Keywords Abstract
Choi, Hyun-Ah, and Han-Jong Jun. "A Design Model Using Mutation Shape Emergence." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 41-50. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. The ability to recognize properties and characteristics unforeseen in the early stage of design, namely shape emergence, is considered one of vital aspects of human visual perception in creative thinking. This study aims at developing a design model by using an extended theory of shape emergence, mutation shape emergence which we call. The first part of this paper describes the definition of mutational emergent shapes clearly. In the second part, possibility of discovering mutational emergent shapes will be explored through protocol analysis. On the basis of the results of these efforts, we will examine closely the cognitive mechanism to discover mutational emergent shapes. In the last stage, based on our results we propose a design model for understanding the cognitive process implications for training architects. 
Chiu-Shui, Chan, Dang Anrong, and Tong Ziyu. "A 3D Model of the Inner City of Beijing." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 63-72. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This study has two major concentrations: 1) exploring methods of creating a digital city model, and 2) applying the model to study urban spatial structure, an issue of particular interest and importance to urban planners. Based on existing studies that primarily address two-dimensional (2D) urban structure, this paper focuses on the three-dimensional (3D) structure relating to the 3D urban form. Given their greater clarity and possibilities for quantitative analysis, both 3D digital urban models and GIS spatial overlay analysis methods hold tremendous potential for analysing and predicting future urban form. In this project, the Xidan Business District in Beijing's Inner City was the area selected to implement the digital-city application. Under the hypothesis that the existing urban spatial structure is determined by the city's urban planning scheme and current urban marketing forces, it is found that actual urban development does not follow the planning restrictions on zoning and building height regulations. Some contradictions and conflicts, such as building location and height, appeared in the studied district. The specific reasons for the discrepancies need to be further studied.
Naai-Jung, Shih, and Wu Ming-Chang. "A 3D Point-cloud-based Verification of As-built Construction Progress." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 193-202. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. Point clouds were overlapped to reveal differences between two working days. The same type of comparison was made between 2003.2.11 and 2003.12.11. Comparisons between the original schedule and real schedule (the catch-up schedule) were also made. The overlapping test provides one of the most comprehensive checking methods of the as-built progress in a digital format. Examples show that the overlapping comparisons help identify the addition and removal of objects scanned from 50 meters away. The geometric information is feasible for construction inspection and records. Limitations and benefits of overlapping are discussed. 
Kepczynska-Walczak, Anetta. "A Method Proposed for Adoption of Digital Technology in Architectural Heritage Documentation." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 73-82. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper aims to present results of a research focused on defining guidelines for creation of a comprehensive digital archive and improvement of the procedures of filing, documentation, popularisation, management and protection of architectural heritage. The research presents a clear vision of the potential use of ICT in this field. The study focuses on the employment of the latest technologies in cultivating the architectural past, bringing this past to life and thus making the connection to the present and future.
Jim, Plume, and Mitchell John. "A Multi-Disciplinary Design Studio using a Shared IFC Building Model." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 445-454. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper reports on a multi-disciplinary building design studio where a shared IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) building model was employed to support a collaborative design process in a studio-teaching environment. This project began with the premise that the efforts over the past decade of the International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI) to develop a genuinely operational building model schema has resulted in a mature technology that is now ready to be applied. This design studio experience sought to test that premise. The paper discusses the background to the idea of design collaboration based on a shared building model, placing this current work within that context. We look at both the nature of design decision-making, as well as the process opportunities afforded by close multi-disciplinary collaboration and rapid feedback from design analysis. Although the work was undertaken in a teaching context, the paper does not discuss the pedagogical issue, but rather concentrates on the operational issues that are encountered when working with a shared building model during a design process. The paper concludes with a statement of the lessons learnt and strategies to be adopted in future projects of this nature.
Chun-Yu, Hsieh. "A Preliminary Model of Creativity in Digital Development of Architecture." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 63-74. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. Research into the various forms and processes of creativity has been a topic of great interest in the design field for many years. Part of the view is personality, and part of the answer is behavioural. Creativity is also explained through the identity of social values and the whole creative process. This paper proposes to use the interacting creativity model of Csikszentmihalyi as the basic structure, to establish the major criteria of testing creativity in the digital era. This paper demonstrates two facts: first, it confirms that creativity in architecture is truly valuable in the digital age, second, it proves that in the digital era, individuals, cultures and societies are all under the impact of digital technologies, a fact which transforms the model of interacting creativity proposed by Csikszentmihalyi in 1988 into a new model of digital interacting creativity.
Brunner, Klaus, and Ardeshir Mahdavi. "A Software Architecture for Self-updating Life-cycle Building Models." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 423-432. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper describes a computational infrastructure for the realization of a self-updating building information model conceived in the design phase and carried over to the operation phase of a building. As such, it illustrates how computational representations of buildings, which typically serve design support, documentation, and communication functions, can be transported into the post-construction phase. Toward this end, we formulate a number of requirements for the conception and maintenance of life-cycle building information models. Moreover, we describe the architecture and the prototypical implementation of such a model.
Burcu, Senyapili. "A System Model for Identifying Historic Buildings by Using Multiple Typologies." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 109-118. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper discusses the problem of locating buildings of architectural heritage with respect to different typologies. The cross referencing process of such a task can often be tedious and difficult. Within this framework, this paper introduces a system model that enables users to pin-point the buildings with respect to different typologies. The model introduced here differs from similar efforts by displaying of the results of inquiries on a visual matrix. A limited sample domain of Classical Ottoman architectural heritage illustrates how the proposed model will operate. All the buildings entered in the system have textual and visual data entries along with static and dynamic attributes. In any inquiry, the attributes determine which buildings will be included, and the visual data fill in the cells of the matrix.
