Keywords Abstract
Wagter, Harry. "CAD-Techniques in Architecture and Building Design, a Realistic Overview." In CAAD Futures '87: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 14-Jul. CAAD Futures. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1988. Giving an overview on CAD-techniques in architecture and building design might seem a bit superfluous. Every mentioned subject will be worked out in this conference in much more detail than is possible in the context of this very first paper. Nevertheless it will be useful to sketch a framework. It gives an opportunity to participants to compare, and will help to judge the different influences of the conclusions in the right context. For the authors it might mean that they can fill in their own place, and that their introductions can be short so there will be more time available for in depth explanations. It must be stated that CAAD-Futures theme is at the design part of the building process as mentioned in its announcement “it takes stock of current developments in CAAD and attempts to anticipate the direction of future developments and their relevance to and impact on architectural practice and education, the building industry and the quality of the built environment”.
Port, S.. "Computer-drafting - State of the Art." In CAAD Futures '87: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 15-22. CAAD Futures. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1988. This paper briefly reviews the state of the art in computer drafting. It moves on to consider some of the limitations of computer drafting systems today. It poses a number of questions regarding the trends and future development of the subject, and suggests some points which should be addressed by the vendors and user organisations alike. The paper concentrates on marketing and management matters rather than on purely technical issues.
Landsdown, J.. "Computers and Visualisation of Design Ideas: Possibilities and Promises." In CAAD Futures '87: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 71-80. CAAD Futures. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1988. Drawing in all its various forms, from freehand sketching to detailed technical layout, is a type of modelling that designers find indispensable. In many cases, indeed, drawing is the only form of external modelling a designer uses. It has two basic functions: to assist in the externalisation and development of mental concepts and to help in the presentation of these concepts to others. The current thrust of work in computer graphics - although valuable - tends to concentrate almost exclusively on the presentation aspects and it is now possible to create images almost resembling photographs of real objects as well as production drawings of great accuracy and consistency. This paper summarises some of this presentation work as well as developments which might go further in assisting the activities and processes of design.
Gross, Mark, Stephen Ervin, and James Anderson. "Designing with Constraints." In CAAD Futures '87: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 53-83. CAAD Futures. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1988. The constraint model of designing provides a means of demonstrating and exploring the computability of design. Designing is understood as a process of incrementally defining an initially ill-defined question, and concurrently proposing and testing possible answers. That is, not finding THE solution to A problem, but finding A solution to THE problem. Articulating (including inventing and modifying) the question, and exploring possible alternative answers (or designs), are two fundamental activities which can be supported by computers and the constraint model. The authors discuss the use of constraints to explicate design questions, circumscribe feasible regions and specify proposed solutions, and examine the processes of search and scrutiny within a region. Naming, solving history-keeping, block-structuring, identifying and resolving conflicts are among tasks identified that can be rendered to a computer. Questions of knowledge representation and inference making with ambiguity and imprecision are discussed. Examples of the application of the constraint model to design problems in architecture and site planning are illustrated by brief scenarios
Porada, M.. "Digital Image: a Bridge Towards Mental Images?" In CAAD Futures '87: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 209-216. CAAD Futures. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1988. How we see things depends on our education and our cultural pre-suppositions. This does not allow to convey some logical form, but nevertheless makes possible a more global and less formalized understanding of the objects, their environment and their physical proprieties. In architecture, the digital image acts according to two directions: (-) representation: the fine images are a means of communication between the different parties implementing building projects. (-) modelization: in addition to its iconic qualities the layers of different models simulate the most different aspects of the,image and the environment characteristics. // At this level our vision is directly concerned with the design of the studied object, it acts both in the design process and in the expression of our conceptual images. How does modelization work? Infographical representation deals with a more or less schematic and conceptualized world the reading of which is more typified than particularized. It deals with a schematization nearly “ideographicali of the mental image thus is produced “synthetismi, a neologism similar to such expressions as realism or abstractionism.
