Keywords Abstract
Hamadah, Qutaibah. "A Computational Medium for the Conceptual Design of Mix-Use Projects." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 109-116. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. Mix use development is receiving wide attention for its unique sustainable benefits. Nevertheless, the planning and designing of successful mixed use projects in today's environment is a complex matrix of skill sets and necessary collaborations between various stakeholders and design professionals. From a design point of view, architects are required to manage and coordinate large information sets, which are many time at odds with one another. The expansive space of knowledge and information is at its best vague and substantially ill-structured. A situation that continues to overburden architects mental and intellectual ability to understand, address and communicate the design issue. In the face of this complex condition, designers are gravitating towards information modelling to manage and organize the expansive data. However, is becoming increasingly evident that current building information modelling applications are less suited for early design activity due to their interrupted and rigid workflows. Against this background, this paper presents a theoretical framework for a computational medium to support the designer during early phases of exploring and investigating design alternatives for mix-use projects. The focus is on the conjecture between programming and conceptual design phase, when uncertainty and ambiguity as at its maximum, and the absence of computational support continues to be the norm. It must be noted however, the aim of the medium is not to formulate or automate design answers. Rather, to support designers by augmenting and enhancing their ability to interpret, understand, and communicate the diverse and multi-faceted design issue. In literature on interpretation, Hans-Georg Gadamer explains that understanding is contingent on an act of construction. To understand something is to construct it. In light of this explanation. To help designers understand the design issue, is to help them construct it. To this end, the computational medium discussed in this paper is conceived to model (construct) the mix-use architectural program. In effect, turning it into a dynamic and interactive information model in the form of a graph (network). This is an important development because it will enable an entirely new level of interaction between the designer and the design-problem. It will allow the designer to gather, view, query and repurpose the information in novel ways. It will offer the designer a new context to foster knowledge and understanding about the ill-structured and vague design issue. Additionally, the medium would serve well to communicate and share knowledge between the various stakeholders and design professionals. Central to the discussion are two questions: First, how can architects model the design program using a graph? Second, what is the nature of the proposed computational medium, namely, its components and defining properties?
Babsail, Mohammad, and Mahjoub Elnimeiri. "A Computer Process for Investigating Wind Power Production in Building Integrated Wind Turbines." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 213-220. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. This paper reports on the computer process to be used in an ongoing research to investigate the effect of architectural parameters of tall buildings on the incorporation of wind turbines. The process combines a generative modelling tool (Grasshopper) and a performance based CFD tool (Virtualwind). The process is demonstrated on three typical tall building plan configurations. The wind speed was simulated at certain locations to demonstrate the ability of tall buildings to enhance the wind speed and thus maximize the energy produced by wind turbines located between twin towers. The process to predict wind power production is lastly listed.
Almusharaf, Ayman, and Mahjoub Elnimeiri. "A Performance-Based Design Approach for Early Tall Building Form Development ." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 39-50. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. This paper presents a methodological interactive design approach within which structure is integrated into tall building form development. The approach establishes a synergy between generative and analytical tools to allow for parallel interaction of the formal and structural design considerations during the conceptual design phase. An integration of the associative modelling system, Grasshopper, and the structural analysis tool, ETABS was established, and a bi-directional feedback link between the two tools was initiated to guide the iterative from generation process. A design scenario is presented in this paper to demonstrate how the parametric generation and alteration of architectural form can be carried out based on instant feedback on the structural performance. Utilizing such a tool, architects can not only develop improved understanding of structural needs, but also realize their formal ideas structurally and materially.
Gewely, Maha. "Algorithm Aided Architectural Design (Aaad)." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 117-126. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. Algorithm Aided Architectural Design (AAAD) is considered a second paradigm shift in the Architectural design process after the first one of bridging the conventional design process to the digital realm of design. This paper is divided into two parts, the first part comprehends the Algorithmic Architecture approach of from the point of view of tools, techniques, theories and practice in order to find the Algotecture theories on the map of Digital Architecture. Then, the paper exemplifies an application on Algorithmic Architecture. FALLINGWATER TOOLBOX VERSION 1.0 is a computational design demo tool for architects to aid in the house schematic design phase according to an analytical study of Frank Lloyd Wright's basic design rules and spatial program of his masterpiece, FallingWater House, (Edgar J. Kaufmann family house 1939). These rules have been transferred to algorithms and code thereafter. At a preceding stage, the Graphical User Interface (GUI) was developed using MAXScript 9.0. Using the FALLINGWATER TOOLBOX, infinite number of house prototypes can be generated within few minutes. Although, the FWT is based on a hypothetical design problem of producing prototype alternatives for a new house with the same identity of the Edgar Kaufmann House, the concept of the tool can be applied on a wider range of problems. It may help generating prototype alternative solutions for residential compounds design according to the required constraints.
