Keywords Abstract
Zamanian, M.Kiumarse, and Steven Fenves. "A Framework for Modeling and Communicating Abstractions of Constructed Facilities." In CAAD Futures'91, 245-260. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. Management of information about constructed facilities in a computer-integrated environment is a challenging task because this information evolves from, and is viewed by many different disciplines throughout the facility's lifecycle. We present a general framework for modelling and reasoning about the components of a constructed facility at any desired level of abstraction, and communicating the information across disciplines at any stage in the lifecycle of the facility, as well as across stages. Our research has been motivated by an objective similar to that of STEP, which intends to establish an international protocol for the exchange of CAD data. The descriptive information about a facility is divided into two separate but linked groups: spatial and non-spatial attributes. The primary emphasis of this research is to provide a single, uniform representation and reasoning paradigm for dealing with the various spatial abstractions of the facility components regardless of their geometric dimensionalities.
Liggett, Robin, William Jepson, and Stephen Teodosiadis. "A Stratified Approach to the Integration of Low Cost Modelling with Advanced Technology Rendering." In CAAD Futures'91, 105-120. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. This paper presents a stratified approach to the integration of low cost modelling software (such as AutoCAD) with advanced workstation based rendering systems (such as Wavefront and the Silicon Graphics radiosity renderer). Powerful extensions to the basic modelling system are introduced which greatly reduce the required design effort, while significantly increasing the efficiency of the rendering software.
Shaviv, Edna, and Uriel Peleg. "An Integrated KB-CAAD System for the Design of Solar and Low Energy Buildings." In CAAD Futures'91, 465-484. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. A knowledge-based computer-aided architectural design system (KB-CAAD) for the design and evaluation of solar and low energy buildings is presented. The KB-CAAD system is based on the, integration of knowledge-based and procedural simulation methods with any available CAAD system for building representation. The knowledge base contains the heuristic rules for the design of passive solar buildings. Whenever possible, the knowledge base guides the designer through the decision making process. Yet, if the rules of thumb are not acceptable for the particular design problem, the KB-CAAD system guides the architect by using a procedural simulation model. We demonstrate by means of a case study, that not only does the KB-CAAD system lead to the design of better solar buildings, but that this process requires less time and labor than the process of building presentations by means of standard available CAAD systems.
Ozel, Filiz. "An Intelligent Simulation Approach in Simulating Dynamic Processes in Architectural Environments." In CAAD Futures'91, 177-190. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. The implications of object-oriented data models and rule-based reasoning systems is being researched in a wide variety of application areas ranging from VLSI circuit design (Afsannanesh et al 1990) to architectural environments (Coyne et al 1990). The potential of this approach in the development of discrete event simulations is also being scrutinized (Birtwistle et al 1986). Such computer models are usually called “expert simulationsi or “intelligent simulationsi. Typically rule-basing in such models allows the definition of intelligent-objects that can reason about the simulated dynamic processes through an inferencing system. The major advantage of this approach over traditional simulation languages is its ability to provide direct reference to real world objects and processes. The simulation of dynamic processes in architectural environments poses an additional Problem of resolving the interaction of architectural objects with other objects such as humans, water, smoke etc., depending on the process simulated. Object-oriented approach promises potential in solving this specific problem. The first part of this paper addresses expert simulation approach within the context of architectural settings, then the second part summarizes work done in the application of such an approach to an emergency egress simulation.
Meinecke, Christoph, and Raimar Scherer. "Architecture of a Knowledge-Based-System for the Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns." In CAAD Futures'91, 451-464. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. This paper presents the hypothesis part of an expert-system for detailing reinforced concrete structures. The structural members on which the work is focused are columns. To generate a hypothesis - that means to configurate the reinforcement for a given structural member with an almost fixed geometry - needs different kinds of information, i.e. knowledge and a strategy to apply this knowledge. Therefore a hybrid system is chosen which combines object oriented organization to represent the fixed knowledge and a rule base to model the strategy and the dynamic knowledge.
