Keywords Abstract
De Vries, Mark, and Harry Wagter. "A CAAD Model for Use in Early Design Phases." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 215-228. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. In this paper we present a model for handling design information in the early design phases. This model can be used for representing both vague and exact defined information. The first part describes the difficulties involved in using CAD in the architectural design process and the characteristics of that process. Then we give a description of the design information and its representation during the design process. Next an overview of the architectural design process describes how design information is added and manipulated during the design process in order to achieve an effective result. Finally, we include a brief description of a simple prototype program to illustrate how this theory acts in practice.
Gero, John S.. "A Locus for Knowledge-Based Systems in CAAD Education." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 49-60. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. This paper outlines a possible locus for knowledge-based systems in computer-aided architectural design education. It commences with a review of computer-aided architectural design and knowledge-based systems. It then proposes their use at various stages in CAAD education.
Morozumi, Mitsuo, H. Nakamura, and Y. Kijima. "A Primitive-Instancing Interactive 3-D Modeling System for Spatial Design Studies." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 457-468. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. The authors have developed a basic, interactive, primitive-instancing 3-D modelling system (CAADF), which is based on a high-speed 3-D color graphic workstation, and have tested its potential ability to support spatial design studies in an architectural design studio. After- a review of work performed by a student with the system, this paper concludes that this system provides an attractive environment for spatial design studies which conventional CAD systems have not achieved. The interactive process of 3-D modelling in perspective or isometric view images and the dynamic viewing utility are the most successful features of the system. In contrast to those advantages, the resolution of color graphic display is a limitation of the system. The authors conclude that if sufficiently many appropriate 3-D geometric primitives are supported by a CAD system, a primitive instancing method can significantly reduce the work entailed in object modelling.
Mitchell, William. "Afterword: the Design Studio of the Future." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 479-494. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. Things began to change in the mid-1940s, though architects hardly noticed. Scientists and engineers started to speculate that the new electronic technologies which had emerged in the wartime years would profoundly change the character of intellectual work. Vannevar Bush (1945) imagined a device called the Memex, which would function as a personal information server. By the 1950s computers were becoming a commercial reality, and in 1956 Fortune magazine published a remarkably prescient depiction of a machine that we can now recognize as a computer-aided design workstation complete with graphic input devices and a multi-window display showing different views of a three-dimensional object. These wonderful machines were never built, much less put to any practical use, but they established a powerful idea.
Oxman, Rivka. "Architectural Knowledge Structures as "Design Shells": a Knowledge-Based View of Design and CAAD Education." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 187-199. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. The concept of a knowledge based design shell is proposed as a basis for teaching design. The significance of the concept of design shell is discussed with respect to formalization, implementation, application and operation. GPRS-a generative prototype refinement design shell-is proposed, defined and elaborated. A plan type is introduced as one significant kind of structure of knowledge in architectural design is introduced. A method for representing syntactic and the semantic content to be used in design refinement is proposed. The method exploits the characteristics of both rules and frames, and integrates them in a prototype-based design system. This is demonstrated in a system called PRODS. Finally, the significance of such an approach in teaching is discussed.
Van Zutphen, Rob. "CALinCAD: Computer-Aided Learning in CAAD." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 273-282. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. Calibre, Eindhoven University of Technology, ABACUS, University of Strathclyde, and LEMA, University of Liege, investigate whether it is possible to teach the architectural design process, using different CAAD techniques in a more integrated way. The research is funded by the EC in the European Comett project.
