Keywords Abstract
Soufi, Bassel, and Ernest Edmonds. "A Framework for the Description and Representation of Emergent Shapes." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 411-422. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. This paper is concerned with the computational modelling of emergent shapes in design. The categorisation of emergent shapes, and the development of a framework capable of modelling different types of emergent shapes are of particular interest. A scheme is propose for the description of emergent shapes. Four different types of emergent shapes are described. A framework based on multiple shape representations is then presented. The operation of the framework is illustrated using a worked example.
Seok, Lee, Park-Chung Sik, and Kim Dae-Gwon. "A Knowledge-Based CAAD system with Qualitative Spatial Reasoning Capability." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 359-368. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. Design and creativity go hand in hand. The ability to be creative in design can be enhanced when humans and computers, which both work as information processing systems cooperate in a complementary, integrated manner. Computational systems should play the most essential role in enhancing creativity within human-machine design systems in the future. In this context, we present the concept and architecture of a new integrated CAAD System, AutoNEO, that will support the achievement of creative results. We will focus on the qualitative spatial reasoning capability of AutoNEO, and provide an example of layout design as a case of qualitative spatial reasoning.
Clibbon, K., L. Candy, and E. Edmonds. "A Logic-Based Framework for Representing Architectural Design Knowledge." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 91-102. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. This paper proposes a logic-based framework for representing and manipulating knowledge during Computer-Aided Architectural Design. The framework incorporates a meta-level architecture to represent declarative design knowledge and strategic knowledge used by the designer. It consists of an object layer, a design requirements layer and strategies for navigating through the design space. An extended first-order logic is described which has been used to represent some examples of architectural knowledge. This computational model is being implemented in KAUS (Knowledge Acquisition and Utilisation System), a general purpose knowledge-based system, founded in Multi-Layered Logic.
Rutherford, James. "A Multi-User Design Workspace." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 673-685. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. Advances in digital media and digital communication has fostered the growth of a new enabling technology that allows geographically displaced individuals to hold group meetings and provides the opportunity to interact in a collaborative venture. The development of computer software to aid remote collaboration has, until recently, focused on the provision of tools that enable two or more people to participate in the shared authoring of a mixed-media (lexi-visual) documents. This paper presents a model of the design process which is founded on the transient nature of collaboration. The model is used to develop a multimedia framework to support remote collaborative design providing transitional support between synchronous and asynchronous design activity. A prototype system is used to illustrate the salient features of the framework.
Khedro, Taha. "AgentCAD for Cooperative Design." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 667-672. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. AgentCAD is a network infrastructure of distributed CAD applications that facilitates the concurrent an cooperative interaction of several designers working together, possibly over several physical locations, on a design project. It provides a set of services and protocols that support the communications of distributed design information captured by CAD drawings, multiple design views, and design changes. It coordinates access to a common and multiple design models as well as the activities of designers based on captured knowledge of designers'tasks, capabilities, and interests, which characterize their behaviors. The idea of AgentCAD represents a departure from the usual way in which CAD applications are used as single-user tools, applied to one view of specific design problems. In describing the AgentCAD environment, we discuss the organization of AgentCAD, its communication model, and the cooperative interaction protocols for designers in the context of a design scenario.
Will, Barry, John Bradford, J M. Matchy, and B D. Sullivan. "An Analysis of the Hong Kong Building Regulations Utilizing an Interactive Format." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 369-375. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. This paper is intended as a supplement to a live demonstration of an interactive matrix built to accommodate the Hong Kong Building Ordinances and Regulations.The matrix employs a multimedia system developed by the Department of Architecture, University of Hong Kong and allows a multivariable approach to comprehending and analysing the laws that influence the design and construction of buildings in Hong Kong.
Sanly, Suzan, and Gulsun Saglamer. "An Architect/An Architectural Language and a Shape Grammar." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 453-467. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. Every architect, whose goal is to create valuable artifacts, should own a unique architectural language. This language is composed of a vocabulary and a set of grammar rules to combine them. In this study, a number of ground and first floor plans of single family houses designed by an individual architect are analyzed. Plan lay-outs are decomposed into their components, and the composition rules are examined. Vocabulary elements, and geometric and semantic relationships among these elements are specified and a shape grammar is formed. Finally, different design possibilities are generated in terms of the defined language rules.
Vernenne, D., S. Rogge, W. Van Laere, and F. Vandamme. "Annot Agents: Knowledge-Based Tools for Supporting Participatory Design." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 699-706. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995.

In this paper, we consider participatory design as aiming for full cooperation of all actors involved in collaborative design processes. This type of co-design needs efficient tools to support the complex interactions on many levels. The paper describes our AnnotAgents which is a method and a library of tools which we are currently developing to support these complex cooperation processes.

Coulon, Carl-Helmut. "Automatic Indexing, Retrieval and Reuse of Topologies in Architectural Layouts." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 577-586. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. Former layouts contain much of the know-how of architects. A generic and automatic way to formalize this know-how in order to use it by a computer would save a lot of effort and money. However, there seems to be no such way. The only access to the know-how are the layouts themselves. Developing a generic software tool to reuse former layouts you cannot consider every part of the architectural domain or things like personal style. Tools used today only consider small parts of the architectural domain. Any personal style is ignored. Isnit it possible to build a basic tool which is adjusted by the content of the former layouts, but maybe extended inclemently by modelling as much of the domain as desirable? This paper will describe a reuse tool to perform this task focusing on topological and geometrical binary relations.
