Keywords Abstract
Park, Hyoung-June, and Emmanuel-George Vakalo. "A Form-making Algorithm. Shape Grammar Reversed." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 453-466. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Under the assumption that design is a hypothetical test of building, this paper introduces a method of employing architectural knowledge through direct manipulation of geometric objects. Proposing a framework for retrieving and analysing not only what is modelled but also how it is designed, this paper demonstrates that designing can be viewed as an object of research. The paper also discusses the issues pertaining to the implementation of the aforementioned framework.
Chase, Scott C., and PakSan Liew. "A framework for redesign using FBS models and grammar adaptation." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 467-477. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. This paper describes a framework for redesign. Stylistic change in the form of rule modification is used to transform grammars to produce designs conforming to new requirements. The mechanism that enables this modification is based on the Function-Behaviour-Structure (FBS) model of design. The framework provides a formal mechanism for redesign and defines a means to generate and link structures with different behaviour and functions within the FBS model of design. Redesign of a wall illustrates this framework.
Ekholm, Anders. "Activity objects in CAD-programs for building design. a prototype program implementation." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 61-74. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. In the early stages of the building design process, during the programming and the proposal stages, both user activities and the building are in focus for the designer. In spite of this, todayis CAD programs give no support for management of information about user activities in the building. This paper discusses the requirements on modelling user activities in the context of building design and presents a prototype software. The prototype is developed as an add-on to the architectural design software ArchiCAD.
Han, Seung-Hoon, and James Turner. "An Architectural Approach to Virtual Reality Support of Multi-user Environments ." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 439-452. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. The Internet and its multimedia component, the World Wide Web (WWW), are the essential technological foundations, and the tools to construct cyberspace on these foundations are beginning to be created. Two of those tools are the network programming language, Java, and the 3D graphics standard for the Internet, the Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) which has the ability to support programmable behaviour. This paper documents at experiment with the use of networks with Java-VRML connectivity, applying it to a collaborative system which will make it possible for multiple users to navigate and dynamically update an architectural VR environment.
Brown, Andre. "Architectural critique through digital scenario building. Augmenting Architectural Criticism and Narrative." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 697-709. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001.

As an idea scenario-building has parallels the use of creative faking in related disciplines, most particularly, in contemporary art. The techniques involved in scenario-building and faking offer us enhanced ways of undertaking creative thinking and critical review of architecture and architectural projects. Critical review and theoretical analysis of architecture can be undertaken via a range of methods that Attoe (1978) classifies as Normative, Interpretive and Descriptive. Digital representation now offers us new ways of augmenting these critical styles in ways that have yet to be fully exploited, and possible means of exploitation are illustrated in this paper. In short the work described here shows how digital techniques can be used to enrich architectural investigation, critical reporting and debate.

Mishima, Yoshitaka, and Peter Szalapaj. "Architectural Design Development through Multimedia Interaction." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 299-314. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. This paper describes the development of a multimedia system aimed at architects and architectural students for the purpose of helping them to understand the basic concepts of architectural analysis. Analytical features in the system that we have developed include many design-theoretic concepts such as massing, balance and circulation. Other concepts are more directly related to the built environment and include elements such as lighting, structure and construction. The system illustrates architectural analysis carried out on a range of building types dynamically, and allows users to navigate architectural analyses interactively. Users can learn about the differences between buildings and their corresponding analyses in a supportive non-linear learning process, and can explore building types depending upon their own interests or needs. The prototype system contains analyses of three British building projects. They show different types of architecture in order to demonstrate important design theoretic and environmental differences. Conceptual models in the system show important aspects of a particular analysis simply, and each analysis is additionally described with text, animations, video clips and interviews with architects (talking heads). Most of the models were generated by the use of architectural CAD software. Animation techniques were used to describe the analyses of buildings clearly and dynamically. Users can visualise how whole buildings were designed from an analytical point of view, and the system illustrates design thinking by showing dynamic presentations of analyses. Users can structure their own design learning processes through a series of interactions. These interactions are supported with flexible cross-referencing mechanisms implemented in Macromedia Director 8.0 exploiting Frame Markers, Event Handling, Navigation, and Buttons in the context of the object-oriented Lingo programming language. The navigation component of this system has a logical matrix structure reflecting the fact that analytical information is interrelated across building types, giving rise to vertical and horizontal patterns of access. The features of Director 8.0 can control this navigation in a flexible yet structured way. Users not only learn about analysis, but also how to present their own designs to the public through the use of different kinds of presentation techniques, particularly through the use of conceptual models. We intend that users can show their projects from their own analytical viewpoints instead of simply showing realistic images of final designs. Presentations can also be recorded in the system, and these can in turn be used as reference material for other users. This system is currently being developed further by storing presentations and translating them into different languages (e.g. Japanese) so that foreign users in other institutions can interact with these presentations. This system has been evaluated in the context of an undergraduate CAD course at the School of Architecture, University of Sheffield, UK. We are currently examining the usefulness of the system based upon an evaluation process, in addition to including more building types for future study.
