Keywords Abstract
von Mammen, Sebastian, and Joshua Taron. "A Trans-Disciplinary Program for Biomimetic Computing and Architectural Design." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 141-154. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012.

In this article, we present our trans-disciplinary approach to teaching biomimetic computing and architectural design to graduate students in Architecture. In particular, we present our selection of topics, their initial, conceptual presentation to the students, their appropriation by the students through programming and examples of the students material implementations in architectural design projects.

Simeone, Davide, and Antonio Fioravanti. "An Ontology-Based Template of User-Actor to Support Agent-Based Simulation in Built Environments." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 171-179. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012.

The behavior of a human being in a building, its activities, its interactions with it and with other people are certainly a highly complex phenomenon extremely hard to predict and evaluate. At the same time, the response of a built environment to future users needs is one of the key factors of its performance. The Agent-based Modeling paradigm is considered potentially the best way to represent human behavior but, in the building design field, its experiences are limited to representation of partial aspects of human behavior in discrete events. Currently, a more "extended" representation of human behavior able to offer an overview of the human activities related to the building “functioning” is missing,. This lack is due to the complexity of interaction among users and built environment, and to the extensive knowledge, provided by different disciplines, needed to reliably represent it. The proposed research focuses on the construction of a general representation template of user-actor, easy to implement and flexible enough to structure the large amount of data affecting human behavior. The development of the ontology-based template shown in this paper can lead to a user-agent's entity whose parameters and behavioral rules can encode and represent several “aspects” of real users and their interactions with the other entities (building components, furniture, other people) in a built environment.

Ochs, Steven. "Architectural Sociability as a Strategy to Drive Technology Integrations into Architectural Structures and Smart Environments." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 225-240. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012.

Traditional architectural design fulfills the basic needs of society, but its influence as a system to facilitate personal connection has declined with the growth of telecommunications and social networks. The advance of interactive architecture is now positioning buildings to once again fulfill the role as facilitator of connections and fulfill our personal need of belonging. While current attempts to integrate social communication, technology with built environments are nominally effective, Architectural Sociability is proposed as an effective design solution. Strategy details include a purpose based social approach in which social networks, localized data streams, ubiquitous computing, pervasive networks, and smart environments are considered a traditional part of an architectural structure.

El-Masri, Souheil, Mazen Kana'an, and Mohammed Fawzi Elanany. "Architecture, Digital Techniques and Project Management." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 14-20. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012.

With the invention of computers, Architecture and other Engineering disciplines have undergone revolutionary developments offering new opportunities for improving efficiency and opening new frontiers for creativity. For example in architecture and urban planning, the discussions have been extended from conventional writings to cover cyberspace, virtual architecture and digital city. Moreover, computers have helped in the realization of many complex projects that would be inconceivable with traditional drawing techniques. This is clearly demonstrated in the works of Frank Gehry's, Zaha Hadid, Daniel Libeskind and many others. In deed, digital techniques have changed the design creative process and how the architects think. Traditionally the structured development architectural ideas from 2D drawings (plans, sections, elevations) towards 3D resolution has been replaced by more interactive approach of 2D & 3D. The changes that digital techniques have brought to the field of Architecture, including practice and education, can obviously be viewed from different angles and incite many discussions and questions. However, the purpose of this presentation is to discuss the role of digital techniques within the overall framework of project management in Gulf Housing Engineering. It starts the discussion with a brief on architecture and digital techniques in the Gulf Region, especially during the “boom period”, a period characterized by rapid production of buildings relying heavily on virtual images. It is against this background, the role of digital techniques is evaluated from a practice point of view. In fact in GHE, digital means are integral parts of the holistic project delivery process starting form initiation, to various design stages to construction ending with project completion. In this process emphasis is paid to the inter-relationships between IT Systems and Quality Control which in turn facilitate measuring, monitoring and reporting on various managerial, technical and design and budgetary aspects of the project. The presentation is supported by real case studies of GHE portfolio. It emphasizes that digital techniques should be an integral part of an overall process and should be seen as means to enhance efficiency and creativity, and should contribute to the betterment of the built environment

Morais, Helen, Neander Silva, and Ecilamar Lima. "Complexity and Mass Customization in Contemporary Architecture - Prospects in an Emergent Economy." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 93-102. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012.

