Keywords Abstract
Shih, Naai-Jung. "A Construction Site in a Scan-based Digital Representation." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 423-432. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. This study offers a method for creating a representation of an on-going construction site by using a geometric approach. The representation includes the definition of 3D data between the design and construction stages. A method is proposed for using a 3D longrange laser scanner to retrieve information on site occurrences, in order to describe the building construction process based on what really occurs at a site. 3D scans are made in stages or at various time intervals. Retrieved shapes are collected in a discrete manner or in a configuration as a whole. The data collection can be conducted wholly or selectively for key referencing based on registration points. Investigated issues involved are target positioning, identification, retrieval, tracking of objects, behaviour description, characteristic description, and integration of segmental geometric information.
Ng, E., T.Y. Chan, R. Leung, and P. Pang. "A Daylight Design and Regulatory Method for High-Density Cities Using Computational Lighting Simulations." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 339-350. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. Hong Kong is the most densely populated city in the world. Design of buildings in urban Hong Kong is regulated by the Building (Planning) regulations of the Government. This piece of law is over 40 years old and has been proven to be inadequate. This paper introduces a new simplified method, the Unobstructed Vision Area Method (UVA), for daylight design in high-density cities. The method was developed based on empirical and theoretical formulation as well as extensive validation and studies using computational simulations. The paper highlights the steps necessary to apply computational methods for law making, the difficulties and possibilities in the process, as well as the practical and implementation of adopting computational results and techniques in everyday practical life of the architect and the controlling agency. The Government of Hong Kong has recently adopted the UVA method.
Chase, Scott C.. "A Prototype Generative System for Construction Details Combining FBS Descriptions with Design Grammars." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 413-422. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. A formal framework for redesign based upon Function-Behaviour-Structure models and design grammars is described. A proposed application domain is for the design and redesign of construction assemblies. GDL object technology is illustrated as a candidate tool for implementation.
Fröst, Peter. "A Real Time 3D Environment for Collaborative Design." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 203-212. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. By setting up collaborative design processes in architecture it is possible to considerably improve the integration of customer needs and ideas into the programming phase of a building project. Our design process includes active collaboration between customers, users and other stakeholders as well as the use of virtual environments in conceptual design. The output from the process is treated as visualised input to the architectural programming. The work presented focuses on developing digital tools to support this collaborative design dialogue. We have developed an extremely “easy to use” digital modelling tool called “ForeSite Designer”. The tool enables the users to build layouts of prefabricated components on a building site in 2D. This 2D layout can then instantly be exported to a lit-up real time 3D environment in the computer game “Half-Life.” ForeSite Designer has been used in a several design events with different settings. This paper presents the tool and one project where it was utilized. The results show that ForeSite Designer can promote dialogue and collaborative design work among the participants. We have also found that it is important how the virtual environment and its components are visually designed in order to support the dialogue and collaborative design work.
Chen, Hong-Sheng, and Feng-Tyan Lin. "A Simulation Study on Public Building's Staircase Fault Tolerance." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 393-402. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. This paper applies the concept of fault tolerance to staircase layout plan. Fire or smoke may cause some staircases in a building inaccessible. We argue that architects should assess the result from the possible fault of vertical routes. The capability of tolerating staircase faults depends on space usage, arrangement, and pedestrian attributes. In this study, a mathematical model is constructed. For analysing pedestrian's movement in interior space, we employ Monte Carol simulation and Agent-Based Modelling method in a CAAD environment. It helps us to visualise the dynamic process of agent's evacuation process, and to test the problem of possible staircase faults. Finally, a case study brings some important discoveries.