Jie, He, Jin-Yeu Tsou, Xue Yucai, and Chow Benny. "A Visual Landscape Assessment Approach for High-density Urban Development." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 125-134. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. The rapid developments of economy and urbanization bring great pressure to natural environment and resources, which contribute big challenge to sustainable urban development in high-density urban areas like Hong Kong, China and many other Eastern Asia cities. In these areas, protecting natural landscape resources and enhancing visibility to urban spaces and residential zones has become significant in improving the livability of human settlement. This paper presents a new approach in assessing the visual quality in high-density urban environment. The principal methodology is to quantitatively integrate human visual perception parameters with the visible landscape resources'characteristics. GIS is employed as the database and technical platform. A residential development in Hong Kong was used as a case study. The approach provides decision making support to urban planning, site layout design, and estate management during the early stage of the schematic design/planning process.
Jeng, Tay-Sheng. "Advanced Ubiquitous Media for Interactive Space." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 341-350. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. Developing ubiquitous media for interactive space requires interdisciplinary collaboration in studying ubiquitous computing. This work generalizes the criteria in the many disciplines of ubiquitous computing into a conceptual framework, including interaction interfaces, sensing technologies, application control, and human adaptation. This work presents a novel system architecture based on such a framework, and a research prototype recently developed called IP++. Additionally, the design principles and the potential of IP++ are discussed.
Carlos, Calderon, Worley Nicholas, and Nyman Karl. "Architectural Cinematographer: an Initial Approach to Experiential Design in Virtual Worlds." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 135-144. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper presents a paradigm for the generation of camera placements for architectural virtual environments as a method of enhancing the user's experience and as a way of facilitating the understanding of architectural designs. This paper reports on an initial prototype of a real-time cinematic control camera engine which enables the creation of architectural walkthroughs with a narrative structure. Currently, there is neither software nor a structured approach which facilitates this in architectural visualisations. The paper discusses the potential of our approach, analyses the technical and application domain challenges, examines its current limitations using well known architectural design concepts such as rhythm.
Seichter, Hartmut. "Assessing Virtual Tangibility." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 151-160. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. Design technology simulates a variety of senses but on the other hand restricts them to audio and visual responses. What happens if technology can accommodate more senses in the creation process and how does it affect the way we approach design? This paper investigates the implication of tangible interfaces in design computing. The focal point is to assess the factors of perception and cooperative working by employing an Augmented Reality (AR) setup with tangible interfaces in a design studio. A concept of usability evaluation is discussed with the focus on core theories and resulting methodology.
Eberhard, Laepple, Mark Clayton, and Robert Johnson. "Case Studies of Web-Based Collaborative Design." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 455-464. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. Data collected from real-world projects using Web-based communications and project management systems provide quantitative evidence for characterizing the design process. Tens of thousands of records have been analyzed from six cases. The cases are all high-end office and retail building projects, with about 50 members of the design team. The data supports the distinction of multiple stages in the design process as the patterns of usage of the software changes through time. Coordination activities are more frequent in early stages, while collaboration activities are more common in late stages. In planning and design stages, use of the software is focused upon accessing static information, while in construction documentation a relatively greater number of activities include generate and process operations. 
Shih, Wingly. "CAVE as Crit-Space." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 161-170. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper proposes a virtual environment system developed for multiple user interaction and communication. The system features benefits of natural communication among users in a shared physical space and totally interaction with digital media within a shared virtual space. The implementation of the system reveals the future possibility to develop CAVE as multimedia communication system in the collaborative design evaluation environment or design jury.
Liao, Kai, and Chia Han. "Collective Pavilions: a Generative Architectural Modelling for Traditional Chinese Pagoda." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 129-138. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper investigates generative architectural modelling for traditional Chinese architecture and aims to explore and extend the potential of adaptive computing for architectural design methods. The design manners analysis of traditional pagodas architectures is made in a holistic view and under historical perspective. We propose a descriptive model and generative system for the design of traditional Chinese pagodas, by which each pagoda is defined as a collection of style-matched and form-coordinated pavilions and described by both topological graphs and variant geometrical units. Our approach models both of the building geometry and space organization/spatial patterns of pagodas separately. The generative mechanism consists of a framework of grammar-based design and parametric, recursive shape computation. Accordingly, the generative algorithm is also made of two levels, the topology of spatial patterns and the shape geometrical parameters that characterize pavilion variations. The algorithm for computing the former is based on GP (Genetic Programming) and the latter GA (Genetic Algorithms). To explore the collective behaviour of a group of pavilions, multi-agent modelling approach is incorporated in composition patterns search. A prototype system,'glPagoda', using the OpenGL graphics library for rendering and visualization, has been developed and implemented on PC windows platform.
Mitchell, William. "Constructing Complexity." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 41-50. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. Buildings were once materialized drawings, but now, increasingly, they are materialized digital information - designed and documented on computer-aided design systems, fabricated with digitally controlled machinery, and assembled on site with the assistance of digital positioning and placement equipment. Within the framework of digitally mediated design and construction we can precisely quantify the design content and the construction content of a project, and go on to define complexity as the ratio of added design content to added construction content. This paper develops the definitions of design content, construction content, and complexity, and explores the formal, functional, and economic consequences of varying the levels of complexity of projects. It argues that the emerging architecture of the digital era is characterized by high levels of complexity, and that this enables more sensitive and inflected response to the exigencies of site, program, and expressive intention than was generally possible within the framework of industrial modernism.
De Vries, B., and Harink Jeroen. "Construction Analysis during the Design Process." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 413-422. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. 4D CAD systems are used by contractors for visually checking the construction process. To enable simulation of the construction process, the construction planner links building components from a CAD model with the activities from a project planning. In this paper we describe a method to generate a project planning directly from a CAD model using basic construction knowledge. A case study is discussed briefly to show the current results and the shortcomings. Finally an outlook is presented on a more advanced implementation that is (also) useful for designers.
Knight, Michael, Wolfgang Dokonal, Andre Brown, and Hannibal Claire. "Contemporary Digital Techniques in the Early Stages of Design." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 165-174. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper reviews the role that computers can play in the early design stages and considers how far recent developments in commercial software have enabled designers to improve design performance through interaction with a CAAD system. An experimental approach is reported on.