In this paper we demonstrate through examples and an experiment that digital fabrication is viable and it is starting to produce impact in the Brazilian architecture, towards mass customization, not only through some exceptional buildings, but also through small experiences involving ordinary design needs. The examples show that digital fabrication is already contributing to innovative solutions in the Brazilian architecture. The experiment consisted of producing and comparing two models of a column of the National Cathedral of Brasilia, one analogically and other digitally fabricated. The results of this experiment show that digital fabrication technology and mass customization are not only economically viable for the Brazilian construction industry but can also contribute to significant savings.

Elseragy, Ahmed. "Creative Design Between Representation and Simulation." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 12-Nov. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012.

Milestone figures of architecture all have their different views on what comes first, form or function. They also vary in their definitions of creativity. Apparently, creativity is very strongly related to ideas and how they can be generated. It is also correlated with the process of thinking and developing. Creative products, whether architectural or otherwise, and whether tangible or intangible, are originated from “good ideas” (Elnokaly, Elseragy and Alsaadani, 2008). On one hand, not any idea, or any good idea, can be considered creative but, on the other hand, any creative result can be traced back to a good idea that initiated it in the beginning (Goldschmit and Tatsa, 2005). Creativity in literature, music and other forms of art is immeasurable and unbounded by constraints of physical reality. Musicians, painters and sculptors do not create within tight restrictions. They create what becomes their own mind's intellectual property, and viewers or listeners are free to interpret these creations from whichever angle they choose. However, this is not the case with architects, whose creations and creative products are always bound with different physical constraints that may be related to the building location, social and cultural values related to the context, environmental performance and energy efficiency, and many more (Elnokaly, Elseragy and Alsaadani, 2008). Remarkably, over the last three decades computers have dominated in almost all areas of design, taking over the burden of repetitive tasks so that the designers and students can focus on the act of creation. Computer aided design has been used for a long time as a tool of drafting, however in this last decade this tool of representation is being replaced by simulation in different areas such as simulation of form, function and environment. Thus, the crafting of objects is moving towards the generation of forms and integrated systems through designer-authored computational processes. The emergence and adoption of computational technologies has significantly changed design and design education beyond the replacement of drawing boards with computers or pens and paper with computer-aided design (CAD) computer-aided engineering (CAE) applications. This paper highlights the influence of the evolving transformation from Computer Aided Design (CAD) to Computational Design (CD) and how this presents a profound shift in creative design thinking and education. Computational-based design and simulation represent new tools that encourage designers and artists to continue progression of novel modes of design thinking and creativity for the 21st century designers. Today computational design calls for new ideas that will transcend conventional boundaries and support creative insights through design and into design. However, it is still believed that in architecture education one should not replace the design process and creative thinking at early stages by software tools that shape both process and final product which may become a limitation for creative designs to adapt to the decisions and metaphors chosen by the simulation tool. This paper explores the development of Computer Aided Design (CAD) to Computational Design (CD) Tools and their impact on contemporary design education and creative design.

Maher, Mary Lou. "Designing CAAD for Creativity." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 9-Jul. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012.

Can we design CAAD to enhance creativity? CAAD is often considered a tool that assists architects in design by managing documentation and facilitating visualization. While there has been anecdotal concern that CAAD inhibits creativity, there is empirical evidence that CAAD can enhance creativity. The challenge is to develop principles for designing CAAD for creativity based on theoretical and empirical research on recognizing and enhancing individual and distributed creative cognition. This presentation describes three concepts that can lead to principles for designing CAAD to enhance human creativity: recognition, perception, and diversity. // 1. Recognition: A framework for recognizing and evaluating creative design, shown in Figure 1, is developed based on research in psychology and design science that includes novelty, value, and surprise. This framework provides a basis for comparing and evaluating the impact of CAAD on creativity. 2. Perception: Perception affects cognition and therefore interaction design is a critical component of designing CAAD for creativity. The results of an empirical study, shown in Figure 2, using a protocol analysis find that changing perception to include tangible user interfaces has a positive effect on creative cognition. These results lead to design principles for increasing perceptual modalities in future CAAD systems. 3. Diversity: A theoretical framework for social and collective intelligence in design show how an increase in cognitive diversity leads to an increase in innovation. Using this framework we can develop design processes that combine the benefits of individual, team, and crowdsourced design ideas, as shown in Figure 3.

