Keywords Abstract
Abdalla, Mohamed. "3D Model and Decision Support System for Fire Safety: a case study of Kingdom of Bahrain ." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 419-430. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. Fire agencies on all levels try hard to save lives, properties, and natural resources. Accurate access to critical information is essential in this regard, many agencies around the world have embraced GIS as a tool that helps them balance needs, uses, and hazards to promote sustainability of the environment while identifying and limiting vulnerability.  At Kingdom of Bahrain, Ministry of interior established the Geographic Security System (GSS) to enhance the emergency response.  The 3D of the GSS Consisted of 3 main parts: (1) 3D for terrain model, (2) 3D model for entire targeted zones, and (3) 3D models for individual buildings.  In this paper, the integration between GSS system and 3D model will be illustrated, and how this kind of integration could enhance decision support system (DSS) for fire safety at kingdom of Bahrain.  On other hand, we will highlight the technical and legislation difficulties faced in this project.  Also, the future steps to enhance DSS will be discussed.
Mazouz, Said. "A Conceptual Framework for a Decision Making Aid in the Design Process: Reference to environmental issues." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 135-151. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. The research, which is the subject of this paper, is concerned with the integration of the environmental variables in the process of architectural design. It is contended that the theory and the architectural practice are characterised by everlasting series of determinisms, which make some design variables to be eluded in the design process. Several hypotheses are put forward in order to explain the factors inhibiting a complex approach to architectural design. It is shown that the solution of such a problem requires the formulation of a theoretical paradigm possessing its own postulates, axioms and speaking the language of the architect. The notion of “type”, transformed in a “generic type”, embodyingi multifaceted knowledge is put forward as a concept in the way to defining a design process. The typology embodies an important applicability potential, which, associated with that of the computer, namely, expert systems and case based reasoning, may contribute to the decisive integration of the physical factors of the environment in the process of architectural design.
Fukuda, Tomohiro. "Analysis of a Mixed Reality Display for Outdoor and Multi-User Implementation." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 323-333. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. This research describes a tool which can be used outdoors instead of a paper medium by a group of people to facilitate city tour guiding or design studies. First, the problems of the device and software which constitute the developed outdoor type MR (Mixed Reality) system were considered. Problems regarding the display, sensor, and composition with video and 3DCG images were clarified. In addition, taking account of the problem that the display is dark outdoors, the luminosity of a number of displays was measured in a dark room and outdoors. In addition to the dark room contrast ratio, the importance of ambient contrast was highlighted through the experiment.
Al-Attili, Aghlab, and M. Androulaki. "Architectural Abstraction and Representation: the embodied familiarity of digital space." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 305-321. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. This paper argues that familiarity is the tool that enables the understanding of space abstraction and representation. Familiarity in this context is independent from embodied interaction, and is crudely based on the connection between the various similar images of space, in this particular case, virtual space. Our investigation into the nature of human interaction with space, its abstraction and its representation is based on the critical contrast between the outcomes of interaction with two virtual versions of a physical reality, the first version is a non-linear interactive graphical abstraction of the space where no assertions or indicators are given as to whether or not there is a relationship between the abstraction and its physical reality, whereas the second is a none-linear interactive 3D virtual environment clearly representing the physical space in question. The paper utilises qualitative methods of investigation in order to gain an insight into human embodied experience in space, its abstraction and representation.
Pellitteri, Giuseppe, Raimondo Lattuca, Salvatore Concialdi, Giuseppe Conti, and Raffaele De Amicis. "Architectural Shapes Generated in 3D Geobrowser through Environmental Constraints." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 281-295. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. The final configuration of the architectural shape is deeply conditioned by all constraints that the environmental context imposes. These, duly codified, can therefore generative elements that can be managed by the designer. Following a parametric approach, the architectural envelope is directly related to the constraints emerging from the urban context. In this paper we present the development and implementation of an application, which allows to generating three-dimensional models of buildings, directly within a three-dimensional geo-referenced environment. The application offers the user many innovative suggestions, associating the modelling ability, typical of the CAD systems, to the opportunity offered by the geo-referenced systems, to evaluate in real time the impact of the buildings directly on its environment, within which it can be generated and manipulated. The designer is able to explore several alternative solutions, according to formal requirements and style preferences. Three experiments are presented for different urban scenarios.