Gavin, L., S. Keuppers, C. Mottram, and A. Penn. "Awareness Space in Distributed Social Networks." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 615-628. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. In the real work environment we are constantly aware of the presence and activity of others. We know when people are away from their desks, whether they are doing concentrated work, or whether they are available for interaction. We use this peripheral awareness of others to guide our interactions and social behaviour. However, when teams of workers are spatially separated we lose'awareness'information and this severely inhibits interaction and information flow. The Theatre of Work (TOWER) aims to develop a virtual space to help create a sense of social awareness and presence to support distributed working. Presence, status and activity of other people are made visible in the theatre of work and allow one to build peripheral awareness of the current activity patterns of those who we do not share space with in reality. TOWER is developing a construction set to augment the workplace with synchronous as well as asynchronous awareness. Current, synchronous activity patterns and statuses are played out in a 3D virtual space through the use of symbolic acting. The environment itself however is automatically constructed on the basis of the organisation's information resources and is in effect an information space. Location of the symbolic actor in the environment can therefore represent the focus of that person's current activity. The environment itself evolves to reflect historic patterns of information use and exchange, and becomes an asynchronous representation of the past history of the organisation. A module that records specific episodes from the synchronous event cycle as a Docudrama forms an asynchronous information resource to give a history of team work and decision taking. The TOWER environment is displayed using a number of screen based and ambient display devices. Current status and activity events are supplied to the system using a range of sensors both in the real environment and in the information systems. The methodology has been established as a two-stage process. The 3D spatial environment will be automatically constructed or generated from some aspect of the pre-existing organisational structure or its information resources or usage patterns. The methodology must be extended to provide means for that structure to grow and evolve in the light of patterns of actual user behaviour in the TOWER space. We have developed a generative algorithm that uses a cell aggregation process to transcribe the information space into a 3d space. In stage 2 that space was analysed using space syntax methods (Hillier & Hanson, 1984, Hillier 1996) to allow the properties of permeability and intelligibility to be measured, and then these fed back into the generative algorithm. Finally, these same measures have been used to evaluate the spatialised behaviour that users of the TOWER space show, and will used to feed this back into the evolution of the space. The stage of transcription from information structure to 3d space through a generative algorithm is critical since it is this stage that allows neighbourhood relations to be created that are not present in the original information structure. It is these relations that could be expected to help increase social density.
Heylighen, Ann, and Herman Neuckermans. "Baptism of fire of a Web-based design assistant." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 111-124. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. DYNAMO - a Dynamic Architectural Memory On-line - is a Web-based design assistant to support architectural design education. The tool is conceived as an (inter-)active workhouse rather than a passive warehouse: it is interactively developed by and actively develops its users'design knowledge. Its most important feature is not merely that it presents students with design cases, but that those cases trigger in-depth explorations, stimulate reflection and prime discussions between students, design teachers and professional architects. Whereas previous papers have focused on the theoretical ideas behind DYNAMO and on how Web-technology enabled us to translate these ideas into a working prototype, this paper reports on the prototype's baptism of fire in a 4th year design studio. It describes the setting and procedure of the baptism, the participation of the studio teaching staff, and the reactions and appreciation of the students. Based on students'responses to a questionnaire and observations of the tool in use, we investigated whether DYNAMO succeeded in engaging students and what factors stimulated/hampered this engagement. Despite the prototype nature of the system, students were noticeably enthusiastic about the tool. Moreover, DYNAMO turned out to be fairly'democratic', in the sense that it did not seem to privilege students with private access to or prior knowledge of computer technology. However, the responses to the questionnaire raise questions about the nature of students'engagement. Three factors revealed themselves as major obstacles to student (inter-)action: lack of time, lack of encouragement by the teachers and lack of studio equipment. Although these obstacles may not relate directly to DYNAMO itself, they might have prevented the tool from functioning the way it was originally meant to. The paper concludes with lessons learned for the future of DYNAMO and, more in general, of ICT in architectural design education.
Cerulli, C., C. Peng, and B. Lawson. "Capturing Histories of Design Processes for Collaborative Building Design Development. Field Trial of the ADS Prototype." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 427-437. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. The ADS Project - Advanced Design Support for the Construction Design Process - builds on the technological results of the previous COMMIT Project to exploit and demonstrate the benefits of a CAD based Design Decision Support System. COMMIT provides a system for storing knowledge about knowledge within the design process. It records design decisions, the actors who take them and the roles they play when doing so. ADS links COMMIT to an existing object-oriented CAD system, MicroStation/J from Bentley Systems. The project focuses on tackling the problem of managing design information without intruding too much on the design process itself. It provides the possibility to effectively link design decisions back to requirements, to gather rationale information for later stages of the building lifecycle, and to gather knowledge of rationale for later projects. The system enables members of the project team, including clients and constructors, to browse and search the recorded project history of decision making both during and after design development. ADS aims to facilitate change towards a more collaborative process in construction design, to improve the effectiveness of decision-making throughout the construction project and to provide clients with the facility to relate design outcomes to design briefs across the whole building life cycle. In this paper we will describe the field trials of the ADS prototype carried out over a three-month period at the Building Design Partnership (BDP) Manchester office. The objective of these trials is to assess the extent, to which the approach underlying ADS enhances the design process, and to gather and document the views and experiences of practitioners. The ADS prototype was previously tested with historical data of real project (Peng, Cerulli et al. 2000). To gather more valuable knowledge about how a Decision Support System like ADS can be used in practice, the testing and evaluation will be extended to a real project, while it is still ongoing. The live case study will look at some phases of the design of a mixed residential and retail development in Leeds, UK, recording project information while it is created. The users feedback on the system usability will inform the continuous redevelopment process that will run in parallel to the live case study. The ADS and COMMIT Projects were both funded by EPSRC.
Cheng, Nancy. "Capturing Place: a Comparison of Site Recording Methods." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 243-255. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. When designers document locations for site-specific projects, how do tools affect recording of visual data? We observed design students visiting future project locations with sketchbooks, cameras and video and analysed the resulting Web-based field reports by tallying images according to scale and content. The study describes how tools shape place-recording phases and explains how field reports can contribute to understanding the tools. Examining reports from different classes exposed the importance of objectives and setting characteristics in shaping data collection. A refined approach for studying new place-recording tools is suggested.
Tang, Hsien-Hui, and John S. Gero. "Cognition-based CAAD. How CAAD systems can support conceptual design." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 521-531. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. This paper introduces the concept of cognition-based CAAD. Protocol analysis and a content-oriented coding scheme are utilised to produce cognitive results of designersi behaviour. This empirical analysis suggests that the speed of thought and vagueness among actions are the main areas to be supported by any cognition-based CAAD system. Three different modes of design thinking are presented as the basis of a possible CAAD system.
Eissa, H., Ardeshir Mahdavi, R. Klatzky, and J. Siegel. "Computationally rendered architectural spaces as means of lighting design evaluation." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 349-360. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. This paper describes an empirical study that was conducted to determine whether and to what extent subjective evaluation of lighting in architectural spaces can be reproduced using computationally rendered images of such spaces. The results imply that such images can reliably represent certain aspects of the lighting conditions in real spaces.
