketching, as a particular subset of drawing, has for a long time, been valued within design activity. Although they can appear rough, inaccurate or incomplete, sketches have been presented as both valuable output from, and evidence of, essential activity in designing by individuals and groups. This paper reflects on this value and asks whether sketching is relevant today, given the advances in computing and communications technology seen in modern virtual design environments. Is it time to let go of the metaphor of drawing or can this ancient human capability still tell us something relevant for the improvement of the virtual design studio? While freehand line drawings may not have the same importance in current virtual design studios the support of incompleteness, ambiguity and shared meaning in solution-focused and problem-focused thinking remains essential. The paper proposes that attention to'graphic acts'has improved our understanding of sketching within collaborative designing. A particular type of fast, transitory'thumbnail'sketch would appear to be important. If this is so then attention to its modern counterpart in the latest 3D, multi-user, immersive virtual design studios is overdue if they are to support the cognitive processes of creativity vital to design.
Friedman, Asaf. "Language and Movement in CAD Application." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 423-432. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. The paper attempts to explain some of the fundamental concepts as they relate to the experience of movement in space and the representation of walking-through or fly-over in architectural space. My goal is towards improving existing movement-in-architectural-space representation tolls. This study involves current research in cognitive science, in the domain of vision and spatial reasoning, in which we attempt to built a rudimentary model of the apparatus through which people experience space, and, in particular, architectural space. These conceptions necessitated the analysis of language. From the studies we can draw up a small number of critical qualities that have to be present in an improved version of a new movement-in-space representation tool. As opposed to existing computational tools representing movement in space navigation, the tool we build can offer a more immersive interactive experience for evaluating design solution alternatives and predicting moving-in-space experience. 
Al-Qawasmi, Jamal. "Learning Virtually: a Paradigm Shift in Design Education." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 123-133. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. We still think of architectural design education in terms of a “classroom” paradigm, that is, of an instructor teaching design skills to a class of students in a face-to-face format. However, emerging communication and collaboration technologies have created tremendous new opportunities to distribute students and faculty, while maintaining a close personal contact. This paper discusses and characterizes several aspects of the evolving paradigm of teaching design made possible by the ability to work in shared virtual environments.
Matsumoto, Y., Tsuyoshi Sasada, and S. Yamaguchi. "Making the Collaborative Design Process Observable. Visualization of collaborative process in a VDS Project ." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 45-54. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. In collaborative design studio via computer networks, the whole communication could be logged in database. Design Pinup Board is a virtual wall to pin up design ideas and developments, and it plays a roll to provide a user interface to DPB database. The more active collaboration is, the more information is stored in DPB database. This leads to the difficulty of a glance of the process, and time-consuming searching of pinup precedents. This study describes multiple visualization methods as flat and intuitive interfaces to DPB database, instead of a deep hierarchical DBP structure, followed by a short discussion of a case study in a VDS project.
Chiu, Mao-Lin, Y.-T. Lin, K.-W. Tseng, and C.-H. Chen. "Museum of Interface. Designing the Virtual Environment." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 471-480. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. A virtual environment (VE) has been designed for functioning as a three-dimensional interface to a repository of images and sounds. This paper attempts to study design interface in VEs. This study first examines the characteristics of VEs. The difference between physical and virtual environments is also studied. The relationship between both is classified as three types, i.e. complement, replacement, or independence. Then it establishes the design interface in VEs, and presents an experimental project, the virtual architecture museum (VAM). Four elements of VEs are highlighted, i.e. wayfinding, linkage, context, and atmosphere. In VAM, the interface is implemented on the web and is integrated with an architectural database. It is found that the appropriateness of design interface can enhance the users'spatial awareness, and consequently facilitate the task of navigation and wayfinding within VEs. The context and atmosphere of VEs can be defined by means of simile or metaphor through the visual or acoustic experience for gaining senses of a place.
Woodbury, Robert F., Andrew Burrow, and Sambit Datta. "Navigating Subsumption-Based Design Spaces." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 341-349. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000.

Design space explorers are information-rich environments conceived for providing effective support for electronic design processes. A subsumption-based design space structures the partial designs in the environment by a relation of information specificity. It provides formal exploration operators for predictive, goal-directed movement in the underlying space of designs and an interaction model for open-ended exploration. This paper focusses on the forward moving operator based on incremental pi-resolution and discusses the topic of information removal through the erasure operator. It describes the possible usage of these operators and the entry points for mixed-initiative human-computer interaction in the SEED-Config explorer .