Zago, Andrew, and Dean Taylor. "Beyond the CAAD Laboratory: the Cornell Project and the Creation of the Cornell Synthesis Studio." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 267-276. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. Over the past year a project has been initiated at Cornell University's Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering to develop and implement a new direction in mechanical design education. The Cornell Project develops a teaching and working environment that fosters creative problem solving and visual thinking in the design of mechanical systems. The project is more than the creation of a laboratory, it combines curriculum, the designed environment, machinery and sophisticated computing resources in a comprehensive and critical vision of the future of design. The Cornell Project culminates in the Cornell Synthesis Studio, the primary facility for Mechanical Design and Synthesis (MAE 225), a new required course in mechanical design.
Jabi, Wassim, and Theodore W. Hall. "Beyond the Shared Whiteboard: Issues in Computer Supported Collaborative Design." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 719-725. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. This research focuses on combining the rich representations of computer-aided design systems with current collaboration technologies to support distributed design processes. Our emphasis is not on concurrent multi-user access to integrated databases, but rather on shared protocols of interaction that are independent of implementation and storage schemes. We have developed a prototype for a Synchronous Collaborative Design System (SYCODE) that enables geographically dispersed designers to share common representations even when using different hardware platforms. The limitations of the existing network infrastructure have compelled its to devise a meaningful and parsimonious representation scheme and to semantically define pending and confirmed actions.
Woodbury, Robert F., and Teng-Wen Chang. "Building Enclosures using SEED-Config." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 49-54. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. We describe enclosure design for SEED-Config using an example from “Architectural Details for Insulated Buildings” (Brand 90). We develop enclosures for insulated buildings in terms of the functional units that specify them, the technologies that implement them and the design units that describe them. Brand gives details in eight series (A-H), in each series he describes a specific detailing system. We base our exposition on series A to E: these share the property of the wall fitting partially under the roof and floor slabs. In series F and G the wall stands clear of the slabs and this would require a different approach to detailing from a very high level. Series H is a compendium of special cases that we do not discuss here at all. We conclude with a discussion of what our enclosure design example implies for the representation and computational engine of SEED-Config. We chose insulated enclosures as our example for a specific reason: Brandis treatment of them is proximate to the fundamental approach we take in SEED. Brand wrote in clear, rule-like terms that progress from the abstract to the specific. He explicitly links each part of every detail to the function it fulfills.
Maver, Thomas W.. "CAAD's Seven Deadly Sins." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 21-22. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. This short paper takes a critical view of the direction of research and development in Computer Aided Architectural Design over the last five years of its twenty five year history. The criticisms are set out as seven deadly sins which, in summary, are: macro-myopic, devu, xenophilia, unsustainability, failure to validate, failure to evaluate
Mitchell, William. "CAD as a Social Process." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 9-Jul. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. We can now look back over more than three decades of CAD research, software development, and deployment in practice. In that time, several guiding paradigms have emerged - then have eventually been superseded(or, at least, extended and augmented by new ones. In this paper I briefly glance backward at successive paradigms, consider what each has contributed to our understanding of the subject, then go on to consider the latest - CAD as a network-supported, social process.
Chiu, Mao-Lin. "Collaborative Design in CAAD Studios: Shared Ideas, Resources, and Representations." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 749-759. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. This paper is to discuss the shared experiences among two institutions learned from the collaborative design project with a three-stage structured design process. The collaborative methodology is developed for participants in the studios to learn how to utilize shared ideas, resources, and representations. Design communication and interaction is taken place through internet in the asynchronous mode. The shift from conventional design studios to collaborative design studios requires several changes, including the tools, the communication media, the remote reflections, and more importantly, the design process, the team organization, and the networked design culture.
Sasada, Tsuyoshi. "Computer Graphics as a Communication Medium in the Design Process." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 5-Mar. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. During the last ten years at the Sasada Lab of Osaka University, we have been using Computer graphics for presentation, design review, and design for practical architectural design projects. Computer graphics, including computer generated animation, is a powerful communication medium, and makes collaborative work easy. Nowadays, computer graphics technology is melting with networking technology, and many hot new technologies are being created. Among these new technologies, we find technologies such as VRML and 3-D browsers that should be the key to progress for 3-D design in an architectural design process. This paper demonstrates how these new technologies solve Problems of 3-D design in the architectural design process.
Gero, John S.. "Computers and Creative Design." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 19-Nov. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. This paper introduces notions of creativity and creative design as a form of computational exploration. Exploration is used as a means of defining spaces which are then searched. It is shown that schemas provide an opportunity to describe exploration. Emergence as a process which modifies schemas is described, as a “creative process”. Visual emergence is elaborated and other forms of emergence are described. The role of emergence in creative design is presented.
Caneparo, Luca. "Coordinative Virtual Space for Architectural Design." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 739-748. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. The paper explores group coordination in the design process through communicative innovations brought by computers. It is divided into three main sections. The first is the analysis of the design group coordination and communication. The second introduces the concept of Coordinative Virtual Space: this is a common multi-dimensional space where the group members share design information. The third presents the implementation: each member can connect to the shared space through the computer network and display several projections of the design information space.
Lee, H., J. Lee, and S. Chang. "Design Adaptation for Handling Design Failures." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 567-576. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. This research deals with two important issues in Case-based Design (CBD): a structure of design cases and a process of design adaptation for handling design failures. The structure of design cases involves problem situation, design specification, design tasks, design solutions, causal explanation, past design failures as well as design performance. It has been noticed that how to represent a structure of design cases and how it can be used in actual a process of design adaptation process are important in Case-based Design. Adaptation process in Case-based Design is also critcial, especially in handling design failures. The description and the analysis of design adaptation process in the context of Case-based Design paradigm is the major focus of this research. A model of casual explanation is presented as an useful tool for identifying sources of design failures. For efficiently handling design failures based on causal explanation, it is essential to characterize various design failures and to devise an adequate structure of adaptation process. Applicability of adaptation process is demonstrated in an exemplary kitchen layout.