Mann, Darrell, and Conall Catháin. "Computer-based TRIZ - Systematic Innovation Methods for Architecture." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 561-575. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. The Russian Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, TRIZ, is the most comprehensive systematic innovation and creativity methodology available. Essentially the method consists of restating a specific design task in a more general way and then selecting generic solutions from databases of patents and solutions from a wide range of technologies. The development of computer databases greatly facilitates this task. Since the arrival of TRIZ in the West at the end of the Cold War, it has begun to be used with great success across a wide variety of different industries. Application of the method to the field of architecture has so far been very limited. The paper outlines how TRIZ methods may be applied to a number of architectural problems.
McCall, Raymond Joseph, E. Vlahos, and J. Zabel. "Conceptual Design as HyperSketching. Theory and Java Prototype." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 285-297. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Hand-done design drawing still has a several advantages over current, CADbased approaches to generating form, especially in the early stages of design. One advantage is the indeterminacy of hand drawing--i.e. its abstractness and ambiguity. Another is a non-destructive drawing process, where new drawings are created without modifying old ones. A third is designersi creation of large collections of inter-related drawings--i.e. graphical hyperdocuments. A fourth is the unobtrusive character of conventional drawing tools. These advantages might be taken as reasons for continuing to do early design on paper, but they also suggest ways in which CAD might be improved. We have created software prototypes that incorporate these features into a new type of CAD based on sketching with electronic pens on LCD tablets. One prototype, which we call HyperSketch II, simulates tracing paper in the sense that it enables the user to trace over previous drawings and to build stacks of traced over drawings. It also enables the user to create a hypermedia network in which the nodes are sketches and the links represent various relationships between sketches.
Kulinski, Jaroslaw, and John S. Gero. "Constructive Representation in Situated Analogy in Design. an essay on a bottle of Eau d'Issey pour Homme." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 507-520. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. A model of situated analogy considered within the context of design is presented. It shows the impact of constructive knowledge representation on analogy making. The importance of a non-fixed but constructive representation is highlighted. It is suggested that a situated model of analogy fits the observed characteristics of design better than a non-situated one.
Jeng, Tay-Sheng. "Coordination of Distributed Design Activities: a Rule-Driven Approach." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 415-426. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. The purpose of this work is to develop effective, yet flexible, methods of coordination in support of collaborative design. This work takes a rule-driven approach to modelling process knowledge for coordination of distributed activities. In this paper, coordination knowledge is represented by a set of dependency rules that determines when, how, and by whom each activity is performed. A design coordination model called DCM is introduced in terms of the dependency rules and the activity states associated with the use of the whole range of computer applications. DCM permits coordination flexibility and allows visibility of coordination logic dealing with dynamic aspects of design processes. A web-based system prototype that implements the design coordination model is demonstrated. Opportunities for using the system prototype to aid design coordination are discussed.
Russell, Peter. "Creating Place in the Virtual Design Studio." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 231-242. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. The current wave of attempts to create virtual design studios has demonstrated a wide range of didactical as well as computational models. Through work performed over the past year, an evolution of many of these concepts has been created which fosters a sense of place. This aspect of place has to do with identity and community rather than with form and space. Initial virtual design studio projects were often merely a digital pin-up board, which enabled distributed and asynchronous criticism and review. However, the web sites were more analogous to a directory than to the studio setting of an upper level design problem. The establishment of a truly distributed design studio in the past year, which involved design teams spread over three universities (not parallel to one another) led to the need for an independent place to share and discuss the student's work. Previous virtual design studios have also established web sites with communication facilities, but one was always alone with the information. In order to enhance this virtual design studio and to give it a sense of place, a studio platform that serves as a console for participants was developed. The console is a front end to a dynamic database which mediates information about the participants, their work, timetables and changes to the dynamic community. Through a logon mechanism, the presence of members is traceable and displayed. When a member logs onto the console, other members currently online are displayed to the participant. An online embedded talk function allows informal impromptu discussions to occur at a mouseclick, thus imitating ways similar to the traditional design studio setting. Personal profiles and consultation scheduling constitute the core services available. Use of the platform has proven to be well above expected levels. The students often used the platform as a meeting place to see what was going on and to co-ordinate further discussions using other forums (videoconferences, irc chats or simple telephone conversations. Surveys taken at the end of the semester show a strong affinity for the platform concept in conjunction with a general frustration in pursuing collaboration with low bandwidth communication channels.
Chien, Sheng-Fen, and Shen-Guan Shih. "Design through Information Filtering. a search driven approach for developing a layperson's CAAD environment." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 103-110. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. We propose a CAAD environment for non-designers. It is a new way to enable effective user participation during the design process. This CAAD environment contains an encapsulation of design knowledge and utilises information filtering as an interface to the design knowledge. Two prototypes are implemented as testbeds. So far, our experience has suggested that the approach has a promising future.
Choi, J.W., D.-Y. Kwon, and H.-S. Lee. "DesignBUF: Exploring and Extending 2D Boolean Set Operations with Multiple Modes in the Early Design Phase." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 589-602. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Boolean set operations have been a powerful design function set for any CAD systems including 2D and 3D domains. Their capacity to provide even more powerful design tools have not, however, been fully explored in the 2D system. The purpose of this study is to further explore 2D Boolean set operations with multiple modes, which include a pick mode, a wait mode, a drag-and-drop mode, and a draw-and-action mode. We develop a prototype design tool, called DesignBUF. It introduces a new concept of “design object buffer,i an intermediate design zone in which a designer freely sketches his/her design with design objects in a brainstorming fashion since valuable design ideas are ephemeral? and the designer needs to generate design schemes rapidly before the ideas disappear or are forgotten. After finishing such fast brainstorming processes, especially in the early design phase, the designer gets a stable and refined form of a floor plan, which in turn becomes a well structured form to maintain building and design information systematically. Therefore, the designer keeps switching back and forth between the “design object bufferi and structured floor plans. We believe that this dual working memory will not only increase system flexibility, but also reduce computation with unnecessarily complex design objects. This study also develops a robust algorithm to transform the intermediate design objects into a well-structured floor plan. In fact, the algorithm is also used for the extended Boolean set operations described above. A structured floor plan can also be transformed into non-structured forms. Research issues for future development are also identified at the end of the paper.