Schmitt, Gerhard. "Expert Systems and Interactive Fractal Generators in Design and Evaluation." In CAAD Futures '87: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 91-106. CAAD Futures. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1988. Microcomputer based interactive programmable drafting programs and analysis packages are setting new standards for design support, systems in architectural offices. These programs allow the representation and performance simulation of design proposals with one tool, but they lack the ability to represent knowledge concerning relations between design and artifact. While they can expediate the traditional design and analysis process, they do not fundamentally improve it. We shall describe three computationally related approaches which could be a step towards a necessary paradigm change in developing design software. These approaches deal with expert design generators and evaluators, function oriented programming, and fractal design machines.
Cornick, T., and S. Bull. "Expert Systems for Detail Design in Building." In CAAD Futures '87: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 117-126. CAAD Futures. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1988. Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) requires detailed knowledge of the construction of building elements to be effective as a complete design aid. Knowledge-based systems provide the tools for both encapsulating the “rules” of construction - i.e. the knowledge of good construction practice gained from experience - and relating those rules to geometric representation of building spaces and elements. The “rules” of construction are based upon the production and performance implications of building elements and how these satisfy various functional criteria. These building elements in turn may be related to construction materials, components and component assemblies. This paper presents two prototype knowledge-based systems, one dealing with the external envelope and the other with the internal space division of buildings. Each is “component specific” and is based upon its own model of the overall construction. This paper argues that “CAAD requires component specific knowledge bases and that integration of these knowledge bases into a knowledge-based design system for complete buildings can only occur if every knowledge base relates to a single coordinated construction model”.
Zelissen, C.. "From Drafting to Design: New Programming Tools are Needed." In CAAD Futures '87: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 253-261. CAAD Futures. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1988. The software needed by engineers and architects shows two new aspects. First, these programs get more and more graphic elements, secondly there is a trend from general purpose packages to more problem oriented programs. Comparing several of these application depending programs, a strong similarity appears, a user builds up a representation of a (technical) model by placing, replacing, deleting and so on, representations of objects, belonging to this model. From the programmer's point of view, it must be possible to abstract the several models and the actions on the components of a model, and therefore to build one-program with a model description as parameter. Assuming the existence of such a program, the only remaining part needed to build a complete dedicated package has reference to the specific technical calculations. In this contribution we touch on a number of the problems in developing and implementing such a program.
Hopgood, F., and D. Duce. "Future Developments in Graphics and Workstations." In CAAD Futures '87: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 217-252. CAAD Futures. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1988. The application of Computer Aided Design has been fragmented so far due to the lack of standards at the hardware and basic software level. The most impressive products have been turn-key systems using custom-built hardware with large software suites developed over a number of years. Such systems have often been difficult to modify and maintain. The very nature of such systems is that they are expensive to produce, have a limited market and, consequently, are expensive. Hardware and software advances over the last few years point to a change in this environment. The trend is towards hardware and software compatibility from the computer suppliers allowing software suppliers to target their offerings at a wider range of products. This produces a competitive market and the downward trend in hardware costs gives the possibility for systems of much lower cost and, consequently, opens up the market to a larger customer base. This paper will concentrate on the developments in single user workstations and graphics standards which should provide a firm base for this new environment.
Gero, John S., and Mary Lou Maher. "Future Roles of Knowledge-based Systems in the Design Process." In CAAD Futures '87: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 81-90. CAAD Futures. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1988. This paper examines the future roles of knowledge-based systems in the design process. It commences with a brief review of computer-aided design and knowledge-based systems prior to examining the present and future roles of knowledge-based systems in design under the headings of: design analysis/formulation, design synthesis, and design evaluation. The paper concludes with a discussion on design integration, novel design, and detail design.