Katz, Neil. "Algorithmic Modeling, Parametric Thinking: Computational Solutions to Design Problems." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 19-36. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. Architects and designers have often used computational design techniques in their design process, even without “computers”, from designing spaces which activate at the instant of the solstice sunrise, to creating geometrically complex and structurally innovative cathedrals. Designing with rules and variables can lead to solutions which satisfy the design criteria and may result in interesting and unanticipated models. Computational design is a process of designing and a way of thinking, contemporary tools can promote and enhance this process. Algorithmic and parametric modelling (and thinking) can be powerful processes in design, and particularly in working with complex geometry and addressing project constraints and analytical and data-driven design. This paper describes these methods and provides examples of their use on projects at Skidmore, Owings & Merrill.
Hubers, Hans. "Collaborative Parametric BIM." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 127-134. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. The paper will be focussing on a number of digital design tools used in [our groups credentials]. A new laboratory called [] is developed with Virtual Reality for collaborative architectural design. A brief description of the systems and how they are used to support a design team is given. Synchronic and a-synchronic, local and inter-local communication is made possible. Methods for introducing sustainability in the digital design process and user participation over the Internet will be discussed. The results of the authoris PhD research “Collaborative architectural design in virtual realityi are used to develop a new approach in which team members use their own specific software. Swarm design applications developed in Virtools are used at the start of a project. The objects in the swarm can be urban and architectural functional volumes. Examples of the first are houses, offices, factories, roads and water ways. Examples of the second are working, dining, shopping and waiting spaces. Relations between the functional volumes with or without constraints make the functional volumes swarm to find equilibrium. Everything is dynamic, meaning that relations and functional volumes can change any time. Alternatives can be developed using different values for these parameters and by top-down intervention. When the final global layout has been chosen, using a criteria matrix with sustainability criteria to be judged by all participants, including the future users, a next phase is started amongst professionals using parametric design software. A study into different types of parametric design software makes clear why object parametric software can be used for IFC based BIM, while the more interesting process parametric software can not. To make this clear a pragmatic description of the IFC format is given with a simple example of such a file. Future research will be proposed in which applications of different disciplines are connected through the application programming interfaces, while integrating as much as possible the building information and knowledge in the IFC format.
Lostritto, Carl. "Computation Without Computers." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 135-144. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. This work documents the implications of using physical media to teach digital design concepts, techniques, values and approaches. With the pedagogy and work of a seminar and studio across two Universities as test cases, this research seeks to prove that a parametric and algorithmic approach to architecture is most fruitfully understood as the connection between logic, mathematics and aesthetics. Students trace the indirect relationships between process and product so as to enable the application of these connections in a non-linear, exploratory and goal-flexible design process. The first phase of student work involves the creation of an image, constructed with ink or graphite on paper, that embodies a parametric aesthetic. Students are tasked articulating and performing operations, such as dividing a curve, packing shapes, and conditional transformations. Subsequently, students fabricate a surface-conscious model with modules that have the capacity to vary based on their grid parameter, using historically rooted techniques such as weaving, perforating, layering and tessellation. Digital fabrication and parametric modelling is then introduced, not as a means to a predefined end, but as another medium, capable of participating with manual techniques. As an example, a fabricated paper-based installation is generated with parametrically generating a cut-sheet, partially blind to its assembled manifestation. The hypothesis of this research is tested in more comprehensive projects that follow as environmental forces are resolved through dynamic and ambiguous visual and spatial conditions.
Hamani, Dalil, Jean Olive, and Farid Ameziane. "Cooperative Work Based on Numerical Tools in the Building Production." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 145-160. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. This article presents the contribution of our research to the description of the built elements in the site where information is shared by partners who are distant from one another and focused on fields of expertise that are distinct but concurrent. Our work aims to provide an information system that promotes cooperation between the buildings actors, by sharing a unique data model among the partners involved in the building construction processes. It takes into account the technical data needed in the different phases of the supply chain management cycle in the construction field. To answer a cooperative context, our work is based on the fundamental assumption that it is possible to structure a building description following the economistis view point. During the implementation phase, the different activities on a building site can be described as a model that integrates all the related tasks and includes all the work practices and requirements shared among the partners of the architectural project.
