Keywords Abstract
Li, Thomas, and Barry Will. "A Computer-Aided Evaluation Tool for the Visual Aspects in Architectural Design for High-Density and High- Rise Buildings." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 345-356. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. The field of view, the nature of the objects being seen, the distances between the objects and the viewer, daylighting and sunshine are some major factors affecting perceived reactions when viewing through a window. View is one major factor that leads to the satisfaction and comfort of the users inside the building enclosure. While computer technologies are being widely used in the field of architecture, designers still have to use their own intelligence, experience and preferences in judging their designs with respect to the quality of view. This paper introduces an alternative approach to the analysis of views by the use of computers. The prototype of this system and its underlying principles were first introduced in the C A A D R I A 1997 conference. This paper describes the further development of this system where emphasis has been placed on the high- rise and high-density environments. Architects may find themselves facing considerable limitations for improving their designs regarding views out of the building under these environmental conditions. This research permits an interactive real-time response to altering views as the forms and planes of the building are manipulated.
Oxman, R., A. Sarid, S. Bar-Eli, and R. Rotenshtreich. "A Conceptual Network for Web Representation of Design Knowledge." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 453-473. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. The nature of the Internet as a medium for the representation, storage and accessing of design knowledge is explored and various research issues were introduced. The appropriateness of certain characteristics of the medium as a potential environment for a new interactive way of doing design by exploring design ideas are investigated. Considerations of the Web as a collaboratively constructed and maintained design resource are explored. Cognitive models are proposed in order to support cognitive behaviours in search, browsing and concept expansion. Our particular approach utilizes the ICF (issue-concept-form) as a conceptual network for design knowledge bases. Finally, a report is given on a pilot program demonstrating how the exploitation of the ICF model structured around design chunks can support the construction and maintenance of shared design resources.
Junge, R., R. Steinmann, and K. Beetz. "A Dynamic Product Model - a base for Distributed Applications." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 617-634. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. The project work described in this paper is a part of the ESPRIT VEGA Project. It is related to two companion papers issued in this conference proceedings.'Product Data Model for Interoperability in an Distributed Environment'and'The VEGA Platform'are describing the technological basis for an application modeled to capture and convert the working environment of architects and building engineers, in short: the building design team, to an computer environment. The ESPRIT projects are increasingly forced into'public and private risk funding and sharing policy. This part of VEGA is explicitly directed to exploitation of the EU funded project. This can be reached by a stepwise (small steps) transition from research to commercial implementation.
Jagielski, Romuald, and John S. Gero. "A Genetic Programming Approach to the Space Layout Planning Problem." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 875-884. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. The space layout planning problem belongs to the class of NP-hard problems with a wide range of practical applications. Many algorithms have been developed in the past, however recently evolutionary techniques have emerged as an alternative approach to their solution. In this paper, a genetic programming approach, one variation of evolutionary computation, is discussed. A representation of the space layout planning problem suitable for genetic programming is presented along with some implementation details and results.
Yezioro, Abraham, and Edna Shaviv. "A KB CAAD System for the Pre-Conceptual Design of Bio-Climatic and Low Energy Buildings." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 317-330. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. This work discusses the structure of knowledge base CAAD systems for the design of solar and low energy buildings, along with the presentation of the different knowledge bases required for such systems. The general discussion is followed by presenting a KBCAAD system PASYS, that was developed as a tool for determining thermal comfort design strategies in the pre-conceptual design stage. PASYS is based on a knowledge base which stores the existing information concerning thermal comfort rules of thumb and accurate procedural calculations, which facilitates defining thermal comfort design strategies that suite best the local climatic conditions and the specific constrains of the design problem at hand.
Fujii, Haruyuki, and Shoichi Nakai. "A Mobile Agent Oriented Method of Simulating the Interaction Between a Built Environment and the Occupants' Action." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 357-372. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. The thermal comfort of a built environment in question and the energy efficiency of the building providing the built environment is one of the aspects that plays an important role in the decision making in architectural design. However, it is not easy to deal with the interaction between a built environment and actions of occupants that change the environment in a conventional way of architectural environment simulation. Focusing on the interaction, the authors propose a method of mediating programs, which evaluate the quality of a building or simulate the performance from different aspects, in a Mobile Agent Oriented Community, so as to compose a module of the design support system.
Howe, Scott. "A Network-based Kit-of-parts Virtual Building System." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 691-706. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. This paper describes an experimental browser / modeler which will allow the user to collect and assemble virtual kit-of-parts components from “component libraries” located on the Internet (such as manufacturer's databases) and assemble them into a virtual representation of a building. The fully assembled virtual building will provide a basis for ordering and manufacturing actual components and preparing for construction. The browser will allow the designer to affect a limited degree of remote fabrication at real manufacturing facilities, and facilitate eventual interface with built in sensors and actuators. The browser will manipulate and display interactive three dimensional objects using Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML). Upon assembly, actual components will have sensors built into them for providing data about the real building, which could be viewed during a walkthrough of the virtual building by clicking on parts of the model. The virtual building will work as a remote facility management tool for monitoring or controlling various architectural devices attached to the real building (such as electrically driven louvers, HVAC systems, appliances, etc.).
Shih, Naai-Jung, and Chie-Shan Yan. "A Study of the Location of Fire Egress Signs by VR Simulation." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 311-316. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. The purpose of this paper is to present a suggestion for the location of fire egress signs along a corridor in a building. The suggestion is made based on a virtual reality simulation of human behaviour while rooms are on fire, particularly in a public Karaoka TV entertainment center (KTV). Both the rooms and smoke were modeled to simulate similar situations in which people were asked to find their routes to an egress. Case studies were made of the occurrence of two local severe fire disasters, the official investigation of damages, and related building codes. The simulation concluded that the traditional designation of egress signs at a higher location or just above the door frame may be not function appropriately in indicating the location of exit in case of fire. Since smoke is usually lighter than air and is accumulated closer to the ceiling level, either human vision or egress signs are very likely to be blocked by the darkness of smoke. Vision is additionally restricted because people are suggested to lower their body position to avoid smoke while escaping. Suggestion of alternate location of signage is also made in the research.