Wyeld, Theodor. "An Object Server System for 3D Digital Design Collaboration." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 235-248. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. Moving through and between computer generated 3D objects we experience a “virtual world”. Virtual Worlds have created a dream-like landscape. They also have facilitated a paradigm shift for architects working with CAD tools where they now desire to “design three-dimensional spaces in an immersed way” (Strehlke and Engeli 2001). Architects are already working in computer-moderated collaborative networked organisations. A 3D Virtual World offers a different kind of collaboration. To understand how architects might design in an'immersed way', three experiments are described. The experiments attempt to investigate how participants experience the 3D spaces within which they collaborated. In particular, the last experiment makes use of “shared objects” in the scene. The software chosen to create these Virtual Worlds was VRML and JAVA due to their flexibility and rapid prototyping. Where VRML differs from most CAD languages is in its openness. This paper describes an object sharing client-server architecture based on a simple multi-user system providing navigation in CosmoPlayer 2.11 ported through Netscape. The Object Server System allows multiple clients, as avatars, and objects to be manipulated in a 3D Virtual World. The system updates the transforms of the objects explicitly allowing their transform values to be shared across multiple browser sessions.
Kalay, Yehuda, and John Marx. "Changing the Metaphor: Cyberspace as a Place." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 19-28. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. Cyberspace is quickly becoming an alternative “place” for everyday economic, cultural, and other human activities. It ought, therefore, to be designed according to the principles, theories, experiences, and practices that have been guiding physical placemaking for thousands of years, rather than the woefully inadequate metaphor of the printed page. 3D Cyber-places must embrace the essential characteristics that make a “place” in physical space, while at the same time take advantage of the opportunities offered by Cyberspace. By looking at physical architecture as a case study and metaphor for organizing space into meaningful places, this paper discusses the possibility of organizing Cyberspace into spatial settings that, like physical places, afford social interaction and embody cultural values.
Zamenopoulos, Theodore, and Katerina Alexiou. "Computer-Aided Creativity and Learning in Distributed Cooperative Human-Machine Networks." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 191-202. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. In this paper we discuss designing abilities, such as creativity and learning, as abilities that emerge though interaction in cooperative human-machine networks. We concentrate in a design system that can exhibit and support creative behaviour using knowledge learnt through distributed human-machine interaction. In this context, conflict resolution and coordination is a main issue, as well as a main indicator for the creative and adaptive ability of the design system. More specifically, we are going to present a model of coordination developed using learning control and multi-agent systems methodologies and techniques. A prototype system is tested in a virtual collaborative design assignment for simple location and three-dimensional configuration problems.
Smith, G., Mary Lou Maher, and John S. Gero. "Designing 3D Virtual Worlds as a Society of Agents." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 105-114. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. We consider virtual architecture as 3D virtual worlds able to support human activities and collaboration needs in digital virtual environments. 3D virtual worlds can go beyond the simulation of physical worlds to become dynamic, adaptable worlds by incorporating agents in the representation of the world. Agents are software systems that are capable of acting autonomously according to their own goals and beliefs. A society of agents accommodates agent communication and collaboration as part of the agent reasoning. In this paper we present a framework in which agents become the basis for the elements of a 3D virtual world. This framework is presented as having a model for an agent that can interact and reason about the 3D world, and as a model for agent communication. The model is illustrated by the design of a virtual conference room.
Oxman, Rivka. "Designing the Virtual Design University." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 291-300. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. Universities are currently providing learning opportunities to students and teachers exploiting information and communication technologies to deliver their programs and provide tuition support. However, since architectural design education is unique, general models of e-learning are not applicable. Regarding a potential virtual design university there is therefore a particular need for a theoretical pedagogical framework. The objective of this paper is to present a theoretical basis for the design and implementation of a unique e-learning environment suitable for design learning and design teaching in the architectural and engineering domains. The ideas and the concepts are currently being implemented in the WINDS project. Three theoretical and methodological aspects that provide unique consideration for the construction of a virtual learning environment for design are presented and discussed: 1) A unique structure of design knowledge as required in virtual education, 2) A requisite pedagogic framework for virtual design education, and 3) A particular technology designed and implemented to support these aspects in WINDS.