Kramel, Herbert, and Chen-Cheng Chen. "BAU: a Knowledge-Based System for the Investigation of a Basic Architectural Unit." In CAAD Futures'91, 329-346. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. The control of incremental complexities within an evolutionary design process has been a serious concern in both architectural education and practice. One method of examining this problem is to first define a “basic architectural unit” and a design environment which is composed of multiple units. Different levels of detail will be added to the unit as the design process continues. Secondly, a related computer program called BAU is introduced, which demonstrates that a computer is a meaningful tool for helping the architect to investigate the consequence of a design problem. Thirdly, both the domain expert's and the knowledge engineer's experiences during the development of BAU are described. Finally, the future direction of this research will be discussed.
Shih, Shen-Guan. "Case-based Representation and Adaptation in Design." In CAAD Futures'91, 301-312. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. By attempting to model the raw memory of experts, case-based reasoning is distinguished from traditional expert systems, which compile experts'knowledge into rules before new problems are given. A case-based reasoning system processes new problems with the most similar prior experiences available, and adapts the prior solutions to solve new problems. Case-based representation, of design knowledge utilizes the desirable features of the selected case as syntax rules to adapt the case to a new context. As a central issue of the paper, three types of adaptation aimed at topological modifications are described. The first type - casebased search - can be viewed as a localized search process. It follows the syntactical structure of the case to search for variations which provide the required functionality. Regarding the complexity of computation, it is recognized that when a context sensitive grammar is used to describe the desirable features, the search process become intractable. The second type of adaptation can be viewed as a process of self-organization, in which context-sensitive grammars play an essential role. Evaluations have to be simulated by local interaction among design primitives. The third type is called direct transduction. A case is translated directly to another structure according to its syntax by some translation functions. A direct transduction is not necessarily a composition of design operators and thus, a crosscontextual mapping is possible. As a perspective use of these adaptation methods, a CAD system which provides designers with the ability to modify the syntactical structure of a group of design elements, according to some concerned semantics, would support designers better than current CAD systems.
Kalay, Yehuda. "Computational Modalities of Evaluation and Prediction in Design." In CAAD Futures'91, 271-284. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. Evaluation can be defined as measuring the fit between achieved (or expected) performances and stated criteria. It is complicated by the multi-criteria and multi-level modalities of design, where an overall balance of performances is preferred to maximizing the performance of a few characteristics, and where evaluation must be performed at different design phases, each characterized by a different informational profile. Each design modality requires a different approach to evaluation: the Multi-Criteria modality requires evaluation of a proposed solution at a particular design phase from multiple points of view, while the Multi-Level modality requires the evaluation of a particular performance characteristic at several different design phases. This paper discusses the multi-modal nature of evaluation and prediction in design, exemplified by some of the approaches that have been proposed to support them computationally. It then argues for the need to develop an integrated, multi-modal design evaluation paradigm.
Schmitt, Gerhard, and Werner Oechslin. "Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures." In CAAD Futures'91, 16-Se. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. Computing has become a recognized art in the discipline of architecture, moving from the periphery towards the core of the design process. Research, education, and application are the critical areas that provide the development platforms for the future of design and computing. Seen in perspective, the term lineamenta describes related activities in historical architectural research. Research also shaped the origins and early directions of CAAD. The first applications emerged after computers and software were powerful enough to implement high level ideas. Meaningful education of a wider audience of designers only became possible after the results of research proved promising.
Streich, Bernd. "Creating Architecture Models by Computer-Aided Prototyping." In CAAD Futures'91, 535-548. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. In the future architects or urban planners will probably ask for architectural models based on CAD-generated model data, in addition to the usual graphical representation. A stereolithography process makes this possible. Currently, at the University of Kaiserslautern there is a research project investigating and evaluating possible applications for this technology in the fields of architecture and town planning. The first results of this research project are described in the following article.
Bridges, Alan. "DAC or Design and Computers." In CAAD Futures'91, 65-76. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. This paper describes the use of simple computer draughting techniques to explore elements of architectural design theory and suggests that this relatively neglected subject could be liberated by computing to once again play an important part in architectural design education.
Beyer, Horst, and André Streilein. "Data Generation for CAAD with Digital Photogrammetry." In CAAD Futures'91, 583-594. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. The rapid advances in sensor technology and processing hardware make the development of a Digital Photogrammetric System for Architectural Photogrammetry possible. This system is able to acquire images with sufficient resolution for Architectural Photogrammetry. Geometric and topologic information for a CAAD-System can be derived with manual and/or semi-automated methods. This paper describes the current status of such a system which is under development at the Institute of Geodesy and Photogrammetry in cooperation with the Chair of Architecture and CAAD, both at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich.