Abdelhameed, Wael. "Assessment of a Physical Planning Project through Virtual Reality: a case study." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 365-378. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. The study reports an application of VR models in the assessment of a part of physical planning project. The project outputs were different reports, GIS data and maps, and CAD drawings. The GIS data were used to create the VR models by importing Shpfiles of the GIS project outputs to VR software. The study presents VR models and the assessment of the physical planning project in terms of: 1) effect of the population increase, 2) effect of the required residential units, and 3) quality assurance for the current situation and future situation. The method used to build up the VR Models was through satellite images (by Google Earth Pro) and VR software (by UC Win/Road). Different models were built up to visualize and assess the alternative solutions and various influential factors. The study employed Virtual Reality in various urban and planning problems through models that are employed as tools of communication and design. The visualized environment and the associated models facilitated the evaluation of important areas, namely: impact of different factors and alternative solutions. The study concludes that the processes, such as decision making, visualization and representation, performed through VR manifest its importance to different design phases of urban and physical planning.
Sassen, Ben, Sabine Zierold, and Frank Petzold. "Between the Architectural and the Medial: Educating 21st century media-architects." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 89-101. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. The latter half of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century have seen significant change in the definition of the terms “architecture” and “architect”. Three fundamental factors affecting these changes have been the continual remoulding of global societal structures, the increasing importance of the reciprocal relationship between media and architecture and the growth of digital technologies in all areas of modern living. Through the rapid proliferation of new technologies, the extension of architecture into virtual spaces and the utilization of media as a tool for shaping experience, the lines between architecture and media have become blurred and new definitions of architectural and medial space have been defined. The use of the word medial in this paper means the relation of architecture to traditional and digital media. This paper describes how the Bauhaus University Weimar has responded to these developments. The paper gives an overview of the interdisciplinary'MediaArchitecture'post-graduate master's programme as a collaboration between the Bauhaus'Faculty of Architecture and Faculty of Media and describes selected coursework and research projects.
Nassar, Khaled. "Beyond Distance: New criteria for spatial configuration of design." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 17-28. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. Simple Euclidean distance has thus far been the dominating concept in analyzing architectural and urban spaces. This paper demonstrates that distances between spaces cannot be measured solely in terms of simple Euclidean Distance, but instead other kind of distances (e.g. City block, Chebyshev, Minkowski, Canberra distance or Angular separation) are shown to offer new meaningful insight into space and its denotation. Several issues are raised in light of these new measures such as how much are these measurement techniques influenced by what counts as “space”? In addition is there a difference between the physical distance and the human perception of distance? More importantly, how do these methods alter design or offer a new process of designing? Applications and analysis is applied to classical examples of architecture.
Mueller, Volker. "Conceptual Design Tools: Establishing a framework for specification of concept design tools." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 103-120. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. For considerable time research has been conducted into architectural design activities and the digital tools that support these design activities. Previous research endeavors have focused on specific aspects of digital tools and design processes and have yielded correspondingly focused insights. This effort attempts to build a framework that allows assembling insights from research across the domain of digitally supported facilities design in order to develop a cohesive set of design tool specifications. This design tool specification framework in combination with a review of existing research will allow identification of areas for future investigation to rethink concept tool design.
Al-Ali, Amal, and P. Sharma. "Creativity and Collaboration in Architecture Education in the UAE." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 245-256. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. A review of national government literature indicates that todayis knowledge-driven economy demands a workforce equipped with complex skills and attitudes.  Examples of these skills and attitudes are general problems solving, meta-cognitive skills, critical thinking and lifelong learning. Reviews of the Architecture, Engineering and Construction industry indicates a gap between architecture practice and education. The Egan report states that there is a need for a change of style, culture and process within the construction industry and it identified five driving forces, the report also recognised that the achievement of these driving forces is linked to training and education. Education must not only teach the necessary technical skills and knowledge, but also the culture of teamwork, collaborative work and creativity. The construction boom in the United Arab Emirates combined with the countryis mission to highly educate and train its nationals to be able to tackle market challenges provoked the necessity of implementing the culture of creativity and collaboration in education system. On the other hand, use of technology in education has been proven to facilitate and enhance the learning process. This paper will highlight the importance of implementing the virtual design studio as a technlogical platform in architecture education in the UAE in a way that aims to promote the culture of creativity and collaboration through the use of technology.