"Algorithm and Context: a Case Study of Reliability in Computational Daylight Modeling." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 331-344. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. The systematic use of reliable modelling data is believed to improve the building design quality. The key term here is “reliability”. There is general agreement that reliability in the context of modelling-assisted CAAD depends on the accurate description of both contextual parameters (climate, site, etc.) and ~building features (geometric and non-geometric properties) as well as the validity of the underlying simulation algorithms. In this paper, we specifically address the importance of detailed contextual information and computational algorithms for the reliability of the daylight modelling results.
Müller, Christian. "An Advanced Groupware Approach for an Integrated Planning Process in Building Construction." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 475-480. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. Increasing complexity of today's buildings requires a high level of integration in the planning process. Common planning strategies, where individual project partners cooperate mainly to exchange results, are not suitable to jointly develop project goals and objectives. Integrated planning, a more holistic approach to deal with complex problems, is based on a high degree of communication among team members and leads to a goal oriented cooperation. This paper focuses on the application of an advanced groupware approach suitable to support efficiently an integrated design process in construction. First an appropriate planning process model will be presented, which differs from common product model approaches and takes into account the great importance of team- and goal orientation in integrated planning. Then the idea of an open CSCW platform is proposed, which basic structure and containing elements are based on the defined planning model. Appropriate cooperative planning scenarios can then be ad-hoc modeled and configured dynamically on this CSCW platform according to the requirements of the specific project. For the participants of the planning process, the resulting groupware approach represents an integrated computer based working environment. This environment allows a kind of immersion into the project. Finally a prototypical implementation of this approach will be shortly discussed.
Damski, José, and John S. Gero. "An Evolutionary Approach to Generating Constraint-Based Space Layout Topologies." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 855-864. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. This paper describes a system to produce space layout topologies for architectural plans using an evolutionary approach. The layout specification is defined as a set of topological and directional constraints, which are used as a fitness function in the evolutionary system. The halfplane representation is used to represent the genotypes in the evolutionary system, for both arrangements of halfplanes and the figures generated from those arrangements. As the halfplane representation proposed here does not distinguish between straight and non-straight boundaries, at the symbolic level the spaces and the layouts produced can also be bounded by straight or non-straight lines. The well known rectangular (polyomino) arrangements become a particular case only.
Liou, S.-R., Emmanuel-George Vakalo, and K.-C. Chang. "An Experiment on Hybrid Architectural Form-Making." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 837-842. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. This paper illustrates an approach to hybrid architectural form-making. A hypothetical project - the Des Moines Art Center 3rd Addition - is employed as a design experiment. The computer is used as a form-searching medium in the form-making process. Suggesting an addition to the existing center designed by Saarinen, Pei, and Meier, the designer is confronting the problem of how to respond to the three distinct architectural styles. The proposed solution to this problem is to create a hybrid building which inherits architectural properties from those precedents. Potentials of the use of the computer for such task are discussed.
Khemlani, Lachmi, and Yehuda Kalay. "An Integrated Computing Environment for Collaborative, Multi-Disciplinary Building Design." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 389-416. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. The increasing complexity of the built environment requires that more knowledge and experience be brought to bear on its design, construction and maintenance. The commensurate growth of knowledge in the participating disciplines-architecture, engineering, construction management, facilities management, and others-has tended to diversify each one into many sub-specializations. The resulting fragmentation of the design-built-use process is potentially detrimental to the overall quality of built environment. An efficient system of collaboration between all the specialist participants is needed to offset the effects of fragmentation. It is here that computers, with their ubiquitous presence in all disciplines, can serve as a medium of communication and form the basis of a collaborative, multi- disciplinary design environment. This paper describes the ongoing research on the development of such an integrated computing environment that will provide the basis for design and evaluation tools ranging across the many building-related disciplines. The bulk of the discussion will focus on the problem of a building representation that can be shared by all these disciplines, which, we posit, lies at the core of such an environment. We discuss the criteria that characterize this shared building representation, and present our solution to the problem. The proposed model has been adapted from geometric modelling, and addresses explicitly the difficult Problem of generality versus completeness of the represented information. The other components of the integrated environment that are under development are also described. The paper concludes with some implementation details and a brief look at two evaluation tools that use the proposed building representation for their task.
Chiu, Mao-Lin, and Shen-Guan Shih. "Analogical Reasoning and Case Adaptation in Architectural Design: Computers Vs. Human Designers." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 787-800. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. This paper depicts the studies of the differences between human designers and computers in analogical reasoning and case adaptation. Four design experiments are undertaken to examine how designers conduct case-based design, apply dimensional and topological adaptation. The paper also examines the differences of case adaptation by novice and experienced designers, and between human judgement in case adaptation and the evaluation mechanism by providing similarity assessment. In conclusion, this study provides the comparative analysis from the above observation and implications on the development of case-based reasoning systems for designers.
Hovestadt, Ludger, and Volkmar Hovestadt. "ARMILLA5 - Supporting Design, Construction and Management of Complex Buildings." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 135-150. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. ARMILLA5 is a generic computer aided design system, which supports the cooperative design of complex buildings (such as labs, offices or schools) over multiple levels of abstraction. It follows the metaphor of a virtual building site. The designers and engineers meet at a spatial location on the Internet and prepare the building construction by simulating the building site. This article describes the three essential components of the ARMILLA5-model: the geometric model which describes the spatial and physical aspects of the building site, the semantic model which implements passive building components as objects and active building components as applets or applications, and the planning model, which organizes the work steps of the individual engineers and their cooperation. The model is described using different software prototypes written in Objective C, CAD systems and HTML/JAVA.
