Keywords Abstract
Suter, Georg, Ardeshir Mahdavi, and R. Kirshnamurti. "A Performance-inspired Building Representation for Computational Design." In Computers in Building: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 117-132. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. A building representation for integrated building performance simulation is described, which addresses several important issues. First, it captures informational requirements for detailed performance analysis and maintains geometric integrity. Second, it provides computational support for efficient spatial queries and convenient building model manipulation. Representational elements include partitioning and refinement rules, containment hierarchies and dimension constraints. These features provide for ease of manipulation, geometric variety and spatial queries and are illustrated with examples. The paper concludes with a discussion of the limitations of the representation.
McCall, Raymond Joseph. "A Web-centric CAD System for Collaborative Design." In Computers in Building: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 65-79. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. Web-PHIDIAS is a hypermedia-based, intelligent CAD system that delivers both CAD functionality and design information to anyone with Web access. This system is above all designed to facilitate collaborative architectural design. It provides both private (individual) and collaborative (group) drawing and text authoring spaces, with a variety of types of authoring and viewing privileges for groups. This enables a single designer to work in privacy on one piece of a design and later “publish” it to a supervisor or a group. It also enables a group to work in privacy and later publish its work to a different or larger group. This notion of “levels of privacy/publication” is a crucial but too- often missing component of collaborative design systems. With WebPHIDIAS, all drawings are stored in a central repository accessible from the group server. This means that they are accessible from anywhere in the world to any viewer who has the required viewing and/or authoring privileges. This enables designers to access and modify stored drawings while travelling or when out on the site, even if the site is in another country. It also enables them to create new drawings and store them in the central repository from anywhere in the world. Web-PHIDIAS consists of an interactive Web-based client that serves as an interface to the PHIDIAS hypermedia server. This client, which is implemented in Java, provides basic, 2D graphical editing functionality and as well as display of 3D views. It also provides access to multimedia information useful for whatever design task is at hand. This information includes text and graphical descriptions of design precedents as well as various issues in design of a particular type of building.
Hendricx, Ann, and Herman Neuckermans. "About Objects and Approaches - a Conceptual View on Building Models." In Computers in Building: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 133-148. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. Considering integrated CAAD environments for architectural design, a number of different approaches are possible. This paper presents the policy of the CADLAB at the KU Leuven University, where design support right from the first design phases is a basic consideration. After a short introduction on the theoretical framework and additional design tests, we will discuss the core object model that forms the cornerstone for the contemplated design environment. This object model describes all possible data, concepts and operations connected with the architectural design process. For its development, we used the object-oriented analysis method MERODE. The starting-points and main aspects of the model will be discussed, illustrated with examples of implemented prototypes. The architect's point of view and the specific nature of the architectural design process were always kept in mind, thus leading to a model that hopes to make a valuable contribution to the research area of integrated design environments.
Gero, John S., and Vladimir Kazakov. "An Interpolation/Extrapolation Process for Creative Designing." In Computers in Building: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 263-274. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. This paper introduces a new computational operation that provides support for creative designing by adaptively exploring design state spaces. This modification is based on the re-interpretation of the crossover operation of genetic algorithms as an interpolation and its generalization to extrapolation. Examples of the results of the application of the process are presented.
Mahdavi, Ardeshir, Mustafa Emre Ilal, Paul Mathew, Robert Ries, and Georg Suter. "Aspects of S2." In Computers in Building: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 185-196. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. We present in this paper the essential aspects of the S2 system. This is the internet realization of SEMPER, an active, multi-domain, space-based, object oriented design environment for integrated building performance modelling. The key features of the S2 environment are as follows: A user can access the system regardless of the computer hardware, operating system or the location on a network, geographically distributed users can asynchronously generate a building model through the user interface, this building model can then be simultaneously evaluated with multiple simulation applications running on remote simulation servers, persistent storage is provided for project data and evaluation results, designers using the system have access to multiple libraries that contain building information such as material data, construction types, schedules, and weather data.
Amor, Robert, and Leonard Newnham. "Cad Interfaces to the arrow Manufactured Product Server." In Computers in Building: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 11-Jan. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. The UK national project ARROW (Advanced Reusable Reliable Objects Warehouse) provides an Internet based framework through which it is possible to identify any of a range of manufactured products meeting specific design criteria. This open framework (based upon the IAI's IFCs) provides a mechanism for users to search for products from any participating manufacturer or supplier based both on specific attributes of a product or on any of the textual descriptions of the product. The service returns the closest matching products and allows the user to navigate to related information including manufacturer, suppliers, CAD details, VR displays, installation instructions, certificates, health and safety information, promotional information, costings, etc. ARROW also provides a toolkit to enable manufacturers and suppliers to more easily map and publish their information in the format utilised by the ARROW system. As part of the ARROW project we have examined the ability to interface from a design tool through to ARROW to automatically retrieve information required by the tool. This paper describes the API developed to allow CAD and simulation tools to communicate directly with ARROW and identify appropriate manufactured information. The demonstration system enables CAD systems to identify the closest matching manufactured product to a designed product and replacing the designed product with the details supplied by the manufacturer for the manufactured product as well as pulling through product attributes utilised by the design application. This paper provides a description of the ARROW framework and issues faced in providing information based upon standards as well as containing information not currently modelled in public standards. The paper looks at issues of enabling manufacturers and suppliers to move from their current world-view of product information to a more data-rich and user accessible information repository (even though this enables a uniform comparison across a range of manufacturer's products). Finally the paper comments on the likely way forward for ARROW like systems in providing quality information to end users.