Mark, Earl. "Case Studies in Moviemaking and Computer-Aided Design." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 393-412. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. A movie which is developed from site location video, sync sound, and computer graphics animation can provide a highly convincing simulation of reality. A movie that conveys a sense of the space, materials and juxtaposition of objects of a proposed architectural design provides a special kind of realism, where the representation may be of a proposed building that exists only within the mind of an architect. For an experienced architect, however, the movie may not provide a good surrogate experience for what it feels like to actually be within the architectural space. In these case studies, a few projects that combine moviemaking and computer-aided design technologies are examined. These projects were completed using a combination of resources at the MIT School of Architecture and Planning and the Harvard Graduate School of Design. The integrated use of these media is presented as conceptualized with the Electronic Design Studio, a research project that has been supported over the past five years by Project Athena at MIT. The impact of movies and computer-aided design on the perception of architectural space is also reported- based on a pilot study of twenty architectural students.
Schmitt, Gerhard. "Classes of Design-Classes of Tools." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 77-90. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. It is unrealistic to expect one computer-aided design tool to sufficiently support any one given design process. Yet it is necessary to define new CAD programs that give semantic support in design. To this end, the paper first differentiates phases and classes of design and then attempts to establish relations between the defined classes and appropriate computer-aided design tools. In three main sections it describes (i) routine, innovative and creative design, (ii) a set of corresponding prototype design tools, and (iii) two examples of routine and innovative design which use these tools. The purpose of the paper is to make a contribution to the definition of domain specific aspects of CAD and to propose a mapping between processes and tools.
Norman, Richard. "Color Contrast and CAAD: the Seven Color Contrasts of Johannes Itten." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 469-478. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. Computer-aided architectural design is design with color - the monitor of a CAAD system is a display of color, a place where images are produced by color manipulation. The success of these images can be judged by the ability of the colors selected to communicate graphic ideas and to convey graphic information. Color as a visual phenomena intrigued the impressionist painters at the end of the nineteenth century, it was the focus of much attention at the Bauhaus in Weimar Germany. When Johannes Itten was appointed as a Master of Form at the Bauhaus in 1919, he developed “an aesthetic color theory originating in the experience and intuition of a painteri. In his definitive work, Itten postulates seven ways to communicate visual information with color. “Each is unique in character and artistic value, in visual, expressive and symbolic effect, and together they constitute the fundamental resource of color designi. These seven contrasts provide a lexicon of the methods by which computer images convey graphic information. The colors which form a computer image can be simply manipulated to illustrate these contrasts, today's computers make color manipulation a very simple matter. This paper is composed of short essays about each of these contrasts and how they can guide the selection of appropriate colors to convey visual intent on a picture tube. Considered together the contrasts of Itten provide a fundamental resource for electronic graphic communication.
Akin, Ömer. "Computational Design Instruction: Toward a Pedagogy." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 302-316. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. The computer offers enormous potential both in and out of the classroom that is realized only in limited ways through the applications available to us today. In the early days of the computer it was generally argued that it would replace the architect. When this idea became obsolete, the prevailing opinion of proponents and opponents alike shifted to the notion of the computer as merely adding to present design capabilities. This idea is so ingrained in our thinking that we still speak of “aidingi design with computers. It is clear to those who grasp the real potential of this still new technology - as in the case of many other major technological innovations - that it continues to change the way we design, rather than to merely augment or replace human designers. In the classroom the computer has the potential to radically change three fundamental ingredients: student, instruction, and instructor. It is obvious that changes of this kind spell out a commensurate change in design pedagogy. If the computer is going to be more than a passive instrument in the design studio, then design pedagogy will have to be changed, fundamentally. While the practice of computing in the studio continues to be a significant I aspect of architectural education, articulation of viable pedagogy for use in the design studio is truly rare. In this paper the question of pedagogy in the CAD studio will be considered first. Then one particular design studio taught during Fall 1988 at Carnegie Mellon University will be presented. Finally, we shall return to issues of change in the student, instruction, and instructor, as highlighted by this particular experience.