Peng, C., D.C. Chang, Blundell P Jones, and B. Lawson. "Dynamic Retrieval in an Urban Contextual Databank System using Java-CGI Communications. Development of the SUCoD Prototype." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 89-102. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. This paper presents our current development of the Sheffield Urban Contextual Databank (SUCoD) prototype that provides users with a Webbased interface for dynamic retrieval of architectural and urban contextual information of the city of Sheffield. In comparison with past attempts of building Virtual Cities accessible over the Internet, we have experimented with a different system architecture capable of generating VRML models and other related documents on the fly according to users'requests. Through working examples, we describe our methods of implementing the data communications between Java applets and Common Gateway Interface (CGI) scripts. The SUCoD prototype has been developed to explore and demonstrate how user centred dynamic retrieval of urban contextual information can be supported, which we consider a user requirement of primary importance in its future use for collaborative design and research relating to the city of Sheffield.
Chien, Sheng-Fen. "Ensuring Usability of CAAD Systems. a Hybrid Approach." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 361-374. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Many CAAD software prototypes today are developed with the aim to bring research results closer to practice. This paper describes a hybrid approach that integrates an Object-Oriented Software Engineering (OOSE) methodology with a usability analysis methodology “ GOMS. This approach is examined through two case studies and has shown promising results. It enables CAAD system developers to be aware of usability issues and conduct usability evaluation as early as the analysis phase of the software development process. Consequently, this may improve the quality of CAAD software systems as well as ensure the usability of the systems.
Ries, Robert, and Ardeshir Mahdavi. "Evaluation of Design Performance through Regional Environmental Simulation." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 629-642. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Computational building simulation tools have historically viewed buildings as artefacts isolated and disconnected from their contexts. At most, the external environmental conditions have been viewed as outside influences or stressors encapsulated in, for example, weather files for energy simulation or sky models for lighting simulation. In the field of environmental assessment, life cycle analysis (LCA) has followed a similar path of isolating the artefact under analysis from its context. Modelling the building artefact as a participant in multiple contexts over time so that the interactions and dependencies between the regions and the building can be adequately explored in the design process requires support for the modelling of regional areas, as well as the artefact and the related life cycle processes. Using computational design and evaluation tools can provide the computing capability required for effective design decision support. This paper presents the implementation of the affordance impact assessment method and the regional environmental simulation in Ecologue. Ecologue is the computational tool for life cycle environmental impact assessment in the SEMPER integrated building design and simulation system. Ecologue contains a building model and an environmental model. The building model is automatically derived from the shared building model of the SEMPER system. The environmental model is a combination of a representation of the processes and emissions occurring in the life cycle of buildings and an impact assessment model. The impact assessment model is a combination of a context model of the physical characteristics of a region and a sub-regional fate and transport model based on the fugacity concept.
Caneparo, Luca, and Matteo Robiglio. "Evolutionary Automata for Suburban Form Simulation." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 767-780. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. The paper outlines a research project to develop a dynamic simulation of suburbanization processes. The approach to simulating suburban form relies on modelling different interacting processes on various scales. Two layered models are implemented, the Socio-Economic and Zoning model and the Suburban Form model, respectively by means of cellular automata and genetic programming. The Socio-Economic and Zoning model simulates exogenous factors and endogenous processes of large-scale suburban dynamics. The model approximates the area by means of a rectangular grid to the scale of hundred meters. The Suburban Form model uses a smaller grid, to the scale of meters, and is three-dimensional. The resulting dynamic, 3D, fine-scale model will create scenarios of suburban growth, allowing evaluation of their consequences on built environment and landscape.
QaQish, Ra'Ed. "Exploiting Tools of Evaluation to Improve CAAD Teaching Methods. a Case Study of Inter and Intra ECTM Model." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 215-230. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. This paper reports on an ongoing research study model into the Evaluation of CAAD Teaching Methods (ECTM) of which a number of resolutions and strategies were attained via an empirical investigation. The first stage of the study findings proposed a framework for the evaluation of architecture courses in tandem with CAAD. The second stage was based on the Inter & Intra ECTM design model as a strategy for acquiring solutions to CAAD problems through the exploitation of CAAD evaluation tools. The ECTM model structure criteria: the Model Concepts, the Operational Context, Dialectic Meanings, Relational Context, Performing Methods and Level of Integration were illuminated. ECTM model has a twofold involvement junctures, which describe CAAD evaluation behaviour. The first involves the evaluator in an interdepartmental comparison of CAAD integration into the curriculum, and/or between schools of architecture. The second engages the evaluator in an intradepartmental study of CAAD integration, and within the institution. The study projected an attempt to validate the Inter & Intra ECTM design model in concert with evaluation. The paper presents an extended description of the objectives, procedures and testing designed for the two abovementioned junctures composing the proposed ECTM case studies. Sequences of methods of data collection employed as a vehicle for the ECTM were Kirkpatrick model, questionnaire survey, observation (using an ECTM checklist) and experimental studies. The paper also explores variables and indicators used, and advances to shed some light on the methods of statistical analysis employment. ECTM model as a tool to attain CAAD effectiveness might redefine the role of collaborators/ team partnerships in CAAD tuition, and induce the level of technology selection and adaptation amongst schools, e.g. tutors and coursework interconnectivity. The ECTM model may also work as a framework of strategies to augment interactivity and positive learning amongst both staff and students.
Gross, Mark. "FormWriter. a Little Programming Language for Generating Three-Dimensional Form Algorithmically." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 577-588. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. FormWriter is a simple and powerful programming language for generating three-dimensional geometry, intended for architectural designers with little programming experience to be able to generate three dimensional forms algorithmically without writing complex code. FormWriteris main features include a unified coding and graphics environment providing immediate feedback and a “flying turtle” - a means of generating three dimensional data through differential geometry.