Madrazo, Leandro. "Design Education with Computers." In CAAD Futures'91, 77-96. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. This paper summarizes a teaching project carried out by the CAAD Chair in the Department of Architecture at the ETH in Zürich during the last one and a half years. The approach adopted for the design education with computers focuses on two major issues: design representations and design strategies. The alternative representations that computers can provide are discussed in the first part of the paper. The core of this first part is a detailed description of a course in which hierarchical structures were used to teach some of the alternative design representations that are unique to computers. The second part of the paper proposes that understanding design as the interplay of systems is a design strategy which can lead to an effective integration of computers in design. A brief description of the content of another course developed around this concept is included.
Milne, Murray. "Design Tools: Future Design Environments for Visualizing Building Performance." In CAAD Futures'91, 485-496. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. In the future of Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD), architects clearly need more than just computer aided design and drafting systems (CAD). Unquestionably CAD systems continue to become increasingly powerful, but there is more to designing a good building than its three-dimensional existence, especially in the eyes of all the non-architects of the world: users, owners, contractors, regulators, environmentalists. The ultimate measure of a building's quality has something to do with how well it behaves over time. Predictions about its performance have many different dimensions, how much it costs to build, to operate, and to demolish, how comfortable it is, how effectively people can perform their functions in it, how much energy it uses or wastes. Every year dozens of building performance simulation programs are being written that can predict performance over time along any of these dimensions. That is why the need for both CAD systems and performance predictors can be taken for granted, and why instead it may be more interesting to speculate about the need for'design tools'. A design tool can be defined as a piece of software that is easy and natural for architects to use, that easily accommodates three-dimensional representations of the building, and that-predicts something useful about a building's performance. There are at least five different components of design tools that will be needed for the design environment of the future.
Knight, Terry. "Designing with Grammars." In CAAD Futures'91, 33-48. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. Shape grammars that generate languages of designs have been used widely over the past several years to describe and understand a diversity of architectural and other styles of designs. These grammars have been developed to address two fundamental concerns in design: 1) the analysis of contemporary or historic styles of designs, and 2) the synthesis or creation of completely new and original styles of designs. Most applications of shape grammars so far have been concerned with analysis. The creative use of shape grammars - the use of grammars to invent new architectural or other designs - has not been exploited nearly as well. A new series of exercises for designing with shape grammars, and also with color grammars, is sketched informally here. These exercises are currently being used in classes in the Architecture and Urban Design Program at U.C.L.A.
Johnson, Robert. "ESP - an Expert System for Property Revitalization." In CAAD Futures'91, 425-442. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. This paper reports on the development of a knowledge based system that can help to assess the reuse potential of idle industrial property. It does not take the place of the architect or engineer, but allows for strategic design factors to be considered in very early and important property redesign and revitalization decisions. The idea is predicated on the judgment that there is a relatively systematic approach to evaluating the reuse potential of vacant property. A frame based approach together with a series of “if-then” rules are used to represent the knowledge domain and procedures required to perform a feasibility analysis. Rules for assessing the impact of the regional economy, industrial market trends, building configuration, building design strategies and the impact of building codes are included in this manner. A prototype of this system system has been implemented on both an Apple Macintosh computer using AAIS Prolog and an IBM AT compatible using Arity/Prolog.
Eastman, Charles, and Jurg Lang. "Experiments in Architectural Design Development Using CAD." In CAAD Futures'91, 49-64. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. The need to explore development techniques in computer-based design is reviewed. Some premises are given for design development using computers, including integrating multiple representations, the use of object-based modelling and the importance of visual analysis and 3-D modelling. We then present techniques used in a UCLA design studio that explored methods of computer-based design development based on these premises. The two main methods used were hierarchical object structures and multi-representational coordination. They were applied using conventional CAD systems. Some lessons learned from this class are reviewed.