Rutherford, Peter. "Auditory Navigation and the Escape from Smoke Filled Buildings." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 299-304. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. This paper addresses the issue of escape from unfamiliar, smoke filled buildings such as hotels or airports where the scenario of complete visual deprivation may result in occupant death. It proposes that we may be able to apply concise auditory information to the escape procedure, using predictive'virtual acoustic'techniques in order to assess its feasibility.
Wenz, Florian. "Babylon S M L XL - the Missing Language of Cyberspace." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 749-756. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. We first discuss the future role of the CITY as a main generator of cultural fiction and suggest a superimposition of the PHYSICAL city and the DIGITAL city. We then draw parallels between the original intentions behind the World Wide Web and Hyper Text Markup Language and its expected follow up CYBERSPACE and Virtual Reality Markup Language. The development of three-dimensional SEMANTIC CODES for interactive environments is identified as one main task of the future. Within this framework, Babylon S M L XL, a series of research experiments conducted at the Architectural Space Laboratory at the professorship is investigating concepts and methods. The images display some scenes from this work in chronological order, while the captions provide content descriptions and META CODE abstractions.
Bock, Thomas. "CAD-So What?" In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 15-43. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. Computers were applied in construction towards the end of the 50s. In the meantime CA-X technologies rapidly evolved in areas such as integration of application software, 3D modelling and simulation, multimedia systems, artificial intelligence, CAD/CAM, robotics, and computer-based integration of design, construction and facility management. The structural changes under way in the construction industry ask for a transition from mere CAD, where “D” stands for design and drafting, towards CAC, where the second “C” represents construction, thus farther processing the previously generated CAD data.
Do, Ellen Yi- Luen. "Computability of Design Diagrams - an Empirical Study of Diagram Conventions in Design." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 171-176. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. Designers draw diagrams to think about architectural concepts and design concerns. We are interested in programming a computer to recognize and interpret design diagrams to deliver appropriate tools for the design task at hand. We conducted empirical studies to find out if designers share drawing conventions when designing. In this paper we first discuss reasons to investigate design diagrams. Then we describe our experiment on diagramming for designing an architect's office. The experiment results show that designers use different diagramming conventions when thinking about different design concerns. We discuss and report our efforts to implement a freehand drawing program.
Gero, John S., and Soo-Hoon Park. "Computable Feature-Based Qualitative Modeling of Shape." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 821-830. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. This paper introduces and describes a qualitative approach to the modelling of shapes applicable at the early stage of designing. The approach is based on using qualitative codes at landmarks to describe shapes. These strings of codes can be analysed to determine patterns which map onto features. An analogy with language is drawn to assist in articulating the modelling ideas. An example is presented which demonstrates the utility of the approach.
Sahnouni, Y., Jean-Claude Bignon, and D. Leonard. "Data Exchange in Design/Realisation Process in Building Trade - an Experimentation with Wood-Frame Panels." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 489-500. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. Exchange of computerized data is today at the centre of interest for most of trade partners and authorities of standardization. The aim is to set up continuous and cooperative processes of exchange, without “re-modelling” or loosing information. The paper presents our research on building modelling at design stage and its application to data exchange during the design/construction process. An experimentation about data transfer between two software is presented. The first one realizes the design process according to the developed data model (arTec). The second one is a trade software for the design of wood-frame panels (Woodpecker).
Ekholm, Anders, and Sverker Fridqvist. "Design and Modelling in a Computer Integrated Construction Process - the BAS-CAAD Project." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 501-518. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. A new approach to product modelling in a design context is proposed. CAD-software must not only enable product modelling, but must also support product design. This is not fully achieved in the traditional'enumerative'approach to product modelling. We discuss how product design and modelling can be based on a facetted'approach to information modelling, and how a data model that supports the design process can be based on a framework for system information. The background for our research is the current development in the construction industry towards a computer integrated construction process. A first prerequisite for this is the use of computer based models. Another prerequisite is that CAD-software can support the design of the results of the construction process, including construction works, user organisations, and the production and facility management processes. A third prerequisite is that computer based models are built with standardised concepts and terminology to enable exchange of information between different actors and computer systems during different stages of the construction process. Principles for organising frameworks for user organisation and construction works information are presented in an appendix.
Koile, Kimberle. "Design Conversations with Your Computer: Evaluating Experiential Qualities of Physical Form." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 203-218. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. This paper describes a prototype system that evaluates an architectural design using the designer's theories about how to manifest experiential qualities in physical form. The system uses Al methods in conjunction with geometric and non-geometric knowledge to represent experiential qualities, e.g. privacy, in terms of concrete details of a design, e.g. wall dimensions and locations. This paper describes the organization and implementation of the system, and reports the results of an experiment in which the system was used to evaluate Frank Lloyd Wright Prairie houses.
Schmitt, Gerhard. "Design Medium - Design Object." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 13-Mar. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. The impact of computing on architecture receives little reflective judgment, its role either being negated or over-emphasized. To one group of architects, it is not desirable that the machine should influence the object. Another, mostly younger group, takes the impact for granted, without much reflection on its underlying reasons. The smallest group - mostly in academia - is interested in actively defining the impact of computing on design and in defining a new kind of architecture. The paper will explore the relation between computer and architecture on three levels, in which the machine has the role of an instrument, a medium, and a partner. It will demonstrate a serious deficit in education regarding the new roles of computing in design.