Woodbury, Robert F., S.J. Shannon, and Anthony Radford. "Games in Early Design Education. Playing with Metaphor." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 201-214. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Play and design can be put into metaphorical relation. To do so is to let each inform the other. As part of a larger project, we have used the metaphor of play in creating and using learning resources for early design education. In doing so, it became apparent that the entailments of play, the other metaphors that both frame and are framed by play, needs to be better understood. We discuss seven metaphors related to play: games, exploration, balance of forces, tactility, intrinsic reward, embodiment and rules and how we use these in learning games.
Gross, Mark, and Ariel Kemp. "Gesture Modelling. Using Video to Capture Freehand Modeling Commands." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 33-46. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Desktop video combined with gesture recognition can be used to build powerful and easy to use interfaces for three dimensional modelling. We have built a demonstration prototype of such a system. The paper describes our video capture and gesture recognition scheme and illustrates its use in some simple examples.
Do, Ellen Yi- Luen. "Graphics Interpreter of Design Actions. the GIDA system of diagram sorting and analysis." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 271-284. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. This paper describes the background and research for a diagram sorting and analysis system called GIDA - Graphics Interpreter of Design Actions. The GIDA system explores how spatial relations between graphic symbols in a design drawing may be extracted and the transformations of the graphic elements between different drawings in a design process may be tracked.
Tweed, Christopher. "Highlighting the affordances of designs. Mutual realities and vicarious environments." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 681-696. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Computer-aided evaluation of predicted design performance is an enduring theme within CAAD research and practice. However, most evaluative systems address aspects of design that are readily amenable to formal or quantitative treatments. Analyses of how people use and interact with designs rarely progress beyond a narrow functionalism, in which “the user” figures as a type with poorly defined needs and characteristics. This paper outlines a theory of actor-environment interaction based on Gibsonis notion of affordance as a precursor to exploring how computers can be used to highlight the affordances of designs. Two simple prototypes are described. The main conclusion is that while computers are unlikely to be able to detect affordances, they can generate and present information in ways that will enable human designers to appreciate more fully the possible implications of their designs for a broader range of potential occupants.
Chevrier, C., and J.P. Perrin. "Interactive 3D reconstruction for urban areas. an image based tool." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 753-765. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Urban applications (for example arrangement, new buildings, virtual sightseeing and walkthrough) require a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model of town areas. However, most of them do not need an accurate model of reality. Such model would occupy a considerable memory space and would be too slow to handle. Architects, urban designers and civil engineers can find in our tool a medium to conceive their projects. Some types of software exist but they do not correspond exactly to our needs. Consequently we have conceived and developed an interactive tool for virtual 3D rough reconstruction of buildings. The software development has been performed in the Maya environment (ALIAS Wavefront) with C++ language and MEL (Maya Embedded Language). A constraint we set for ourselves was the use of only light devices (for easy transportation) at low price (everybody can buy such devices). The principle is to overlay on the scanned photograph of the area we want to deal with, the two dimensional (2D) cadastral plan displayed from the same viewpoint as the picture. Then each building body can be extruded from its ground polygon and the roof can be created from what the user sees on the picture. A constraint is the flatness of the polygonal surfaces. Our application context was the town of Nancy in France for which some areas have been reconstructed. Some pictures have been used as textures for polygonal surfaces, giving more reality effect to the simulation.
Ciftcioglu, Özer, and Sanja Durmisevic. "Knowledge management by information mining." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 533-545. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Novel information mining method dealing with soft computing is described. By this method, in the first step, receptive fields of design information are identified so that connections among various design aspects are structured. By means of this, complex relationships among various design aspects are modeled with a paradigm, which is non-parametric and generic. In the second step, the structured connections between various pairs of aspects are graded according to the relevancy to each other. This is accomplished by means of sensitivity analysis, which is a computational tool operating on the model established and based on a concept measuring the degree of dependencies between pairs of quantities. The degree of relationships among various design aspects so determined enables one to select the most important independent aspects in the context of design or decision-making process. The paper deals with the description of the method and presents an architectural case study where numerical and as well as non-numerical (linguistic) design information are treated together, demonstrating a ranked or elective information employment which can be of great value for possible design intervention during reconstruction.
Lee, Alpha W. K., and Kazuhisa Iki. "Moving Architecture and Transiting Landscape. Interactive Rendering System for Animated Assessment." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 739-752. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. In this paper, an Interactive Rendering System for Animated Assessment (IRSA2) is proposed. Using IRSA2, different to the usual process that the respondents are allowed only to select alternatives designed by planners, they are allowed to participate in the design process and create alternatives as proposals in a web-based collaborative environment. This gives roads to an autonomous process in landscape planning and design. The system efficiency was verified by a case study of its use in a wind farm project in Japan.
Martini, Kirk. "Non-linear Structural Analysis as Real-Time Animation Borrowing from the Arcade." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 643-656. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. The paper describes a computational method commonly used in interactive computer graphics and games, and demonstrates its application to structural engineering problems, using a prototype program called Arcade. The method enables a new model of interaction in structural analysis, where the simulated structure responds to user input in real time, in the same way that computer games respond. The method shows good engineering accuracy in simple verification problems involving the non-linear phenomena of buckling and beam yielding. The method offers the potential to make non-linear, timehistory analysis a much more common method in engineering practice, and to bring a greater emphasis on non-linear, dynamic structural behaviour in structural education.
Stappers, P J., D. Saakes, and J. Adriaanse. "On the narrative structure of Virtual Reality walkthroughs. an analysis and proposed design." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 125-138. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Architectural walkthroughs have often been presented as prime examples of applications that can benefit from Virtual Reality (VR) technology, but still VR presentations can be disappointing. A main reason for this is that most VR applications have been developed on purely technical criteria, with an emphasis on geometrical precision rather than experiential quality. In this paper we present a human-centered analysis and propose design solutions, by focusing on the narrative aspects of the walkthrough, such as connecting transitions of the kind used in contemporary computer games. The solutions show how such narrative enhancements can improve the user's experience of presentations at modest technical expense.