Emde, H.. "Geometrical Fundamentals for Design and Visualization of Spatial Objects." In CAAD Futures '87: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 171-178. CAAD Futures. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1988. Every architectural object is a 3-dimensional entity of the human environment, haptically tangible and optically visible. During the architectural process of planning every object should be designed as a body and should be visualized in pictures. Thus the parts of construction get an order in space and the steps of construction get an order in time. The ideal planning object is a simulated anticipation of the real building object, which is to be performed later on. The possibility to relate the planning object immediately to the building object relies on the fact that they both have the same “geometryi This means: both can be described in the same geometric manner. Creating and visualizing spatial objects is based on geometrical fundamentals. Theoretical knowledge and practical control of these fundamentals is essential for the faultless construction and the realistic presentation of architectural objects. Therefore they have to be taught and learned thoroughly in the course of an architectural education. Geometrical design includes the forming of object- models (geometry of body boundaries), the structuring of object-hierarchies (geometry of body combinations) and the colouring of objects. Geometrical visualization includes controlling the processes of motion, of the bodies (when moving objects) and of the center of observation (when moving subjects) as well as the representation of 3-dimensional objects in 2- dimensional pictures and sequences of pictures. All these activities of architects are instances of geometrical information processing. They can be performed with the aid of computers. As for the computer this requires suitable hardware and software, as for the architect it requires suitable knowledge and capabilities to be able to talk about and to recall the perceivable objects and processes of the design with logic abstracts (language of geometry). In contrast to logical, numerical and textual informations the geometric informations concerning spatial objects are of much higher complexity. Usually these complexes of information are absorbed, processed and transmitted by the architect in a perceptive manner. The computer support in the field of geometry assumes that the processing of perceptions of the human consciousness can be converted by the computer as a framework of logical relations. Computer aided construction and representation require both suited devices for haptical and optical communication and suitable programs in particular.
Oksala, T.. "Logical Models for Rule-based CAAD." In CAAD Futures '87: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 107-116. CAAD Futures. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1988. The aim of this paper is to present the basic results of a theoretic approach to represent architectural individual forms in CAD systems. From the point of view of design methodology and problem solving these descriptions might be conceived'as parts of possible environments satisfying the laws of some design theory in logical sense. This paper describes results in a series of logical studies towards rule and knowledge based systems for design automation. The effective use of programming languages and computers as design aids in architecture presupposes certain capabilities to articulate built environment logically. The use of graphic languages in the description of environmental items e.g. buildings might be theoretically mastered by formal production systems including linguistic, geometric, and spatio-material generation. The combination of the power of formal mechanisms and logical individual calculus offers suitable framework to generate arbitrary e.g. free spatial compositions as types or unique solutions. In this frame it is natural to represent in a coherent way very complex hierarchical parsing of buildings in explicit form as needed in computer implementations. In order to simulate real design work the individual configurations of possible built forms should be designed to satisfy known rules. In the preliminary stage partial solutions to design problems may be discussed in mathematical terms using frameworks like lattices, graphs, or group theoretical considerations of structural, functional, and visual organization of buildings. The capability to produce mathematically sophisticated geometric structures allows us to generalize the approach further. The theoretical design knowhow in architecture can be partly translated in to some logic and represented in a knowledge base. These rules are used as selection criteria for geometric design candidates in the sense of logical model theory and mathematical optimization. The economy of the system can be developed by using suitable conduct mechanisms familiar e.g. from logic programming. The semantics of logic offers a frame to consider computer assisted and formal generation in design. A number of semantic and pragmatic problems, however, remain to be solved. In any case conceptual analyses based on logic are applicable in order to rationally reconstruct architectural goals contributing to the quality of environmental design, which should be the main goal in the development of design systems in near future.