Dominik, Holzer, Tang Jiwu, Xie Mik2, and Mark Burry. "Design Using Evolutionary Optimisation and Associative Geometry." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 243-254. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper describes the usage of parametric design and evolutionary optimisation techniques in architect-engineer collaborations. It discusses the apparent challenges in setting up a trans-disciplinary working-platform that cuts across profession-specific boundaries and negotiates between the otherwise distinct work-methodologies through the use of intelligent CAAD applications. Two approaches to architectural form finding have been combined in this research. The first, parametric design, uses a proprietary package as a key element to the organisation and reorganisation of architectural design. By doing so, it is providing it with intrinsic flexibility allowing designers to go beyond form and accommodate performance data for versioning. The second, ESO (Evolutionary Structural Optimisation), is an engineering tool based on the use of finite element analysis (FEA) capable of optimising the formal geometry of an object to obtain minimum volume under even stress-distribution through an iterative design process. In undertaking this research it became apparent that different levels of resolution need to be addressed in the form-finding process in order to investigate the full potential of the interactive use of parametric design and evolutionary optimisation. The case studies reflect this diversity and demonstrate more successes, limitations and future challenges within the transdisciplinary, collaborative effort.
Yungil, Lee, Choi Jinwon, and Jumphon Lertlakkhanakul. "Developing a User Location Prediction Model for Ubiquitous Computing." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 215-224. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. Our prediction model is based on the development of “Semantic Location Model.” It embodies geometrical and topological information which can increase the efficiency in prediction and make it easy to manipulate the prediction model. Data mining is being implemented to extract the inhabitant's location patterns generated day by day. As a result, the self-learning system will be able to semantically predict the inhabitant's location in advance. This context-aware system brings about the key component of the ubiquitous computing environment. First, we explain the semantic location model and data mining methods. Then the location prediction model for the ubiquitous computing system is described in details. Finally, the prototype system is introduced to demonstrate and evaluate our prediction model.
Burry, Mark. "Digitally Sponsored Convergence of Design Education, Research and Practice." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 22-Mar. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper looks at examples of successful transdisciplinary design projects that oblige a departure from the typical assertion of sub-discipline distinctions. In doing so a case is made for a new convergence between architectural design education, research and practice. A case for post digital design will also be made, defined here as the comprehensive assimilation of the computer within traditional modes of design practice, offering a more natural and productive state of affairs than the exclusively digital office promulgated especially during the previous decade. The paper concludes with a demonstration of transdisciplinary design teaching and practice, offering a post digital design framework that require radical new approaches to education and practice. It is contended here that only when CAAD research is undertaken conjointly within teaching and practice can the links be properly formed between the two.
Zafer, Bilda, and John S. Gero. "Do We Need CAD during Conceptual Design?" In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 155-164. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper presents the results of experiments to test whether a designer necessarily needs to produce and utilize external representations in the very early phases of conceptual design. Three architects are engaged in two separate design processes, one is the experiment condition where they were not allowed sketch, and the other, the control condition where they were allowed to sketch.  In the experiment condition, architects were required to put on a blindfold and think aloud while designing. The results show that in both conditions the design outcomes fit in the given dimensions of the site, accommodate the space requirements and allow an effective use for the clients. Thus, when the participants were blindfolded, they were able to produce designs by using their cognitive resources to create and hold an internal representation of the design rather than by sketching, or using a CAD tool. We finally raise the question: do architects need CAD representations during the conceptual phase of the design activity? 
Ning, GU, and Mary Lou Maher. "Dynamic Designs of 3D Virtual Worlds Using Generative Design Agents." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 239-248. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. 3D virtual worlds are networked environments designed using the metaphor of architecture. Recent developments in 3D virtual worlds focus on interactivity, flexibility and adaptability. Rather than creating virtual environments in which the objects have intelligent behaviours, our research takes a different approach to develop an agent model that is associated with an individual person in the 3D virtual world as a personal design agent. This paper presents a Generative Design Agent (GDA), a kind of rational agent capable of representing a person in a virtual world and designing, implementing and demolishing 3D virtual places based on the occupants'current needs in the virtual world. The core of a GDA's design component is a generative design grammar that is able to capture a style of 3D virtual worlds. 3D virtual worlds designed using the GDA model is another kind of architecture for the “momenti.
Luca, Caneparo, Masala Elena, and Robiglio Matteo. "Dynamic Generative Modelling System for Urban and Regional Design." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 259-268. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper introduces a dynamic generative modelling system for urban and regional design. Through dynamic modelling the system evolves in time according to the interactions of the planners, decision-makers and citizens. On the basis of several synchronous and/or asynchronous user interactions, models are dynamically generated at run time. The models are built by defining the data (datasets) and the actions to perform on that data (tasks). The system reads and correlates data at urban and regional scale from various authorities to generate dynamic datasets. Tasks are especially powerful when they integrate generative procedures in a hierarchical structure. This allows us to model urban and regional dynamics through the interaction of tasks at micro- and macro-scale. Tasks can also implement either Cellular Automata or software agents. We examine the system application to a case project: the simulation of micro- and macro-dynamics in an Alpine valley, with specific challenges to fit competitive and sustainable growth in a landscape quality perspective. The simulation in spatial and temporal dimensions of regional data provided us with the elements to study the territorial evolution over the next twenty years. Four strategies gave as many scenarios highlighting the results of specific policies.
Kvan, Thomas, and Song Gao. "Examining Learning in Multiple Settings." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 187-197. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. We use linkographs as a means to examine single and double loop learning within three designed settings. Two types of learning are dynamic processes related to design process. The linkograph is a technique to examine the inter-connective pattern of design moves. Extending our previous analysis of design communications, we investigate the extent to which Schin's design process consisting of “framing-moving-reflecting” can be identified in communications. The linkographs identify learning loops, the results support prior findings that distal text based communication, although less extensive, is richer in design exchanges, here richer learning is also identified.