Oxman, Rivka. "Design Case Bases: Graphic Knowledge Bases for the Design Workspace." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 555-565. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. Cases in the domain of architecture and engineering are commonly stored and presented as graphical representations in the form of drawings. The way creative designers fit and adapt graphical representations through drawing and re-drawing is still one of the least understood phenomena in design. Modelling stich processes appears to be a key to graphic knowledge base integration in CAAD environments. The paper reports on a new approach to modelling design adaptation in a graphical environment. This approach is based upon a theory of creativity, the Representation - Re-representation Hypothesis which is here employed in the formalization of design adaptation. A'multi-layer re-representational model'which assists in the adaptation of design drawings is developed and presented. The model is based on the transformation of chunks of knowledge in design cases into explicit re-representational structures which can support creative design in a graphic environment. This model is utilized in our current work in development of a prototype graphical case-based CAAD system.
Bridges, Alan. "Design Precedents for Virtual Worlds." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 293-302. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. The usual precedents cited in relation to Cyberspace are William Gibson's book “Neuromancer” and Ridley Scott's film. “Bladerunner”. This paper argues that, whilst literature and film are appropriate precedents, there are more suitable sources to refer to when designing virtual worlds. The paper discusses the use of computer modelling in exploring architectonic concepts in three-dimensional space. In doing so it draws on the philosophy of simulation and gives examples from alternative film and literature sources but concludes that one of the most appropriate metaphors is widely available in the form of the television soap opera.
Choi, Jin. "Digital Athens: an Application of ArchiTOUR, a Multimedia Authoring System." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 517-527. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. This paper presents an educational software package for teaching and learning architectural history and theory. The package called Digital Athens is intended to teach architecture in Ancient Athens. It has been developed with the ArchiTOUR multimedia authoring system for architectural education, especially architectural history and theory. It proposes an efficient way to handle and present the diverse multimedia data that architectural education requires. The first section of this paper describes the ArchiTOUR multimedia authoring system. ArchiTOURis main features include 1) three different working modes, 2) ArchiTOUR objects, 3) linking ArchiTOUR objects, and 4) ArchiTOUR hotspots. The next part presents Digital Athens as an application of ArchiTOUR. This segment demonstrates the main ideas involved in the package and the authoring system by illustrating the contents of Digital Athens. Finally, the last part discusses future extensions of ArchiTOUR as well as the Digital Athens package itself.
Heng, Chye-Kiang. "Digital Reconstruction of Medieval Chinese Cities." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 529-540. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. The study and teaching of Chinese urban planning particularly of the earlier periods is heavily handicapped by the lack of pictorial or physical evidence. This is mainly due to the perishable nature of Chinese traditional construction which depended heavily on timber for both its structure and infill. Large architectural complexes were torched during wars and entire cities destroyed during dynastic upheavals. The Tang (618-906) capital of Chang'an is a classic example. Perhaps the foremost city in the world during the seventh and eighth centuries, it was reduced to wasteland by the beginning of the tenth century. The city now lies a little below the modem city of Xi'an, which occupies only a fraction of the Tang capital. The Northern Song (961-1127) capital, Kaifeng, also suffered similar fate when warfare and natural disasters eradicated the Song city. The ruins are buried five to twelve meters beneath present day Kaifeng. The earliest surviving imperial city is Ming (1368-1644) Beijing. By comparison, there are still substantial ruins from Athens and Rome in the Western world. The study of Chinese urban planning and the understanding of past urban structures are important as the influence of these urban structures are still discernible in historic Chinese cities today. While traditional Chinese architecture is perishable, traditional urban planning principles leaves their imprints much longer despite the frequent replacement of the physical urban fabric.
Bakhtari, Shirin, and Wolfgang Oertel. "DOM: an Active Assistance System for Architectural and Engineering Design." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 153-162. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. This article delineates an active design assistance system for conceptual design, called DOM which is the abbreviation for Domain Ontology Modelling. The intention of our work is to endorse the role of modelling a common and shared platform of design knowledge as well as to address the crucial task of representing design decisions and engineering judgements in order to evaluate design layouts and to support layout construction from scratch.The prerequisites and assumptions for an appropriate role of an active design assistance system are explained. The presented paper contains both a conceptual and a technical exploration of the DOM system.
McCullough, Malcolm, and Rodney Hoinkes. "Dynamic Data Sets as Collaboration in Urban Design." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 709-718. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. Computer applications to urban design involve a distinctively rich hybrid of geometric, geographic, and annotative information. This condition raises opportunities for collaboration, needs for data integration, and examples of the increasing importance of rich datasets as a basis for design work. This paper describes these general issues, provides substantive examples from recent studio work, and demonstrates a specific implementation of software integration. The latter includes a prototypical data interface, translation tables for multimedia linkage, and capacity to work together with a web browser.