Cigolle, Mark, and Kim Coleman. "Computer Integrated Design: Transformation as Process." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 333-346. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. To bring together poetry, magic and science, to explore beyond preconceptions, to invent spaces and forms which re-form and inform man's experience, these are the possibilities of architecture. Computer integrated design offers a means for extending the search, one which integrates both conceptual and perceptual issues in the making of architecture. The computer may assist in generating constructs which would not have been created by conventional methods. The application of computer techniques to design has to date been focused primarily on production aspects, an area which is already highly organizable and communicable. In conceptual and perceptual aspects of design, computer techniques remain underdeveloped. Since the impetus for- the development of computer applications has come from the immediate economics of practice rather than a theoretically based strategy, computer-aided design is currently biased toward the replication of conventional techniques rather than the exploration of new potentials. Over the last two years we have been involved in experimentation with methodologies which engage the computer in formative explorations of the design idea. Work produced from investigations by 4th and 5th year undergraduate students in computer integrated design studios that we have been teaching at the University of Southern California demonstrates the potential for the use of the computer as a principal tool in the exploration of syntax and perception, space and program. The challenge is to approach the making of architecture as an innovative act, one which does not rely on preconceived notions of design.
Dave, Bharat, and Robert F. Woodbury. "Computer Modeling: a First Course in Design Computing." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 61-76. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990.

Computation in design has long been a focus in our department. In recent years our faculty has paid particular attention to the use of computation in professional architectural education. The result is a shared vision of computers in the curriculum [Woodbury 1985] and a set of courses, some with considerable historyland others just now being initiated. We (Dave and Woodbury) have jointly developed and at various times over the last seven years have taught Computer Modelling, the most introductory of these courses. This is a required course for all the incoming freshmen students in the department. In this paper we describe Computer Modelling: its context, the issues and topics it addresses, the tasks it requires of students, and the questions and opportunities that it raises. Computer Modelling is a course about concepts, about ways of explicitly understanding design and its relation to computation. Procedural skills and algorithmic problem solving techniques are given only secondary emphasis. In essential terms, the course is about models, of design processes, of designed objects, of computation and of computational design. Its lessons are intended to communicate a structure of such models to students and through this structure to demonstrate a relationship between computation and design. It is hoped that this structure can be used as a framework, around which students can continue to develop an understanding of computers in design.

Ervin, Stephen. "Designing with Diagrams: a Role for Computing in Design Education and Exploration." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 107-122. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. Environmental designers, design educators and design students using computers are a constituency with a set of requirements for database structure and flexibility, for knowledge representation and inference mechanisms, and for both graphical and non-graphical operations, that are now articulatable and to-date largely unmet. This is especially so in the area called'preliminary'or'schematic'design, where our requirements are related to, but different from, those of our colleagues in mechanical and electrical engineering, whose needs have dominated the notable developments in this area. One manifestation of these needs is in the peculiar form of graphics called diagrams, and the ways in which environmental designers (architects, landscape architects., urban designers) use them. Our diagrams are both similar to and different from structural, circuit, or logical diagrams in important ways. These similarities and differences yield basic insights into designing and design knowledge, and provide guidance for some necessary steps in the development of the next generation of CAD systems. Diagrams as a form of knowledge representation have received little scrutiny in the literature of graphic representation and computer graphics. In the following sections I present an overview of the theoretical basis for distinguishing and using diagrams, examine some of the computational requirements for a system of computer-aided diagramming, describe a prototype implementation called CBD (Constraint Based Diagrammer) and illustrate one example of its use, and speculate on the implications and potential applications of these ideas in computer-aided design education.
Miller, Frank. "Form Processing Workshop: Architectural Design and Solid Modeling at MIT." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 441-455. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. Computing impacts the preliminary architectural design process as a tool for observation and analysis, as a formal prototyping tool, and as a vehicle to generate variations of objects and assemblies. Through the use of both traditional and computing tools, the Form Processing Workshop examines the relationship between design decisions and design tools. The Workshop utilizes several software applications, with emphasis on the use of a solid modeler. This curriculum was developed with the support of MIT's Project Athena.