Andrew, Vande. "Form Follows Data." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 31-40. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper analyzes the relationships between creative design and the field of information visualization, with a focus on historical connotations and newest developments that show great potential. Empirical evidence shows how designers often employ information visualization as a creative concept capable of significantly determining the design outcome, and vice versa, how information visualization can be enhanced by exploring interdisciplinary concepts, such as design cognition, user engagement, aesthetics and art. Several symbiotic dependencies are explained and demonstrated, including the first conceptual cyberspace and information architecture definitions. This paper will argue that information visualization should be enriched with the principles of creative design and art, to develop valuable data representations that address the emotional experience and engagement of users, instead of solely focusing on task effectiveness metrics. Finally, several interdisciplinary movements are described that show great symbiotic potential in the near future, especially in the fields of ambient information displays, informative art and location-based information awareness.
Alberto, Sdegno. "From Architectural Intent to Physical Model." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 83-92. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. The research presented here addresses the subject of the analysis of partially executed architecture. Information for such analyses has been gathered with the use of laser instruments. The paper aims to show a method for processing the laser-surveyed data using geometric modelling software to construct the physical model of the structure through the use of prototypes created with a variety of materials. The laser technology is is interpreted using an additive system (referred to as physical polymerization). 
Fischer, Thomas. "Generation of Apparently Irregular Truss Structures." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 229-238. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. While cheaper mass-customisation technologies are becoming available, architectural design strives for ever more complex and less regular forms. The increasing costs associated with this tendency are difficult to control. Key factors contributing to this cost increase are non-uniform building components. Focusing on space frame construction, this paper examines the possibility of creating apparently irregular structures from relatively small sets of identical parts. Starting with an examination of the cost implications of irregular truss construction, a case study of the Beijing National Swim Center's space frame system and the conflicting natures of bottom-up and top-down generative logic in this context is presented. The paper concludes with the description of the development of a truss system that incorporates various design variables that increase visual irregularity. Learning from the past, this new system draws its basic logic from classic space frame principles but applies present-day computational logic to achieve new aesthetic effects and structural possibilities.
Chase, Scott C., and Sumbul Ahmad. "Grammar Transformations: Using Composite Grammars to Understand Hybridity in Design." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 89-98. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. Hybrid designs are those that develop from multiple sources. This paper presents the methodology of composite grammars, developed by merging multiple grammars, for the analysis of hybrid designs. The methodology is discussed with an example from Islamic architecture, which is known to have developed by borrowing from various sources. The methodology is seen to be useful for the analysis of the evolution of historic architecture, as well as for the development of new languages of designs.
Petzold, Frank, and Christian Bìrgy. "Hands Free: a Wearable Surveying System for Building Surveying." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 351-360. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. Activities in the building industry in Europe concentrate increasingly on a combination of renovation and new-building. A prerequisite for comprehensive IT supported design and planning in the context of existing buildings is both the use of on-site computer- aided surveying techniques and the integration of all professional disciplines in an integrated information and communication system. The starting point is often the building survey on site. An examination of currently available IT tools and hardware shows insufficient support for planning within existing built contexts. Surveying equipment has been derived from other disciplines without being modified to cater for the specific needs of building surveying. This paper describes a concept for computer-aided digital building surveying equipment based upon a wearable computer and AR to close the gap between specialist equipment adapted for use in building surveying and the need for simple straightforward surveying equipment for architects and engineers.
Hyoung-June, Park, Economou Athanassios, and Papalambros Panos. "Hermes: a Computational Tool for Proportional Studies in Design." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 99-108. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. A computational tool for proportional analysis and synthesis in architectural composition is presented. The various components of the software are briefly explained and two case studies, one in analysis and one in synthesis of form are presented. Both studies presented here are drawn from Palladio's second book of architecture.
Yoshihiro, Kobayashi, and Battina Subhadha. "Housing Layout Design Using Fractals." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 119-128. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper introduces a computer-based tool for three dimensional (3D) landscape simulations of housing-layout-design using the concepts of fractals with Iterative Function System (IFS). Housing layout design is defined as a design to allocate many house-units in the undeveloped site. The tool generates a variety of layout designs consisting of multiple dwelling house-units from manual inputs or a template pattern defined as an XML file. Each unit can contain any detailed 3D components found in the residential development such as a house, roads, walls, trees etc. The template defines the transformation rules for IFS including the information of geometrical relationships between the stages in the iteration and of the components used in stop-conditions. The application tool is formulated, implemented and tested. The results in the case studies using several practical sites are demonstrated and evaluated based on the experiments in the design studio.
Donath, Dirk, and Thurow Torsten. "Integrated Computer-Assisted Building Surveying for Architectural Planning." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 183-192. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. The paper describes a concept for the step-by-step computer-aided capture and representation of geometric building data in the context of planning-oriented building surveying. Selected aspects of the concept have been implemented and tested as prototypes. The process of step-by-step capture and representation is determined by the order in which the user experiences the building. Only the information that the user knows (can see) or can reasonably deduce is represented. In addition approaches to the flexible combination of different measuring techniques and geometric abstractions are described which are based upon geodetic computational adjustment. The paper also examines the flexible combination of different surveying techniques and geometric abstractions achieved with the help of geodesic computational adjustment methods. Selected aspects have been implemented and investigated as prototypes. All prototypes will be shown and discussed.
Kyle, Talbott. "Integrating Generative Modelling and Design Process." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 77-88. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. While researchers learn to generate design options with a computer, the question of how a designer interacts with these options remains largely unexcavated. This paper explores how a generative system should interact with a designer. It argues that limitations in human cognition require a designer to manage the complexity of his task with a creative thinking strategy called Perception-Imagination Overlay. To support this, a generative system should present a progression of contextual design “movesi rather than a collection of finished solutions. After validating a set of interface requirements, the paper presents an example interface. The paper concludes that the development of computational methods cannot be legitimately isolated from the development of an appropriate designer-system interaction, and that integrating these concerns might transform our conception of generative systems.