Mahdjoubi, Lamine. "Digital Architecture at Crossroads - Transition from Simulation and Visualisation to Information Modelling." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 5. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012. Digital architecture is at an exciting but challenging stage of its development. Past decades have witnessed important developments in computer-generated architectural representations.  These tools have complemented and, in some cases, superseded the traditional forms of design and communication.  In parallel with progress in computer graphics, advances in computer generated architectural representations have evolved to deliver photorealistic computer generated imagery. However, there is evidence to suggest that these advances have not significantly enhanced collaborative practices.  It was acknowledged that to address the fragmentation of the industry, a fundamental change to deliver digital architecture was needed.  Dealing with the requirements for an improved co-ordination and co-operation between designers and other stakeholders to encourage more integration has therefore become a central issue in the last decade. It was also recognised that significantly more intelligence needs to be brought to bear on the decision-making process if the targets set by the sustainability agenda are to be met.  The quest for an improved quality of information and decision making has shifted the emphasis from computer-generated imagery to integrated building information.  The recent emergence of building information modelling (BIM) constitutes one of the most exciting developments in the field.  It was suggested that BIM will deliver considerable sophistication and judgment in decision-making. This keynote speech seeks to examine the implications of the transition of digital architecture from simulation and visualisation to information modelling.  It aims to shed light on the methodological and technological challenges facing practitioners, researchers, and software developers, as a result of the early adoption of BIM. 
Taron, Joshua. "Exploiting Interoperability Toward Generative Design." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 33-47. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012.

The potential afforded by the open search spaces of both agent-based models and evolutionary engines have given architecture yet another set of computational tools to play with, yet more often than not, they are used in isolation from one another. This research explores the set of techniques and results of having combined swarm formations, FEM software and an evolutionary engine within a parametric modeling environment such that they induce structurally intelligent swarm (SIS) morphologies. These morphologies are situated within normative architectural assemblies by means of parametric grafting techniques. Savage gothic materiality, as described by John Ruskin, as well as the work of Eva Hesse are referenced as the basis for these explorations. Speculations are made as to refining the engineering capabilities, expanding on programmatic applications and testing integrated SIS assemblies at larger scales.

Abdelmohsen, Sherif. "Genres of Communication Interfaces in BIM-Enabled Architectural Practice." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 81-91. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012. This paper explores the interaction and different types of representations enacted in a BIM-enabled environment that involves interdisciplinary and intradisciplinary collaboration among teams of designers in an architectural praxis context. By means of an ethnographic study conducted over the course of an architectural project from schematic design to construction documents, including five disciplines and twenty subjects, genres of communication interfaces are identified between BIM-authoring tools, sketching interfaces and domain specific analysis tools, and explored within the realm of distributed cognition. Implications in architectural practice and education are then discussed. 
Ibrahim, Mohamed, Alan Bridges, Scott C. Chase, Samir Bayoumi, and Dina Taha. "Grammatically Thinking - Summing up the Teaching of the First Year with a Comprehensive Grammatical Project." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 129-140. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012.

This paper describes a teaching experience conducted and carried out as part of the coursework of first year students of architecture at Strathclyde University. The workshop is the Third of three workshops planned to take place during the course of the first year studio, aimed at introducing new ways of thinking and introducing students to a new pattern of architectural education. The experiment was planned under the theme of Evaluation during the Final stage. A grammatical approach was chosen to deliver the methodology in the design studio, based on shape grammars.

Hemsath, Timothy. "Hybridizing Digital Fabrication Techniques." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 103-114. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012.

The deconstruction (DeCon) and repurposing (ReCon) of existing structures and materials are worthwhile and relevant endeavors given the potential for such procedures to be more economically and environmentally sustainable than conventional construction methods. Conventional construction methods often utilize virgin materials for the production of architecture, requiring extensive energy to harvest, process, and manufacture the materials for use. Today, we must face the fact that we exist in a carbon-sensitive economy, and demand design approaches that reduce architectureis impact on the environment. Our goal was to develop a CADCAM ReCon design methodology that would have the potential to mitigate carbon consumption. To explore this goal, students engaged a design research project that looked for novel and innovative approaches to the DeCon and ReCon of an existing barn. The student researchers created parametric models and surface designs derived from the existing materials. The digitally fabricated tectonic design constructions resulted in economical, novel, and material-efficient design methodologies for DeCon and ReCon.

Hamani, Dalil, and Jean Olive. "Information System to Improve the Building Production Management Cooperative Work in Design and Architectural Production." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 253-270. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012.