Van Bakergem, Davis, and Gen Obata. "Free Hand Plotting - is It Live or is It Digital?" In CAAD Futures'91, 567-582. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. Free hand plotting is a technique for creating the illusion of hand drawn sketches by means of a CAD system. Utilizing a single pen plotter and altering the holding device, squiggly line drawings can be produced which have a hand made quality and character. In addition, a software technique using postscript can be used to create images that appear to be hand drawn. This paper describes and illustrates both the pen and software techniques for creating these squiggly line drawings. It further proposes several explanations for the unusual viewer response and suggests potential applications.
Sumption, Brian, Bruce Haglund, and Alexander Zabrodsky. "Imagining Light: a Visualization of Daylighting Data." In CAAD Futures'91, 97-104. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. The task of designing effective lighting for buildings requires both artistic and technical competence. In this way it is archetypical of the discipline of architectural design. The interaction of buildings with solar lighting is complex and ever-changing. Added complexity comes with the use of electric lights and their daylight-sensitive control systems. State-of-the-art daylight prediction tools most often provide precision data that is in obscure numerical formats hindering the communication and perception of information hidden within. We are exploring the use of scientific visualization to transform incomprehensible tables of data into images that visually oriented designers will find more accessible. By representing lighting data and their interactions with the environment visually, students and design professionals may be able to “imagine the lighti in ways that will help them understand and solve complex lighting design problems.
Mitchell, William, R.S. Liggett, S.N. Pollalis, and M. Tan. "Integrating Shape Grammars and Design Analysis." In CAAD Futures'91, 17-32. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. This paper demonstrates how design problems can be solved by combining a shape grammar to generate alternatives with standard engineering analysis procedures to test them. It provides a detailed worked example, and discusses practical applications of the idea in design teaching.
Carrara, Gianfranco, Yehuda Kalay, and Gabriele Novembri. "Intelligent Systems for Supporting Architectural Design." In CAAD Futures'91, 191-202. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. Design can be considered a process leading to the definition of a physical form that achieves a certain predefined set of objectives. The process comprises three distinct operations: (1) definition of the desired set of performance criteria (design goals), (2) production of alternative design solutions, (3) evaluation of the expected performances of alternative design solutions, and comparing them to predefined criteria. Difficulties arise in performing each one of the three operations, as well as in combining them into a purposeful, unified process. First, it is difficult to define the desired performance criteria prior to and independently of, the search for an acceptable solution that achieves them, since many aspects of the desired criteria can only be discovered through the search for an acceptable solution. Furthermore, the search for such a solution may well alter the definition of these criteria, as new criteria and incompatibilities between existing criteria are discovered. Second the generation of a design solution is a task demanding creativity, judgement, and experience, all three of which are difficult to define, teach, and otherwise capture in some explicit manner. Third, it is difficult to evaluate the expected performances of alternative design solutions and to compare them to the predefined criteria. Design parameters interact with each other in complex ways, which cause effects and side effects. Predicting the expected performances of even primary effects involves extrapolating non-physical characteristics from the proposed solution's physical organization, a process which relies on a host of assumptions (physical, sociological, psychological, etc.) and hence is seldom a reliable measure. A fourth problem arises from the need to coordinate the three operations in an iterative process that will converge on an acceptable design solution in reasonable time. Computational techniques that were developed in the past to assist designers in performing the above mentioned activities have shown limitations and proved inadequate to a large degree. In this paper we discuss the work in progress aimed at developing an intelligent support system for building and architectural design, which will be able to play a decisive role in the definition, evaluation and putting into effect of the design choices.
Turner, R., F. Balaguer, E. Gobbetti, and D. Thalmann. "Interactive Scene Walkthrough Using a Physically-Based Virtual Camera." In CAAD Futures'91, 511-520. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. One of the most powerful results of recent advances in graphics hardware is the ability of a computer user to interactively explore a virtual building or landscape. The newest threedimensional input devices, together with high speed 3D graphics workstations, make it possible to view and move through a 3D scene by interactively controlling the motion of a virtual camera. In this paper, we describe how natural and intuitive control of building walkthrough can be achieved by using a physically-based model of the virtual camera's behaviour. Using the laws of classical mechanics to create an abstract physical model of the camera, we then simulate the virtual camera motion in real time in response toforce data from the various 3D input devices (e.g. the Spaceball and Polhemus 3Space Digitizer). The resulting interactive behaviour of the model is determined by several physical parameters such as mass, moment of inertia, and various friction coefficients which can all be varied interactively, and by constraints on the camera's degrees of freedom. This allows us to explore a continuous range of physically-based metaphors for controlling the camera motion. We present the results of experiments using several of these metaphors for virtual camera motion and describe the effects of the various physical parameters.