Vinod, Srinivasan, Ozan Ö. Özener, and Akleman Ergun. "Interactive Inverted Perspective Rendering for Architectural Visualization." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 21-30. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. Inverted perspective is an illusion of depth perception characterized by the inversion of depth cues in the scene. Distant parts of the scene are shown larger and nearer parts shown smaller than they would appear in linear perspective to achieve the illusion. In this paper, we present a method to achieve this illusion in real-time for interactive applications. We also present a 3D modelling environment for conceptual design which makes use of this display method. Apart from the artistic and perceptual applications of inverted perspective rendering, our method is also very useful for creating an active viewport scene for 3D modelling of solid models with boundaries and complex interior structures. Effective and legible visualization of complex conceptual objects with different kind of layered structures is an important topic for design research. Our method also enables the user to easily create non-photorealistic renderings to understand both the interior and exterior structure of a spatial model from a single image.
Shuhong, Xu, Heng Kiang, Subrumaniam Ganesan, Ho Thuan, Khoo Tat, and Huang Yan. "Interactive Visualization of Large-Scale Architectural Models over the Grid." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 93-102. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. Virtual reconstruction of the ancient Chinese Chang'an city has been continued for ten years at the National University of Singapore. Motivated by sharing this grand city with people who are geographically distant and equipped with normal personal computers, this paper presents a practical Grid-enabled visualization infrastructure that is suitable for interactive visualization of large-scale architectural models. The underlying Grid services, such as information service, visualization planner and execution container etc, are developed according to the OGSA standard. To tackle the critical problem of Grid visualization, i.e. data size and network bandwidth, a multi-stage data compression approach is deployed and the corresponding data pre-processing, rendering and remote display issues are systematically addressed.
Kocaturk, Tuba, and Martijn Veltkamp. "Interdisciplinary Knowledge Modelling for Free-Form Design - an Educational Experiment." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 465-474. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. The recent advances in digital design media and digital fabrication processes have introduced formal and procedural effects on the conception and production of architecture. In order to bridge the individual concepts and processes of multiple design disciplines, intensive cross-disciplinary communication and information exchange starting from the very early stages of design is necessary. A web-based database for design learning and design teaching named BLIP is introduced. In this framework, cross-disciplinary domain knowledge becomes explicit to be taught and transferred in Free-Form Design research and education. BLIP proposes a conceptual map through which the user can construct structured representations of concepts and their relationships. These concepts are high-level abstractions of formal, structural and production related concepts in Free-Form design development. BLIP is used for formalizing, organizing and representing conceptual maps of the three domains and facilitates information and knowledge sharing in collaborative conceptual design in context. The paper introduces the application together with its application in two educational design experiments. 
Petra, Gemeinboeck, and Blach Roland. "Interfacing the Real and the Virtual: User Embodiment in Immersive Dynamic Virtual Spaces." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 171-180. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper discusses the performative boundary between the real and the virtual as it constitutes itself based on the potentials, conditions and abilities of Virtual Reality (VR), considered as both a technology and a medium. Starting from the prospects and the areas of application of'new'technologies within the context of architecture, the paper seeks the point of intersection between an architectural perspective, a posthuman view and a technological potential. The focus thereby lies in the greatest challenge of VR, that is, the integration of the users as they interface the virtual and the real. The conditions and implications of such dynamic processes, perceived as space generating, rather than representing, are explored based on the authors'virtual environment: Uzume.
Schnabel, Marc Aurel. "Interplay of Domains." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 20-Nov. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. A diversified, open-ended, and critical approach of architectural design that interplays with a variety of media, suggests an innovative development to gain new spatial solutions. Architects and designers are aware of these possibilities by integrating physical and digital media during their design process, yet the creative potentials of these media are rarely used to their full potentials. The architectural design process can be enriched by using uncommon perceptions, comprehensions, and conceptions of spatial design translations within both physical and virtual environments. A wilful interplay with the design media and the process offers the possibility to dismantle the limits of each domain and explore the design itself in unorthodox ways. The overall engagement within both real and virtual environments leads to innovative form creations and powerful design solutions. Following the tradition of artists, who explore media in unusual ways, new architectural interpretations emerge, reflecting on the media as well as the architectural design.
Chia-Hsun, Lee, Hu Yuchang, and Selker Ted. "iSphere: a Proximity-based 3D Input Interface." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 281-290. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper presents a 24 degree of freedom input device for 3D modelling. iSphere uses the proximity information of pulling-out and pressing-in capacitive sensors to manipulate 12 control points of a 3D surface simultaneously. The iSphere dodecahedron is demonstrated manipulating an analog parametric model with high-level modelling concepts like push or pull the 3D surfaces. Our pilot experiment shows that iSphere saved many steps of selecting the control point and going through menus. Experts were used to those extra steps and still found themselves doing them but novices saved significant time for surface shaping tasks. 3D systems are benefited to execute high-level modelling commands, but lacking of fidelity is a great issue of analog input device.
Dave, Bharat. "Labyrinthine Digital Histories." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 53-62. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. Interactive and media-rich digital representations are being increasingly used to offer passages through time and space, a role that was traditionally supported by travels and travelogues, maps, sketches, books and oral histories. In the last two decades, a number of projects have been implemented using digital media with the aim of recording past and extant artefacts and environments. However, the future of such digital past remains as fragile as the memories and moments it tries to capture. There is a need to go beyond creating introverted and closed historical reconstruction projects. This paper surveys significant issues and describes our ongoing work in developing an interpretive, extensible and referential framework toward virtual reconstruction projects.
Cheng, Nancy, and Mckelvey Andrew. "Learning desing process with digital sketching: Copying graphic processes from animations and storyboards." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 291-300. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper examines the effectiveness of animated versus non-animated drawings as teaching tools. Data was collected by comparing how architectural design students given an animation versus those given a static, six-panel storyboard are able to learn processes in a space-planning design problem. All subjects were given an example of an expert design drawing, asked to put the design steps in order, and then to follow those steps in performing a similar design problem. Their responses were recorded with a digital pen-on-paper system that automatically generates vector animations. The animations can then be immediately viewed on a computer for stroke-by-stroke review. Finally, each studentis animation was analysed in terms of design process steps and compared with the expert example. While those given animations performed only marginally better on the survey of steps, they were better able to imitate the order of expert steps. Furthermore, reviewing the examples by computer revealed common errors that students could modify for more successful design strategies. The following discussion examines methods for researching design process with the digital pen, along with shortcomings, advantages and directions for further study.