Moshe, R., and E. Shaviv. "Natural Language Interface for CAAD System." In CAAD Futures '87: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 137-148. CAAD Futures. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1988. This work explores issues involved in the development of a natural interface for man-machine dialogue in architectural design processes. A hand-touch on an interactive surface is suggested as the best natural-language interface for architectural CAD systems. To allow the development of a rich range of hand-touch natural-language for communicating information and commands to the computer, it is proposed to develop a new type of a touch-panel, for which a set of specifications is presented. A conceptual design of an architectural workstation, having the described touch-panel, is presented. This workstation is characterized by the integration of the entire range of control and communication facilities required for any architectural task into a single interactive unit. The conceptual model for this workstation is the standard size drawing board, on which the architect is accustomed to spread documents, drawings, books and tools, shuffle them around and interchange them freely by using the natural-language interface developed in this work. The potential of the suggested hand-touch natural-language and the proposed workstation are demonstrated by a case-study.
Lehto, M.. "Optical Discs - their Application in Mass Data Storage." In CAAD Futures '87: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 189-198. CAAD Futures. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1988. Much of the building designer's time is taken up correlating the various sources of information so as to incorporate it in the design within a limited time span. The building information service should be able to provide him or her by the up-to-date information in a user friendly format. Optical disc technology makes it possible to combine different forms of building data into images which can be mass stored and randomly accessed on a single disc, with the minimal response time by personal computer or CAD- workstation. In this paper the use of various forms of optical disc technology in construction industry and the prototype video disc produced by VTT are described.
Frazer, J.. "Plastic Modelling - the Flexible Modelling of the Logic of Structure and Spaces." In CAAD Futures '87: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 199-208. CAAD Futures. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1988. Plastic Modelling is a technique which allows the computer model to be easily developed and manipulated. In particular it models not only building geometry but also logical relationships between elements, components, structure and spaces. It is the author's contention that this approach to solid modelling is particularly suitable for the interactive development of architectural design ideas.
Beheshti, M., and M. Monroy. "Requirements for Developing an Information System for Architecture." In CAAD Futures '87: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 149-170. CAAD Futures. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1988. This paper discusses possibilities of developing new tools for architectural design. It argues that architects should meet the challenge of information technology and computer-based design techniques. One such attempt has been the first phase of the development of an architectural design information system (ADIS), also an architectural design decision support system. The system should benefit from the developments of the artificial intelligence to enable the architect to have access to information required to carry out design work. In other words: the system functions as a huge on-line electronic library of architecture, containing up-to-date architectural design information, literature, documents, etc. At the same time, the system offers necessary design aids such as computer programs for design process, drawing programs, evaluation programs, cost calculation programs, etc. The system also provides data communication between the architect and members of the design coalition team. This is found to be of vital importance in the architectural design process, because it can enable the architect to fit in changes, brought about in the project by different parties. Furthermore, they will be able, to oversee promptly the consequences of changes or decisions in a comprehensive manner. The system will offer advantages over the more commonly applied microcomputer based CAAD and IGDM (integrated graphics database management) systems, or even larger systems available to an architect. Computer programs as well as hardware change rapidly and become obsolete. Therefore, unrelenting investment pressure to up-date both software and hardware exists. The financial burden of this is heavy, in particular for smaller architectural practices (for instance an architect working for himself or herself and usually with few or no permanent staff). ADIS, as an on-line architectural design aid, is constantly up-dated by its own organisation. This task will be co-ordinated by the ADIS data- base administrator (DBA). The processing possibilities of the system are faster, therefore more complex processing tasks can be handled. Complicated large graphic data files, can be easily retrieved and manipulated by ADIS, a large system. In addition, the cost of an on-line system will be much less than any other system. The system is based on one model of the architectural design process, but will eventually contain a variety of design models, as it develops. The development of the system will be an evolutionary process, making use of its users'feed-back system. ADIS is seen as a step towards full automation of architectural design practices. Apart from being an architectural design support system, ADIS will assist the architect in his/her administrative and organisational activities.