Fischer, Thomas, Mark Burry, and Robert F. Woodbury. "Object-Oriented Modelling Using XML in Computer-Aided Architectural and Educational CAD. the Problem of Interoperability Exemplified in Two Case Studies." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 145-155. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. This paper highlights our application of XML as a messaging and storage format for parametric 3D modelling and pattern-oriented online teaching.  As a recent format for data description and transport technology XML is designed to allow communication between arbitrary data platforms - and to communicate purpose-insensitively.  We have used it to communicate design patterns as well as design parameters and as a consequence experienced a remarkable technical similarity between both approaches with their common manifestation in object orientation.  There is a necessity to perform dynamic synchronizations of semantics between'knowledge domains'involved in design processes in order to provide the necessary conceptual openness.  At this time, this requirement appears to be alien to available XML schema specifications and tools.
Koutamanis, Alexander. "Recognition and Indexing of Architectural Features in Floor Plans on the Internet." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 357-366. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. The Internet promises a worldwide information system, capable of uniting different sources and types of original, up-to-date and directly usable information. Among the main components of this system are retrieval mechanisms characterized by high precision and recall, as well as by supportive relevance feedback. The textual versions of these retrieval mechanisms have been available for some time and have achieved a certain degree of efficiency and sophistication. Image retrieval lags behind, despite the recent advances in content-based retrieval. In architecture this is largely due to the lack of integration of domain knowledge and known formalisms. Indexing and retrieval of architectural floor plans can rely on existing generative systems such as shape grammars and rectangular arrangements. By reversing generative systems in purpose we derive compact descriptions that describe completely a floor plan and make explicit all relevant features rather than a small number of features. The main limitation of reversed generative systems is that they apply to specific classes of designs. Unification in indexing and retrieval can only take place at the level of basic primitives, i.e. spaces and building elements. In both vector and pixel images of architectural floor plans this can be achieved by a universal recognition system that identifies salient local features to produce a basic spatial representation.
Wong, Chien-Hui. "Some Phenomena of Design Thinking in the Concept Generation Stage Using Computer Media." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 255-263. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. Today, the computer media has become more and more important in design process. It is not only used as kind of simulated and presented media. Also, various kinds of research start developing the computer aided design system and probing the possibility of using computers in creative activities. In resent years, many studies concentrate on the forepart of design, the concept generation stage, but most of them are based on conventional media such as papers and pencils. This study attempts to probe the different design thinking phenomenon produced through concept generation by computers and by conventional media, and the effects of the development and presence of design concept generation resulted from the merits and features of the computers themselves. The methodology used here is protocol analysis of gaining subject's verbal data in think-aloud way and then encoding it to analyze. The outcome of this study is to find some phenomena of design thinking when using computers to progress concept generation, and suggest further studies relating to the topic of methodology. 
Ozel, Filiz. "Spatial Databases and the Analysis of Dynamic Processes in Buildings." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 97-106. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. This article investigates the potential applications of geographic information systems (GIS) in the analysis and simulation of dynamic processes in buildings and explores it within the context of life safety analysis of buildings.  In doing so, the primary focus of the article is to look at how architectural components and spaces can be represented in a spatial database system and what types of methods must be  used in the analysis of such a database. Until now GIS applications have primarily been seen as tools suitable for the analysis of urban design and planning problems, therefore an additional objective here is to bring GIS to the attention of architectural researchers as a potential tool for the representation and analysis of spatial data in architecture.
Mieusset, Kuk. "Supporting Team Awareness in a Collaboration." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 25-33. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. People expect to profit from more efficient and enhanced collaboration using computer and internet technology. Unfortunately, certain behavioural dimensions existing in the face-to-face work environment, such as team spirit, gestures, atmosphere and artifacts, can be greatly compromised. In this paper, we propose to use a database framework to facilitate the realization of groupware to support team awareness. We will take a look at the development of our framework through two case studies and a discussion of our findings. 