Loemker, Thorsten. "Design and Simulation of Textile Building Elements." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 161-170. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. In this paper we examine the use of textile building elements and investigate on their potential scope of application in architecture. Other than commonly used for spanned or tent-like structures we concentrate on the use of textiles for folded, crinkled and procumbent assemblies, as these seem to correspond much better with the textilesi inherent properties. On closer examination of these properties it becomes obvious that fabric primarily exists in a loose, uneven and irregular physicality that can be adjusted and configured into different states that match specific criteria. That is why fabric is mainly used for covering, protecting or hiding objects, e.g. as apparel for people. Only at a second glance does one recognize that textiles can be used for many other purposes such as collecting, separating, filtering or even healing. Thus, in the first instance of this research we examined customary usages and classified them into different categories that aided us to further develop practical application areas for the architectural domain. Subsequently to the fact that the shape of a textile might alter under the influence of forces, the further focus of this research lied on the appraisal of digital simulation techniques and simulation engines to provide sophisticated instruments for the generation of the associated time-based geometric form of the fabric. External elements that might drive this deformation process such as wind, temperature, precipitation, as well as static and dynamic building components were considered in the simulation process in order to generate visual output of the corresponding shapes. Studies about bipartite materials that can control the deformation process and might lead the textile beyond its primary functionality conclude this work.
Kenzari, Bechir. "Generative Design and the Reduction of Presence ." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 97-106. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. Digital design/fabrication is slowly emancipating architectural design from its traditional static/representational role and endowing it instead with a new, generative function. In opposition to the classical isomorphism between drawings and buildings, wherein the second stand as translations of the first, the digital design/fabrication scenario does not strictly fall within a semiotic frame as much as within a quasi biological context, reminiscent of the Aristotelian notion of entelechy. For the digital data does not represent the building as much it actively works to become the building itself. Only upon sending a given file to a machine does the building begin to materialize as an empirical reality, And eventually a habitable space as we empirically know it. And until the digital data actualizes itself, the building qua building is no more than one single, potential possibility among many others. This new universe of digital design/fabrication does not only cause buildings to be produced as quick, precise, multiply-generated objects but also reduces their presence as original entities. Like cars and fashion items, built structures will soon be manufactured as routinely-consumed items that would look original only through the subtle mechanisms of flexibility: frequent alteration of prototype design (Style 2010, Style 2015..) and “perpetual profilingi (mine, yours, hers,..). The generic will necessarily take over the circumstantial. But this truth will be veiled since “customized prototypes” will be produced or altered to individual or personal specifications. This implies that certain “myths” have to be generated to speed up consumption, to stimulate excessive use and to lock people into a continuous system which can generate consumption through a vocabulary of interchangeable, layered and repeatable functions. Samples of “next seasonis buildings” will be displayed and disseminated to enforce this strategy of stimulating and channeling desire. A degree of manipulation is involved, and the consumer is flattered into believing that his or her own free assessment of and choice between the options on offer will lead him or her to select the product the advertiser is seeking to sell. From the standpoint of the architect as a maker, the rising upsurge of digital design and fabrication could leave us mourning the loss of what has been a personal stomping ground, namely the intensity of the directly lived experiences of design and building. The direct, sensuous contact with drawings, models and materials is now being lost to a (digital) realm whose attributes refer to physical reality only remotely. Unlike (analogue) drawings and buildings, digital manipulations and prototypes do not exercise themselves in a real space, and are not subjected in the most rigorous way to spatial information. They denote in this sense a loss of immediacy and a withering of corporal thought. This flexible production of space and the consequent loss of immediate experience from the part of the designer will be analyzed within a theoretical framework underpinned mainly by the works of Walter Benjamin. Samples of digitally-produced objects will be used to illustrate this argument.