Albotany, Hussein. "Development of Digital City Models Using 3d GIS." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 409-418. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. Digital city'is a copy of an actual city in the virtual space. It is expected to play an important role in urban planning, disaster simulation etc. Recent advanced remote sensing technologies, which are capable to quickly provide detailed information of city areas, ease the construction of 3D city models. Urbanization has evinced interest from a wide section of the society including experts, amateurs and novices. With the development and infrastructure initiatives mostly around the urban centers, the impacts of urbanization and sprawl would be on the environment and the natural resources. The research introduces an application of 3D GIS on Manama City.
Sahnoune, Tayeb, and Brahim Nuibat. "Digital Design Tools and Case Study Reasoning." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 451-463. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. This study investigates how the use of digital technology in general, and electronic information and automation, especially during the course of study and preparation of urban and architectural designs on the one hand, and analysis of the impact of these applications and uses of the media automation and information technology at various stages of Physical planning and architectural design of projects, on the other hand. The comparison between modern and traditional methods, to determine the positives and negatives of both sides on the economic (economy, effort, money and time) and technical, which includes (graphic representation: painting, measure, Quality, precision, colours, details and other....). The answer to whether computer and digital development has invented, added, or nothing of substance to content of architecture and urban planning designs, or has enabled us to solve the urban and architectural problems related to social and cultural aspects. We have in this study, the city of _Boussa_da_ in the south of Algeria as an example, through which presentation and analysis of two types of field projects carried in our architectural office using, media techniques and various programs: (Architectural3.3/Accurender/Art-lantis...) mentioning That, the two projects have been completed and approved, and are now in the process of realisation. The first project represents a residential neighbourhood area of (82.65 ha), through the action plan and land uses called _Plan d_occupation des sols_ in Algeria, No.09, in order to create and prepare the new town for extension, establish administrative and commercial centre, and determine the nature of land use, (equipment, facilities and housing), for a population number estimated (12,264) in habitants, and projected number of housing estimated at 2409 houses, with a density of 150 inhabitants / ha. The second project is to study the architecture of the 50 houses earmarked for social Tzhmia working group, formed 25 three-room apartment type with(67.00 m 2) and 25 four-room apartment type with (77.00m2). However, The study aims to identify the impact of automated information applications and information technology used at different stages of urban planning and architectural design of these projects under consideration by the comparison between the traditional design table, and electronic design table to determine the pros and cons of each one of these means on the one hand, and stages of concepts and design, On the other, before concluding to how to use the media automation and digital technology, trying to find a point of hugs between the means and tools of Planning and design, through the analysis of the historical path of each of these elements.
Jenaidab, Abdullah, and Mahmoud Eissa. "Digital Modeling in Traditional Architecture Learning: the method and benefits." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 153-162. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. This paper looks at learning from The traditional architecture with the aid of digital 3D modelling aimed to support the process of architectural design in a studio environment where designs can be tested without the practicalities of the real world. The process of architectural design in itself is an unknown phenomenon for new students of architecture, so they look to digital 3D modelling to help them in understanding the vernacular or traditional architecture vocabulary. The question therefore, is how can digital 3D modelling underpin a studentis own design philosophy and experience?  Also is there any place for the older students, in making this process more productive?  The digital 3D modelling of a sample traditional house in historical Jeddah has allowed for a study and learning from of traditional architecture. Observing students over one semester, it was apparent that a more open critical ability developed in understanding the vernacular or traditional architecture vocabulary. Based on feedback from students, we have developed guidelines and recommendations for teaching traditional architecture with the help of 3D digital modelling technologies. We believe we have improved the quality of the Department's small-group teaching and encouraged students to treat communication and 3D modelling skills as valuable. Our results show techniques of creating 3D digital modelling can be very helpful in teaching the vocabulary of our traditional architecture. Digital 3D modelling in this way seems an ideal tool in traditional architectural education which is presently neglected.