Ervin, Stephen. "Intra-Medium and Inter-Media Constraints." In CAAD Futures'91, 365-380. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. Designers work with multiple representations in a variety of media to express and explore different kinds of knowledge. The advantages of multi-media in design are well- known, and exemplified by the current interest in'hyper-media'approaches to knowledge exploration. A principal activity in working between views in one medium (e.g. plan, section and perspective drawings), or between different representations (diagrams, maps, graphs, pictures, e.g.) is extrapolating decisions made in one view or medium over to others, so that some consistency is maintained, and implications can be explored. The former kind of consistency maintenance (intra-medium) is beginning to be well understood techniques for constraint expression., satisfaction and propagation are starting to appear in'smart CAD'systems. The latter kind of consistency maintenance inter-media.) is different, less well understood, and will require new mechanisms for constraint management and exploration. Experiments, hypotheses, and solutions in this direction will be central to any effort that seeks to explain, emulate or assist the integrative, synthetic reasoning that characterizes environmental design and planning. This paper examines some of the characteristics and advantages of intra and inter-media constraint exploration, describes a prototype “designers workstationi and some experiments in the context of landscape planning and design, and lays out some directions for development of these ideas in future computer aided design systems.
Durisch, Peter, and Edoardo Anderheggen. "Leaving the Planar Universe." In CAAD Futures'91, 521-534. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. A computer program is presented which generates realistic images of planned buildings embedded in their future environment through photomontage. The planar universe of conventional photomontaging is extended to three dimensions. During an interactive preprocessing step, a three- dimensional model of the building's environment is created: Geometrical data is retrieved photogrammetrically from a number of site photographs. Atmospheric parameters and the relative weights of the components of natural daylight are also retrieved from the photographs. The final image, combining the artificial model of the building and the photographs of its surroundings, is rendered by an extended ray-tracing algorithm in three-dimensional object space.
Gero, John S., and Mary Lou Maher. "Mutation and Analogy to Support Creativity in Computer-Aided Design." In CAAD Futures'91, 261-270. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. Creative processes in computer-aided design are identified as those that introduce new design variables into the design process. This paper describes the ideas behind the development of a computational model of creative processes in design. This computational model is founded on the use of mutation and analogy processes working in tandem using design prototypes as the representation scheme
Bijl, Aart. "On Knowing - Feeling and Expression." In CAAD Futures'91. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. The basic assumptions for CAD, and for any use of computers, are re-examined. They refer to how we know things, how we think of knowledge being represented, and the impact of representation techniques on evolution of knowledge. Japan offers stimulating clues on how we might regard the usefulness of computers, and these are explained. Evocative illustrations are presented, to show a direction for future developments.
McLaughlin, Sally. "Reading Architectural Plans: a Computable Model." In CAAD Futures'91, 347-364. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. A fundamental aspect of the expertise of the architectural designer is the ability to assess the quality of existing and developing proposals from schematic representations such as plans, elevations and sections. In this paper I present a computable model of those aspects of the evaluation of architectural floor plans that I believe to be amenable to rule-like formulation. The objective behind the development of this model is twofold: 1) to articulate a belief about the role of simple symbolic representations in the task of evaluation, a task which relies primarily on uniquely human capabilities, and 2) to explore the possible uses of such representations in the development of design expertise. // Input to the model consists of a specification of a design proposal in terms of walls, doors, windows, openings and spaces together with a specification of the context in which the proposal has been developed. Information about context is used to retrieve the goal packages relevant to the evaluation of the proposal. The goal packages encode information about requirements such as circulation, visual privacy and thermal performance. Generic associations between aspects of a plan and individual goals are used to establish if and how each of the goals have been achieved in the given proposal. These associations formalize relationships between aspects of the topology of the artefact, such as the existence of a door between two rooms, and a goal, in this case the goal of achieving circulation between those two rooms. Output from the model consists of both a graphic representation of the way in which goals are achieved and a list of those goals that have not been achieved. The list of goals not achieved provides a means of accessing appropriate design recommendations. What the model provides is essentially a computational tool for exploring the value judgements made in a particular proposal given a set of predefined requirements such as those to be found in design recommendation literature.