Gomes, Cristina. "Humanising ICT to a Smarter Dwelling Environment." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 221-230. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. Dwelling environment is not intelligent if it does not include the concept of home. The emergence of ICT allowed new functions as well as new ways of performing the traditional ones. The need to be online does not remove the need of privacy and to print the site. New ways of living require rethinking dwelling typology to flexibility. Intelligent environments will appear to elevate the sense of home, where security, autonomy, independence, comfort and interaction will be crucial to promote a more qualified life. Technological solutions can be driven in different directions: energy efficiency, lightening and temperature control, video surveillance, access control, etc., assistive environments, entertainment solutions like home theater and professional ones, all have in common to conceive the environment that matches useris expectancies, where human interaction and social participation emerge as crucial requirements.
Celani, Gabriela, José Duarte, and Regiane Pupo. "Introducing Digital Fabrication Laboratories in Architecture Schools." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 65-74. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. The present paper proposes a set of guidelines for the implementation of digital fabrication laboratories for education and research in architecture schools. These guidelines are based on authors experiences in creating two of such laboratories, one in Brazil and another one in Portugal. They are also based on visits to existing labs throughout the world and interviews with their coordinators. The objective is to help architecture schools plan new facilities or run recently established ones. For this reason, the chapter will be organized in topics and will include a checklist and some specific examples of equipment, software and results, as well as cost estimations. The issues addressed will include various aspects.
Hawker, Ronald, Dina Elkady, and Thomas Tucker.. "Not Just Another Pretty Face ." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 249-260. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. Digital Heritage has gained popularity recently as means of dynamically representing and reconstructing historic buildings and cityscapes. Simultaneously this new medium of visualization affords another approach to examine human-virtual environment interaction and offers possibilities of exploiting virtual environments as educational tools. At Zayed University, a federal university primarily for women citizens of the United Arab Emirates, we have integrated student-faculty research and documented and reconstructed a number of historical buildings within the curriculum of the Department of Art and Design. We have further collaborated with the animation program at Winston Salem State University in North Carolina, utilizing the motion capture laboratory at the Center of Design Innovation to literally breathe life into these reconstructions. The primary idea is to contribute to the ongoing documentation of the countryis heritage through creating “responsive virtual heritage environmentsi where the spectator is actively engaged in exploring the digital space and gain certain degrees of control over the course and scheme of the dynamic experience. The process begins by introducing students to utilize the diverse capabilities of CAD and three dimensional computer applications and intertwine the technical skills they acquire to construct virtual computer models of indigenous built environments. The workflow between the different applications is crucial to stimulate studentsi problem solving abilities and tame the application tools, specifically when constructing complex objects and structural details. In addition the spatial and temporal specificity different computer applications afford has proven useful in highlighting and analyzing the buildingsi function within the extreme climate of the country and their role in the political-economy, particularly in visualizing the ephemeral qualities of the architecture as they relate to passive cooling and the inter-relationships between built and natural environments. Light and time settings clarify shadow casting and explain the placement and orientation of buildings. Particle simulations demonstrate the harnessing of wind and rain both urban and rural settings. The quantitative data accumulated and charted through CAD and VR programs and geo-browsers can be integrated with qualitative data to create a more holistic analytical framework for understanding the complex nature of past settlement patterns. In addition, the dynamic nature of this integration creates a powerful educational tool. This paper reviews this ongoing research project with examples of reconstructions completed across the country, demonstrating analytical and educational possibilities through the integration of CAD programs with a range of other statistical, geographic, and visualization software.
Schimek, H., A. Meisel, and T. Bogenperger. "On Connecting Panels of Freeform Building Envelopes." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 171-178. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. As smooth geometric shapes are very tricky to manufacture with an overall great expense this paper presents a parametrical approach how to control the joint geometry within a framework of flat panels which approximate a freeform surface using discretization. Since timber has an excellent reputation as a sustainable and regenerative material plus the fact that timber can be perfectly processed with a large variety of tools including CNC milling machines we are using cross laminated timber boards (CLT) with large and heavy members. Hence that means dealing with high forces which require geometrically exact and often complex joints, which we want to push to a high degree of automation in the design process. We establish rules and constraints between all neighboring CLT-panels. That way we control a new connector system specially designed for non-standard CLT-joints. This paper documents the status of one aspect of an ongoing research project and will also give a preview to upcoming tasks including the production of a prototype structure.
Hemmerling, Marco. "Origamics." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 89-96. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. Folding strategies in architecture have been explored since the 1990s - if not before - as a method to generate spatial and structural concepts by applying complex geometries. These strategies are generally related to an analogue working method that involves paper folded models rather than digital form finding processes. Against this background the paper focuses on the impact and possibilities of folding principles from origami for the digital design process in using parametric software to generate integral and adaptive systems within an experimental and intuitive design approach.