Alshawi, Mustafa. "Dynamic Generation of Design Plans at the Brief Stage." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 219-228. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. The traditional approach to design and construction suffers from many limitations. As the technology becomes more available to the average users, the need for an effective and efficient solution has never been greater. This paper introduces an alternative approach to the life cycle of construction projects “application controlled processi. Based on this approach, a framework for an Integrated Construction Environment (ICE) has been developed and implemented in a prototype demonstrator “SPACEi (Simultaneous Prototyping for An integrated Construction Environment). This paper is only concerns with those parts of the ICE which are relevant to the dynamic generation of design drawings. The NIRMANI system aims at generating a schematic design by retrieving previous design solutions that match the problem specification from a multimedia case library. While the Bay Design Systems aims at re-adjusting the produced design solution to minimise construction problems.
Huang, Jeffrey. "Dynamic Urban Information Model: Integrated Approach to Strategic Urban Redevelopment." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 399-408. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. This paper describes a prototype Dynamic Urban Information Model (DUIM) designed to facilitate strategic urban redevelopment, that is, the process of determining precise architectural interventions to set off, guide and condition redevelopment activities. The idea of the DUIM is based on the notion that in order to attain effective strategic redevelopment, an integrated approach addressing the complex interactions of the factors involved in urban life and growth is required. Accordingly, an urban model for this purpose must include not only spatial and formal considerations, but also social, political, economical and ecological aspects. Through a case-study involving the redevelopment of a post-industrial site, this paper explains the rationale of the DUIM in terms of its formal structure, its database, and its application.
Gero, John S., José Damski, and H. Jun. "Emergence in CAAD Systems." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 423-438. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. Emergence is the process of making properties which were not explicitly represented in a computational system explicit. This paper presents two approaches to graphical emergence suitable or implementation in a CAAD system. It presents processes for shape emergence - the interpretation of shapes which were not intentionally placed there by the designer - and shape semantics emergence - the interpretation of patterns of shape into structures which were not intentionally there by the designer. Examples of both processes and their use are given.
Saad, Milad, and Mary Lou Maher. "Exploring the Possibilities for Computer Support for Collaborative Designing." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 727-737. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. Design projects require a collaboration of individuals and a coordination of information and tasks. Computer support for design, more specifically CAD systems, have been developed to support a single user through a graphical interface and project teams through distributed data. This paper considers recent developments in computer support for synchronous collaborative design. The possibilities for developing a support environment for synchronous collaborative design cover a broad range of technical and personal considerations. We explore these possibilities by presenting several perspectives of the technical considerations and options, followed by a discussion of how such environments have the potential to enable a shared understanding among people as they are designing.
Potamianos, I., J. Turner, and Wassim Jabi. "Exploring the Proportions of Middle-Byzantine Churches: a Parametric Approach." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 483-493. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995.

This paper examines two theories regarding the design principles of Byzantine churches through the use of 3D computer models produced by a programming language that allows the manipulation of the models parametrically to derive several instantiations by varying key dimensions. This geometry-based programming language, which is part of a larger solids modelling program, proved to be an excellent tool for determining the scope and the limiting cases of each of the two theories and the degree of their interrelationship.

Kvan, Thomas. "Fruitful Exchanges: Professional Implications for Computer-mediated Design." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 771-776. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. The paper reviews experiences in using computer tools for collaborative design projects in the light of the lessons learned from implementing CAD systems in practice.
Counsell, John. "GIS Software and Coordinated Project Information Systems - a Mechanism for Increasing the Effectiveness of 3D CAAD Models." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 389-397. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. This paper reviews current 3D CAD building modelling by reference to a large ongoing case study, in which 3D building models and sites are used to generate coordinated drawing, schedule, and visualisation output. It focuses on barriers which current software interpose, preventing more complete use of 3D CAD to integrate building project information systems. Comparisons are made with tools and methodology developed in GIS, in which users make different selections as required from common databases, and it is argued that used in conjunction with 3D CAD building models, they could improve functionality and reduce barriers to effective deployment.
Gougoudilis, Vasileios. "Hyperwalls or an Application of a Non-deterministic Rule-based System in Interactive Architectural Modelling." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 173-179. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. This paper presents the architectural modelling as a process of augmenting spatial information, a chain of actions that leads from a sketched idea to the elaborated model. A symbolic constraint solver tool is connected to traditional CAD techniques, as well as to a data representation scheme efficient for architectural elements. The orchestration of the available and added tools allows the designer to “edit ideas” fast, keeping in mind that different design profiles require adaptive tools to support the varying methodologies. Until the moment that automated design will be both possible and desirable, machines can really shorten the time needed to visualize design ideas in the sense of a handy but non-decisive “calculator”. The discussion is built around illustrated examples from the implemented constraint based modeler.
Liebich, Thomas, and Inhan Kim. "ID'EST: an Integrated Modelling Framework for Management of Architectural Data." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 377-387. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. An Integrated Design Environment, IDE, facilitates cooperation between different disciplines. The paper investigates the data modelling framework, distinguishes between homogeneous and heterogeneous model worlds, discusses the formal mapping mechanisms available to establish a heterogeneous model world, and introduces a way to incorporate CAD systems into IDE A prototype IDE has been developed to prove these methods. The ID'EST prototype comprises its own core data model, different schemas to cope with several design views, and interfaces to incorporate external CAD systems. A prototype architectural data model has been defined, that includes core data models and aspect models for enclosure system and spatial system. Conventional CAD systems can be integrated into ID'EST, if they are able to map data from the aspect models into their own data structure, and vice versa, on a high semantic level. The inherent methods of classifying data in CAD, layers, macros and attached attributes, have been used to retrieve product data from CAD data files. The usability of conventional CAD systems as data instantiation tools for IDE has been proved and a path has been shown, by which existing tools can be integrated into new technology solutions.