Cicognani, Anna, and Mary Lou Maher. "Design Speech Acts. "How to do Things with Words" in Virtual Communities." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 707-717. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. Cyberspace is language based, and so are Virtual Communities (VCs). We propose that VCs are ideal places to experience and enhance a language for design. Design in a VC can actually be performed using speech acts that in-real-life wouldn't perform any design. We call these acts'design speech acts'. We present, as a starting point, a list of verbs which can be used in a VC for design and the implications of using these verbs to design cyberspace. We present a methodology for structuring and defining design speech acts, so that a language for design in a VC can be subsequently developed. We are developing a specific environment for a virtual community in which designers can articulate their needs and produce text-based design objects.
Tomlinson, Phil, and John S. Gero. "Emergent Shape Generation in Design Using the Boundary Contour System." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 865-874. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. This paper discusses the boundary contour system as the basis of a computational model of emergent recognition applicable in design. Details of this system which make it appealing as a computational approach for emergent recognition are introduced. The performance of a system implementation is covered and an extension to improve its performance is discussed.
Gero, John S., and Gourabmoy Nath. "Formalising Situated Learning in Computer-Aided Design." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 801-808. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. In this paper, we propose and begin to formalise an approach to machine learning in design called situated learning with the purpose of providing a foundation to developing better design tools in an agent-based framework. Situated learning theory postulates that the situations that an expert is exposed to forms the developmental conditions of expertise. We extend and adapt that theory for computer-aided design with the primary objective of learning the use of existing knowledge, rather than simply the knowledge itself. The idea behind situated learning is to learn situations and associate them with some knowledge with the intention of using the knowledge in similar situations.
Achten, Henri. "Generic Representations - Typical Design without the Use of Types." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 117-133. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. The building type is a (knowledge) structure that is both recognised as a constitutive cognitive element of human thought and as a constitutive computational element in CAAD systems. Questions that seem unresolved up to now about computational approaches to building types are the relationship between the various instances that are generally recognised as belonging to a particular building type, the way a type can deal with varying briefs (or with mixed functional use), and how a type can accommodate different sites. Approaches that aim to model building types as data structures of interrelated variables (so-called'prototypes') face problems clarifying these questions. It is proposed in this research not to focus on a definition of'type,'but rather to investigate the role of knowledge connected to building types in the design process. The basic proposition is that the graphic representations used to represent the state of the design object throughout the design process can be used as a medium to encode knowledge of the building type. This proposition claims that graphic representations consistently encode the things they represent, that it is possible to derive the knowledge content of graphic representations, and that there is enough diversity within graphic representations to support a design process of a building belonging to a type. In order to substantiate these claims, it is necessary to analyse graphic representations. In the research work, an approach based on the notion of'graphic units'is developed. The graphic unit is defined and the analysis of graphic representations on the basis of the graphic unit is demonstrated. This analysis brings forward the knowledge content of single graphic representations. Such knowledge content is declarative knowledge. The graphic unit also provides the means to articulate the transition from one graphic representation to another graphic representation. Such transitions encode procedural knowledge. The principles of a sequence of generic representations are discussed and it is demonstrated how a particular type - the office building type - is implemented in the theoretical work. Computational work on implementation part of a sequence of generic representations of the office building type is discussed. The paper ends with a summary and future work.
Bruton, Dean. "Grammars and Art - a Contingent Sense of Rules." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 71-82. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. This paper contributes to the debate about the utility of the grammatical paradigm in art and design. It reports an investigation of the contingent sense in which grammars and grammatical design apply in the practice of form making in art using two complementary research strategies: the examination through a perspective of grammatical design of some selected bodies of art work, including interviews with artists, theorists and designers, and the reflective practice of image making with computer media in my own work as an artist. The major hypothesis is that a contingent, sense of grammar can facilitate the creation, understanding, and discussion of form-making in art. The sub-hypotheses are that (1) An understanding of grammatical design can enhance a reflective design activity, and that (2) Revealing the contingency of grammars can expose moments of inspiration and redirection in a reflective design activity.
Hall, Theodore W.. "Hand-Eye Coordination in Desktop Virtual Reality." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 177-182. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. For hand-eye coordination and intuitive interaction with virtual-reality displays, the projected image of a 3-D cursor in virtual space should correspond to the real position of the 3-D input device that controls it. This paper summarizes some of the issues and algorithms for coordinating the physical and virtual worlds.
Tsai, Daniel, and Sungah Kim. "Human - Machine - Design Matrix: a Model for Web-based Design Interaction." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 417-430. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. A model of human-machine design interaction is presented. The model is based on synchrony of actions as it relates to designing, presenting, and discussing a design object over an electronic medium. The model descriptively accommodates existing technologies and areas of CAD research. The model prescriptively illuminates future CAD vis. the Web. The model is based on 3 factors: synchrony, presence, activity, and 2 players: human and machine. Future technologies are considered in terms of the a shifting role of the machine (the computer and the net) from server to agent to actor.
Silva, Neander, and Alan Bridges. "Human-Computer Interaction and Neural Networks in Architectural Design - a Tool for Design Exploration." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 267-284. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. Design research has demonstrated that neural networks are able to support creativity. However, there are two main problems with using neural networks in design. One is how you interact with such systems. The second relates to the integration between neural network techniques and other approaches. This paper will describe an integrated model in which those problems are addressed. The resulting system provides an interface in which the neural network output is translated into textual and graphic representations that can play a meaningful role in the design process.