Jones, Charles, and Kevin Sweet. "Over Constrained." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 179-188. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. Parametric software has fundamentally changed the way in which architecture is conceptualized, developed and even constructed. The ability to assign parameters or numeric variables to specific portions of a project has allowed designers the potential to test variations of their design. Small changes to a single parameter can have an exponential effect on the designed object and alter its appearance beyond original preconceptions in both positive and negative ways. Parametric software also has the ability to constrain or restrict geometry to set values, parameters or conditions. This has the benefit of allowing portions of a form to remain constant or unchanged while simultaneously allowing for a great degree of flexibility in response to a design intent. Constraining portions of a design allows architects to respond to existing or unalterable conditions by ““locking downii information within a project and then explore those portions that can change more freely. This programmed relationship between the parameter and the form, once established, can give the illusion of minimal effort for maximum output. The ease in which geometrical form can be altered and shaped by a single variable can mislead beginning designers into thinking that the software makes these relationships for them. What is hidden, is the programming or connections needed between the parameters and the geometry in order to produce such dramatic change. Finally, thinking parametrically about design reintroduces the concept of a rigorous, intent driven, fabrication oriented practice, a practice lost in a digital era where the novelty of new tools was sufficient to produce new form. Because parametric models must have established relationships to all parts of the design, each component must have a purpose, be well thought out, and have a direct relationship to a real world object. The introduction of parametric design methodologies into an architectural pedagogy reestablishes architectural praxis in an academic setting. Students are taught to design based on creating relationships to connected components, just as they would do in a professional architectural practice. This paper outlines how Digital Project - a parametric based software - was introduced into an academic setting in an attempt reconnect the ideologies of academia with the practicalities of professional practice. In order to take full advantage of Digital Project as a parameter based software, a project that creates modular, flexible geometries was devised. Produced over one semester, the project set out to find ways of controlling designed geometry through variable parameters that allowed the initial module to be instantiated or replicated into a wall condition: maintaining a unified whole of discrete components. This paper outlines this process, the results and how the outcomes demonstrates the parametric ideologies described above.
Turrin, M., Rudi Stouffs, and Sevil Sariyildiz. "Parametric Design of the Vela Roof." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 231-240. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. Due to the increased request for representative structures and for spaces to be used independent of the weather conditions, contemporary cities increasingly integrate public covered spaces (shadowed squares and streets, courtyards, historic commercial galleries, etc.) in the urban fibre. Facing the design of large roof structures for semi outdoor spaces is increasingly common for architects and engineers. When focusing on large roofs, aesthetics, structural performance and economics often dominate the design process. However, the current increased emphasis on energy-related aspects generates new challenges. Particularly, the use of renewable energy resources needs to be confronted. In this paper we will address the subject through a case study whose design aimed at integrating performance evaluations in the very early stages of the process. The case study focuses on the so-called “Vela roof”. This roof is part of a larger project currently under construction in Bologna (Italy). The focus of the study concerns the use of on-site renewable climate (energy) resources with special attention given passive reduction of summer overheating and daylight. For these tasks a parametric model was developed to support the decision making process and the paper will present its potential with respect to performance-oriented design during the conceptual design phase of roof structure. The very first conceptual design developed by the architectural office was assumed as a starting point for the inclusion of performance criteria. In the preliminary design of the roof uncomfortable conditions were expected under the whole roof in the summer. Various strategies for improving the thermal comfort were investigated, involving a large set of combined systems. Not all of these will be detailed in this paper. Instead we will focus on the ones directly affected by the geometry of the roof. Those are mainly air flow for cooling and the reduction of solar gain, in combination with their effects on daylight. Their investigation was based on a chain of dependencies to be integrated in the design process. With respect to that, parametric modelling was used. Parametric modelling allows both geometrical entities and their relationships to be represented. These relationships are structured in a hierarchical chain of dependencies, established during the preliminary parameterization process. The independent properties of the model are usually expressed through independent parameters, and their variations generate different configurations of the model. By making use of this potential, three project scales were parametrically explored. At the large scale, parametric variations of the overall shape of the roof were investigated in relation to cooling through ventilation and here the parametric model allowed for the generation of both different configurations of the roof, including its structural morphology and variations of its structural tessellation. At the medium scale, the integration of openable modules was investigated in relation to air extraction for cooling, with respect to this, the parametric model allows exploring openings based on variations of size and distribution. At the small scale, various options were explored for the cladding system, in order to reduce the direct solar gain while still allowing the income of indirect natural light. The parametric model was used to investigate the configuration of self-shading modules and their integration in the structure. Specific emphasis will be given to the small scale. The advantages in design process and the current limits of the parametric modelling approach used here will be discussed in the paper.