Di Mascio, Danilo. "Digital Reconstruction and Analysis of Turchinio s Trabocco: a method of digital reconstruction of a complex structure as a way to improve our knowledge of a cultural heritage artifact." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 177-189. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. The aim of the following paper is to show a method of digital reconstruction and analysis of an important artifact pertaining to the Abruzzo cultural heritage, the “trabocco”. In fact recent software for graphics and architecture, such as CAD, graphics editor, and those dedicated to three-dimensional modelling and rendering are tools that open new opportunities in the study of cultural heritage artifacts, The more the complexity of the object to study, the more the advantages for their use. A  formal and structural complexity characterize the trabocchi, pile constructions typical of the Abruzzo coast, that go back to the middle of  XVII century and the subject of this study is the trabocco of Punta Turchinio, the most famous and complex of the coast. Among the digital reconstructionis objectives there are: Increase the knowledge of the “trabocco” and generate a series of information necessary to define and manage a recovery plan, to study more deeply the technologic decomposition of the four main sub-systems with related abacus of the technological elements and create static and animated graphics restitutions such as renderings and animations to understand some spatial and formal characteristics.
Sarhan, Ahmed, and Peter Rutherford. "EDVIS-Game: a framework for utilizing game engine reporting agents for environmental design education and visualisation." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 205-214. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. In recent years, the architectural design process has witnessed a demand for professionals who can resolve the highly complex social, cultural, technological, and economical issues associated with “Sustainable Design”. At present, many designers use environmental data generated from building performance simulation applications such as “Ecotect”. The wealth of data generated from such applications is often presented in a rather complicated format through graphs and tables, relying significantly on the designeris expertise to read, analyze, interpret and correlate these data. This paper presents a framework for developing a method that helps design students and untrained professionals to visualise and understand the implications of these environmental data during the different stages of the design process. This method mainly targets students and designers who are not fully equipped to solidly interpret these complex data sets or use them in the decision-making process. The proposed method aims therefore to present relevant analysis of the environment-related data within the context of a simple, user-friendly virtual game environment, relying on embodied agents within the game engine to trigger events and actions performed by the users, and present pertinent data subsequently.
Al-Omari, Hafsa, and Luma Dabbagh. "Form in Islamic Architecture: a new vision by using 3D Studio Max program." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 433-450. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. Architecture is a record of human civilization, values, principles and concepts. Form (elements and relations) is one of the visual features of identity and self on one hand and expressive features of place and time (scientific and technical development )  on the other hand.  Creating new forms from historical forms is considered one of the greatest challenges that face the architect. Research problem centered on the importance of form in Islamic architecture, and the possibility of investment a new scientific method ( 3D Studio Max program) in creating contemporary architecture using historical and traditional Islamic forms.  Research divides to three sections. The first is a theoretical framework that determines the importance and the generation and the potentiality of form in Islamic architecture. The second studies the traditional methods that has been used to create a contemporary Arab-Islamic architecture using historical references, then introduce 3D Studio Max program as alternative new scientific method to traditional methods contribute to create a new vision of contemporary Arab Islamic architecture. The conclusions identify the importance of form in the Islamic civilization and showed that the generation of form affected by its potentiality. Research opens new methods that have not been studied previously in creating contemporary Islamic architecture by using the modifier stack in 3D Studio Max program.
Ben-Hamouche, Mustapha. "Gis in Architectural Education: Design as a place-making process." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 393-407. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. Responsiveness to site conditions and environment is one of the axioms of architectural design. However, most studentsi design is made in a non-geo-coordinated cyberspace through CAAD design and thus leading to “flyingi proposals” that are not attached to the context. GIS teaches students in architecture to initially refer to real locations as the space in which they design is geo-coordinated and provides the wider context of the project. Along the design process, the project surroundings from macro scale, that is the globe, to the micro-scale that is reflected in the existing buildings, the road network and the topography are constantly present. At the end stage, the project is seen not as a free standing building but rather as an integral  part in a real place on Earth. The 3-D urban visualization gives the possibility of evaluating the degree of success of place-making and the fitness of the project to its context. The aim of the paper is to present how a GIS course can support CAAD and improve the architectural design process as well as the quality of the design output towards a contextual architecture. The paper is based on the experience of the author who is architects and urban planner, in teaching design studios and Urban Planning based on GIS as an elective course to graduating students in architecture at the University of Bahrain. It presents an alternative method that is called Permanent Presence of the Real World PPRW.