Vanier, Dana. "Hypertext: a Computer Tool to Assist Building Design." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 283-300. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. This paper shows how hypertext, an electronic information transfer medium, can assist accessing the large volumes of architectural and engineering technical information needed in decision-making phase of building design. A technical paper on architectural details serves as a model for demonstrating the capabilities of hypertext. This example consists mostly of graphics and illustrates how the hypertext medium could act as an information source for designers in the construction industry. The objectives of the paper are to illustrate the potential of hypertext to create, disseminate, and access technical information, and to identify an electronic format for construction industry technical publications. The paper identifies the capabilities of the medium, some advantages and disadvantages of hypertext, and the potential of the medium for construction information transfer. The author suggests that hypertext systems can assist technical information transfer in the construction industry.
Van Bakergem, Dave. "Image Collections in the Design Studio." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 261-271. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. No matter what the medium, architects are constantly using images in all aspects of design thinking. Whether it is the perception of the environment, an image in the mind's eye, an abstract drawing or a photographic record, designers use images to conceive of, and manipulate their design ideas. Managing these image collections occurs at a variety of levels in the creative process and is dependent on the type of image that is called upon for reference. The most basic example would be the image collection residing in the mind's memory which is a result of the designeris world experiences and the relative impressiveness of each experience. Clearly, personal memory plays a significant role in the use of imagery in design, but it is unreliable and can be abstracted in uncontrollable ways. The sketchbook and later photographic collections of the grand tour were the beginnings of efforts to manage and utilize image collections as an aid to drawing and thinking about design. Now the capacity to use electronic means of creating, altering, storing, and retrieving images will enable designers to effectively use large image collections in ways that have not been possible before. This paper describes current work at the School of Architecture at Washington University in a graduate design studio. The students use a powerful 3D modelling CAD system (HOKDraw) to design and present their studio projects. In addition, we are experimenting with an image storage and retrieval system which is directly linked to the CAD model through a relational database (INGRES). Access to the database and images is instantly available through the command language and graphic display. The CAD model in effect becomes a 3D menu to an extensive image database stored on an optical memory disc recorder. Several collections are available to the studio members: the library's slide collection which relates to the studio project, specific photographs and drawings of the project site, and personal image collections stored by individuals for their own reference. The commonly accessible images are basically background material and images collected by the students to document the site, urban context and building typology. The personal images collections are any images (drawings, photographs, published images, CAD images) created or collected by the students for purposes of informing their design thinking. This work relates to the use of precedents and typology in architecture as a point of departure as well as in development of design ideas.
Fox, William. "Integrating Computing into an Architectural Undergraduate Program." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 377-386. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. This paper will discuss the process of integrating computing into the undergraduate architectural program at Temple University. It will address the selection and use of hardware and software consistent with the issues and concerns of introducing a new tool to expand the repertoire of skills available to students for use in the design process.
Danahy, John. "Irises in a Landscape: an Experiment in Dynamic Interaction and Teaching Design Studio." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 363-376. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. The capacity of most computer-aided design systems is inadequate to represent landscape architectural ideas and compute landscape scenes quickly. As part of our teaching agenda, we decided to write software for the Silicon Graphics Iris workstations to tackle this problem directly. This paper begins with a discussion of our concerns about the use of CAD tools in the representation of landscape architectural space. Secondly, we discuss the approach that Toronto takes to computing and teaching with particular emphasis on the use of computers to support an integrated representational work environment. Finally, a fourth-year design studio that used our software is reviewed. Static illustrations of the system are presented here, although there is a videotape that demonstrates the dynamic nature of the system.