Steinø, Nicolai. "Parametric Thinking in Urban Design." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 261-270. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. The paper states that most applications of parametric modelling to architecture and urban design fall into one of two strands of either form for formis sake, or the negotiation of environmental concerns, while approaches which allow scenarios to be easily tested and modified without the application of complex and expensive technologies are mostly absent, although they seem appropriate in urban design. A survey of existing approaches confirms the statement, and an example of the application of basic knowledge of geometry and parametric thinking to urban design forms the argument of the paper. The pros and cons of this simple approach is discussed, and the paper concludes, that while it does not represent a suitable solution in all cases, it fills a gap among the existing approaches to parametric urban design.
Sharkasi, Nour, Ramzi Hassan, and Caroline M. P. Hagerhall. "Presence in Virtual Cave." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 271-278. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. Virtual Reality (VR) is usually recognized as a tool that enables the viewer to move freely in a three dimensional digital environment. In this virtual world, different levels of immersion could be reached. Using VR to visualize sites and places from the past, presents and future is widely acknowledged. This study is making use of a recently installed U-Cave theatre at Birzeit University (BZU) in Palestine and a Con-Cave VR theatre at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB).In the study, we test hypotheses connected to presence in virtual reality environments, using the case of historical sites. Historical sites in general are important for reasons of cultural identification and environmental integrity. In many historical sites, it is difficult for a layperson to read and understand the meaning of the site, for that the remaining ruins donit provide enough information. This study will contribute to improving the public understanding for historical sites by unfolding the role of Virtual Reality to overcome the harsh reality of many damaged historical sites. The story-line of the site can be easily portrayed by re-constructing the original site in a virtual environment. The study also elaborates on the enriched sense of presence made possible by implementing different levels of details in the VR environment. Presence in VR environments is usually defined as “being there”,  with high consideration of the physical ether of the virtual environment, the definition confines attention to the sensation of place. This study calls for expanding the attention to the dimension of time that is made possible by innovative design of VR environment. The study argues that virtual reality technology does not only provide a 3-D experience to subjects, it can also add a fourth dimension by conveying the unconsciousness of man from the meanwhile moment to a different timeframe. Based on the current knowledge on presence in virtual environments, we will use a questionnaire to measure subjective presence for the two VR theatre systems. The study will make use of the following factors in order to determine the degree of presence in the virtual environment: (1) naturalness of interface design and involvement, (2) control and interaction, (3) quality of technical capabilities, and (4) negative effects. The outcome of the study will verify or falsify some of the following hypotheses: • There is a correlation between modelling techniques and presence. The perception of the visual experience differs between traditional media and an immersive VR environment. • A presentation of a historical site in a VR-Cave environment will increase our subjectis awareness of the identity of the historical site. • The presence level is correlated to previous real exposure. Subjects who had been to a ruined historical site in real life, would experience higher level of presence toward the VR presentation than those who had not been to the historical site in reality. • Because of the display enclosure surround effect, it is believed that presence in a Con-Cave would be higher than of U-Cave VR environment.