Day, Alan, and Anthony Radford. "Imaging Change: the Computer City Model as a Laboratory for Urban Design Research." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 495-506. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. The use of an extensive and detailed computer model of the city of Bath, UK, as a laboratory for urban design research is discussed. Bath is a small predominantly Georgian historic city that has been designated a World Heritage Site. Examples are drawn from four kinds of work: the representation of Bathis historic growth (including unbuilt plans), the prediction of the urban design impact of individual development proposals, the study and development of explicit and implicit urban design “‡rulesi« for the form of existing and new development, and the impact on city form and appearance of policy proposals for urban sustainability.
Fujii, Haruyuki. "Incorporation of Natural Language Processing and a Generative System - an Interactive System that Constructs Topological Models from Spatial Descriptions in Natural Language." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 205-218. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. The natural language processing technique and the spatial reasoning technique are incorporated to create a computational model representing the process of updating and maintaining the knowledge about spatial relations. An algorithm for the spatial reasoning is proposed. An interactive system that understands sentences describing spatial relations is implemented. The system determines the reference of an anaphoric or deictic expression from the literal meaning of the input and the implicit meaning derived from the literal meaning. The consistency of the spatial relations is maintained. The correct topological representations of the spatial relations are generated from well-formed descriptions.
Maver, Thomas W., and Jelena Petric. "Information Technology in the Service of Sustainable Architecture and Urban Design." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 181-185. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. The quality of the built environment depends critically on the concept of sustainability and, in particular, on designs which are energy efficient and environmentally friendly. This paper gives an account of the successful application of computer-based simulations of the physical environment made available to architects through an Energy Design Advisory Service and used parametrically within a research project carried out jointly with a design and build company. It goes on to indicate how emerging multi-media technology can be used to provide an explanation, particularly to those who are technically unsophisticated, of the complexity of the way in which design decisions impact upon the energy efficiency and environmental friendliness of buildings.
Streilein, André, and Urs Hirschberg. "Integration of Digital Photogrammetry and CAAD: Constraint-Based Modelling and Semi-Automatic Measurement." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 35-47. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. The integration of state-of-the-art photogrammetric methods with the capabilities of CAAD has great potential for a variety of architectural applications. This paper describes the current status of an ongoing research project which aims to develop an easy to use tool for the photogrammetric generation of accurate, reliable and well structured 3D CAAD models of architectural objects. The system essentially consists of a standard CAAD package to which additional functionality was added and a Digital Photogrammetry Station (DIPS), providing semi-automatic computer measurement. The paper concentrates on two main issues in the design of the system: the data-integration and the CAAD-based 3D feature extraction. The data-integration is achieved using a knowledge-base. On top of an adequate data-transfer between the two systems this knowledge-base enables constraint-based modelling in CAAD and qualitatively controlled measurement in DIPS. In the section about Digital Photogrammetry we describe the 3D feature extraction procedure in detail and point out how the qualitative control can be achieved. A practical example is used to illustrate the performance of the system.
Boerner, Katy. "Interactive, Adaptive, Computer-aided Design." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 627-634. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. A general framework of a system that supports building engineering is presented. It accounts for a set of desirable features. Among them are (1) graphical man-machine interaction, (2) high interactivity to facilitate the acquisition of the huge amount of knowledge necessary to support design, (3) incremental knowledge acquisition as the basis for incrementally increasing system support, and (4) adaptability to the tasks which are tackled, the distinctive features of the domain, and user preferences. This paper provides the underlying assumptions and basic approaches of the modules constituting this framework and sketches the current implementation.
Lam, Khee-Poh, and Ardeshir Mahdavi. "Interface Design for Building Performance Modeling: Information Representation and Transformation." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 141-152. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. Building design is an integrative endeavor encompassing a multi-variate agenda that deals simultaneously with issues of architectural elements, their attributes (geometry, material properties, etc.), contextual variables (e.g., the uncontrollable external environmental conditions), and building performance variables (e.g., the potentially controllable indoor environment in terms of thermal, acoustical, visual requirements). Ultimately, an important objective of design is to create built environments that are responsive to occupant needs and building performance requirements. This paper will suggest a framework for developing appropriate representations of the complexities involved in building performance simulation. This is based on studies of the communication requirements pertaining to the informational content involved in the design process, and the interfacial relationships between various analytical components as well as between the user and the system. The applicability and effectiveness of this theoretical framework is demonstrated using the example of a fully operational hygro-thermal analysis program (META-4) developed by the authors.
Cheng, Nancy. "Linking the Virtual to Reality: CAD and Physical Modeling." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 303-311. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. Using both study models and digital models for schematic design allows us to take advantage of the strengths of each. Models constructed manually benefit from spontaneous juxtapositions and serendipitous interactions with light and gravity. Converting these models into the digital realm allows the computer to take over in areas that it does best: geometric transformation, rigorous analysis, elaboration and co-ordination of details and complexity. As a project develops, CAD/CAM methods can generate forms or components for verifying the virtual representation. The paradigm of porting data to appropriate software tools needs to be extended to exporting out of and into the physical realm. Connecting to models in real space allows us to use senses that are not yet completely addressed by digital models.
Belblidia, Salim, and Jean-Pierre Perrin. "Multi-Resolution Rendering of Architectural Models." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 231-239. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. This paper presents a method for representing complex models with various levels of detail. It is based on a geometric simplification algorithm and is applied to a scene described by a rooted-tree structure. In order to control the restuting image quality and the computation time, we propose two algorithms which allow to choose one representation of the scene.