Purcell, Patrick, and Applebaum Dan. "Light Table: an Interface to Visual Information Systems." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 229-238. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. A primary aim of the Light Table project was to see if a combination of the optical laser disc, local area networks, and interactive videographic workstation technology could bring a major visual collection, (such as the Rotch Visual Collections of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology), to a campuswide population of undergraduate users. VIS (Visual Information System) is the name being given to the new genre of information technology. Much research and development effort is currently being applied to areas where the image has a special significance, for example in architecture and planning, in graphic and fine arts, in biology, in medicine, and in photography. One particular advance in the technology of VIS has been the facility to access visual information across a distributed computer system via LAN (Local Area Networks) and video delivery systems, (such as campus TV cable). This advance allows users to retrieve images from both local and remote sources, dispatching the image search through the LAN, and receiving the images back at their workstation via dedicated channels on the campus TV cable. Light Table is the title of a system that acts as a computer-based interactive videographic interface to a variety of visual information systems described in the body of this paper. It takes its name from the traditional, back- lit, translucent light table that lecturers use to assemble and view collections of slides for talks and seminars. The component of Light Table which is being reported in greatest detail here, a software outcome called Galatea, is a versatile and robust system capable of controlling video devices in a networked environment.
McCullough, Malcolm. "Low-Threshold Modeling." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 413-426. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. This is a case study of teaching at the University of Texas at Austin. It is about using an electronic design studio to provide architecture students with their first exposure to computing. It suggests that, despite the limitations of present technology, there is reason to lower the thresholds to computer-aided design. The study presents a studio which attempted such by allowing students to find their own level of commitment to use of electronic media for geometric modelling. More generally, the paper aims to document issues presently facing the many professional schools not having substantial traditions in computer-aided design education.
De Cola, S., B. De Cola, and Francesco Pentasuglia. "Messina 1908: the Invisible City." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 239-246. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. The initial purposes of this work were to build a 3D model of the old city of Messina and to reconstruct a walk through it, to understand the “Ghost city,” the parts that form it, and the rules of its plan, which are explicit in some cases but hidden most of the time, to measure its space, appreciate the similarities to and differences from modern city plans, and use the information to improve the plans of tomorrow. It might seem a useless study of a nonexistent city, and yet during the months of detailed work, of patient reconstruction from the surveys and photographs of the city destroyed in 1908, we began to consider how it was still possible to obtain spatial values of and to project behaviours in the lost city, in other words, to practice tests on memory that are very interesting for people working in a context in which memory no longer exists. The work presented here is the first stage of a more complex research project still to be carried out on Messina as it was at the end of the nineteenth century. Here we constructed a 3D model of some parts of the city prior to the earthquake of 1908 and made a five-minute video, using cartoon techniques, of an “impossible” walk through the city. The fragments of the city were reconstructed from available documentary sources, primarily photographic images, which tended to be of the most important places in the city.
Gross, Mark. "Relational Modeling: a Basis for Computer-Assisted Design." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 123-136. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. Today's computer assisted design (CAD) systems automate traditional ways of working with tracing paper and pencil, but they cannot represent the rules and relationships of a design. As hardware becomes faster and memory less expensive, more sophisticated fundamental software technologies will be adopted. This shift in the basis of CAD will provide powerful capabilities and offer new ways to think about designing. Recently parametric design, a technique for describing a large class of designs with a small description in code, has become a focus of attention in architectural computing. In parametric CAD systems, design features are identified and keyed to a number of input variables. Changes in the input values result in variations of the basic design. Based on conventional software technologies, parametric design has been successfully applied in many design domains including architecture and is supported by several commercial CAD packages. A weakness of parametric techniques is the need to predetermine which properties are input parameters to be varied and which are to be derived. Relational modelling is a simple and powerful extension of parametric design that overcomes this weakness. By viewing relations as reversible rather than one-way, any set of properties can be chosen as input parameters. For example, a relational model that calculates the shadow length of a given building can also be used to calculate the building height given a desired shadow length. In exercising a relational model the designer is not limited to a pre-selected set of input variables but can explore and experiment freely with changes in all parts of the model. Co is a relational modelling environment under development on the Macintosh-II computer, and Co-Draw, a prototype CAD program based on Co. Co's relationaI engine and object-oriented database provide a powerful basis for modelling design relations. Co-Draw's interactive graphics offer a flexible medium for design exploration. Co provides tools for viewing and editing design models in various representations, including spreadsheet cards, tree and graph structures, as well as plan and elevation graphics. Co's concepts and architecture are described and the implications for design education are discussed.