Petric, J., G. Conti, and G. Ucelli. "Designing within Virtual Worlds." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 213-224. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. This paper celebrates the successful outcome of a trial of an innovative multi-platform distributed design decision support system in which the shared design environment exists within the virtual world. The outcome is the result of a sustained three-year research and development effort, within an internationally recognised research group. The project set itself a number of ambitious targets within the broad spectrum of distributed design decision support, viz: • A multi-platform environment: the trial demonstrates inter-operability of different machine platforms - from a home PC to an international standard Virtual Reality Centre. • A distributed environment: the trial demonstrates the high level of understanding amongst the design team separated by time and space. • An ability to propose, discuss and agree upon, design decision from within the virtual world. Hitherto, virtual environments were viewing galleries, designers had to leave them to effect design changes in a conventional CAD package. The trial described in the paper amply demonstrates the potential to design, collaboratively and, in distributed mode, from within the virtual world. The two ideas upon which the system (known as JCAD-VR) is built are: • That all the users present in the virtual world have to be able to share the same virtual environment in a “transparent fashioni, • The user interface, instead of the traditional menu/windows based layout, is part of the virtual world itself. Any element of the interface becomes an object belonging to the 3D world and therefore it is treated as any other object. Each element of the interface can then be moved or scaled according to the useris needs. The entire project is based on client-server architecture where every user logs into a virtual world and starts sharing design tasks with other users. The authors propose to present a video which demonstrates the positive outcome of the trials to date. More importantly, perhaps, the authors will put the achievements of the R+D into the context of past aspirations and developments in the subject area and, most importantly of all, suggest how these modest achievements will impact on the next decade of increasingly rapid R+D.
Wang, Frank. "Development of a New CIS/2 (CIMsteel Integration Standards) Model Viewer." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 83-92. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. The purpose of developing a CIS/2 data viewer is not only to facilitate software developers to visualise exported CIS/2 files and to validate geometric correctness, but also to provide non-3D-model-based CIS/2 applications with an interface for geometric visualisation and complex 3D-spatial computation. The GT CIS/2 Model viewer enhances the functionality of existing data viewers and proposes a new visualisation method for a CIS/2 model.
Liu, Yu-Tung. "Digital Architecture: Theory, Media and Design." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 18-Se. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. Computers, the new digital media, liberate the duality of concepts of space in human civilization. The construction and simulation powers of digital media trigger all kinds of unlimited imagination. The new space of this kind may be called digital space or virtual space. This new space is between mental and physical spaces because it provides designers with not only unlimited imaginality of mental space but also live-inside perception of physical space. A new concept of space of mankind is thus generated.
Wittkopf, S.K., T.C. Hung, and M.K. Boey. "Discussing Photon-Mapping and Radiosity-Based Rendering Algorithms to Evaluate Qualitative Lighting Design in Contemporary Architecture." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 351-360. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. This paper attempts to determine the impact of different light propagation algorithm on visual perception of qualitative lighting design in contemporary architecture. Radiositybased and photon-mapping-based light simulation software is used in this empirical study as a “switch” to isolate the occurrence of the specific lighting phenomenon. Images generated by the two rendering software are graded using a subjective lighting metric. The results show varying visual response. This finding informs architects that general radiosity-based renderer might not be adequate to portray accurate computational representation of translucency, directional diffused reflection and caustics, lighting phenomena observed in contemporary architecture.
Tan, Milton. "Emergent Relations Self-Indexing Media for Case-Based Reasoning." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 73-82. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. A priori indexing systems for case-based reasoning are unlikely to engender interesting, let alone creative, explorations. The problem is that they assume a predetermined knowledge and conceptual structure which neglect new and emergent relations. By allowing multiple labelling of entities, it can be shown that different orders of emergent relations can be derived on the fly without any conventional classification schemes. This gives a flexible, scalable, and most importantly, an associative reasoning system that is more likely to trigger interesting concepts which are technically “categorical errorsi but seeds of creative thought.