Koutamanis, Alexander. "Multilevel Analysis of Fire Escape Routes in a Virtual Environment." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 331-342. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. The paper discusses the computer-aided analysis and evaluation of fire safety in relation to pedestrian circulation in buildings, i.e., fire escape routes. It describes an approach employing both detailed and abstract representations. The goals of the research include: (a) the development of a pyramidal structure that links design analyses at different levels of abstraction, (b) the evaluation of abstract, normative levels of the analysis (and though these of underlying legal and professional principles) using the results of detailed, accurate simulations, and (c) the development a reliable framework for testing human behaviour in fire hazard.
Morozumi, Mitsuo, Y. Murakami, and K. Iki. "Network Based Group Work CAD for UNIX Workstation." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 637-646. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. This paper discusses a model of collaborative process of architectural design and a network based group work CAD to support them. In the first part, the authors introduce a prototype system they developed to improve the environment for synchronous (interactive) design communication. Reviewing the process Of students'collaborative work that used the system, the authors point out that the frequent and timely exchange of CAD data with the system could not only stimulate designer's'imagination but accelerate the process of design development.
Junge, Richard, and Thomas Liebich. "New Generation CAD in an Integrated Design Environment: a Path towards Multi-Agent Collaboration." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 277-290. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. Product Modelling is considered to be an established concept not only for semantically based data exchange, but also for the specification of models, dealing with specific application requirements. The product model approach is regarded to be one step towards a new generation of Computer Aided Architectural Design, and to provide underlying means for enabling communication between different applications on a semantic level. After on overview about the background and the basis principles of product modelling, the authors discuss how product models can be used in commercial developments and in applied research projects.
Comair, Claude, and Atsuko Kaga. "Open Design Environment (ODE): Global Design Studio, Experiments in 3D City Simulation." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 113-124. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. This paper depicts the evolution of the research done at the Sasada Laboratory (Osaka University) in the fields of Architectural and Urban related Computer Simulations. This research led to the birth of what we call the “Open Development Environment” (ODE). ODE is presented in this paper through a simple example. In this example, four teams cooperate to produce the database for a simple twin tower complex. The database is kept very simple and the protocol of communication among the different teams is a new computer language called VU (Vee-You). VU was conceived and developed by Claude Comair for the specific purpose of defining architectural and urban objects.
Danahy, John, and Rodney Hoinkes. "Polytrim: Collaborative Setting for Environmental Design." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 647-658. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. This paper begins with a review of the structuring values and questions the Centre for Landscape Research (CLR) is interested in answering with its testbed software system Polytrim (and its derivatives, CLRview, CLRpaint, CLRmosaic available via anonymous ftp over the internet). The mid section of the paper serves as a guide to Polytrim's structure and implementation issues. Some of the most enduring and significant principles learned from Polytrim's use over the last six years of use in research, teaching and professional practice are introduced. The paper will end with an overview of characteristics that we believe our next generation of software should achieve. The CLR's digital library on the World-Wide Web provides an extensive Set of illustrations and detailed descriptions of the ideas and figures presented in this paper. Endnotes provide specific internet addresses for those that wish to read, see or use the system.
Liu, Yu-Tung. "Problem Decomposition on Restructuring Shapes in Terms of Emergent Subshapes." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 439-451. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. Previous connectionist studies on recognizing both explicit and implicit emergent subshapes have found that adequately organized connectionist networks are explored the problem to some degree, but these explorations are still limited. One of the major limitations is that the connectionist procedure work adequately only with closed figures, not with line drawings. This paper proposes a method which generalizes the combined procedure of connectionist networks and visual attentions in order to recognize line drawings or a primary shape consisting of single lines. Depending upon the computational flexibility, the mechanism of searchlight attention provides the connectionist networks with the potential to address practical problems of shapes including different scales, different proportions and even simply line drawings.
Ervin, Stephen, and Caroline Westort. "Procedural Terrain: a Virtual Bulldozer." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 257-265. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. We describe a system for procedural landform design, which uses the simple metaphor of a two-dimensional profile or “blade”, swept along a three-dimensional trajectory, or “path”, leaving behind a modeled surface in its wake. This “path” and “blade” system can mimic a common bulldozer ñ a simple rectangular blade moved along a path constrained to straight lined and large radius curves ñ as well as more fanciful landform designs ñ a blade of continually changing profile swept along an exponential spiral path, for instance. Our prototype “bulldozer” (implemented in AutoLisp) operates in a field of procedurally defined landform “primitives” to create a virtual surface, and uses a standard rectangular mesh for displaying the resultant landform.
Paoluzzi, Alberto, Valerio Pascucci, and Claudio Sansoni. "Prototype Shape Modeling with a Design Language." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 59-75. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. A programming approach to the rapid prototyping of architectural design is discussed in this paper. This is done with particular reference to the early steps of design development, where a number of preliminary design alternatives should be generated and evaluated. At this purpose we show that the generation of the 3D shape of each design alternative can be automated starting from the 2D layout of plans, sections and elevations. Each such geometric object can be symbolically defined with few lines of code using design variables and constraint operators. The 3D models generated by evaluation of program scripts may then be used as input to standard engineering evaluation methods concerning costs, heat exchanges and structural behaviour.
Wojtowicz, Jerzy, and Jeff Gilliard. "Purist Lessons: Constructing the Unrealized Villas of Le Corbusier." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 507-516. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. The villas of Le Corbusier from his Purist Corpus (1923-1929) are appropriate for reconstruction using computational tools for how their inherent logic is revealed by this process. Conceived but never built, the following seven design examples are inferred from incomplete and fragmentary original documentation and rebuilt as three-dimensional computer models. The analytic process of reconstruction depends upon available descriptive information, but more significant is the assumption of a design methodology based in geometry and elemental volumes. Understanding the basis of this method and its rules begins the systematic geometric reconstruction of the villas. The record of this process and the role of the machine in representing the object and its cognitive aspects is supported by the syntactic organization of images.