Bignon, Jean-Claude, Gilles Halin, and P. Humbert. "Hypermedia Structuring of the Technical Documentation for the Architectural Aided Design." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 843-848. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. The definition of an universal structuring model of the technical documentation is arduous, indeed utopian considering the great number of products and the diversity of relative information. To answer this situation we are trying to develop a general approach of the documentation. The document is the base entity of documentation structuring and it represents a coherent informative unit. We propose a model of document hypermedia structuring. This model allows the definition, the presentation, the navigation and the retrieval of general information on building products by a document manipulation. It is associated with a hypermedia design method adapted to document management. This method proposes, after the identification of the user, three phases of hypermedia definition: data definition, navigation definition and user interface definition. The model of a hypermedia structuring of the technical documentation proposed in this article is at once independent of available information on products, open, and makes easier the addition of new navigational functions.
McCall, Raymond Joseph, E. Johnson, and M. Smith. "Hypersketching: Design as Creating a Graphical Hyperdocument." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 849-854. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. There are empirical and theoretical reasons for believing that current CAD does not adequately support the early, conceptual stages of design. Hand-done design drawing has a several advantages over current, CAD-based approaches to generating form in these stages. One advantage is the indeterminacy of hand drawing--i.e., its abstractness and ambiguity. Another is a non-destructive drawing process, where new drawings are created without modifying old ones. A third is designers'creation of large collections of inter-related drawings--i.e., graphical hyperdocuments. A fourth is the unobtrusive character of conventional drawing tools. We have created two prototypes that incorporate these features into a new type of CAD based on sketching with electronic pens on LCD tablets. The first prototype, called HyperSketch., is a stand-alone system that simulates tracing paper. It creates a hypermedia network in which the nodes are sketches and the links are primarily traced-from relationships recorded automatically by the system. The second prototype adds the HyperSketching functionality to our existing PHIDIAS HyperCAD system. This aids design by using the sketches to index and retrieve multimedia information that is useful for a variety of design tasks.
Glaser, Daniel. "I-Walkways - an Exploration in Knowledge Visualization." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 305-310. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. This paper describes a prototype which extends a logic system into a useful design tool to aid in designing pedestrian walkways. A highly interactive program, I-Walkways demonstrates how a logic system can meaningfully aid with design. This technique will allow the designer and the logic system to work harmoniously together to reach a good design solution.
Sariyildiz, Sevil, H. Völker, and M. Schwenck. "Improving CAAD by Applying Integrated Design Support Systems and New Design Methodologies." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 151-162. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. This paper deals with the improvement of the current design practice by means of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) tools in the field of architectural design. In the first part we make suggestions which can contribute significantly to improvements in the mentioned field. This includes: - the development of Integrated Design Support Systems (IDSS) - the application of new design methodologies in relation to IDSS. In the second part we will discuss the topic more generally. Which other aspects have to be considered regarding the development of support software for architectural design? Which improvements can be reached by introducing advanced information and,communication technology? Which changes are necessary in the promising relationship between architecture and computer science?
Eastman, C., Tay-Sheng Jeng, R. Chowdbury, and K. Jacobsen. "Integration of Design Applications with Building Models." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 45-59. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. This paper reviews various issues in the integration of applications with a building model. First, we present three different architectures for interfacing applications to a building model, with three different structures for applying maps between datasets. The limitations and advantages of these alternatives are reviewed. Then we review the mechanisms for interfacing an application to a building data model, allowing iteration execution and the recognition of instance additions, modifications and deletions.
Radford, Anthony, Robert F. Woodbury, G. Braithwaite, S. Kirkby, R. Sweeting, and E. Huang. "Issues of Abstraction, Accuracy and Realism in Large Scale Computer Urban Models." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 679-690. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. The availability of large scale computer urban models promises to radically improve the effectiveness of urban design policy-making and development control. A key question in the implementation of such models is how the balance between abstraction, accuracy and realism influences the effectiveness of their use. This paper discusses and illustrates the issues involved, with a computer model of the City of Adelaide as example.
Belblidia, S., and J.P. Perrin. "Level-of-Detail Visualization of Architectural Models." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 831-836. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. The work presented in this paper aims to use level-of-detail representation in realizing interactive walkthroughs or ignoring useless details in large architectural models. In order to choose the right representation of a model, we have to evaluate the error committed when using a simplified version instead of the full description of an object. This error depends on the object deformation during the simplification process but also on the importance of this object in the current viewing conditions. This “visiblei error is used with different visualization strategies to find the model representation which satisfies either a quality criterion or a cost condition.
Kohler, N, B Barth, S Heitz, and M Hermann. "Life Cycle Models of Buildings - a New Approach." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 519-531. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. The idea of life cycle cost was developed a quarter of a century ago. A wide dissemination of the term was given through a report for the US Secretary of Defense “Life Cycle Cost in Equipment Procuration”. This report was followed by a series of guide lines in the defense field and later on in other government activities. The basic definition of life cycle costs is: “The sum of all costs incurred during the lifetime of an item, i.e. the total of procurement and ownership costs”. There are several life cycle costs models available in literature. In the building field attempts have been made to introduce the notion of life cycle costs mainly through building surveys and for public owned buildings. Recorded data of construction, refurbishment and maintenance costs of buildings show that over a 50 year period the total costs amount to approximate twice the investment costs (without financial costs).
Bourdakis, Vassilis. "Making Sense of the City." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 663-678. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. Large-scale, three dimensional, interactive computer models of cities are becoming feasible making it possible to test their suitability as a visualisation tool for the design and planning process, for data visualisation where socio-economic and physical data can be mapped on to the 3D form of the city and as an urban information repository. The CASA developed models of the City of Bath and London's West End in VRML format, are used as examples to illustrate the problems arising. The aim of this paper is to reflect on key issues related to interaction within urban models, data mapping techniques and appropriate metaphors for presenting information.