Stouffs, Rudi, and Ramesh Krishnamurti. "On the road to standardization." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 75-88. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. This paper offers an analysis of current standardization efforts, including a classification of their approaches and an evaluation of their advantages and disadvantages with respect to different contexts. In focusing on the design context, a syntactic approach to standardization is recommended, and exemplified with a concept for representational flexibility termed sorts.
Moeck, Martin. "On top-down architectural lighting design. Constraint-based generation of light sources." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 331-348. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. One key problem of architectural lighting design is to specify goals that relate to aesthetics. Since visibility is an important criterion for many visual tasks and objects, heuristics from industrial lighting and visual inspection can be used to describe the appearance of objects relevant to architectural lighting design, and to derive corresponding light sources. This has the potential to bring computation time in the range of near-interactive rates. A combination of two constraining inputs, which are the specification of desired material appearance and the selection of highlights and shadows can be successfully used in determining light sources.
Mahdavi, Ardeshir, R. Brahme, and S. Gupta. "Performance-based computational design via differential modeling and two-staged mapping." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 667-680. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Computational performance-based building design support faces a conflict. It is important to provide building performance feed back to the designer as early as possible in the design process. But many aspects of building performance are significantly affected by the design of the buildingis technical systems, which are typically configured in detail only in the later stages of design. The challenge is thus to find a method to use detailed simulation tools even during the early stages of design when values for many of the variables for the buildingis technical sub-systems are not yet available. In this paper, we demonstrate how this problem can be partially solved by combining two levels of automation. The first level consists of differential building representation involving a number of domain (application-specific) object models that are derived from a shared object model automatically. The second level uses generative agents that create reference designs for the technical sub-systems of the building. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach, we use the building energy systems domain (heating, cooling, ventilation, and air-conditioning) as a case in point.
Mahalingam, Ganapathy. "POCHE' - Polyhedral Objects Controlled by Heteromorphic Effectors." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 603-614. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. This paper takes the architectural concept of poche'and uses it to explore new possibilities in transforming polyhedra with effectors. In many computer-aided design systems, architectural entities are represented as well-formed polyhedra. Parameters and functions can be used to modify the forms of these polyhedra. For example, a cuboid can be transformed by changing its length, breadth and height, which are its parameters. In a more complex example, a polyhedron can be transformed by a set of user-defined functions, which control its vertices, edges and faces. These parameters and functions can further be embodied as effectors that control and transform the polyhedra in extremely complex ways. An effector is an entity, which has a transforming effect on another entity or system. An effector is more complex than a parameter or function. An effector can be a modelled as a virtual computer. Effectors can take on many roles that range from geometric transformation agents and constraints to performance criteria. The concept of the poche', made famous by Venturi is familiar to architects. The poche'is a device to mediate the differences between an interior and an exterior condition or between two interior conditions. In a poche', the role of the effector changes from being an agent that acts on a polyhedron from the outside, to an agent that acts as a mediator between an interior polyhedron and an exterior polyhedron, which represent interior and exterior environments respectively. This bi-directionality in the role of the effector allows a wide range of architectural responses to be modelled. The effector then becomes an interface in the true sense of the word. This concept will work best in a threedimensional or four-dimensional representational world but can be used effectively in a two-dimensional representational world as well. The application of this concept in design systems is explored with examples drawn from the work of the author, and practitioners who are using the concept of effectors in their work. A brief discussion of how this technique can evolve in the future is presented.
Leclercq, Pierre. "Programming and Assisted Sketching. Graphic and Parametric Integration in Architectural Design." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 15-31. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. In this paper, we present our latest research related to the concept of a sketchinterface. After describing our vision of computer assisted design and the conditions necessary for its effective implementation, an original data model is presented, which covers different levels of representation and is grounded in a database of implicit information. We then describe our software prototype, which exploits the potentials of the digital sketch, in order to demonstrate how our ideas are pertinent and the feasibility of three kinds of applications. In particular, we argue in favor of using an architectural software program in relation to the sketch within the same computer assisted environment at an early stage in the design process.
Yang, QZ, and Xiang Li. "Representation and Execution of Building Codes for Automated Code Checking." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 315-329. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Computer-based representation and execution of building codes are investigated from the perspective of facilitating the operation of automated building code checking. The automated procedure proposed in this paper is based on the object-oriented (OO) representations for both building design and building code. These OO representation models fully support the execution of building compliance checking automatically. A prototype in Java on Windows NT has been developed to implement our approaches presented in this paper. Case studies are also conducted by using this prototype for automatic checking of building designs compliance with building codes under the “Technical Requirements for Household and Storey Sheltersi of Singapore.
Tunçer, Bige, Rudi Stouffs, and Sevil Sariyildiz. "Representation of architectural analyses. Two prototype applications." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 495-505. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. We present a methodology for decomposing documents by content and integrating these into a rich information structure. This implies both expanding the document structure, replacing document entities by detailed substructures, and augmenting the structureis relatedness with content information. This paper focuses on some of the representational issues involved in the process of interpreting, breaking up, and relating documents. We describe a prototype application as a tool for building up, storing, and presenting architectural analyses in an educational setting implemented using XML, discuss a similar prototype application to be implemented using sorts, and compare these two different methodologies.
Koutamanis, Alexander, M. van Leusen, and V. Mitossi. "Route analysis in complex buildings." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 711-724. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Analysis of pedestrian circulation in buildings is usually performed in the early stages of the design process or later on with respect to a specific design problem such as fire safety. In both cases, the analysis relates more to wayfinding, i.e. search for a route on the basis of fundamental normative criteria. Wayfinding analysis in existing buildings is useful for the comparison between “rational” behaviour and actual usage but this comparison does little to explicate the observed structure of pedestrian circulation. In contrast to wayfinding, route analysis deals with the registration and assessment of actual patterns of pedestrian circulation in existing buildings. These patterns are represented topologically and geometrically. The geometric representation makes use of norms underlying building codes in order to reach an appropriate level of abstraction. Route representations are implemented on top of a building representation of relevant spatial and building elements. The building representation serves both as input and output for the route analysis. Input and output are largely automated, including production of the geometric route locally (i.e. within each space) and measurement of route distance and complexity. Use data are collected in an alphanumeric database and linked dynamically to the geometric and topological representation. Route analysis supports and refines other forms of post-occupancy evaluation by adding important dynamic aspects to activity allocation and compartmentalization.