Tan, Milton. "Saying What It is by What It is like - Describing Shapes Using Line Relationships." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 201-213. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. Shapes - taken as well-defined collections of lines - are fundamental building blocks in architectural drawings. From doodles to shop drawings, shapes are used to denote ideas and represent elements of design, many of which ultimately translate into actual objects. But because designs evolve, the shapes representing a design are seldom static - instead, they are perpetually open to transformations. And since transformations involve relationships, conventional methods of describing shapes as sets of discrete endpoints may not provide an appropriate foundation for schematic design. This paper begins with a review of the perception of shapes and its significance in design. In particular, it argues that juxtapositions and inter-relationships of shapes are important seedbeds for creative development of designs. It is clear that conventional representation of shapes as sets of discrete lines does not cope with these -emergenti subshapes, the most basic of which arise out of intersecting and colinear lines. Attempts to redress this by using “reduction rules” based on traditional point-and-line data structures are encumbered by computational problems of precision and shape specification. Basically, this means that some “close” cases of sub-shapes may escape detection and their specifications are difficult to use in substitution operations. The paper presents the findings of a computer project - Emergence II - which explored a'relational'description of shapes based on the concept of construction lines. It builds on the notion that architectural shapes are constructed in a graphic context and that, at a basic compositional level, the context can be set by construction lines. Accordingly, the interface enables the delineation of line segments with reference to pre-established construction lines. This results in a simple data structure where the knowledge of shapes is centralized in a lookup table of all its construction lines rather than dispersed in the specifications of line segments. Taking this approach, the prototype software shows the ease and efficiency of applying “reduction rules” for intersection and colinear conditions, and for finding emergent sub-shapes by simply tracking the construction lines delimiting the ends of line segments.
Cipriani, R., A.D. Lagomarsino, A. Stagnaro, E. Valenti, and T. Sambolino. "Some Years' Experience Teaching CAAD." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 347-361. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. In the conventional way of teaching architecture, it is common to think of design as the final synthesis of an intellectual process (composizione in Italian) integrating different elements from different curriculum subjects: history, structural analysis., technology, regional and urban planning, and so on. These elements, being comprehensive of their specific domains, together build the project. This process is supported by a long traditional that cannot easily be modified, however, we must not consider it to be the only one. Architectural practice should be much more. The Scuole di Architettura has walked a long and difficult road in the last thirty years., with a significant widening of interest in social, political, and economic issues. There have been recurring attempts at epistemological reformulation in some areas. There has been an acknowledgment of a crisis in contemporary town planning and a dimming of several certitudes that had developed with the birth and growth of the modernist school. And there has been a weakening of the promises that had given life to the vigorous discussion about town and regional planning. All of this leads to a reconsideration of the meaning and the deeper assumptions that the project implies, a question mark at the center of the human sciences that architectural practice involves. The old tradition., which assigned composition a central role in the project, is no longer sufficient because it is related to a reductive reading of epistemology that views human sciences as defining segments of physical knowledge of the actual world. Contemporary reflection on the difference between understanding and unfolding, together with the attention given to interpreting a moment as compared to purely describing one, gives to the project the task of inquiry instead of solution.