Cao, Quinsan, and Jean-Pierre Protzen. "Managing Information with Fuzzy Reasoning System in Design Reasoning and Issue-Based Argumentation." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 771-786. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. Design by argumentation is a natural character of design process with social participation. Issue-Based Information System (IBIS) is an information representation system based on a structured database. It provides a hierarchically linked database structure to manage design information and facilitate design by argumentation. In this paper, we explore the enhancement of IBIS with FRS (Fuzzy Reasoning System) technology. The FRS adds computationally implemented dynamic links to the database of IBIS. Such dynamic links can represent logic relations and reasoning operations among related issues which allows further clarification of relations among issues in IBS. The enhanced system provides a general framework to manage design information and to assist design reasoning, which in turn will contribute to machine assisted design. The final goal is to formulate a system that can represent design knowledge and assist reasoning in design analysis. The system can help designers in clarifying and understanding design related issues, requirements and evaluating potential design alternatives. To demonstrate the system and its potential use, we reexamine a design experiment presented by Schon and represent the design knowledge and reasoning rules of the architects with our system, FRS-IBIS.
Mahdavi, Ardeshir. "Modeling-Assisted Building Control." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 219-229. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. The architectural research on provision of computational support for the building delivery process in general and computer aided performance modelling in particular has traditionally concentrated on the building design phase. This paper argues that computational modelling can also successfully apply to the building operation phase. To demonstrate this potential the paper explores a simulation- assisted building control strategy. Specifically, the use of generate-and-test as well as bi-directional inference methods is proposed to derive preferable control schemes and required attributes for control variables based on parametric and iterative simulation runs. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated via illustrative computational examples from the thermal control domain.
Gross, Mark, L. Parker, and A.M. Elliott. "MUD: Exploring Tradeoffs in Urban Design." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 373-387. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. The design of cities and neighborhoods involves multiple stakeholders with various agendas, each comprising multiple criteria. Any design proposal will rank differently against each stakeholder's agenda, and effective participatory design requires that stakeholder interests are mutually understood and negotiated. We describe a program to promote this understanding and negotiation among stakeholders, called MUD, that enables each stakeholder to articulate their criteria for judging designs, to make design proposals, and to score designs against the criteria. By enabling stakeholders with different values and different areas of expertise to exchange design proposals and agendas we hope to foster understanding and stimulate negotiation.
Lewin, J.S., M. Ehrhardt, and Mark Gross. "Not Just Another Pretty Face: Images and Arguments in an Anthropology Web Site." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 635-654. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. We are developing a web site with photorealistic animations and virtual reality walk throughs of architecture and artifacts at an archaeological site in El Salvador. The goal of the site is to support research and teaching about household anthropology in sixthcentury Meso-America. To counter the false sense of realism and truth these experiences often convey we have developed Image Arguments, a scheme for integrating with images the arguments and data that they are based on. We provide this contextual information using a server side database and client side Java applets, enabling viewers to examine the assumptions and the data behind the images.
Koutamanis, Alexander. "On the Evaluation of Architectural Figural Goodness: a Foundation for Computational Architectural Aesthetic." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 245-266. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. The first stage of an investigation into the quantification and computability of architectural aesthetics is reported. Issues considered include the function, sources and role of aesthetic analysis in architecture in the framework of a descriptive approach to architectural analysis and design. The main focus is on the applicability of the concept of figural goodness to architectural aesthetics and the derivation of a representation for architectural form suitable to this purpose.
Mahdavi, Ardeshir, and V. Pal. "On the Problem of Operative Information in CAAD." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 231-244. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. Computational building performance modelling typically generates large amounts of data. For this data to become operative information, i.e., provide effective feedback to the design process, it must adequately interface with the informational requirements and procedural characteristics of the building delivery process. Toward this end, this paper specifically addresses the potential of aggregate space-time performance indicators.
Riegel, J.P., M. Schütze, and Gerhard Zimmermann. "Pattern-Based Generation of Customized, Flexible Building Simulators." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 285-298. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. This paper describes a domain-specific software development method for the creation of building simulators. The method is based on object-oriented modelling, design patterns and code generation principles. The goal is to provide customizable building simulators that exactly simulate those physical effects an application demands. The numerical accuracy and different algorithms to be used can be tailored to the application's needs. By using object models and preconfigured design patterns, a well-structured simulator model can be created. From this model, the complete product code of a simulator is generated. The patterns help to develop a complete and correct model. Each pattern describes a certain functionality and knows how to generate code to implement this functionality.
Junge, Richard, and Thomas Liebich. "Product Data Model for Interoperability in an Distributed Environment." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 571-589. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. This paper belongs to a suite of three interrelated papers. The two others are'The VEGA Platform'and'A Dynamic Product Model'. These two companion papers are also based on the VEGA project. The ESPRIT project VEGA (Virtual Enterprises using Groupware tools and distributed Architectures) has the objective to develop IT solutions enabling virtual enterprises, especially in the domain of architectural design and building engineering. VEGA shall give answers to many questions of what is needed for enabling such virtual enterprise from the IT side. The questions range from technologies for networks, communication between distributed applications, control, management of information flow to implementation and model architectures to allow distribution of information in the virtual enterprises. This paper is focused on the product model aspect of VEGA. So far modelling experts have followed a more or less centralized architecture (central or central with 4 satellites'). Is this also the architecture for the envisaged goal? What is the architecture for such a distributed model following the paradigm of modelling the, natural human'way of doing business? What is the architecture enabling most effective the filtering and translation in the communication process. Today there is some experience with'bulk data'of the document exchange type. What is with incremental information (not data) exchange? Incremental on demand only the really needed information not a whole document. The paper is structured into three parts. First there is description of the modelling history or background. the second a vision of interoperability in an distributed environment from the users coming from architectural design and building engineering view point. Third is a description of work undertaken by the authors in previous project forming the direct basis for the VEGA model. Finally a short description of the VEGA project, especially the VEGA model architecture.