Schubert, Gerhard, Kaufmann Stefan, and Frank Petzold. "Project Wave 0.18 ." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 75-88. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. In recent years a number of projects have been emerged, in which the new possibilities of the computer as a design tool, have been used. Through the digital chain from design to manufacturing the efficiency has increased and allows the implementation of complex architectural structures. With all these new opportunities, also new challenges arise in the teaching and the educational concepts. The paper describes the detailed course concept and the didactic strategy using the example of a parametric designed roof structure, we designed, planed and build up in scale 1:1 within the main course. “Wendepunkt|e im Bauen” (Turning point|s of building) is the name of an exhibition at the “Pinakothek der Moderne” in Spring 2010. In addition to contributions of the industrialization in the building industry from 1850 to the present day, the exhibition also serves as a platform, to demonstrate new possibilities of computer-aided parametric design and the closely related computer aided manufacturing (CAM). In this context, we took the chance to build a sculpture in Scale 1:1 to show the potential of a constant digital workflow and the digital fabrication. Through the digital chain from design to manufacturing, the efficiency has been increased by the computer and allows the implementation of new complex architectural structures. But the efficiency of the high-degree-automation through the use of computerized machines usually ends in the production of the components. Because this coincidence of the elements in the assembly often proves cost and time, the aim of the project was to optimize both, the production of components and their assembly as well. As part of the wintercourse 2009/2010 different aspects of automation have been reviewed and new solutions have been analyzed. Together with 15 students of the Faculty of Architecture the complete digital chain started with the first design ideas, about parametric programming through production and assembly had been researched, implemented and brought to reality. In the first steps, the students had to learn about the potential, but also about the problems coming with the digital-design and the attached digital-production. There for the course took part at our computerlab. In weekly workshops, all ideas have been implemented and tested directly in the 3-dimensional parametric model. And thanks to the interdisciplinary work with the Department of Structural Design also static factors had been considered, to optimize the form. Parallel to the digital form-finding process, the first prototypes have been produced by the students. By using the chairs 3D-CNC-Mills we were able to check the programmed connection detail in reality and apply the so learned lessons to the further development. After nearly 3 month of research, designing, planning and programming, we were able to produce the over 1000 different parts in only 4 days. By developing a special pre-stressed structure and connection detail it was also possible, to assemble the whole structure (13.5m x 4.5m x 4m) in only one day. The close connection between digital design (CAD) and digital manufacturing (CAM) is an important point of our doctrine. By the fact, that the students operate the machines themselves, but also implement projects on a scale of 1:1, they learn to independently evaluate these new tools and to use them in a meaningful way.
Nancy, Yen-Wen. "Sustainability Through Teamwork: Using Social Media to Drive Collaborative Eco-Projects." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 18-May. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. Computers amplify our ability to reach our goals. They allow us to examine multiple facets of complex questions and illuminate possibilities to generate better solutions. Focusing these efforts towards the crucial environmental problems can give meaning and purpose to the work.
Sidawi, Bhzad. "The Sustainable Management of Remote Construction Projects." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 203-212. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. This paper discusses investigates the use of present project management practices and systems by the construction department of the Saudi Electric Company (SEC), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). It highlights shortages of the current management practices and systems and how it affects badly the sustainability dimensions of projects such as quality, scope, time and cost. The literature review suggests that Advanced Electronic Management and Communications systems (AEMCS) may help companies in managing remote projects efficiently thus minimizing the travel time, reducing unnecessary project costs and raising the quality of projects. Little research though was done regarding this issue and it found few unique management problems. A field survey was conducted on contractors and SECis supervision teams. It revealed that some of the remote projectis management problems however were caused by unprofessional and non standard project management conduct. It also found that traditional systems are very popular whereas advanced electronic systems are of little use. Participants expressed their concerns about the SECis present project management practices and their views regarding the implementation of advanced electronic project management systems and its possible impact on projectsi performance and process. The surveyis outcomes indicated that advanced electronic management systems should be tailored to SECis present and prospected needs, meanwhile SECis present project management methodologies should be adjusted into sustainable management practices. This would guarantee that project management practices will be substantially improved and sustainable objectives of projects are met. The study should motivate the SEC and other companies in KSA to review their present project management practices and systems, investigate the potentiality of advanced electronic systems use in managing remote projects and explore how to embrace sustainabilityis dimensions in project management practices.
Lim, Chor-Kheng. "Towards a Framework for CAD/CAM Design and Construction Process in Freeform Architecture: a Case Study." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 51-64. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. The objective of this research is to apply the teaching of CAD/CAM media to basic design studios for 1~2 year undergraduate students. The research concludes a framework of “e-basic design studio” based on literature analysis and design studio observations, which including the new tectonics thinking and the operation of traditional 2D/3D design media and CAD/CAM digital tools.