McCall, Raymond Joseph, G. Fischer, and A. Morch. "Supporting Reflection-in-Action in the Janus Design Environment." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 247-259. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. We have developed a computer-based design aid called Janus, which is based on a model of computer-supported design that we think has significance for the future of architectural education. Janus utilizes a knowledge-based approach to link a graphic construction system to hypertext. This allows the computer to make useful comments on the solutions that students construct in a CAD-like environment. These comments contain information intended to make students think more carefully about what they are doing while they are doing it. In other words, Janus promotes what Donald Schon has called “reflection-inaction” (Schön, 1983). The Janus design environment is named for the Roman god with a pair of faces looking in opposite directions. In our case the faces correspond to complementary design activities we call construction and argumentation. Construction is the activity of graphically creating the form of the solution e.g., a building. Traditionally this has been done with tracing paper, pencils, and pens. Argumentation is the activity of reasoning about the problem and its solution. This includes such things as considering what to do next, what alternative courses of action are available, and which course of action to choose. Argumentation is mostly verbal but partly graphical.
Flemming, Ulrich. "Syntactic Structures in Architecture: Teaching Composition with Computer Assistance." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 31-48. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. The present paper outlines a plan for the teaching of architectural composition with computer assistance.The approach is to introduce students to a series of architectural languages characterized by a vocabulary of elements and a grammar whose rules indicate how these elements can be placed in space. Exercises with each language include the analysis of precedents, the generation of forms using a given rule set, and follow-up studies with an expanded rule set. The paper introduces languages and exercises through illustrative examples. This architectural content can be taught in the traditional way. The use of computers is motivated by expectations which are stated, and some basic requirements for the needed software are listed. Work to develop this software has started.
Oxman, Robert, and Rivka Oxman. "The Computability of Architectural Knowledge." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 171-185. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. In an important contribution to the theoretical foundation of design computing, Mitchell noted “an increasingly urgent need to establish a demonstrably sound, comprehensive, rigorously formalized theoretical foundation upon which to base practical software development effortsi (Mitchell, 1986). In this paper we propose such a theoretical framework. A basic assumption of this work is that the advancement of design computing is dependent upon the emergence of a rigorous formulation of knowledge in design. We present a model of knowledge in architectural design which suggests a promising conceptual basis for dealing with knowledge in computer-aided design systems. We require models which can represent the formal knowledge and manipulative operations of the designer in all of their complexity-that is formal models rather than just geometric models. Shape Grammars (Stiny,1980) represent an example of such models, and constitute a relatively high level of design knowledge as compared to, for example, use of symmetry operations to generate simple formal configurations. Building upon an understanding of the classes of design knowledge as the conceptual basis for formal modelling systems may contribute a new realization of the potential of the medium for design. This will require a comprehensive approach to the definition of architectural and design knowledge. We consider here the implications of a well-defined body of architectural and design knowledge for design education and the potential mutual interaction-in a knowledge-rich environment-of design learning and CAAD learning. The computational factors connected with the representation of design knowledge and its integration in design systems are among the key problems of CAAD. Mitchell's model of knowledge in design incorporates formal knowledge in a comprehensive, multi-level, hierarchical structure in which types of knowledge are correlated with computational concepts. In the main focus of this paper we present a structured, multi-level model of design knowledge which we discuss with respect to current architectural theoretical considerations. Finally, we analyze the computational and educational relevance of such models.
Catalano, Fernando. "The Computerized Design Firm." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 317-332. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. This paper is not just about the future of computerized design practice. It is about what to do today in contemplation of tomorrow-the issues of computercentered practice and the courses of action open to us can be discerned by the careful observer. The realities of computerized design practice are different from the issues on which design education still fixes its attention. To educators, the present paper recommends further clinical research on computerized design firms and suggests that case studies on the matter be developed and utilized as teaching material. Research conducted by the author of this paper indicates that a new form of design firm is emerging-the computerized design firm-totally supported and augmented by the new information technology. The present paper proceeds by introducing an abridged case study of an actual totally electronic, computerized design practice. Then, the paper concentrates on modelling the computerized design firm as an intelligent system, indicating non-trivial changes in its structure and strategy brought about by the introduction of the new information technology into its operations - among other considerations, different strategies and diverse conceptions of management and workgroup roles are highlighted. In particular, this paper points out that these structural and strategic changes reflect back on the technology of information with pressures to redirect present emphasis on the individual designer, working alone in an isolated workstation, to a more realistic conception of the designer as a member of an electronic workgroup. Finally, the paper underlines that this non-trivial conception demands that new hardware and software be developed to meet the needs of the electronic workgroup - which raises issues of human-machine interface. Further, it raises the key issues of how to represent and expose knowledge to users in intelligent information - sharing systems, designed to include not only good user interfaces for supporting problem-solving activities of individuals, but also good organizational interfaces for supporting the problem-solving activities of groups. The paper closes by charting promising directions for further research and with a few remarks about the computerized design firm's (near) future.