Paul, Richens, and Michael Nitsche. "Mindstage: Towards a Functional Virtual Architecture." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 331-340. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. Mindstage is a multi-user real-time 3D environment in which is embedded a lecture on film design by Christopher Hobbs. The spatial design follows the structure of the lecture, and is richly illustrated with stills and film clips. The environment, implemented in Virtools, proved to be a visually intriguing combination of architectural, filmic and virtual space, though it was found that co-presence induced some problems with the concept of time.
Rosenman, Michael, G Smith, Lan Ding, D Marchant, and Mary Lou Maher. "Multidisciplinary Design in Virtual Worlds." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 433-442. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. Large design projects, such as those in the AEC domain, involve collaboration among a number of design disciplines, often in separate locations. With the increase in CAD usage in design offices, there has been an increase in the interest in collaboration using the electronic medium, both synchronously and asynchronously. The use of a single shared database representing a single model of a building has been widely put forward but this paper argues that this does not take into account the different representations required by each discipline. This paper puts forward an environment which provides real-time multi-user collaboration in a 3D virtual world for designers in different locations. Agent technology is used to manage the different views, creation and modifications of objects in the 3D virtual world and the necessary relationships with the database(s) belonging to each discipline.
Kamol, Keatruangkamala, and Sinapiromsaran Krung. "Optimizing Architectural Layout Design via Mixed Integer Programming." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 175-184. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. For many decades, solving the optimal architectural layout design is unattainable for the reasonable problem sizes. Architects have to settle for acceptable layouts instead of the favourable optimal solution. With today technologies, various optimization techniques have been used to alleviate the optimal search according to diversified goals. This paper formulates the optimal architectural layout design as the multiobjective mixed integer programming model solved by the MIP solver. The main idea is to capture functional constraints, dimensional constraints and the objective function using only linear formulae with binary variables. Functional constraints are the connectivities, the unused grid cells, the fixed room location, the boundary and the fixed border location while dimension constraints are the non-intersecting, the overlapping, the length and the ratio constraints. The objective function is designed to minimize the absolute distance among rooms and maximize room spaces. Due to the nonlinearity of area computation, the linear approximation of width and height constraints have been utilized. Architects can control these different objectives within the model. By specifying the rigid restriction and the time limits, the problem can be solved within a reasonable amount of time.
Hubers, Hans. "Parametric Design in Protospace 1.1." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 255-264. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. After a history of CAAD in the Netherlands, the author describes the CAVE-like facility that is being set up to support collaborative design. The first prototype, Protospace 1.1 has been tested. Protospace is a project of the Hyperbody Research Group, directed by Prof. Kas Oosterhuis. The state of the art of parametric design and some helpful tools to speed-up the design process are discussed. 3D multiplayer game software Virtools is used to develop synchronic and a-synchronic, local and inter-local collaboration.
Achten, Henri. "Resolving some Ambiguities in Real-time Design Drawing Recognition by means of a Decision Tree for Agents." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 311-320. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. In this paper, we present a theoretical study on automated understanding of the design drawing. This can lead to design support through the natural interface of sketching. In earlier work, 24 plan-based conventions of depiction have been identified, such as grid, zone, axial system, contour, and element vocabulary. These are termed graphic units. Graphic units form a good basis for recognition of drawings as they combine shape with meaning. We present some of the theoretical questions that have to be resolved before an implementation can be made. The contribution of this paper is: (i) identification of domain knowledge which is necessary for recognition, (ii) outlining combined strategy of multi-agent systems and online recognition, (iii) functional structure for agents and their organisation to converge on sketch recognition.
Kirsty, Beilharz. "Responsive Sensate Environments: Past and Future Directions." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 361-370. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper looks at ways in which recent developments in sensing technologies and gestural control of data in 3D space provide opportunities to interact with information. Social and spatial data, the utilisation of space, flows of people and dense abstract data lend themselves to visual and auditory representation to enhance our understanding of socio-spatial patterns. Mapping information to visualisation and sonification leads to gestural interaction with information representation, dissolving the visibility and tangibility of traditional computational interfaces and hardware. The purpose of this integration of new technologies is to blur boundaries between computational and spatial interaction and to transform building spaces into responsive, intelligent interfaces for display and information access.
van Leeuwen, Jos, Jessurun Joran, and Jansen Glenco. "Searching with Experience." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 203-214. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper describes the motivation and development of a new algorithm for ranking web pages. This development aims to enable the implementation of a search engine that can provide highly personalised results to queries. It was initiated by a request from the Dutch CAD industry, but has generic potential for the development of web search engines. The paper describes the algorithm, its position in relation with existing algorithms, and its potential drawbacks and advantages.
Bodo, Kraft, and Schneider Gerd. "Semantic Roomobjects for Conceptual Design Support." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 207-216. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. The conceptual design at the beginning of the building construction process is essential for the success of a building project. Even if some CAD tools allow elaborating conceptual sketches, they rather focus on the shape of the building elements and not on their functionality. We introduce semantic roomobjects and roomlinks, by way of example to the CAD tool ArchiCAD. These extensions provide a basis for specifying the organisation and functionality of a building and free architects from being forced to directly produce detailed constructive sketches. Furthermore, we introduce consistency analyses of the conceptual sketch, based on an ontology containing conceptual relevant knowledge, specific to one class of buildings. 
Luís, Romão. "SGtools: a Computer Tool for Exploring Designs with Set Grammars." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 53-62. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. A set grammar interpreter is presented in this paper. It differs from previous interpreters in many ways: it accepts any shapes for edition, the user rather than symbols, manipulates shapes, and rules can be stored and retrieved. This tool is intended as a conceptual design tool and not as a tool for full design development. The tool has been developed in the AutoLisp language as a plug-in to AutoCAD, thereby taking advantage of the existent means of visualizations. 