Koutamanis, Alexander, and Peter Hartog. "Simulation and representation. Learning from airflow analyses in buildings." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 657-666. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. The simulation of environmental aspects is a current priority in design research and practice. The availability of relatively efficient and reliable simulation systems and the emphasis on environmental aspects throughout a buildingis lifecycle combine to stimulate exploration of aspects such as lighting and air quality by computational means. Nevertheless, a frequent complaint is that the addition of such simulations makes design information processing timeconsuming and cumbersome, thereby increasing uncertainty and indecision. Therefore, it is imperative that simulation is integrated in the strategies and tools normally used by the digitally-minded architect. In this respect a central issue is the relations between the simulation and the design representation used as connecting tissue for the whole design environment. Input of design information in the simulation means identification of relevant objects, aspects, parts and properties of these objects, as well as relationships between objects. The explicit description of objects such as spaces, doors and windows in the design representation allows for ready extraction of relevant information, including automatic recognition of relationships such as adjacency between a window and a space. The addition of information specific to the airflow analysis was resolved by the extension of the representation to cover front-end service components such as inlets and outlets and general properties (annotations) such as activities accommodated in a space and the primary choice of cooling and heating subsystems. The design representation is also the obvious target for the output of the simulation (feedback). Visualization of airflow in terms of the resulting voxels makes effortless and enjoyable viewing but merely allowing the visualization to coexist with the representation of spaces and building elements does not provide design guidance. One way of achieving that is by treating spaces not as integral entities but as containers of relevant surfaces. These surfaces determine the adaptive subdivision of the space and function as attractors for voxel clustering.
Jung, T., Mark Gross, and Ellen Yi- Luen Do. "Space Pen. Annotation and sketching on 3D models on the Internet." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 257-270. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Designing a building or a new urban space is collaborative work that involves several people with different backgrounds. To achieve consensus all participants in the process meet to discuss documents such as floor plans and sections. This paper reports on the progress of Space Pen, a new system to allow several users to draw on and annotate a three-dimensional representation of a building remotely over the Internet.
Gross, Mark, Ellen Yi- Luen Do, and Brian Johnson. "The Design Amanuensis. an Instrument for Multimodal Design Capture and Playback." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 13-Jan. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. The Design Amanuensis supports design protocol analysis by capturing designersi spoken and drawing actions and converting speech to text to construct a machine-readable multimedia document that can be replayed and searched for words spoken during the design session or for graphical configurations.
Clark, Steve, and Mary Lou Maher. "The Role of Place in Designing a Learner Centred Virtual Learning Environment." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 187-200. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. There are numerous approaches and tools for creating a virtual learning environment. The most common approach is to provide a repository of learning materials on a network to facilitate the distribution of the course content and to supplement this material with communications software such as email and bulletin boards. In this paper we highlight the role of place in creating a learning experience and its relevance to current learning theories. Architectural design becomes an important consideration when virtual learning environments are considered places. We present a framework for guiding the development of virtual learning environments that shows how place and design can combine with learning theories and technology. Finally, we draw on our experience in developing a virtual campus and virtual design studios to demonstrate how place and design can be the basis for virtual learning environments.
Turk, Z., T. Cerovsek, Tomo Cerovsek, and Bob Martens. "The Topics of CAAD. a Machine's Perspective." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 547-560. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Ontology of a scientific field typically includes a taxonomy that breaks up the field into several topics. The break-up is present in the organisation of information in books, libraries and on the Web. An on-line database of papers related to CAAD called CUMINCAD was created and it includes over 3000 papers with abstracts. They are available through the search interface - one knows an author or a keyword and can find the papers where such keyword or author's name appears. Alternative interface would be through browsing papers topic by topic. The papers, however, are not categorised. In this paper, we present the efforts to use the machine learning and data mining techniques to automatically group the papers into clusters and create a set of keywords that would label a cluster. The hypothesis was that an algorithm would create clusters of papers automatically and that the clusters would be similar to the groupings a human would have made. We investigated several algorithms for doing an analysis like that but were unable to prove the original hypothesis. We conclude that it requires more than objective statistical analysis of the words in abstracts to create an ontology of CAAD.
Hoffmann, O., M. Stumptner, and T. Chalabi. "Tolerating Inconsistencies. the Distributed Perspectives Model." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 375-386. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. A new design model is presented. Information on the design is distributed over multiple self-contained design perspectives and translation functions between design perspectives. Inconsistencies between specifications in different design perspectives introduced by human designers are temporarily tolerated in order to support creative design processes. The implementation of a design support system currently under evaluation is outlined.
Shih, Shen-Guan, and Wei-Lung Huang. "Toward the integration of spatial and temporal information for Building Construction." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 47-60. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Building construction is a kind of complex process that integrates activities regarding design, materials, personnel and equipments. Information systems that describe building construction need to represent both the spatial information of the building design and the temporal information of construction plan. We classify four levels of integration for spatiotemporal information in building construction. We consider that the classification is important for the guidance of our research for that it distinguishes levels of complexity and applicability of data models that integrates spatiotemporal information. A prototype system is developed and tested for providing us a means to gain more insights to the problem.