Our work is to enable partners of a construction project (building owner, architect, engineer, etc.) to share all the technical data produced and manipulated during the building process, by setting up interfaces for an accessible information system via the internet. Our system would be able to deliver an answer to a user to a particular question asked. The system links databases and allows building partners to access and to manipulate specific information. This paper covers the information structure model based on building construction knowledge and the access to user-relevant information. First, the paper aims to establish the state of the art of the information systems available today in the building construction field. Second, we present the contribution of our research to the description of the building elements (foundations, ramps, stairs, etc.), where information is share by partners who are distant from one another and focused on fields of expertise that are distinct but concurrent. Our system links distributed databases and provides an updated building representation that is being enriched and refined all along the building life cycle. It consists of 3D representations of the building as well as data that are associated with each graphical entity (walls, slabs, beams, etc.).

Saighi, Ouafa, and Mohamed Zerouala. "Information Technology Utilization in Architectural Engineering: a Field Investigation at the Department of Architecture and Construction, Constantine (Algeria)." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 155-156;273-284. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012.

This paper is derived from an under developed research work, that is a PhD thesis which studies the influence of Information Technology (IT) on architectural practice in Algeria. It examines the use of IT by students of the Department of Architecture and Construction in Constantine in their design studio's projects.  The target of the study is to inspect the depth of utilization of IT, identify the advantages and shortcomings of use, and propose some solutions. A field survey was undertaken on a sample of students at the Department of Architecture and Construction. The survey has the following objectives: to find out the students motivation behind the adoption and use of IT in their projects, to identify the negative and positive aspects of  use, to identify the barriers that would hinder better use, and to determine the impact of the IT tools on the design process and projects. // For a more comprehensive comprehension of the study case, a pilot field survey was conducted during two consecutive years. This enables the researchers to make comparisons between the survey's results of the same year, and to study the trends of use by making comparisons between the results of these two years. SPSS was used to analyze the results. The analysis of results shows that the IT helps largely to improve the quality of presentations of the documents, images and graphics but this was an attempt from students to satisfy and influence the "others". In some cases, this has negatively affected the quality of design projects. It was used by students with poor design skills to cover up some weak aspects and faults in their design projects. On the other hand, some tutors opposed the exaggerated use of IT and the complete dependence on the computer during the design stage. They prefer the "traditional way" of design development. There is an ongoing conflict and arguments between students and tutors regarding this matter. However, It was noticed that the IT has effectively contribute in improving the competition level between students thus the quality of their design projects.

Bouchahm, Yasmina, Fatiha Bourbia, and Bouketta Samira. "Numerical Simulation of Effect of Urban Geometry Layouts on Wind and Natural Ventilation Under Mediterranean Climate." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 195-202. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012.

The use of the method "simulation" of the microclimate for an urban site presents much of interest, because this can serve as us observation and analysis of the consequences of various scenarios relating to the existence and the importance of the constituent elements in urban space. Wind in outdoor urban space is among the most difficult parameters to identify and control field given its instability. Currently, in the field of the ventilation, there are some outdoor spaces simulation tools, used to assess the flow of the wind at different spatial scales. The aim of this research is to demonstrate the effect of the urban geometry of the layout on the wind movement and the outdoor natural ventilation. However, this study investigated the effect on outdoor thermal comfort of a building layouts in a planned residential area situated in the city of Jijel humid Mediterranean region of Algeria.  In order to improve outside comfort in this open space, a 3D numerical simulation tool ENVI-met 3.1 beta 4 was used to simulate the urban thermal climate taking into account various scenarios. Thus, simulation's results are discussed in this paper

Ambrose, Michael, and Kristen Fry. "Re:Thinking BIM in the Design Studio - Beyond Tools... Approaching Ways of Thinking." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 71-80. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012.

The application of digital design methods and technologies related to BIM and Integrated Practice Delivery are altering the how and what of architectural design. The way contemporary architecture is conceived and made is being transformed through the digital methods, processes and applications used in BIM. How architectural education and the design studio model evolve to reflect, interpret, translate, or challenge the multiplicitous and simultaneously variable modes of contemporary practice present opportunity and risk to this generation of digital scholars, educators and practitioners. Might we re-conceive the design studio as a venue in which a critical dialogue about how the many facets of architectural design practice are engaged? The possibilities afforded by BIM and Integrated Practice Delivery and digital design technologies are increasingly affecting what we make and simultaneously how we make as architects. Digital modeling of both geometry and information is replacing (or displacing) digital drawing. We see diminishing returns of the value of transforming three-dimensional spatial/formal ideas into two-dimensional conventional abstractions of those complex ideas. This comprehensive thinking promoted by BIM processes is one of the key advantages of using BIM leading to true design innovation. The reiterative learning process of design promoted in BIM promotes a rethinking of design studio education.