Kvan, Thomas. "Teaching Architecture, Learning Architecture. Technology in Support of Design Learning." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 181-190. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. In the many years of conferences on the teaching of computer skills or application of computers in design studios, we see discussions about the needs, methods and benefits of teaching the use of computer tools. A few of the papers review how students learn but none report how computer tools can be directly beneficial to the student's learning of design. This paper reviews design learning and illustrates how computer tools have been used to support learning.
Kurzweil, R.. "The Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence ." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. How much do we humans enjoy our current status as the most intelligent beings on earth? Enough to try to stop our own inventions from surpassing us in smarts? If so, we'd better pull the plug right now, because if Ray Kurzweil is right, we've only got until about 2020 before computers outpace the human brain in computational power. Kurzweil, artificial intelligence expert and author of The Age of Intelligent Machines, shows that technological evolution moves at an exponential pace. Further, he asserts, in a sort of swirling postulate, time speeds up as order increases, and vice versa. He calls this the “Law of Time and Chaos,” and it means that although entropy is slowing the stream of time down for the universe overall, and thus vastly increasing the amount of time between major events, in the eddy of technological evolution the exact opposite is happening, and events will soon be coming faster and more furiously. This means that we'd better figure out how to deal with conscious machines as soon as possible--they'll soon not only be able to beat us at chess, they'll likely demand civil rights, and they may at last realize the very human dream of immortality. The Age of Spiritual Machines is compelling and accessible, and not necessarily best read from front to back--it's less heavily historical if you jump around (Kurzweil encourages this). Much of the content of the book lays the groundwork to justify Kurzweil's timeline, providing an engaging primer on the philosophical and technological ideas behind the study of consciousness. Instead of being a gee-whiz futurist manifesto, Spiritual Machines reads like a history of the future, without too much science fiction dystopianism. Instead, Kurzweil shows us the logical outgrowths of current trends, with all their attendant possibilities. This is the book we'll turn to when our computers 
Jozen, T., Atsuko Kaga, L. Wang, S. Oh, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "The Concept Network Model Database. Image Database for Extending Design." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 379-388. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. This paper proposes a new design methodology and a system to support the design process on making concept from verbal words to concrete shapes by extending architects'imagination. Our system is using the image archive database that can be an effective means for novel ideas.
Hutson, Andrew. "The Medium is the Message. the Results of the Early Immersion of Architectural Students into Computer Modeling." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 191-200. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. The biggest challenge to students of architecture is the development of the visualization skills necessary to facilitate design conceptualization. Our faculty has instituted programs that immerse students in computer modelling at the beginning of their study. The results from these programs raise questions regarding the position and influence of the computer medium in the process of design.
Zarzar, Karina. "The Question of Representing Design Based on Precedents. a Review of the Evolutionary Biological Analogy in the Making of Design Tools." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 411-421. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. This paper is a critical appreciation of the application of the evolutionary analogy in representing the use of precedents in design. It departs from architectural practice and the architects'possible cognitive use of the tools already developed. Pursuing this, two applications of the evolutionary model in design are reviewed. Furthermore, the paper looks into ways the analogy was applied to minimize risks of misapplication and maximize innovation.
Eshaq, Ahmad Rafi Moham, and P. Karboulonis. "The Re-Convergence of Art and Science: a Vehicle for Creativity." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 491-500. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. Ever-increasing complexity in product design and the need to deliver a cost-effective solution that benefits from a dynamic approach requires the employment and adoption of innovative design methods which ensure that products are of the highest quality and meet or exceed customers'expectations. According to Bronowski (1976) science and art were originally two faces of the same human creativity. However, as civilisation advances and works became specialised, the dichotomy of science and art gradually became apparent. Hence scientists and artists were born, and began to develop work that was polar opposite. The sense of beauty itself became separated from science and was confined within the field of art. This dichotomy existed through mankind's efforts in advancing civilisation to its present state. This paper briefly examines the relationship between art and science through the ages and discusses their relatively recent re-convergence. Based on this hypothesis, this paper studies the current state of the convergence between arts and sciences and examines the current relationship between the two by considering real world applications and products. The study of such products and their successes and impact they had in the marketplace due to their designs and aesthetics rather than their advanced technology that had partially failed them appears to support this argument. This text further argues that a re-convergence between art and science is currently occurring and highlights the need for accelerating this process. It is suggested that re-convergence is a result of new technologies which are adopted by practitioners that include effective visualisation and communication of ideas and concepts. Such elements are widely found today in multimedia and Virtual Environments (VEs) where such tools offer increased power and new abilities to both scientists and designers as both venture in each other's domains. This paper highlights the need for the employment of emerging computer based real-time interactive technologies that are expected to enhance the design process through real-time prototyping and visualisation, better decision-making, higher quality communication and collaboration, lessor error and reduced design cycles. Effective employment and adoption of innovative design methods that ensure products are delivered on time, and within budget, are of the highest quality and meet customer expectations are becoming of ever increasing importance. Such tools and concepts are outlined and their roles in the industries they currently serve are identified. Case studies from differing fields are also studied. It is also suggested that Virtual Reality interfaces should be used and given access to Computer Aided Design (CAD) model information and data so that users may interrogate virtual models for additional information and functionality. Adoption and appliance of such integrated technologies over the Internet and their relevance to electronic commerce is also discussed. Finally, emerging software and hardware technologies are outlined and case studies from the architecture, electronic games, and retail industries among others are discussed, the benefits are subsequently put forward to support the argument. The requirements for adopting such technologies in financial, skills required and process management terms are also considered and outlined.