Allahaim, Fahad, Anas Alfaris, and David Leifer. "Towards Changeability." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 189-200. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. Many buildings around the world have undergone successive changes over their life cycles. Regardless of the type or size of a building there are usually requirements for change due to several unanticipated forces and emerging uncertainties that act upon them. These changes might be in the buildingis spatial, structural or service systems. This can be due to changes in the needs of occupants, the market demand or technological advances. Although buildings undergo change, current design practice does not address this and buildings are still designed as if they will remain static. This paper proposes an Adaptable Buildings Design (ABD) Framework to address the issue of adaptability in building design. Using this methodology uncertainties and future changes are first identified. To increase the buildingis longevity, flexibility options are embedded and design rules are formulated to trigger these options when necessary. The value of adaptability is then assessed by implementing several simulations using Real Options Analysis (ROA). To demonstrate the approach, the ABD is applied to a multi-use commercial building case study. Flexibility is embedded in the buildingis design across several systems allowing it to change and evolve over time based on a set of design rules. The buildings adaptability is then assessed using ROA. Positive results demonstrate the strength of the proposed methodology in addressing future change and uncertaintie.
Celani, G., L. Medrano, and J. Spinelli. "Unicamp 2030." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 279-286. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. The state university of Campinas, Unicamp, is a public university in upstate Sí o Paulo, Brazil, ranked the second best in the country. It was founded in 1966, and its main campus started to be built in 1967, in the suburbs of Campinas, nowadays a two-million people city. The area of the campus is almost 3 million square meters (300 hectares), with a total built area of 522.000 m2 and a population of 40 thousand people - 30 thousand students, 2 thousand faculty members and almost 8 thousand staff members. The “campus” gross population density is 133 people per hectare. Less than 6% of the total campus area is presently occupied. The design of Unicamp's campus is based on concepts that were typical of the modern movement, with reminiscences of corbusian urbanism, in which preference is given to cars and buildings are spread apart on the territory, with little concern to the circulation of pedestrians. The standard building type that has been built on campus since the 1970's is based on non-recyclable materials, and has a poor thermal performance. Unicamp is expected to double its number of students by the year 2030. The campus density is thus expected to grow from 600 people per hectare to almost 1,000 people per hectare. The need to construct new buildings is seen as an opportunity to correct certain characteristics of the campus that are now seen as mistakes, according to sustainability principles. This paper describes a set of proposals targeting the increase of the campus'density in a sustainable way. The plan also aims at increasing the quality of life on campus and diminishing its impact on the environment. The main targets are: - Reducing the average temperature by 2oC, - Reducing the average displacement time by 15 minutes, - Increasing the campus'density by 100%, - Reducing the CO2 emissions by 50%. // In order to achieve these goals, the following actions have been proposed: Developing a new standard building for the university, incorporating sustainability issues, such as the use of renewable and/or recyclable materials, the installation of rainwater storage tanks, the use of natural ventilation for cooling, sitting the buildings in such a way to decrease thermal gain, and other issues that are required for sustainable buildings'international certifications. To assess the performance of the new standard building, different simulation software were used, such as CFD for checking ventilation, light simulation software to assess energy consumption, and so on. 1. Filling up under-utilized urban areas in the campus with new buildings, to make better use of unused infrastructure and decrease the distance between buildings. 2. Proposing new bicycle paths in and outside campus, and proposing changes in the existing bicycle path to improve its safety. 3. Developing a landscape design plan that aims at creating shaded pedestrian and bicycle passageways.
Faten, A, and D Taha. "Using Case-Based Reasoning to Aid Sustainable Design." In CAAD | CITIES | SUSTAINABILITY: 5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 241-246. ASCAAD. Fez, Morocco: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2010. Since so far there exists only one planet, sustainable design is considered the (ethical) future in all fields of design. Although both architecture and construction are being considered major emitters of green house gases, a wise design not only can lead to minimizing this impact but it can also lead to restoring and regenerating the environment to a sustainable state. This paper presents an on-going research that aims at simplifying the elements and facilitating the process of sustainable design by using case-based reasoning. This is achieved through learning from past experiences, both good and bad ones, by providing a database application with a process-friendly interface which divides the main pillars of sustainable design into categories. Each building contains different stories related to different sustainable related issues. Each story can be repeated in /linked to many buildings. By providing designers with those past experiences, it is believed that deeper-studied designs can be more easily developed. Also a deeper analysis and understanding can be further implemented and produced with less effort for experienced and non-experienced architects in sustainable design. This would also decrease the consumption of time during the design process and encourage even more designers to integrate the sustainability concept into more designs. This research discusses the influence of sustainable design within the architectural domain, and suggests a computer application that aids architects during the preliminary design processes.