Fasse, Isabelle, and Jean Paul. "Realistic Rendering and Computer-Aided Lighting Design in Architecture." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 241-255. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. This paper presents an application of realistic rendering to computer aided design in architecture. The application concerns lighting design of buildings. We describe a library of algorithms which allows the simulation of the light sources emittance, surfaces reflectance/transmittance, and light propagation laws. Our general algorithm can compute a physically based simulation of illumination in complex geometric models and offers the capability to change the inputs without recalculating the entire global physical solution. Since the solution is view independent, hardware graphic accelerations are then used to generate the images. Two industrial experimentations have proved that our system can help designers to evaluate small iterations in the design, as well as compare global alternative solutions. Therefore, design quality improvement can be obtained while saving the costly full scale trials that are necessary when conventional methods are used.
Jo, Jun, and John S. Gero. "Representation and Use of Design Knowledge in Evolutionary Design." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 189-203. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. This paper describes an approach to knowledge representation for an evolutionary design process. The concept of design schemas is introduced to provide the representational framework for design knowledge. Two kinds of design schemas, the design rule schema and the design gene schema, are proposed to formulate design knowledge and interpret the knowledge into genetic codes. A design problem which is used to exemplify this approach is that of a large office layout planning problem.
Kim, Inhan, and Thomas Liebich. "Representations and Control of Design Information in an Integrated CAAD Environment." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 125-138. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. This paper investigates the mechanisms by which effective data communication between the various design stages and design actors may be facilitated in an Integrated Design Environment. The design team would then be able to cooperate efficiently and easily predict the performance of buildings, thus improving the quality of the design. Within the proposed prototype design environment, a core data model and a data management system have been implemented to connect all applications seamlessly. The core data model supports semantically meaningful descriptions of buildings. The data management system supports consistent and straightforward mechanisms for controlling the data representation through interconnected modules. An existing building is used to test the integration capability of the implemented system.###Product Modelling,.Object-Oriented Database System
Watanabe, Shun. "Representing Geometric Knowledge in Architectural Design." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 25-34. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. Geometric knowledge is essential to architectural design. A new method of geometric computing is proposed in this paper, in which geometric decision making in architectural design process can be represented naturally. I begin by discussing characteristics of geometry in the architectural design process and making clear the issues in the graphic libraries which have been used as a substitute in current CAD/CG systems. Then, I mention how to represent the spatial geometric primitives and operations from the view of knowledge in algebraic geometry. It is not sufficient for the architectural design process to represent geometric primitives and operations, and a model of geometric decision making is presented to manage the dynamism of the design process. I also explain the interaction between the presented geometric decision model and the architectural model which was proposed as the framework to develop our knowledge-based computer-aided architectural design system.
Schaaf, Joerg, and Angi Voss. "Retrieval of Similar Layouts in FABEL using AspecT." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 617-626. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. In the FABEL project several approaches have been developed and published for retrieving similar cases in the domain of architectural design. In this paper we want to focus on a short description and foremost on integration of these approaches. We will introduce the most important approaches. As a first step towards integration, we suggest decomposing them into their main parts: representation of cases, similarity function and retrieval component. Using the first two parts each approach in a new search algorithm operating on a generic data structure, we built a shell called AspecT for an easy integration. We are positive that one can never have fully considered all aspects of a design. Therefore, we describe an open framework to define new aspects and to apply them depending on the context. Unfortunately, openness brings some difficulties along with it. One can not predict the importance of an aspect, until the situation assessment of the query is completed. In other words, it is impossible to define a static distribution of aspect weights that fits for all purposes. As a consequence, one can not predefine a static structure on the case base to speed tip retrieval processes. Dealing with this problem, we developed and published a special search algorithm that passes through a multidimensional case base, finding the best fitting cases within a short amount of time. This algorithm does not need any predefined structure on the case base except aspect specific relations between cases. Creativity of inventing new aspects of cases should not be hindered but one can ask whether or not a certain aspect are worth being regarded in searching for useful cases. The shell AspecT offers a tool to evaluate aspects. At first, formal criteria influence the initial weights of aspects but later on, the contribution of an aspect to find user accepted cases, determines the survival fitness of an aspect. The rule for living or dying is simple. Seldom used aspects disappear, whereas others become stronger. A short description regarding this work is given in last part.
Kurmann, David. "Sculptor - a Tool for Intuitive Architectural Design." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 323-330. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. To manage the complexity in three-dimensional modelling and design in architecture, new approaches and methods are needed in computer based design tools. This paper identifies key factors in designing with computers and presents a computer program called'Sculptor'for intuitive and direct virtual modelling in architecture. The program focuses on new methods for design in the early stages such as conceptual and abstract designs for massing studies.
Do, Ellen Yi- Luen, and Mark Gross. "Shape Based Reminding as an Aid to Creative Design." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 79-89. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. This paper describes “Drawing Analogiesi, a shape based reminding program that uses freehand sketches to index and retrieve visual references for creative designing. Architects often employ reference images from books, magazines, and other visual collections to find forms they can adopt and adapt into their designs. We give examples of how designers use drawing and analogies and describe our approach to finding similar drawings. We argue that a graphical reminding scheme based on sketching can help designers find interesting references from various domains.