Kocaturk, T., M. Veltkamp, and Bige Tunçer. "Exploration of Interrelationships between Digital Design and Production Processes of Free-form Complex Surfaces in a Web-Based Database." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 445-454. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. The intention of this paper is to examine the mutual influences of initial architectural, structural and digital manufacturing related decisions on the evolution of free-form structures. A survey on current applications will be presented to lay the foundation for the examination of new production techniques and structural concerns for the computer generated expressive forms. Finally, the paper will describe an interactive web-based database project which aims to establish a grammar on the mutual influences of architectural, structural and production related features of free-forms. Based on the built examples of blob structures, the database serves as a catalogue of possibilities related to form, and facilitate assessment of the impact of the early choices on the free-form building design and development.
Garcia, Renato. "Feeling the Heat - Exploring the Impact of Fire in Architectural Structures though Multimodal Interaction." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 383-392. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. This paper discusses the background and basis behind a computer program developed by the author that incorporates a haptic feedback and audio interface into a visually interactive simulation of the structural response of buildings to fire. Structures are limited to steel in particular. The audio interface makes use of sonification and affective techniques while the haptic interface takes advantage of force feedback technology. The simulation is also meant to be holistic, qualitative, intuitive, temporal yet interactive. The primary innovation in this fire simulation system is the incorporation of audio and haptic feedback interaction into the usual visual interface.
Lin, Shang-Li, and Sheng-Fen Chien. "From Chinese Gardens to Virtual Environments. a Gateway to Cyberspace." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 271-278. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. Chinese gardens provide situated portals through which poets or artists can enter their imaginary worlds. Similarly, a visual interface (virtual environment) of a cyberspace provides entrances to this potentially infinite space. Derived from design principles of Chinese gardens, we propose a design method for creating virtual environments. We use this method to design and visualise several cyberspaces, including web sites, virtual Chinese gardens and 3D computer games. We conduct empirical studies and find virtual environments, created by the proposed method, provide users with experience correlated to the expected result.
Fischer, Thomas, Mark Burry, and J. Frazer. "How to Plant a Subway System." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 403-412. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. We speculate on a possible CAAD future that deploys and extends paradigms of natural growth and cellular development to an extent that would allow the planting and growth of man-made structures. This approach is based on the translation and expression of digital data structures into artificial physical form and the building of structures by decentral means. In such a scenario, generative and evolutionary architecture could seamlessly blend into building construction. As a discussion of as yet unavailable future technologies and methodologies the proposed remains at a “sketchy” level and must largely limit itself to preliminary and speculative considerations. In order to restrain the scope of this paper to the area of building design and construction, we focus on subway development and discuss possible cellular approaches to this particular field emphasizing aspects of functional aesthetics. We encourage the reader to take this example as a point of departure only, to generalise our explanations and to apply them to other building types. We support our discussion with findings made in software simulations of humandesigned cellular growth processes.
Dave, Bharat. "Hybrid Spaces of Practice." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 181-190. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. Research projects in computational design typically view digital tools as existing independently of their physical settings. However, what we witness are hybrid spaces of practice, one in which there is an increasing fusion and overlap of physical and digital objects and environments. Instead of focusing on digital tools and information in isolation, this paper argues for the need to conceptualise and experiment with hybrid work environments through combinations of place, time, scale, resolution and other dimensions to develop hybrid spaces of practice. The paper describes experiments with a work environment that consists of multiple displays and representations to motivate and characterise hybrid spaces of physical and digital work environments.
Jeng, Tay-Sheng, and Chia-Hsun Lee. "iCube: Ubiquitous Media Spaces for Embodied Interaction." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 225-234. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. This paper outlines new facilities within ubiquitous media spaces supporting embodied interaction between humans and computation. We believe that the current approach to developing electronic based design environments is fundamentally defective with regard to support for multi-person multimodal design interactions. In this paper, we present an alternative ubiquitous computing environment based on an integrated design of real and virtual worlds. We implement a research prototype environment called iCube. The functional capabilities implemented in iCube include spatially-aware 3D navigation, laser pointer interaction, and tangible media. Some of its details, benefits, user experiences, and issues regarding design support are discussed.