Qian, Dongqiu, and Mark Gross. "Collaborative Design with NetDraw." In Computers in Building: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 213-226. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. The paper describes NetDraw, a Java-based object oriented drawing program that employs a server-client architecture to provide a shared drawing environment for collaborative design. NetDraw goes beyond conventional shared whiteboard applications in its support for concurrency control, groups and constraints, and ephemeral gesture objects. Small and simple enough that users can learn it quickly, NetDraw is designed to run on small platforms such as handheld computers. We describe NetDraw's features and an early evaluation of its use.
Clayton, Mark, R E. Johnson, and Y Song. "Downstream of Design: Web-based Facility Operations Documents." In Computers in Building: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 365-380. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. Intemet technologies provide opportunities for improving the delivery of facility information to building owners and operators. Discussions with facility operators have led to identification of problems in current practices of delivering facility information using as-built drawings. A Web-based software prototype illustrates how facility information can be automatically structured into documents that support specific facility operations tasks.
Ries, R, and Ardeshir Mahdavi. "Environmental Life Cycle Assessment in an Integrated CAD Environment: the Ecologue Approach." In Computers in Building: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 351-363. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. Construction and operation of buildings is a major cause of resource depletion and environmental pollution. Computational performance evaluation tools could support the decision making process in environmentally responsive building design and play an important role in environmental impact assessment, especially when a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach is used. The building domain, however, presents notable challenges to the application of LCA methods. For comprehensive environmental impact analysis to be realized in a computational support tool for the building design domain, such tools must a) have an analysis method that considers the life cycle of building construction, operation, and decommissioning, b) have a representation that is able to accommodate the data and computability requirements of the analysis method and the analysis tool, and c) be seamlessly integrated within a multi-aspect design analysis environment that can provide data on environmentally relevant building operation criteria. This paper reviews the current state of assessment methods and computational support tools for LCA, and their application to building design. Then, the implementation of an application (ECOLOGUE) for comprehensive computational assessment of environmental impact indicators over the building life cycle is presented. The application is a component in a multi-aspect space-based CAD and evaluation environment (SEMPER). The paper describes the use and typical results of ECOLOGUE system via illustrative examples.
Terzidis, Kostas. "Experiments on Animated Visual Forms." In Computers in Building: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 335-350. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. A series of experiments that investigate and demonstrate the visual logic of three-dimensional representation in animated form through the use of computers is presented. 
Richens, Paul, and Michael Trinder. "Exploiting the Internet to Improve Collaboration between Users and Design Team: the Case of the New Computer Laboratory at the University of Cambridge." In Computers in Building: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 31-47. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. Cambridge University and Microsoft are building a shared computer research and teaching laboratory on a green-field site to the west of the city. The clients wished to use internet based communication between themselves and their architects, including email, a web site and virtual reality. We explain how this is to be achieved, and describe experiences during the first six months of a two year project. Particularly successful has been the use of games software (Quake 11) for 3d presentation of the emerging building design.
Achten, Henri, and Jos van Leeuwen. "Feature-Based High Level Design Tools - a Classification." In Computers in Building: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 275-290. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. The VR-DIS project aims to provide design support in the early design stage using a Virtual Reality environment. The initial brief of the design system is based on an analysis of a design case. The paper describes the process of analysis and extraction of design knowledge and design concepts in terms of Features. It is demonstrated how the analysis has lead to a classification of design concepts. This classification forms one of the main specifications for the VR-based design aid system that is being developed in the VR-DIS programme. The paper concludes by discussing the particular approach used in the case analysis and discusses future work in the VR-DIS research programme.
Gero, John S., and José Damski. "Feature-Based Qualitative Modeling of Objects." In Computers in Building: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 309-320. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. Objects represent fundamentally important ways with which to perceive and reason about the world. There are very few adequate representations for use at the early stages of designing. Feature-based approaches founded on qualitative representations have been used. This paper extends the qualitative representation developed for two-dimensional shapes to three-dimensional objects. It uses the qualitative representation to detect features. An example of the application of this representation is presented.