Loemker, Thoreten, and Albrecht Degering. "How much is it? About the use of the element method in conjunction with optimization techniques ." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 15-May. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. It is obvious that the preparation and compliance with cost estimates for a proposed architectural design is indispensable for successful realization of building projects. A variety of methods exists that can be used by the architect to achieve this objective. However, most of these methods are regularly not used until the design is completed. In many cases this procedure leads to cost overruns. Hence, our paradigm is to estimate the total building costs prior to the generation of detailed designs and thus use the costs of building elements as design parameters right from the beginning to produce design solutions which entail the least possible costs. For this purpose we invert the customary process through the use of building element costs as a means for the automatic generation of monetarily assessable design solutions. For various reasons we concentrate on the design of housing projects. The methodology however, can be adopted to any other kind of building typology.
Eshaq, Ahmad Rafi Moham, Ruzaimi Rani, and Peter Woods. "Human Perception of Visualization Tools Used for Visual Impact Assessment." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 29-36. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. This paper discusses the visualization tools and methods used to examine human perception in Visual Impact Assessment (VIA). One of the key conservation areas in Kuala Lumpur was selected in the study to measure the impact of different types of visualization tools. This paper recommends that human perception contributes towards the improvements of the visualization tools for VIA. The study found out that the common visualization tools used were not the most preferable tools among respondents. On the contrary most respondent preferred interactive visualization that offered more visual possibilities leading to a better understanding of landscape design. Apart from this, the study identified that the visual perception between the respondents who have different formal education background have similar concerns on the visualization tools tested to them.
Dannevig, Tellef, Jostein Thorvaldsen, and Ramzi Hassan. "Immersive Virtual Reality in Landscape Planning." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 349-364. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. In Norway there has been an increased focus on participatory planning the latter years. The public is now supposed to be included in the planning process. The documents which the public have access to usually consists of the project`s technical drawings. In some cases, the documents include perspective drawing or computer rendering supplied by the stakeholder. Most affected parties are non professional in terms of planning, and have little or no experience dealing with the plans. Therefore, the information they rely on most cases is the perspective images, which easily can be manipulated. A system that enables all parties engaged in the planning process to visualize planning scenarios in a much realistic way is therefore needed. Virtual Reality is a tool that enables the viewer to move freely in a three dimensional digital environment. In this virtual world, different levels of interactivity can be added. The Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB) has recently installed a new immersive Virtual Reality system based on the idea of ConCave theatre. This research study is making use of the new ConCave theatre in order to test whether VR can be used as an enhancement of the communication process between professionals and amateurs and between professionals. By presenting digital models of different level of detail to two subject groups consisting of students with planning background and two groups without such experience we first investigated perception in an immersive VR-environment.
Riad, Mahmoud. "Musical Deconstruction / Reconstruction: Visualizing architectonic spaces through music." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 225-233. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. There is a common belief that music and architecture are connected through a hidden a dimension. Both arts, when abstracted intellectually (through mathematics) or emotionally (through phenomenological experience), share a number of ordering principles, having the same notion of crescendo in sequence and progression. Many have sought to unlock this hidden dimension to create artwork that lets our souls transcend up to the heavens. There are five different methods where architects have used music in their design approach: there are those who use harmonic proportions found in musical consonances as room dimensions to create harmonic spaces, flowing into each other like musical chords (Palladio, Steven Holl), those who believe that music is “design in time” use rhythmic elements of music and apply it to their vertical surfaces and structural grids (Iannis Xenakis, Le Corbusier), those who use architecture as a musical instrument experiment with sound and acoustics to create a phenomenological environment (Bernhard Leitner, Peter Zumthor), those gifted with synethsesia (stimulating one sensory preceptor with another, e.g. seeing colors by listening to music, or vice versa) use certain musical pieces as an inspiration for form generation (Wassily Kandinsky, Steven Holl), and there are those who deconstruct an element in music and reconstruct it to architectural form, highlighting common themes between both arts (Iannis Xenakis, Daniel Libeskind). These five different methods have been the topic of research of many architectural scholars using western music as reference. The question becomes what if the musical reference is changed?  Classical, rock, pop, country, jazz, and blues music are very different from one another, yet they share similar foundational musical structures. One may go further and experiment with various world music as reference, which is very different than western music in terms of musical structure. Linguists and musicologists have discussed the origins of music in relation to language. They hypothesize that cognitive elements found in language are somehow carried into the region's music. This paper documents the research of the author in this topic, discussing the digital modelling applications adopted that make such an investigation possible. The interest here is exploring how the visual space is altered when the musical reference is changed, and whether properties of the musical reference are evident in the architectural visualization. The musical references will be limited to Western Classical and Arabic music.