Knight, Michael, and Andre Brown. "Towards a natural and appropriate Architectural Virtual Reality: the nAVRgate project. Past, present, future." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 139-149. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. The lure of virtual environments is strong and the apparent potential is enticing. But questions of how Human Computer Interaction (HCI) issues should be handled and married with best practice in Human-Human Interaction (HHI) remains largely unresolved. How should architectural images and ideas be most appropriately represented, and how should designers interact and react through this computer mediated medium? Whilst there is never likely to be unanimity in answer to such questions, we can develop new ideas and new systems, test them, report on them and invite comment. The nature and novelty of virtual environments is such that refinements and innovations are likely to come from a variety of sources and in a variety of ways. The work described here explains the evolution and current plans for the development of a particular approach that has been developed and refined by the authors. Low-cost, effective and appropriate are the key words that have driven the developments behind the evolving nAVRgate system that has arisen from this work, and that is described here.
Johnson, Brian. "Unfocused Interaction in Distributed Workgroups. Establishing group presence in a web-based environment." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 401-414. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Face-to-face human interaction is divided into “focusedi and “unfocusedi types. Unfocused interaction often conveys important content and context information and contributes to group cohesiveness and effectiveness. Research in Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) and Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW) is also concerned with human interaction. CMC tools, such as electronic mail, and CSCW tools, such as Decision Support Systems (DSS) and Group Support Systems (GSS) provide for focused interaction among members of distributed workgroups. However, little has been published regarding unfocused interaction in distributed workgroups, where group members'primary work activities hold “center-stagei and communication activities are peripheral, though this describes many distributed educational and work situations. A framework for studying this type of support using standard web browsers and server applications is described, and informal preliminary results are discussed. Opportunities for future support of peripheral awareness and unfocused interaction are also discussed. 
Chitchian, D., E.G.M. Sauren, and J. Heeling. "Urban-CAD, a Design Application for Urbanism." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 387-399. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. The existing CAAD programs and design applications are not much usefull for designers with urbanistic design activities. Those applications can be utilized in design tasks, but they are not useful means to support the whole design process. To assist the urban designers in their design process, we need new CAD applications capable of providing comprehensive information to the users and supporting the urbanistic design process. To fulfil these requirments we have been working to develop an Urban-CAD program to overcome the limitations of the already existing CAD applications furthermore suit the urbanistic designers needs.
Maver, Thomas W., C Harrison, and M Grant. "Virtual Environments for Special Needs. Changing the VR Paradigm." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 151-159. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. The normal application of Virtual Reality is to the simulation of environments, which are in some way special - remote, hazardous or purely imaginary. This paper describes research and development work which changes the paradigm by simulating perfectly ordinary buildings for special people. Some 15% of the population have some form of physical impairment - a proportion which is likely to rise in line with an ageing population. New legislation, such as the UK Disability Discrimination Act places additional responsibility on building owners to ensure adequate access for people with an impairment and this in turn will place additional responsibility on the architect. Current methods of auditing access for new building are primitive and require the auditor to interpret plans/sections of the proposed building against a checklist of requirements specific to the special need. This paper reports on progress in the use of an immersive VR facility to simulate access to buildings for two broad classes of user: i) those with a mobility impairment, ii) those with visual impairment. In the former case, a wheelchair motion platform has been designed which allows the wheelchair user to navigate the virtual building, a brake and motor connected to the rollers on which the wheelchair sits facilitate the effects of slope and surface resistance. In the latter case, the main categories and degrees of visual impairment can be simulated allowing architects to assess the contribution of form, colour and signage to safe access.
Do, Ellen Yi- Luen. "VR Sketchpad. Create Instant 3D Worlds by Sketching on a Transparent Window." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 161-172. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. This paper describes VR Sketchpad, a pen-based computing environment for inputting and locating 3D objects in a virtual world. Designer can use the transparency layers to quickly trace and extract any image underlay from other application software. The 3D scene generation has three levels of complexity: simple extrusion of any drawn lines of shapes (i.e., straight or curved wall and column extrusion), solid modelling from a given geometric object representation (spheres, cones and boxes), and complex configuration with objects from graphics library (furniture layout).
De Vries, B., Henri Achten, M.K.D. Coomans, J. Dijkstra, S. Fridqvist, A.J. Jessurun, Jos van Leeuwen, M.A. Orzechowski, D.J.M. Saarloos, Nicole Segers et al. "VR-DIS Research Programme Design Systems group." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 795-808. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. This paper presents a summary of all on-going projects within the VR-DIS research programme at Eindhoven University of Technology.
Zhang, Z., Jin-Yeu Tsou, and Theodore W. Hall. "Web-Based Virtual-Reality for Collaboration on Urban Visual Environment Assessment." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 781-794. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. This research aims to facilitate public participation in urban landscape visual assessment (ULVA). To support virtual collaboration in ULVA, it is desirable to provide both quantitative analysis and 3D simulation over the Internet. Although the rendering of urban models in common web browser plug-ins often lacks vividness compared with native workstation applications, the integration of VRML modeling and Java programming proves effective in sharing and rendering urban scenes through a familiar web interface. The ULVA simulation supports not only static scene rendering, but also interactive functional simulations. They include the viewpoint setting up, view corridor and panorama generation. Although popular VRML viewers such as CosmoPlayer provide similar functions, users are often disoriented by the interface. The obfuscation inhibits people's immersion in the virtual urban environment and makes the assessment inconvenient. To eliminate such disorientation and improve users feelings of immersion, we integrate both a two-dimensional map and a three-dimensional model of the urban area in the user interface. The interaction between 2D map and 3D world includes the matching of avatar positions, visualization of avatar posture, and the setting up of viewpoints and view corridors. To support a web-based urban planning process, the system adopts client/server architecture. The city map is managed by a specific database management system (DBMS) on the server side. Users may retrieve information for various “what is” simulations. The system automatically remodels the virtual environment to respond to users requests.
Strehlke, Kai, and Maia Engeli. "[Roomz]&[connectionz]. Scenarios in Space and Time ." In Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference held at the Eindhoven University of Technology, 173-186. CAAD Futures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. New opportunities for architectonic design and representation in threedimensional virtual spaces have arisen thanks to computers, networks, and new media in general. An environment with unique three-dimensional interfaces for the creation of spatial scenarios has been developed. The possibilities were explored in two successive courses in architecture and new media. Design in space and time, the investigation of special characteristics of digital spaces and the creation of a hyperstructure were the main topics of the creative work.