Zreik, Khaldoun, Rudi Stouffs, Bige Tunçer, S. Ozsariyildiz, and Reza Beheshti. "Information Modelling for Improving Communication in Design and Construction." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 63-72. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. Globalisation and international competition force the AEC industry to change its work and collaboration practices. The traditional way of working is evolving into a more integrated process, and the traditional use of “synchronised passive” files and paperbased communication is being replaced with ICT based solutions. Currently, the AEC community is at an intermediate stage, i.e., it is shifting to “online” electronic documents. In this paper, a new concept called “Document” (eDoc) is introduced. The eDoc project is a cooperative effort in order to develop and implement a generic dynamically structured, multimedia, multi-channel, and multimodal information system as a means for communication in AEC projects. The major innovation in the concept is that, although it uses a repository, the focus is on the logical and physical specifications of the eDoc concept as a shared tele-workspace that is accessible through multiple platforms
Ding, Lan, P - S. Liew, Mary Lou Maher, John S. Gero, and Robin Drogemuller. "Integrating CAD and 3D Virtual Worlds Using Agents and EDM." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 301-312. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. This paper develops an overall architecture for integrating CAD and virtual worlds. The advantages of having access to the building model in a virtual world include the collaborative nature of the world. The EDM database as an object-oriented database is developed to establish a common object-oriented representation of building model, which can be accessed by both CAD systems and virtual worlds. The integration between CAD systems and an EDM database is implemented through the use of Industry Foundation Classes (IFCs) as an intermediate data model and the communication between the database and virtual worlds is developed through agents.
Rekimoto, Jun. "Interacting with a Computer Augmented Environment." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 7-Mar. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. In Sony CSL Interaction Laboratory, we are investigating future human-computer interaction technologies that augment real world environments. In such an environment, as we can combine many physical tools to perform a task in a real world, we consider that it should be possible to dynamically combine multiple digital devices. We should also be able to use our trained physical skills, as well as logical skills, to interact with an environment. In this presentation I will introduce several examples of new user interface technologies.
Champion, E., Bharat Dave, and I. Bishop. "Interaction, Agency and Artefacts." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 249-258. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. This paper argues (i) that understanding of a place (especially in heritage environments) requires a level of cultural engagement and (ii) that virtual environments, in their typical current form, fail to provide such engagement. A proposed solution to the issue of cultural presence is to apply the interactive mechanisms commonly used in computer games (social agents, levels of interaction constraint, and task-based manipulation of artefacts) to virtual heritage environments. The hypothesis is that the resulting environment will allow for greater engagement and a more culturally immersive learning environment. Virtual environments also often lack techniques for evaluating the extent to which their design goals are achieved. A proposed secondary outcome is that designers and researchers of virtual environment can also use the above interactive mechanisms for the evaluation of user engagement without simultaneously interrupting the user’s feeling of engagement.
Chang, Teng-Wen, Robert F. Woodbury, and Sambit Datta. "Interactive Mapping between Knowledge Level and Symbol Level with Geometry. a KL-Model for Design Space Exploration." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 157-166. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003.

Design space exploration is long-standing motivating ideas in computer-aided design. It realises this vision through a model of design states for making and moving amongst states and an organisation of states into a structure called a design space. Using a design space structuring mechanism based on a subsumption relation, this paper sketches a theory called Geometric Typed Feature Structures (GTFS) to preserve the formal properties of the design space movement algorithms for geometry. It also provides the theory for incorporation of user-guided exploration in the design space. Consequently, the clear division between knowledge level and symbol level, such that functional decomposition •• formal symbol level and design •• model symbol level, disappears. We can therefore use the same subsumption relation to structure the design space exploration interactively. Such interactive mapping between knowledge level and symbol level provides the fine-grained opportunities for user intervention in formal design space movement algorithms. In this paper, we summarize this approach with an example of GTFS subsumption process.