Burry, Jane, Andrew Burrow, Amor Robert, and Mark Burry. "Shared Design Space." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 217-226. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. Collaborative design activity that involves remote multilateral, multidisciplinary communication has become more commonplace with the electronic means to communicate across any distance in real time. The communication itself can be both an important repository of project information and an important part of the process of conceptualisation and design development. This research has explored the apparent shortcomings inherent in commonly used means of communication and how these impact on the design process. This paper describes research that has taken as a starting point the analysis and observation of actual design communication from the archive of an internationally published collaborative project involving disciplinarily diverse and globally scattered participants. Through the analysis, we have identified characteristics of communication tools or information environments that would address the particular issues found to impede collaboration while fostering those aspects that support it. The findings have been used to inform the design, specification and implementation of collaborative information spaces based on Wiki software.
Wei, Yan, and Yehuda Kalay. "Simulating Human Behaviour in Built Environments." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 301-310. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper addresses the problem of predicting and evaluating the impacts of the built environment on its human inhabitants. It presents a simulation system comprising a usability-based building model and an agent-based virtual user model. The building model represents both geometric information and usability properties of design elements, and is generated automatically from a standard CAD model. Virtual users are modelled as autonomous agents that emulate the appearance, perception, social traits and physical behaviour of real users (walking, sitting, meeting other virtual users, etc.). Their behaviour model is based upon theoretical and practical environment-behaviour studies, real world data from a field study, and Artificial Life research. By inserting the virtual users in the usability-enabled building model, and letting them “explorei it on their own volition, the system reveals the interrelationship between the environment and its users. The environment can then be modified, to see how different arrangements affect user behaviours.
Koutamanis, Alexander. "Sketching with Digital Pen and Paper." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 321-330. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. Architectural sketching with the computer has been possible for some time now. Using manual and optical digitizers architects have been able to create images similar in structure and appearance to conventional sketches on paper. Digitized sketches are traditionally associated with early design but are also increasingly linked to interactive interfaces and information management. The paper reports on the application of a new technology (Anoto) that uses a digital pen on specially prepared paper. The focus of the application was feedback from analogue documents to the computer programs used for preparing these documents and on the roles of freehand sketching in later design phases. Sketching with digital pen and paper was found to be useful for the management of annotations made on analogue versions of digital information, especially in multi-actor synchronous and asynchronous situations.
Mahdavi, Ardeshir. "Space, Time, Mind: Toward an Architecture of Sentient Buildings." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 23-40. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper describes a specific vision of a sentient building and a specific path to its realization. A sentient building is defined here as one that possesses a representation of its own context, components, systems, and processes. It can autonomously maintain and update this representation, and it can use this representation toward real-time self-regulatory determination of its own state. 
Suter, Georg, Brunner Klaus, and Ardeshir Mahdavi. "Spatial Reasoning for Building Model Reconstruction Based on Sensed Object Location Information." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 403-412. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. The continuous collection of data on the state of facilities appears increasingly feasible due to advances in sensing technologies. In this context, we explore the application of tag-based location-sensing to reconstruct models of existing buildings. We describe tag-based building representations, which are complete under certain conditions for the automated conversion to boundary-based building representations. The latter have a rich structure and are useful for various construction-related applications. We describe and demonstrate with a system prototype how spatial reasoning methods facilitate the conversion process.
Dermott, McMeel, Coyne Richard, and Lee John. "Talking Dirty: Formal and Informal Communication in Construction Projects." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 265-274. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. We analyse the emergence and use of formal and informal communication tools in group working to aid in understanding the complexity of construction projects. Our test case is the design and build of an interactive digital installation in an exhibition space, involving students. After the project we conducted focus group studies to elicit insights into the effective use of the digital communications available for the project. We recount key insights from the study and examine how digital messaging devices are contributing to or hindering creative discussion. Whereas the construction process is concerned with the removal of dirt and re-ordering, in this paper we reflect on constructionis ritualistic, contractual and unauthorized aspects, and dirtis role within them. We draw on Bakhtinis theories of the carnival in exploring ritual, and the mixing of the un-sanctioned (rumour) with the official (contractual). How does dirt impinge on issues of communication, open discussion, and the move towards “partnering” in construction practice? We conjecture that while physical dirt might be unpleasant, the removal of other forms of metaphorical dirt hampers construction as an efficient and creative process.
Chieh-Yen, LIN, and Mao-Lin Chiu. "The Concept Space Explorer." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 139-148. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. Design is often initiated by some ideas or concepts to form the design process, while design cases provide the impetus for design inspiration and conception. This paper is aimed at establishing a knowledge retrieval mechanism based on design concepts and their semantic relations. This research is based on a case library (CBA) implemented on the web as a repository of house cases and a learning environment for case-based design. The implementation and discussion is presented.
Kai, Strehlke, and Russell Loveridge. "The Redefinition of Ornament." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 373-382. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. Architectural ornament, the art of decorative patterning, is commonly perceived as an historical characteristic which declined in the beginning of the 20th century. The lecture of Adolf Loos in 1908 “Ornament and Crime” can certainly be seen as a crucial contribution in the architectural discussion about the exclusion of ornament. Although the modernist emphasis on unadorned form, the upcoming international style and the replacement of craftsmanship by the rise of mass production yielded to a systematic elimination of ornament, we are experiencing its revival in contemporary architecture through experiments using digital technologies. This paper describes our ongoing research and teaching activities in the field of architectural ornamentation, surface modelling and texturing, as well as the related CNC manufacturing processes.
Penttila, Hannu. "The State of the Art of Finnish Building Product Modelling Methodology." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 225-240. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper describes and analyses the impacts of the current Finnish building product modelling methodology on the building process and on construction field organizations. The objective is also to recognize and monitor changes in the design and construction environments as well as in the software platforms. In Finland building product modelling has, after 10-15 years of preliminary research, evolved into a piloting phase where the developed modelling methods are currently tested in real-life projects. One quite possible - and even more desired - future scenario is that building product modelling will become an essential collaborative working platform for building projects within the next 10 years.