Borham, Ahmad, Lobna Sherif, and Osama Tolba. "Resilient Rules - Culture and Computation in Traditional Built Environments." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 211-221. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012.

This study explores the influence of the socio-cultural rules, based upon Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh), on the complexity of the traditional built environment. This system of rules organized the societal activities, including decisions and activities related to design and construction in the Arab-Islamic city. Considering the city as a complex system, the study will try to show how this rules system made the Arab-Islamic city resilient and adaptive. Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) are non-linear, self-organizing systems that have the ability to adapt to changing conditions through changing the rules that organize the random autonomous interactions between agents in the environment. This adaptation takes place through gradual gained experience that is reflected in the behavior of agents. This study attempts to interrelate different bodies of literature (Complexity/Chaos theory and built environment studies) in a single framework that aims to show that the socio-cultural rules system based on fiqh was a major factor in the resilience of the traditional built environment. These interrelations are illustrated using a graph called Computational Rules Graph (CRG). The CRG relates the traditional rules system to attributes of complex systems in a graph that can be modeled computationally. Traditional rules (codes of conduct) are proscriptive (non-deterministic), defining what is prohibited, thereby producing autonomous environments where agents had control over their immediate environment. In comparison, contemporary rules of the built environment (building codes) are prescriptive (deterministic), subscribing definite actions that need to take place by the stake-holder (agent) neglecting user needs and preferences. The application of these traditional rules system increased the agent's autonomy and freedom of action. It also helped establish stronger social networks among agents, which resulted in a resilient environment.

Del Signore, M.. "Responsive Prototypes: Urban Machines as a Framework for the Digital City." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 203-210. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012.

The aim of this paper is to provide a conceptual understanding of the production of machines/devices in relation to technology and urban environment in order to offer an operative framework to position these types of interventions in our contemporary design practice. These types of systems are inherently spatial. They represent for architects and designers one mode of operating in the urban context as they provide a critical form of inquiry to speculate on the future of cities and urbanism.  

Ghani, Izham, Ahmad Rafi Moham Eshaq, Peter Woods, and Abdul Salleh. "Sense of Place in Virtual Heritage Environment: a Review." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 181-189. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012.

The use of computer technology is becoming a necessity to many organizations particularly as a means of representation and visualization. In the context of culture and heritage it is often developed in the form of virtual heritage. This is due to the fact that some of these intangible values are faded or even lost in museums they are placed, or buried in its physical remains and ruins. The concept of portraying the richness of sense of place via the use of virtual reality (VR) technology is seen to be of great potential to give value to the heritage sites. Thus, VR allows a unique representation of the intangible heritage elements while evoking the user's senses, emotions, memories, meanings and interpretations, though these are arguably complex to accomplish. This paper reviews literatures on factors that influence the character of place and sense of place, and the use of VR technology and virtual world design to suggest presence for virtual heritage development.

Mohamed, Samy. "Sustainable Design and Construction: New Approaches Towards Sustainable Manufacturing." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 241-251. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012. Ecological and environmental issues are playing an important and larger role in corporate and manufacturing strategies. For complete creative design process, buildings require both for construction and manufacturing, due to their comparatively long life cycle for maintenance, significant raw material and energy resources. Thinking in terms of product life cycles is one of the challenges facing manufacturers today. “Life Cycle Management” (LCM) considers the product life cycle as a whole and optimizes the interaction of product design, construction, manufacturing and life cycle activities. The goal of this approach is to protect resources and maximize the effectiveness during usage by means of Life Cycle Assessment, Product Data Management, Technical Support and last but not least by Life Cycle Costing. In this paper the environmental consciousness issues pertaining to design, construction, manufacturing and operations management are presented through computer intelligent technologies of this 21century. So, this paper shows the existing approaches of LCM and discusses their visions and further development.  
Bourbia, Fatiha, Yasmina Bouchahm, and Ouarda Mansouri. "The Influence of Albedo on the Urban Microclimatic Street Canyon." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 159-169. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012.

In city, when temperatures run higher than those in suburban and rural areas, this generate a phenomenon called Urban Heat Island (UHI), this effect  occurs, primarily because growing numbers of buildings have supplanted vegetation and trees. The main causes of the different microclimatic conditions in cities are linked among other parameters to urban geometry which influences incoming and outgoing radiations as well as surface material properties, such as color and texture. In hot climates the elevated surface temperatures of materials directly affect, not only the urban microclimate, but also thermal comfort conditions in urban open spaces. In order to evaluate the microclimate variation of urban street canyon compared to the variation of walls and ground surfaces materials, series of field simulation are used by software tool, Envi-met v3.0, in down town of Constantine, Algeria.