Lee, Yuan-Jang. "The Relationship between Problem-Finding and Computing Media in Design Creativity." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 277-285. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. Designing is defined as a process of problem-finding and problem-solving. According to studies, the problem-finding during the early period of designing is the key point for influencing creativity, and the study also indicates that the computer originally used for presenting during the late period of designing can also be used during the early stage, but now we lack studies about creativity and computers. This study uses protocol analysis as an experimental methodology. We hope to clarify the relationship between computers and problem-solving, and to compare the differences between traditional materials and computers when used to discover problems. 
Chen, Yen-Jen, and Ching-Yu Chen. "The Representation of Information Structure in the Cyber World. a Space Cognition Approach." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 351-356. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. The Internet, the place that people called “cyberspace”, is a new place that people can explore in now. But we usually fell “astray” in there because there are no signs like roads, bridges, like it is in the physical world. This paper tries to cite the Lynch's (1960) urban design theory, then to develop a new Internet search mechanism's graphic user interface, and tries to help people explore in Internet more effectively.
Falk, L., C. Ceccato, C. Hu, P. Wong, and Thomas Fischer. "Towards a Networked Education in Design. a First Manifestation through the "Virtual Design Company" Studio." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 157-167. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. This paper presents a learning concept known as (a) Networked Education in Design (NED). In the case illustrated here, NED was developed as a new type of “virtual learning studio” simply called the Virtual Design Company (VDC).
Jeng, Tay-Sheng. "Towards a Process-Centric, Asynchronous Collaborative Design Environment." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 15-24. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. The objective of this paper is to develop an effective multi-user computer environment supporting design collaboration. As design teams are distributed in different positions in time-space, coordination becomes a challenging problem for any collaborative projects. This paper addresses the coordination problem by modelling the dependencies between activities. The prototype of a future generation of collaborative design systems is presented. It concentrates on establishing a software infrastructure towards a process-centric, asynchronous collaborative environment. 
Datta, Sambit. "Unfolding Design Spaces Interactively." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000.
Lee, Alpha W. K., Alpha Lee, and Kazuhisa Iki. "Use of DHTML for Interactive Assessment of Common Value for Townscape Conceptualization and Realization. Colour Assessment, Case Study of large-Scale Resort Facility in Aso Region, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 89-96. CAADRIA. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2000. With the public's high consciousness of townscape, a new form of Color Planning incorporating Citizen Participation is necessary. This paper proposes the use of Dynamic Hypertext Mark-up Language (DHTML) in a Web-oriented Interactive Townscape Assessment System. This system consists of two parts, the first part includes tools for Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP), Magnitude Estimation, Semantic Differential (SD) and Color Semantic Differential (Color SD) method, and the second part includes tools for Interactive Color Planning System (ICPS). Interactive Assessment is possible by the inclusion of JavaScript and Cascading Style Sheet (CSS). Efficiency is improved by client-side operations, data-collection using Common Gateway Interface (CGI) and presentation using Tabular Data Control (TDC). A case study of large-scale resort facility in Aso Region, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan is undertaken. The result shows efficiency of the system.