Huang, Jeffrey. "How do Distributed Design Organizations Act Together to Create a Meaningful Design? Towards a Process Model for Design Coordination." In Computers in Building: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 99-115. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. This paper describes the results of a longer-term research project that looked at CAAD as an enabler of completely new collaborative processes rather than as a support for existing collaborative processes. In order to question existing design processes and invent new collaborative processes systematically, we applied a process modelling methodology that employed recent developments in coordination theory. The methodology contained four steps: (1) Decomposition, (2) Dependency Analysis, (3) Process Substitution, and (4) Recomposition. In this paper, we describe how this approach was used to redesign a sample collaborative design process in building design, and present the resulting process coordination model. We describe the implications of this model for the development of collaborative environments, and illustrate its practical application in a case study. We conclude by reiterating the contributions made.
Jung, Th., Ellen Yi- Luen Do, and Mark Gross. "Immersive Redlining and Annotation of 3D Design Models on the Web." In Computers in Building: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 81-98. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. The Web now enables people in different places to view three-dimensional models of buildings and places in a collaborative design discussion. Already design firms with offices around the world are exploiting this capability. In a typical application, design drawings and models are posted by one party for review by others, and a dialogue is carried out either synchronously using on line streamed video and audio, or asynchronously using email, chat room, and bulletin board software. However, most of these systems do not allow designers to embed annotations and proposed design changes in the threedimensional design model under discussion. We present a working prototype of a system that has these capabilities and describe the configuration of Web technologies we used to construct it.
Snyder, James, and Ulrich Flemming. "Information Sharing in Building Design." In Computers in Building: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 165-183. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. We address information modelling and exchange in asynchronous, distributed collaboration between software applications or design agents that are heterogeneous, that is, developed independently based on application- specific data models. We identify the requirements an integration environment must satisfy if it is to support the semantically correct exchange of selected, locally generated information between the agents. These requirements are distilled from both the literature and our own experiments with the Object Modelling Language OML. The resulting requirements were then formalized into an information modelling and exchange environment constructed around the modelling language called SPROUT (supported by a compiler) and an associated software architecture that can be targeted toward many different hardware and software platforms. A unique capability supported in this environment is formal support for integrating existing applications: Given a schematic description in SPROUT, a formal specification can be used to generate computer programs that provably map data to and from the applications.
Arvin, Scott, and Donald House. "Making Designs Come Alive: Using Physically Based Modeling Techniques in Space Layout Planning." In Computers in Building: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 245-262. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. This paper introduces the concept of responsive design. It elaborates this concept as an approach to free form, adaptable, automated design applying physically based modelling techniques to the design process. Our approach attempts to bridge the gap between totally automated design and the free form brainstorming designers normally employ. We do this by automating the initial placement and sizing of design elements, with an interactive engine that appears alive and highly responsive. We present a method for applying these techniques to architectural space layout planning, and preliminary implementation details for a prototype system for developing rectangular, two-dimensional, single- story floor plans.
Burrow, Andrew, and Robert F. Woodbury. "Pi-Resolution in Design Space Exploration." In Computers in Building: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 291-308. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. In studying the phenomenon of design we use models to envision mechanisms by which computers might support design. In one such model we understand design as guided movement through a space of possibilities. Design space explorers embody this model as mixed-initiative environments in which designers engage in exploration via human computer interaction. Constraint resolution provides a formal framework for interaction in design space explorers. Rather than directly providing solutions to design problems, constraint resolution provides a mechanism for organizing construction. Therefore, we are less interested in the set of solutions to a constraint problem than the process by which intermediate steps are generated. Pi-resolution is one such mechanism applicable to design space explorers. It describes the solution, by recursive enumeration, of feature structure type constraints. During pi-resolution, satisfiers are constructed by the application of type constraints drawn from an inheritance hierarchy. This constructive process provides a strong model for design space exploration. The constraint solver does not do the work of the designer, but rather design efforts are situated in, and organized by, constraint resolution. Therefore, the efficiency of the recursive enumeration in finding solutions is not an issue, since non-determinism in the search is resolved by the human user as design space exploration.
Ekholm, Anders, and Sverker Fridqvist. "The BAS*CAAD Information System for Design principles, Implementation, and a Design Scenario." In Computers in Building: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 149-164. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. The objectives of the BAS-CAAD-project are to investigate into theories and methods for computer aided architectural design, with emphasis on requirements of early stages of the design process. Information systems can be characterised as static or dynamic concerning the definition of classes in the model schema, and concerning classification of model objects. The paper presents the BAS-CAAD system, a prototype software that implements the conceptually most important features of a dynamic information system for design. The BAS-CAAD information system is built on a generic ontological framework. The system allows a free combination of attributes, supporting the incremental way that knowledge is built up during design. It provides a generic library structure that allows definition of objects classes in different levels of generalisation that may originate from international standards or the individual designer. For example, in the construction context, it allows modelling of buildings and their parts, as well as user organisations and user activities. The function of the system is illustrated in two scenarios.