Yang, Qizhen, and Lu Cui. "Interoperable and Extensible Design Information Modelling." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 93-104. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. Modelling of interoperable and extensible design information is one of the key issues in computer-aided architectural design. IFC technology provides standardised mechanisms for the development of such information models. By using the IFC dynamic definition extension mechanism this paper presents a method for IFC-compliant design information modelling for architectural CAD objects. The method has been implemented as an addon toolkit to the Architectural Desktop CAD package. The use scenarios of the toolkit are discussed in the paper for CAD property modelling, property database management, and interoperable design information modelling with property set extensions.
Achten, Henri, and J. Jessurun. "Learning from Mah Jong - Towards a Multi-Agent System that can Recognize Graphic Units." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 115-124. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. Sketching is a major means of exploiting the first conceptual developments in architectural design. If we want to support the architect in the ideas-developing phase of design, then we need to understand the conventions of depiction and encoding in drawings. The theory of graphic units provides an extended list of such conventions that are widely used. We propose that a multi-agent system for recognition of graphic units in drawings is fruitful: agents can specialize in graphic units, a multi-agent system can deal with ambiguity through negotiation and conflict resolution, and multi-agent systems function in dynamically changing environments. We first make a multi-agent system that can do something simpler: playing Mah Jong solitary. The Mah Jong solitary system shares the following important features with a multi-agent system that can recognize graphic units: (1) specialized agents for moves, (2) negotiation between agents to establish the best move, (3) dynamically changing environment, and (4) search activity in more advanced strategies. The paper presents the theoretical basis of graphic units and multi-agents systems. The multi-agent framework and its implementation is presented. Various levels of game play are distinguished, and these are correlated to the multi-agent system. The paper shows how the findings form the basis for graphic unit recognition.
Jung, T., Mark Gross, and Ellen Yi- Luen Do. "Light Pen - Sketching Light in 3D." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 327-338. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. We describe a lighting design system driven by sketching on 3D virtual models. Conventional lighting design tools simulate the lighting effects of design decisions such as window locations, surface treatments, and fixture placement. Light Pen takes the inverse approach by allowing the designer to indicate desired illumination on a 3D model. This serves as input to a knowledge-based lighting design system, which recommends what lights to use and where to place them, based on the designer's expressed intentions and on the geometry of the space.
Glaser, D, J Voung, L Xiao, B Tai, M S. Ubbelohde, J Canny, and Ellen Yi- Luen Do. "LightSketch - a Sketch-Modelling Program for Lighting Analysis." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 371-382. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. This paper presents a flexible, yet powerful lighting analysis tool, LightSketch. LightSketch is a sketch-based modelling program for lighting analysis. It allows the user to draw both architectural and lighting related symbols which are converted into a 3D model for lighting visualisation. It is motivated by examining the strengths and limitations of current lighting design practices. Its use is illustrated with design scenarios.
Bay, Joo-Hwa. "Making Rebuttals Available Digitally for Minimising Biases in Mental Judgements." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 147-156. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. The problem of heuristic biases (illusions) discussed by Tversky and Kahneman (1982) that can lead to errors in judgement by human designers, when they use precedent knowledge presented graphically (Bay 2001). A Cognitive framework of belief, goal, and decision, and a framework of representation of architectural knowledge by Tzonis are used to map out the problem of heuristic biases in the human mind. These are used to discuss what aspects of knowledge can be presented explicitly and digitally to users to make rebuttal more available for human thinking at the cognitive level. The discussion is applicable to both inductive and analytic digital knowledge systems that use precedent knowledge. This discussion is targeted directly at means of addressing bias in the human mind using digital means. The problem of human bias in machine learning and generalisation are discussed in a different paper, and the problems of international or non-intentional machine bias are not part of discussion in this paper.