Frew, Robert. "The Organization of CAD Teaching in Design Schools." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 387-392. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. This paper is the result of a survey of European CAD teaching that was conducted in 1987 and 1988. It makes comparisons with teaching at the Yale School of Architecture, and goes on to analyze the issues that should be addressed in a CAD program in a school of architecture.
McIntosh, John, and Madis Pihlak. "The Thousand-Acre Sketch Problem." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 427-440. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. An unusually large sketch problem in urban design was given to an undergraduate studio class to introduce visualization techniques and to explore fundamental urban design principles. This thousand-acre sketch problem was distributed to students on a floppy disk as a three- dimensional computer model. The availability of a large number of Macintosh IIs and access to a pre-release version of the three-dimensional modelling program ModelShop allowed us to conduct this prototype electronic studio. This paper looks at the productivity gains experienced by our students during this project and discusses the increased level of understanding witnessed in student performance. More importantly, this sketch problem is examined as a philosophical parable for several pedagogical issues of design education in the microcomputer age.
Coyne, Richard. "Tools for Exploring Associative Reasoning in Design." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 91-106. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. Two tools for storing and recalling information in computer systems are discussed and demonstrated in relation to design. The tools are hypermedia and neural networks. Each provides a valuable model for reasoning by the association of ideas.
Mitchell, William, R.S. Liggett, and M. Tan. "Top-Down Knowledge-Based Design." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 137-148. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. Traditional computer drafting systems and three- dimensional geometric modelling systems work in bottom-up fashion. They provide a range of graphic primitives, such as vectors, arcs, and splines, together with operators for inserting, deleting, combining, and transforming instances of these. Thus they are conceptually very similar to word processors, with the difference that they operate on two- dimensional or three-dimensional patterns of graphic primitives rather than one-dimensional strings of characters. This sort of system is effective for input and editing of drawings or models that represent existing designs, but provides little more help than a pencil when you want to construct from scratch a drawing of some complex object such as a human figure, an automobile, or a classical column: you must depend on your own knowledge of what the pieces are and how to shape them and put them together. If you already know how to draw something then a computer drafting system will help you to do so efficiently, but if you do not know how to begin, or how to develop and refine the drawing, then the efficiency that you gain is of little practical consequence. And accelerated performance, flashier color graphics, or futuristic three-dimensional modes of interaction will not help with this problem at all. By contrast, experienced expert graphic artists and designers usually work in top-down fashion-beginning with a very schematic sketch of the whole object, then refining this, in step-by-step fashion, till the requisite level of precision and completeness is reached. For example, a figure drawing might begin as a “stick figurei schema showing lengths and angles of limbs, then be developed to show the general blocking of masses, and finally be resolved down to the finest details of contour and surface. Similarly, an architectural drawing might begin as a parti showing just a skeleton of construction lines, then be developed into a single-line floor plan, then a plan showing accurate wall thicknesses and openings, and finally a fully developed and detailed drawing.
Stiny, George. "What Designers do that Computers Should." In The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, 17-30. CAAD Futures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1990. Designers do many things that computers don't. Some of these are bad habits that the stringencies of computation will correct. But others are basic to design, and cannot be ignored if computation is to serve creation and invention. Two of these provide the correlative themes of this paper. Both are concerned with description, and its variability and multiplicity in design.