White, Richard. "Recognizing Structures: Some Problems in Reasoning with Drawings." In CAAD Futures'91, 381-394. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. This paper describes work on our current project aimed at developing a generalized system for performing automated reasoning tasks in various domains, using information extracted from drawings. It briefly describes the MOLE representation system, a frame-like formalism which can be used to build both description and inheritance hierarchies. The use of MOLE for representing graphical objects as well as the objects they represent is also described.The paper goes on to discuss some of the problems faced in the development of systems which can perform reasoning tasks on such representations. In particular, problems arising from the need to map the structures required by the application domain to the drawing description are outlined and a model which adapts existing Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to solve these problems is proposed.
Oxman, Rivka, and Robert Oxman. "Refinement and Adaptation: Two Paradigms of Form Generation in CAAD." In CAAD Futures'91, 313-328. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. Within a transformational paradigm of form generation, refinement and adaptation are presented as two distinct concepts which can provide formalisms for encoding design knowledge. Refinement and adaptation are treated as syntactical models of form generation. Computational formal analysis is proposed as a method for the study and modelling of refinement and adaptation in design. Employing the analytical method we demonstrate that formal transformations are dependent upon their membership in classes of architectural designs. Computational issues inform generation through refinement and adaptation are identified.
Paoluzzi, Alberto, and Claudio Sansoni. "Solid Modeling of Architectural Design with PLASM Language." In CAAD Futures'91, 203-224. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. PLASM (Programming LAnguage for Solid Modelling) is a prototype, high level, user oriented, functional design language currently being developed at the University of Rome “La Sapienza”. A PLASM “program” is the symbolic definition of a complex of variational polyhedra depending on some unbound variable, and therefore allows for the description of a whole set of geometric solutions to a design problem. In our view the language should be used, possibly with the assistance of a graphical user interface, both in the first steps of the design process as well in the detailed design. In the paper the guide-lines are shown for the preliminary definition of the syntax of the language. The paper also contains the definition of some new and very powerful solid operators.
Danahy, John. "The Computer-Aided Studio Critic: Gaining Control of What We Look At." In CAAD Futures'91, 121-138. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. This paper presents an approach to teaching that put computer resources in the hands of a studio instructor. A design professor or tutor that is expert in the use of the tool. The studio master used the computer to “study” the propositions of students. This was done as an extension of his current teaching practice. The critic used the computer as another tool additional to discussion, pencil and paper, and working models. Computer walk-throughs and visual representations of concepts were used by the professor to convey his interpretation of the work to students. In this model the students did not have to use the computer. The model recognized the years of experience and expensive equipment required to create an adequate representation of a design scheme and view it in the very short time period available during desk critiques. This approach for studio teaching has not been identified and discussed in any depth in recent literature on CAD studio teaching. The emphasis of papers presented at CAD conferences has been on how to provide students with better software and skills needed to make effective use of computers in their studio work.
De Vries, Mark, and Harry Wagter. "The First CAAD Package (sketch based cad)." In CAAD Futures'91, 497-510. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. In this paper a theory will be presented that can be used to develop a new type of CAD program. It supports architectural design and can be applied to the earliest stages of the design process. The theory is based on architectural knowledge and describes how sketched input can be used for CAAD programs. The theoretical backgrounds will be explained briefly.
Coyne, Richard. "The Impact of Computer Use on Design Practice." In CAAD Futures'91, 413-424. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. This paper presents a critical review of the impact of computing on design practice. It presents an overview of - the impact as it relates to the intrusion of a highly technical resources into organizations. This involves a discussion of the changing nature of computing, the implications of training, management, and perceptions about the compatibility of computers and design. This leads to a consideration of less direct implications in terms of power structures, how computers influence the way we carry out intellectual tasks, the emphasis instilled by computers on form in design, and the influence of computers on attitudes of self worth.
Ozel, Filiz. "The Implications of Expert Simulation Approach to the Simulation of Dynamic Process in Architectural Environments." In CAAD Futures'91. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992.