Chevrier, Christine, and Jean Perrin. "ModLum - Illumination Project Aided Design Tool." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 361-370. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. Illumination phenomena simulation is important for architectural project design and communication: simulation tools must assist efficiently the designer, results have to be reliable and realistic for the decision-makers. Indeed, it is very difficult, for a nonspecialist to imagine the result of an illumination from the light designer plans. Experience shows that the success of a photo-realistic simulation relies essentially on the choice of the light source characteristics and their correct positioning in the scene. This paper first presents the specificities of illumination projects (very large geometrical data bases enlightened by a large amount of light sources) and the difficulties of their set-up. Light arrangement requires tricky compositions, judicious choices and accurate studies. Currently there is no specific modeller for the handling of light sources as they are considered in radiosity software. Then we present the interactive tool we have developed, named ModLum, in order to set up light sources in a 3D architectural model in order to save time during the design step and simplify the source handling. ModLum specifications and principles are presented. Finally, an application is presented: the illumination project of two cloisters in Quito (Ecuador, South America).
San Liew, Pak-, and John S. Gero. "Operational Characteristics of a Constructive Memory System for Design Agents." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 137-146. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. This paper describes the operational characteristics of a constructive memory for a design agent that distinguishes it from a standard retrieval system. An architecture example pertaining to this behaviour of the system is also illustrated through a simulation of the memory system.
Stouffs, Rudi, and Michael Cumming. "Querying Design Information through Visual Manipulation of Representational Structures." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 41-52. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. Querying design information is an intricate aspect of the design process. Supporting arbitrary design queries requires both flexible design information models that can be modified and geared to the kind of question, and access to information in a uniform and consistent manner. We report on an active research effort to provide a 3D graphical interface for the manipulation of representational and data structures in terms of composition and scope. It is based on a framework for representational flexibility that supports the development of query languages. Specifically, we consider this as a framework for data management and include data functions as a means to support data analysis. We emphasise the interaction mechanisms that support both data management and analysis. In particular, we distinguish three types of interaction: the selection of an entity of primary interest, the selection of an extent of interest, and the insertion of data functions as a means for data analysis.
Jabi, Wassim. "Reflections on Computer-Supported Cooperative Design Systems." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 169-180. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. Computer-supported cooperative work has come to signify a process by which a computer system supports the activities of geographically dispersed participants and enables them to share ideas and artefacts. This paper aims to dispel this unified approach to the definition of and in turn the design of aids to cooperative work. The paper starts by surveying the history of the field of computer-supported cooperative work and design. Then, the paper presents three tasks and their associated aids. The first system helps designers to create and discuss a hierarchical building program and share schematic drawings. The second system allows a jury to anonymously review a set of submissions. The third system allows a hierarchically organised group of participants to search, retrieve, organise and share a set of digital media assets. All systems are web-based and use the same underlying object-oriented technology. The paper provides a brief case study that describes the main features of the three pieces of software as an example of the need for a variety of approaches in the support of cooperative work and design. The paper concludes by advocating an object-oriented, domain-specific approach to creating computer-supported cooperative systems based on the analysis of the task at hand.
CHIU, Yi-Chang, and Mao-Lin Chiu. "Right Tools for Designing Free-form Geometry More than Representation and Manipulation." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 433-444. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. This paper examines what the appropriate strategy for designers to handle the complex object is and how digital and conventional tools are involved in presenting and representing design artefacts for presenting design ideas and deliver design information, particularly in 3D free-form geometry. A series of precedent studies are conducted to examine the argument. The manipulation of digital tools is not merely a technical problem but a strategy about what the right tool for designing geometry is and how design process and principles are innovated. Two demonstrative projects are presented to illustrate how designers can better analyse and define the best choice of medium and design tools, and create a digital design platform to reach the merit of the tools created.
Peng, Chengzhi. "Serial Vision Revisited: Prospects of Virtual City Supported Urban Analysis and Design." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 259-270. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. Following our previous research on developing a dynamic virtual city system (Sheffield Urban Contextual Databank, SUCoD), the paper reports on a study of applying the virtual city resources to an undergraduate urban design course. The study focuses on how the multi-dimensional and multiple types of urban contextual data can be used by student designers directly for urban visual analysis and design development. A link is made with the Serial Vision in Townscape first proposed by Gordon Cullen, which sets out an experiential approach to how a living city environment should be read and understood. Drawing on the project works produced by the students, some patterns of generating urban narratives and 3D spatial designs were observed. Although the current experiment with SUCoD is limited in terms of data scope and modelling capabilities, it reveals a future direction to follow that can turn conventional virtual cities into Web-based online services capable of supporting urban design analyses and syntheses directly.