Kimura, T., K. Komatsu, and H. Watanabe. "Spatial Configuration Data Model for InterApplicational Collaborative Design." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 761-770. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. In this paper, a new design method is proposed which will enable the designer to predict and control the flow of pedestrians acting inside the designed building. Watanabe laboratory has been working on human behavioural research, and referring to the results of these studies, the authors pointing out the requirements for a tool supporting the new design method. Later on, a data model and a loosely integrated system intended to match the needs will be proposed.
Ager, Mark, and Brian Sinclair. "StereoCAD: Three Dimensional Representation." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 343-355. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. Concepts of stereoscopic vision have been around for more than two thousand years. Despite this long history, its application to the field to architecture and design seems relatively unexplored. Synthesis of two technologies, the stereoscope and the computer, was the focus of the present study. The goal of the research was to determine if computer-generated stereoscopic pairs hold value for architectural design. Using readily available computer technology (Apple Macintosh) the research team modelled and rendered an existing project to verify the degree of correlation between the physical construct, the computer 3D model and resultant correlation between the physical construct, the computer 3D model and resultant rendered stereo-paired representation. The experiments performed in this study have shown that producing stereo-paired images that highly correlate to reality is possible using technology that is readily available in the marketplace. Both the technology required to produce (i.e., personal computer and modelling/rendering software) and view (i.e., modified stereoscope) the images is unimposing. Both devices can easily fit in a studio or a boardroom and together can be utilized effectively to permit designers, clients and end-users to experience proposed spaces and projects. Furthermore, these technologies are familiar (clients and end-users have already experienced them in other applications and settings) and assume a fraction of the cost of more dynamic, immersive virtual reality systems. Working from this base, limitations of the process as well as future applications of computer-generated stereoscopic images are identified.
Harrison, Steve, and Scott Minneman. "Studying Collaborative Design to Build Design Tools." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 687-697. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. This paper outlines the way in which studying designers at work on real problems can inform the development of new computer aided architectural design systems. From a number of studies of designers in various domains, supporting the communications of designers is re-conceptualized into one of transmitting and storing process ephemera, rather than normalizing representations. After characterizing process ephemera, an example from one of the studies is described in detail. The paper concludes with implications for the design of collaborative CAAD systems.
Lucardie, L., J. de Gelder, and A. Huijsing. "The Advanced Knowledge Transfer System." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 163-171. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. The joint application of decision tables and Prolog seems to meet all the necessary requirements to be met by a language or modelling knowledge. Despite the high complementarity of decision tables and Prolog, it appears that they still yield a language with certain drawbacks. The Advanced Knowledge Transfer System (AKTS) has been developed to take advantage of this complementarity and simultaneously eliminate these drawbacks. To show the capabilities of AKT three knowledge-based systems in the building and construction sector are described which recently have been developed using AKTS.
Coates, Paul, and Miles Hall. "The Use of CAAD to Generate Urban Form." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 599-616. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. The paper describes a computer modelling process suitable for the generation of townscape elements using a statistical simulation based on aesthetic theory in mathematics. This approach is also used to analyse existing urban settings and thereby allow comparison with the generated output of the model indicating close agreement between the model and attractive historical townscape. This agreement depends closely upon the size of the unit chosen for measurement of the existing townscape thereby determining how the output from the model should be scaled for construction. An independent low-level designing ability appears inherent in the model and there is a discussion as to how this might be further developed.
Silva, Neander. "The Use of Hybrid Technology in the construction of an Evolving Knowledge-Base Design System." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 589-598. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. This paper focus in one vital aspect of design computing: the knowledge-base extension and maintenance. It describes a hybrid approach where a rudimentary evolving knowledge-base design system is proposed. It draws inspiration from three areas of artificial intelligence: knowledge-base systems, connectionist models, and case-based reasoning. Its main contributions are: an incremental self-adjustment able to minimise substantially the dependency on knowledge engineer intervention, and an interactive support to innovation.
Dave, Bharat. "Towards Distributed Computer-Aided Design Environments." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 659-666. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. Computing in architectural design has followed a number of different visions, hopes and research agendas. One of the dominant themes in design Computing seeks to support various activities of'individual'designers acting within a'personal'design realm. Parallel to this is another theme which seeks to blend computing aids into normal working environments of groups of designers. The recent interest in and resurgence of collaborative design tools are steps towards what we view as an emerging theme in design computing, namely distributed design environments. This paper describes experiments in collaborative design using computers, and their observations are used to suggest future directions for integrating computing and design in distributed environments.
Donath, Dirk, and Holger Regenbrecht. "VRAD (Virtual Reality Aided Design) in the Early Phases of the Architectural Design Process." In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 313-322. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. With this paper we are introducing a system which supports the early phases of the architectural design process. The system consists of two main components: the software solution “voxDesign” and the physical environment “platform”. Our aims are: to formulate, develop, and evaluate an architectural design system through the use of VR (virtual reality)-space. The exploration and development of design intentions is supplemented by a new method of three dimensional sketching.
Do, Ellen Yi- Luen. "What's in a Diagram that a Computer Should Understand?" In The Global Design Studio: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, 469-480. CAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. This paper reports on an experiment to test the feasibility of using a diagramming tool to access an architectural knowledge base. Our hypothesis is that designers only use a small set of conventional elements to make diagrams of architectural concepts. If this is true, then a scheme for retrieving information from computer knowledge bases using diagrams would work. Therefore we asked designers to make diagrams from texts, to interpret diagrams into texts, to pair diagrams and texts, and to comment on existing pairs from the case base. We found from the experiment that common features are shared between different designeris diagrams and texts.