The simulation of dynamic process in architectural environments poses the problem of resolving the interaction of architectural objects with other objects such as humans, water, smoke etc., depending on the process simulated. Objects- oriented approach promises potential in solving this problem. The first part of this paper addresses expert simulation approach within the context of discrete events in architectural settings, then the second part summarizes work done in the application of such an approach to an emergency egress simulation

Alkhoven, Patricia. "The Reconstruction of the Past: the Application of New Techniques for Visualization and Research in Architectural History." In CAAD Futures'91, 549-566. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. This paper focuses on the visualization of historical architecture. The application of new Computer-Aided- Architectural-Design techniques for visualization on micro computers provides a technique for reconstructing and analyzing architectural objects from the past. The pilot project describes a case study in which the historical transformation of a town will be analyzed by using three- dimensional CAD models in combination with bitmap textures. The transformation of the historic town will be visualized in a space-time computer model in which bitmap textures enable us to display complex and relatively large architectural objects in detail. This three-dimensional descriptive model allows us to survey and analyze the history of architecture in its reconstructed context. It also provides a medium for researching the dynamics of urban management, since new combinations and arrangements with the individual architectural objects can be created. In this way, a new synthesis of the graphic material can reveal typologies and the architectural ordering system of a town.
Eastman, Charles. "Use of Data Modeling in the Conceptual Structuring of Design Problems." In CAAD Futures'91, 225-244. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. An approach is presented for defining the information needed or used in a design task, based on data modelling techniques. Called EDM, it allows representation of the information complexity imposed both from the performances or technologies involved as well as imposed criteria, such as aesthetic intentions. Here, EDM is applied to the design of chairs, a design domain with highly diverse technologies and information structures. The relation is shown between the information considered and the class of designs possible. Also shown is the complexity of different design structures and the implication of information structures for conventional and creative design.
Zreik, Khaldoun. "What Could Artificial Intelligence Know about the Knowledge Involved in the Design Process?" In CAAD Futures'91, 395-410. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. The nature of the knowledge involved in the design process is very specific and it is incompletely known. Its control becomes very complicated owing to the large number of dynamic parameters and functions which define the relationships between one another. So we consider two relevant facts: 1.) all knowledge involved in the design process could not have been foreseen, 2.) the help of computer technology in this domain is badly oriented. Two major questions will be posed here: a. what kind of design knowledge do designers explicitly master? b. and which parts of it can computer technology represent today? // This paper aims to build a simple panorama of the knowledge involved in the architectural design process. Actors, resources and corresponding classifications of this knowledge and also its dynamic distribution will be presented. This paper also throws light upon how important are artificial intelligence sciences and tools for the improvement of the design process computability.
Rosenman, Michael, John S. Gero, and Robert Oxman. "What's in a Case: the Use of Case Bases, Knowledge Bases, and Databases in Design." In CAAD Futures'91, 285-300. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. Design experience can be classified into generalized or compiled knowledge and specific knowledge. Generalized design knowledge has been introduced into computer-aided design in the form of rules, frames and more recently, design prototypes. Case-based reasoning is a well-defined paradigm in artificial intelligence and has obvious scope for its use in design reasoning. This paper explores case-based reasoning in design and argues for the integration of both specific and generalized design knowledge. This integration allows for characterizing what is in a case by drawing upon the schema developed for design prototypes. Finally, the paper argues that the addition of precedent knowledge, in the form of case bases, to knowledge bases and CAD databases will further extend the experience-based capabilities of design systems.
Ayrle, Hartmut. "XNET2 - Methodical Design of Local Area Networks in Buildings - an Application of the A4 Intelligent Design Tool." In CAAD Futures'91, 443-450. CAAD Futures. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1992. XNET2 is a prototype program, that helps network planners to design Ethernet-conform data-networks for sites and buildings. It is implemented as an example application of the ARMILLA4 Intelligent Design Tool under Knowledge Craft. It is based on a knowledge acquisition phase with experts from DECsite, the network-branch of DEC. The ARMILLA Design Tool is developed on the basis of Fritz Haller's ARMILLA'a set of geometrical and operational rules for the integration of technical ductwork into a building's construction.