Lin, Chieh-Jen, and Mao-Lin Chiu. "Smart Semantic Query of Design Information in a Case Library." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 125-136. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. This paper is aimed to establish a smart query mechanism based on the semantic relationship among design cases in a case library, Case Base for Architecture (CBA). A case is composed with three levels of design information: “general”,  “analytical” and “recommendation”. The data mining technique is applied to analyse the case information of CBA and extract a list of keywords of design concepts and knowledge from the analytic information and recommendation. By clustering and ranking the semantic relations of those keywords on the strength of machine and addressing them to selected design cases, we can organise the semantic relations among cases. Based on the results, we build a primary query interface to help users to retrieve and inspire their associative reasoning for design thinking. The semantic query mechanism is presented and discussed.
Hwang, Jie-Eun, and Jin-Won Choi. "SpaceScope: Spatial Content-Based Retrieval of Architectural Floor Plans." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 53-62. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. This research investigates spatial information retrieval in architecture, based on an efficient metadata that is crucial for content-based retrieval. SpaceCore is the metadata schema for spatial information on a floor plan implemented with RDF (Resource Description Framework). To generate metadata, we analyse the factors of spatial information, and then construct a data model containing the content and structure of spatial information. To exploit the metadata, we suggest various query operations with possible predicates and interfaces. SpaceScope, the spatial information retrieval system, consists of three modules: an input data module, a query module, and a browse module. As to implementation, we have already developed the real time plan-structuring system, called “Vitruvius”,  as an inputting and modelling data module (using C++). Based on the database, the system performs the similarity analysis and then evaluates the alternative plans with the retrieval goals. At the end of the paper we discuss the potential of SpaceScope in the schematic design stage of the architectural design process, possibly improving and triggering the designeris conceptual approach against a logical background and facilitate rapid decision-making after full consideration.
De Grassi, M, A Giretti, L Bazzanella, and L. Caneparo. "The AEC Virtual University - Design Oriented Knowledge Transfer Methods and Technologies." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 313-323. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. The paper introduces the Web based INtelligent Design Support (WINDS) European Project to support education in design, a.k.a. the AEC Virtual University. The Project is divided into two actions. First, the research technology action will implement a learning environment integrating an intelligent design tutoring system, a computer instruction management system and a set of co-operative supporting tools. Second, the development action will build a large knowledge base supporting Architecture, Civil Engineering and Construction Design Courses and to experiment a comprehensive AEC Virtual University.
Segers, Nicole, and B. De Vries. "The Idea Space System - Words as Handles to a Comprehensive Data Structure." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 31-40. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. The Idea Space System is a CAAD system that supports an architect in the early phase of the design process, by reducing fixation in the process and enhancing the “flowi of work. Mostly in the field of CAAD research, the emphasis lies on sketching or modelling. However the architect uses multiple representations in developing the design. In this research the focus lies on the use of words. The Idea Space System captures all design data and then uses the words to provide the architect with new associations and relations between words (real time), which stimulate the generation of new ideas. Architecture students have used our first prototype of the Idea Space System in a small experiment. This gave us better insight in the ideas and relations made by the architect in the early phase of the design process and what kind of feedback preferred. Afterwards a study was done about the representation of the feedback. In this paper we focus on the textual input provided by the architecture students and the description of the Idea Space System, handling this textual input and providing the architecture students with the proper feedback.
Caneparo, Luca, and Matteo Robiglio. "UrbanLab - Agent-Based Simulation of Urban and Regional Dynamics." In Digital Design - Research and Practice: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 279-290. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. An overview of the two stages of the UrbanLab model is presented, focusing on the layering between the two stages: the first using GIS based socio-economic data, communicating the second stage, which is an agent-based dynamic model of citizensi activities.