Souha, Tahrani, Jallouli Jihen, Moreau Guillaume, and Woloszyn Philippe. "Towards a Virtual Reality Tool for Lighting Communication and Analysis in Urban Environments." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 115-124. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the use of virtual reality as a potential decision-making tool to cognitively evaluate urban daylighting ambiences. This paper evaluates the solar effects visual perception in a real urban path in comparison to a virtual urban path in order to extract the characteristics of these effects and use them to figure out the necessary conditions for generating a physical and sensitive phenomena simulation. The comparison is based on questionnaires and interviews with participants on their judgements on sunlight during their walk through the chosen path. Our results highlight the relation between perception and the context of the urban environment, and prove that -in spite of its limits-virtual reality is able to simulate a large part of real solar effects.
Chengzhi, Peng. "Townscaping: Development of Dynamic Virtual City Augmented 3D Sketch Design Tools." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 105-114. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. The paper presents the development of an experimental Web-based design environment called Townscaping to be used at the conceptual stage of architectural and urban design. Inspired by Gordon Cullen's seminal work on Townscape (1960's-1970's), the idea of Townscaping is to explore how 3D digital sketch design tools could be developed to operate in connection with a dynamic virtual city system under a user's direct control. A prototype of Townscaping has been designed and implemented on the basis of an existing dynamic virtual city system. In Townscaping, a set of tools is provided for users to create and edit 3D graphic elements to be positioned directly onto the user-specified virtual city models. One of the key features of Townscaping is to enable sketching while navigation: designers can perform sketch design and gain immediate visual feedback while navigating the 3D virtual city models to any viewpoint at any moment. The current study suggests that it is feasible for virtual city models to serve as interactive urban contexts for 3D sketch design. Townscaping is considered primarily a research platform with which we are interested in investigating if designers'engaging in 3D space conceptions may be enhanced through interacting and sketching with virtual townscapes. 
Carlos, Barrios. "Transformations on Parametric Design Models." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 393-400. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper presents a research in progress in the development of parametric models for generation of complex shapes, and introduces a methodology for exploration of possible designs generated from a single model. The research presents a case study on the designs of the Spanish architect Antonio Gaudi, and takes on the fundamental rules of form generation of the lateral nave columns of the Sagrada Familia temple in Barcelona. A parameterization schema is presented as a fundamental tool for design exploration, which allows the reproduction of the original shapes designed by Gaudi, and the generation of a large set of new designs.
Fabian, Scheurer. "Turning the Design Process Downside-up." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 269-278. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper describes the latest results of an ongoing research project that aims at using the power of self-organization for the design and optimisation of irregular spatial structures in real-world applications. An example is presented, which uses a growing swarm to define the configuration of randomly positioned columns in a large concrete structure. This agent based simulation, developed in cooperation with the building's architects and engineers, was successfully used in the final design stage of a project in the Netherlands to resolve the conflicting structural and functional requirements arising from the initial design.
Herr, Christiane, and Thomas Kvan. "Using Cellular Automata to Generate High-Density Building Form." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 249-258. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper presents an investigation into the use of cellular automata systems for the design of high-density architecture for Asian cities. In this architectural context, urban form is shaped by architectural solutions that are developed in a copy-and-paste manner. To this background, cellular automata are introduced and discussed with respect to the specific potential of cellular systems to support architectural design addressing large projects as well as cost and speed constraints. Previous applications of cellular automata to architectural design have been conceptual and are typically limited by the rigidity of classical automata systems as adopted from other fields. This paper examines the generative design potential of cellular automata by applying them to the re-modelling of an existing architectural project. From this application it is concluded that cellular automata systems for architectural design can benefit from challenging and adapting classic cellular automata features, such as uniform volumetric high-resolution models and globally consistent rule execution. A demonstration example is used to illustrate that dynamic, state-dependent geometries can support an architectural design process.
Ivanka, Iordanova, and Tidafi Temy. "Using Historical Know-how to Model Design References." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 197-206. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that new computer and communication technology has the potential to change architectural education in a positive way, based on previous experiences and learning from the past. This research is based on two historical aspects that we bring together in order to propose a new didactic method and material for architectural education: the first one consists in finding obsolete architectural training practices and reconsidering them from a modern point of view, the second one proposes using precedents in a new constructive way in situation of teaching architectural conception in studio. This historical approach, combined with architectural design studio observations, has lead to an outline of a prototype of a digital assistant for teaching architectural design. Some aspects of its functioning are here discussed. 
Palmon, Orit, Rivka Oxman, Meir Shahar, and Patrice Weiss. "Virtual Environments in Design and Evaluation." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 145-154. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. One of the major challenges facing the professionals involved in the home modification process is to succeed in adapting the environments in a way that enables an optimal fit between the individual and the setting in which he or she operates. The challenge originates primarily from the fundamental characteristic of design - one can see and test the final result of home modifications only after they have been completed. The goal of this study was to address this problem by developing and evaluating an interactive living environments model, HabiTest, which will facilitate the planning, design and assessment of optimal home and work settings for people with physical disabilities. This paper describes the HabiTest tool, an interactive model that has been implemented via an immersive virtual reality system which displays three-dimensional renderings of specific environments, and which responds to user-driven manipulations such as navigation within the environment and alteration of its design. Initial results of a usability evaluation of this interactive environment by users are described.
Sass, Lawrence. "Wood Frame Grammar." In CAAD Design Futures 2005 - Proceedings of the 11th International CAADFutures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 383-392. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. This paper demonstrates a novel method to generate house designs completely from 3/4i plywood sheets. A shape grammar routine is employed to divide an initial solid shape into constructible components for fabrication by CNC wood routing. The paper demonstrates programmable functions that can be performed using CAD scripting. Future goals for the grammar are to develop CAD programs for digital fabrication using CNC routers. The programs will automate the fabrication process allowing the designer to focus on the visual aspect of design evaluation at any scale with little concern for constructability.