Kurmann, D, N. Elte, and M. Engeli. "Real-Time Modeling with Architectural Space." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 809-819. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. Space as an architectural theme has been explored in many ways over many centuries, designing the architectural space is a major issue in both architectural education and in the design process. Based on these observations, it follows that computer tools should be available that help architects manipulate and explore space and spatial configurations directly and interactively. Therefore, we have created and extended the computer tool Sculptor. This tool enables the architect to design interactively with the computer, directly in real-time and in three dimensions. We developed the concept of'space as an element'and integrated it into Sculptor. These combinations of solid and void elements - positive and negative volumes - enable the architect to use the computer already in an early design stage for conceptual design and spatial studies. Similar to solids modelling but much simpler, more intuitive and in real-time this allows the creation of complex spatial compositions in 3D space. Additionally, several concepts, operations and functions are defined inherently. Windows and doors for example are negative volumes that connect other voids inside positive ones. Based on buildings composed with these spaces we developed agents to calculate sound atmosphere and estimate cost, and creatures to test building for fire escape reasons etc. The paper will look at the way to design with space from both an architect's point of view and a computer scientist's. Techniques, possibilities and consequences of this direct void modelling will be explained. It will elaborate on the principle of human machine interaction brought up by our research and used in Sculptor. It will present the possibility to create VRML models directly for the web and show some of the designs done by students using the tool in our CAAD courses.
Kolarevic, Branko. "Regulating Lines and Geometric Relations as a Framework for Exploring Shape, Dimension and Geometric Organization in Design." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 163-170. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. The paper introduces regulating lines and geometric relations as a framework for shape delineation and dynamic drawing manipulation. It describes a relations-based graphic environment that can provide a qualitatively different way to explore shape, dimension, and geometric organization in design. It also presents ReDRAW, a limited prototype of the relations-based graphic system, and discusses some implications of its use in conceptual architectural design.
Caneparo, Luca. "Shared Virtual Reality for Architectural Design." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 431-442. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. The paper presents the implementation of a system of Shared Virtual Reality (SVR) in Internet applied to a large- scale project. The applications of SVR to architectural and urban design are presented in the context of a real project, the new railway junction of Porta Susa and the surrounding urban area in the city centre of Turin, Italy. SVR differs from Virtual Reality in that the experience of virtual spaces is no longer individual, but rather shared across the net with other users simultaneously connected. SVR offers an effective approach to Computer Supported Collaborative Work, because it integrates both the communicative tools to improve collaboration and the distributed environment to elaborate information across the networks.
Turner, James. "Some Thoughts on the Existence of a Generic Building Object." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 532-552. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new universal data structure, called a Generic Building Object (GBO), to support the reinvention and re-implementation of a building data base application called PLAN. The paper reviews various building models as presented explicitly and implicitly in the writings of other computer-aided building design researchers.
Stouffs, Rudi, and Ramesh Krishnamurti. "Sorts: a Concept for Representational Flexibility." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 553-564. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. This work is based on the recognition that there will always be a need for different representations of the same entity, albeit a building or building part, a shape or other complex attribute. This exigency ensues, formally, to define the relations between alternative representations, in order to support translation and identify where exact translation is possible, and to define coverage of different representations. We consider an abstraction of representations to model sorts that allows us to define algebraic operations on sorts and recognize algebraic relationships between sorts, providing us with a method for the analysis of representations, and the comparison of their coverage. We present the basis of support for a multi-representational environment.
Jakimowicz, Adam, J. Barrallo, and E.M. Guedes. "Spatial Computer Abstraction: from Intuition to Genetic Algorithms." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 917-926. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. Many of the emblematic buildings constructed at present shows many formal and technological innovations that have not been satisfactorily resolved by the existing CAAD software. Frank 0. Gehry's Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao is a good example of architecture whose shapes and design are very advanced from the concepts and tools used by CAAD. The search for new creative resources, from the educational and professional point of view, must be a priority. This will be the only way to get that CAAD contributes essentially in the process of architectural innovation, instead of merely being a reproduction tool. From this viewpoint the computer exploration of the three dimensional form is presented in here. The concept of abstract art, that has been successfully applied to painting and sculpture in this century is used as a way to experiment, design and create architecture. This paper juxtaposes three approaches, three different ways of understanding the abstract character, with the purpose to create new objects and environments, which are exclusively characteristic for computer space. This juxtaposition shows how creative and innovative activities in the field of CAAD can be developed using different intellectual bases: intuition, mathematical formulas and genetic algorithms.
Hellgardt, Michael, and Sourav Kundu. "Spatium - a System for the Definition and Design of Shape Grammars." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 83-96. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. It is shown how Augmented Transition Networks (ATN) can be gradually programmed with shape grammar structures. This work is inspired by natural language parsing. Another major reference is the space-between or spatium assumption. An application is given with a simulation of Palladio villas. Then is shown that ATN frames can be encoded in a way that allows their use without specific knowledge of computer modelling. Connections between human and machine learning are touched on.
Dijkstra, J., and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "The Application of Conjoint Measurement as a Dynamic Decision Making Tool in a Virtual Reality Environment." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 757-770. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. This paper describes an innovative aspect of an ongoing research project to develop a virtual reality based conjoint analysis system. Conjoint analysis involves the use of designed hypothetical choice situations to measure subjects'preferences and predict their choice in new situations. Conjoint experiments involve the design and analysis of hypothetical decision tasks. Hypothetical alternatives, called product profiles, are generated and presented to subjects. A virtual reality presentation format has been used to represent these profiles. A profile consists of a virtual environment model and dynamic virtual objects representing the attributes with their respective levels. Conventional conjoint choice models are traditionally based on preference or choice data, not on dynamic decision making aspects. The status of this new approach will be described.