Trinder, Michael. "The Computer's Role in Sketch Design: a Transparent Sketching Medium." In Computers in Building: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 227-244. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. Starting from an analysis of the current unsuitability of computers for sketching, three key requirements are identified, in particular the notion that re-drawing or over-drawing are more important than editing and tweaking. These requirements are encapsulated in the broad concept of Transparency, understood both literally and metaphorically. Two experiments in implementing aspects of Transparency are described. One subverts the Macintosh window manager to provide windows with variable transparency, so that tracing between applications becomes a practical possibility. The other implements a graphical interface that requires no on-screen palettes or sliders to control it, allowing uninterrupted concentration on the design in hand. User tests show that the tool can be learnt quickly, is engaging to use, and most importantly, has character.
De Paoli, Giovanni, and Marius Bogdan. "The Front of the Stage of Vitruvius' Roman Theatre - a new Approach of Computer Aided Design that Transforms Geometric Operators to Semantic Operators." In Computers in Building: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 321-333. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. The driving force of all researches where the systems of computation are used, is the utilization of an intelligent method for the representation of building. The use of computer, in design process, is often limited to technical functions (tekhne), and what one usually calls computer-aided design is often no more than computer-aided drawing. In this research paper we continue a reflection on the architect's work methods, and suggest an approach to design based on the semantic properties of the object (i.e. semantic operators), rather than by geometric operators. We propose a method of computer aid design using procedural models where the initial state of design is vague and undefined. We operate from a paradigm that leads to represent a building by means of parametric functions that, expressed algorithmically, give a procedural model to facilitate the design process. This approach opens new avenues that would permit to add the logos (semantic properties) and lead to a metaphorical representation. By means of procedural models, we show that, from a generic model we can produce a four dimensional model that encapsulate a volumetric model with semantic characteristics. We use a meta-functional language that allows us to model the actions and encapsulate detailed information about various building elements. This descriptive mechanism is extremely powerful. It helps to establish relations between the functions, contributes to a better understanding of the project's aim, and encapsulates the building properties by recalling characteristics of common classes which give rise to a new configuration and a completely original design. The scientific result of this experiment is the understanding and confirmation of the hypothesis that it is possible to encapsulate, by means of computing process, the links between design moves during conceptual and figural decisions and transform the geometric operators in semantic operators.
Kalay, Yehuda. "The Future of CAAD: from Computer-aided Design to Computer-aided Collaboration." In Computers in Building: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 14-30. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. The primary uses of computers in the construction industry have been shifting, over the past four decades, from the evaluation of proposed design solutions, to their graphical (and other) representation, and more recently to facilitating collaboration among the various professionals who are involved in the design process. The paper argues that what may appear to be shifts in emphasis actually represents convergence on a single, original goal: the use of computers to help designers assess the quality, desirability, and the implications of their creations. The paper shows how the formerly independent components can be joined into an integrated collaborative design environment, where they build upon and strengthen each other. Moreover, the paper argues that this convergence represents the future of CAAD research and development, providing the appropriate answer to the upcoming needs of the construction industry, whose products have become too complex and must abide by too many requirements for any one professional to handle all by himself. The paper argues that further improvements in the overall quality of the products, and the process of their design, will only accrue when the heretofore separate solutions are considered together, as integral parts of an overall solution. The paper describes the efforts that have been made by the CAD Research Group in Berkeley over the past six years in developing an integrated collaborative design environment that can facilitate multidisciplinary, a- synchronous design of buildings. The environment includes several semantically-rich, shared product representations, a network of distributed evaluators, and graphically enhanced collaboration and negotiation tools.
Richens, Paul. "The Piranesi System for Interactive Rendering." In Computers in Building: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 381-398. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. Photorealistic rendering requires special skills to achieve, but the result is not necessarily ideal for architectural communication. The Piranesi software provides an alternative way of producing a much wider range of images from the same geometrical model. Piranesi appears to be a 2d paint program for editing raster images, but its input includes a z-buffer. This allows painting and and pasting to reflect the perspective of the image, and many other depthrelated effects. The result is a new, and enjoyable, way of producing architectural images.
Ratti, Carlo, and Paul Richens. "Urban Texture Analysis with Image Processing Techniques." In Computers in Building: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 49-64. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. A new paradigm for investigating the environmental consequences of urban texture is proposed. Using raster-based models and software algorithms derived from image processing, efficient methods of measuring geometric parameters and predicting radiation exchange are developed. The possibilities of generating synthetic urban textures, and integrating cellular automata, are explored. Results suggest the possibility of a raster-based urban model to inform planning and design.