Sidawi, Bhzad. "The Possible Role of CAAD Systems in Initiating Innovation in the Design Studio." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 117-128. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012.

Design is a social phenomenon and the previous research highlights that design precedents and social interaction between designers including negotiation, collaboration and communications is essential to initiate creativity and the production of innovative design products. CAAD systems aim is to help the architect in formulating and developing design ideas. Researchers suggest that knowledge based systems can be integrated with CAAD systems so it would provide the architect with design knowledge that would him/ her to recall design precedents/ solutions thus link it to the design problems. Nevertheless, CAAD systems can provide limited help regarding the production of innovative design. Furthermore, the attention of the designers of knowledge based systems is focused on architects rather than the end product. On the other hand, most of the CAAD systems have web communication tools that enable designers to communicate their with colleagues and partners in business. However, none of these systems have the capability to capture useful knowledge from the design negotiations. Students of the third to fifth year at College of Architecture, University of Dammam were surveyed and interviewed to find out how far design tools, communications and resources would impact the production of innovative design projects. The survey results show that knowledge extracted from design negotiations would impact the innovative design outcome. It highlights also that present design precedents are not very helpful and design negotiations between students, tutors and other students are not documented thus fully incorporated into the design scheme. The paper argues that the future CAAD systems should be capable to recognize innovative design precedents, and incorporate knowledge that is resulted from design negotiations. This would help students to produce innovative design products. 

Mai, M A.. "The Use of Smart Geometry in Islamic Patterns - Case Study: Mamluk Mosques." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 49-68. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012. It is noted that architects need new and quick methods designing the historic architectural styles, as well as restoring the historical urban areas particularly the Islamic ones. These designs and restorations should adapt to the basics of the Islamic style used, general concept, module and features. Smart Geometry provides advanced design concepts and increases alternative variations. Parametric design softwares also add more rules and relations on the design process. Obviously, the Islamic module and proportions are used as design generators that result in extracting a number of alternatives easily in a little time. Generative Components (GC) is the parametric software used to achieve the desired objectives of this research. 
Blibli, Mustapha, Ammar Bouchair, and Faouzi Hannouf. "Three Dimensional Reconstitution of an Old Town from Historical Documents: Case of the Medina of Jijel in Algeria." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 191;285-303. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012.

The three-dimensional reconstitution of cities and urban tissues was the subject of several studies and researches. In order to obtain the acquisition of the geometry of architectural or urban sets, some studies are based on Photogrammetric or on computer vision. Others have focused on the development of tools of acquisition from a laser providing a 3D scatter plot. Some of them yet focused towards the development of CAD software. The automatic generation for morphological 3D representation based on the exploitation of the architectural knowledge basis is also an option. This type of work becomes more relevant and legitimate when it concerns old cities in state of ruin or more simply missing whose remains only prints or literary descriptions similar to our case study, the old town of Jijel that many people ignore its existence. The aim of this work is to achieve a 3D reconstitution of buildings of this town based on historical documents, mostly prints, digitized old maps and plans, as well as literary texts (tales of travelers, military records, and history books). The method developed can solve and generate possible urban volumes in the most frequent cases. The 3D model obtained, despite its geometric simplicity, can view the city from different angles and open new opportunities for research in history, architecture and town planning. 

Yu, Rongrong, Ning Gu, and Michael Ostwald. "Using Situated FBS Ontology to Explore Designers Patterns of Behavior in Parametric EnvironmentsStructurally Intelligent Swarms." In CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE: 6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 23-32. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Kingdom University, 2012.

Current literature suggests that there is limited empirical evidence supporting the understanding of designers behavior or processes in parametric design environments (PDEs). This on-going study explores designers patterns of behavior in PDEs and its relationship with design creativity. To achieve this, we introduce the situated function-behavior-structure (FBS) model to develop a customized coding scheme for future protocol studies. This FBS ontological model has been adapted to reflect the characteristics of parametric design. We propose to apply the results of the protocol analysis in identifying three levels of design behavior patterns: behavior patterns derived from design processes, behavior patterns derived from the whole design life-cycle and those derived from the two levels of parametric design activities (design knowledge based activities and rule algorithm based activities). Future experiments and subsequent protocol analysis will apply the coding scheme to identify these behavioral patterns. The relationship with design creativity will then be explored by mapping the identified behavior patterns against the design outcome assessment.