Bridges, Alan, and Dimitrios Charitos. "The Architectural Design of Virtual Environments." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 719-732. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. The paper discusses the use of precedents from architecture, urban design and film to propose guidelines for the improvement of navigation and wayfinding in virtual environments.
Coyne, Richard, and Fiona Mclachlan. "The Legacy of Surrealism in the Electronic Design Studio." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 733-748. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. We examine how Surrealist themes are evident in the world of information technology, and in the electronic design studio. We show that much of the current popular appeal of the computer in design schools is attributable to the computer's apparent surrealistic possibilities rather than the potentialities traditionally put forward by exponents of formalism, design methods and systems theory. We discuss developments on Surrealism, including the application of Freud's concept of the uncanny and Lacan's understanding of the image, before concluding that Surrealism and its developments support a “hermeneutics of suspicioni, which is one way of interpreting what occurs in the design studio. 
Woo, S, E. Lee, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "The Multi-User Workspace for Collaborative Design." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 443-452. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. The design process requires a collaboration between organizations and individuals. This paper considers recent research in collaborative design system, it is called the multi-user workspace. The group-oriented multi-user workspace is a design environment where the collaborative work progresses smoothly between individuals or organizations in architecture design process. This paper describes the recent research concerning the multi-user work space with inter-university collaboration. The design is processed in the multi-user work space where participants interact with each other. This paper aims to prove the availability of the Multiuser workspace and to understand its problems.
Tsai, Daniel. "The Palladio Web Museum - a Heterogeneous Database of Architecture and History." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 655-662. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. This paper presents the overall information system architecture and the approaches used for creating the Palladio Virtual Museum - a heterogeneous database of history and architecture. Creating a virtual museum is treated as an information system engineering task. The World Wide Web (the Web) is used as the open access platform for both presentation and input. Client-server database transaction technology is used to provide a concurrent real-time system for consumers (visitors) and producers of information. The system is a test bed for structuring, searching, and presenting historical, architectural, spatial information.
Broughton, T., A. Tan, and P.S. Coates. "The Use of Genetic Programming in Exploring 3D Design Worlds - a Report of Two Projects by Msc Students at CECA UEL." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 885-915. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. Genetic algorithms are used to evolve rule systems for a generative process, in one case a shape grammar,which uses the “Dawkins Biomorphi paradigm of user driven choices to perform artificial selection, in the other a CA/Lindenmeyer system using the Hausdorff dimension of the resultant configuration to drive natural selection. (1) Using Genetic Programming in an interactive 3D shape grammar. A report of a generative system combining genetic programming (GP) and 3D shape grammars. The reasoning that backs up the basis for this work depends on the interpretation of design as search In this system, a 3D form is a computer program made up of functions (transformations) & terminals (building blocks). Each program evaluates into a structure. Hence, in this instance a program is synonymous with form. Building blocks of form are platonic solids (box, cylinder, etc.). A Variety of combinations of the simple affine transformations of translation, scaling, rotation together with Boolean operations of union, subtraction and intersection performed on the building blocks generate different configurations of 3D forms. Using to the methodology of genetic programming, an initial population of such programs are randomly generated,subjected to a test for fitness (the eyeball test). Individual programs that have passed the test are selected to be parents for reproducing the next generation of programs via the process of recombination. (2) Using a GA to evolve rule sets to achieve a goal configuration. The aim of these experiments was to build a framework in which a structure's form could be defined by a set of instructions encoded into its genetic make-up. This was achieved by combining a generative rule system commonly used to model biological growth with a genetic algorithm simulating the evolutionary process of selection to evolve an adaptive rule system capable of replicating any preselected 3D shape. The generative modelling technique used is a string rewriting Lindenmayer system the genes of the emergent structures are the production rules of the L-system, and the spatial representation of the structures uses the geometry of iso-spatial dense-packed spheres
Junge, R., M. Köthe, K. Schulz, A. Zarli, and W. Bakkeren. "The Vega Platform - IT for the Virtual Enterprise." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 591-616. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. One of todays many buzzwords is'virtual enterprise'. The objectives of the ESPRIT project VEGA are the development of an IT platform enabling such enterprises. Virtual enterprise means a number of people or smaller companies grouped together for a distinct contract, which none of them alone could or would able to get and to undertake. Modern decentralized, distributed IT solutions typically could support such virtual enterprises in their competition against those who are big or strong enough to to carry out such contracts with their internal resources alone. VEGA gathers together the necessary components as technically available and extends their capabilities as needed for a platform enabling collaboration in an flexible and distributed environment.
Do, Ellen Yi- Luen, and Mark Gross. "Tools for Visual and Spatial Analysis of CAD Models - Implementing Computer Tools as a Means to Thinking about Architecture." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 189-202. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. The paper describes a suite of spatial analysis programs to support architectural design. Building these computational tools not only supports the task of spatial analysis for designers but it also helps us think about the spatial perception. We argue that building design software is an important vehicle for understanding architecture, using our efforts to build various visual and spatial analysis tools as examples.
Gero, John S.. "What are We Learning from Designers and its Role in Future CAAD Tools." In CAADFutures 1997: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 61-70. CAAD Futures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. Recent research into the activity and behaviour of human designers as they design has provide an impetus to carry out research which underpins the development of new CAAD support tools. However, there are computational processes of interest in designing which are not modeled on human design processes. This paper outlines some of the design processes which are being researched based on our understanding of human designers and provides examples from some early implementations.