Maver, Thomas W.. "Software Tools for the Technical Evaluation of Design Alternatives." In CAAD Futures '87: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 47-58. CAAD Futures. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1988. Designing buildings which'work'- economically, socially and technically - remains the central challenge for architects. This paper is concerned with the state of development of software tools for the evaluation of the technical issues which are relevant at the conceptual stages, as opposed to the detailed stages, of design decision-making. The technical efficiency of building is of enormous economic importance. The capital investment in building in Europe represents some 12% of the Gross Domestic Product, this capital investment is exceeded by an order of magnitude, however, by the operating costs of buildings over their life span. In turn, these operating costs are exceeded - again by an order of magnitude - by the costs associated with the (human) operations which go on within the building, and on which the design of the building has some impact.
Danahy, John. "Sophisticated Image Rendering in Environmental Design Review Graphics Systems ." In Proceedings of ACM CHI+GI'87 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems and Graphics Interface 1987, 211-217. CAAD Futures. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1988. The Landscape Architecture Programme and the Computer Systems Research Institute at the University of Toronto undertook two studies using advanced rendering tools pioneered in the areas of computer animation and graphic art. Through two professional landscape architectural design studies we explored the potential role and impact of computer simulation in the initial, more  creative phases of the design work. Advanced image rendering hardware and software were used to produce high quality computer drawings of design concepts. The techniques employed in this study are unique in their application to environmental design where they dramatically improve the designer's opportunities to simulate realistic images of proposed design alternatives and to consider the visual and spatial implications of such alternatives. The case studies represented in the paper were undertaken for the National Capital Commission in Ottawa, Canada. The first project is  an urban design massing study called the “Parliamentary Precinct Study” and the second project is a detailed design of the “Ceremonial Routes” in Ottawa. 
Schijf, R. "Strategies for CAAD Education - the Singapore Way." In CAAD Futures '87: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 23-46. CAAD Futures. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1988. For over one year (1985/86) the author was as senior lecturer instrumental in developing and initiating a CAAD-curriculum at the Singapore School of Architecture. The paper describes the circumstances surrounding the acquisition of the Schools'large CAD-system, the CAAD-curriculum proposals, and the first pilot courses. On the basis of this preliminary experience some observations for CAAD-teaching are made, which are related to more universal strategies for CAAD-education.
Lapre, L., and P. Hudson. "Talking about Design: Supporting the Design Process with Different Goals." In CAAD Futures '87: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 127-136. CAAD Futures. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1988. The architectural design process has more than one participant. Each participant has his own way of approaching the information embedded in a design. In the future the CAAD systems of these participants must be able to communicate and exchange information. For a communication of this kind there must be a common ground, a frame of reference, in which these different points of view can be expressed. This frame of reference or model must support participants accessing the same information with different objectives and for different purposes. We shall propose such a model based on research results obtained by the analysis of architectural knowledge and designs. The model incorporates certain aspects drawn from AI.
Purcell, P.. "The Role of Media Technology in the Design Studio." In CAAD Futures '87: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 179-187. CAAD Futures. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1988. This paper refers to a program of work, which aims to integrate a range of computer-based multi-media technologies which has the overall goal of enhancing the processes of education in the design studio. The individual projects describe the development of visual information systems and intelligent design systems. The framework of support for much of the work is Project Athena, a campus wide initiative to apply new technology towards enhancing the educational process project.
Boesjes, E.. "The Structure of the Automation Process, Implications for CAAD." In CAAD Futures '87: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, 59-69. CAAD Futures. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1988. In this paper we describe the dynamic process of change of computer components, computer products and user-techniques. We will refer to this process as the process of automation. In the first part we describe the structure of the process of automation. This structure consists of components and relations between these components. Some of the relations can be characterised as regularities. In the second part we briefly describe the State of the Art in CAAD. From the State of the Art and the process of automation we can extrapolate the State of the Future in CAAD. This extrapolation doesn't bring us to the future we want. The structure of the process of automation will have to change if we want future CAAD to develop towards an ideal.