Ruffo, Emmanuel. "Programming as an Evolutionary Concept for Architectural Education: from natural systems to computer science materialization to emergent and evolutionary embedded architectural design." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 47-59. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. Logic and evolution in ontogenetic processes for Architectural design was the title for a summer program taught at the Escuela de Arquitectura of the Universidad Anahuac from June to July 2008 in the State of Mexico, Mexico. Every single result in architectural design follows logical steps enclosed in the design processes. These logical processes evolve through space-time sequences in order to generate a diversity of possible solutions. In Biology an ontogenetic process refers to the development of an individual organism, anatomical or behavioural feature from the earliest stage to maturity. Following this development criteria students were encouraged to understand the main logics of natural and physical systems through the aid of computer programming. These logics must be understood as tridimensional geometries digitally generated. Right from the beginning all processes generated during the explorations and investigations had to be visualized as integral design performances. The integral design system must embedded structure, function, form and material capacities through the aid of computer programming, digital fabrication technologies and material assembling techniques. It is important to note that final prototypes had to demonstrate the diversity of capacities of the whole system in order to automate the components in evolution.
Cammarata, Andrea. "Rebuilding Architecture: an analysis and critical investigation practice." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 121-134. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. The Cooperative Design Environment Laboratory (CoDE Lab) is carrying out a research with students, trainees and seniors who have previously participated to CAAD-assisted design courses. These courses were developed with the aim of making participants independent from the pre-analytical phase project to the renderings of the final artifact. The programs that have been used so far are Autodesk Revit, Graphisoft Archicad and Nemetschek Allplan.The teaching workgroup has always believed that analyzing, deconstructing and reconstructing the architecture teaches much in terms of understanding. If the process is done correctly, it entirely retraces the creative dynamics developed by the original designer. Subsequently, the educational practice is to choose a notable architectural work, designed and/or created by a Master of architecture, and to reproduce it in all details: aesthetical-formal, morphological, technological, structural, modular, etc. The final result is an archive of well-developed reconstructed models of great specific interest. The students on the other hand thoroughly learn how to control the tools and all BIM planning procedures.
Tonn, Christian, Frank Petzold, and Dirk Donath. "See-Through History: 3D augmented reality for the reconstruction of the Bauhaus director s office reception area from 1923." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 259-267. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. Working in existing built contexts is an essential aspect of most architectsi activities. The development of a conceptual and technological basis for the digital support of design directly on site, with and within the existing building is the main focus of the research project “Spatial Augmented Reality for Architecture”. This article describes one part of the research project: the final evaluation of the technologies developed and the concepts applied for an architectural colour reconstruction scenario on site. This project is funded by the German Research Foundation (“DFGi).
Ambrose, Michael. "Spatial and Temporal Sequence: Film, animation and design theory - toward a constructed morphology." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 165-176. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. This paper presents an investigation of film, space, form and motion to expose issues of spatial perception. The objective is to use a brief moment of constructed moving imagery (a film scene) as the vehicle to develop a spatial/temporal sequence. The design research focuses on an examination of the procedure or process constructed by the director/cinematographer. The changing position of the camera continually changes the relationship of the frame to the viewed context. The project asks the student to interpret the spatial and temporal transformation, through the continual oscillation between foreground and background, in an effort to unravel the pretext of the singular point of view to reveal the intention of the filmmaker. The project discussed here focuses on a relationship between the projection of space in architectural representation and the production of space through complex geometries relative to temporal discontinuities and the way in which they agitate and alter one another. Drawing topological relationships between of the paths, or trajectories of movement, within a proposed scene of a film is the vehicle for investigation in this project. An event or configuration complete in itself, but forming part of the larger collection, is modelled and transformed to suggest various structural and temporal definitions with respect to spatial portrayal through the composition of time and the cinematic frame. In particular, spatial animation of a sequence of framed condition was to be explored in the development of a spatial episode.
Healey, Jonathan, and Lisa Lacharité-Lostritto. "Speculative Assemblages of a Digital Process: the investigation of hybrid digital media as a pedagogical device." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 61-68. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. Within a digital-design pedagogy is opportunity to construct a design process working non-linearly in explicit systemic, conditional, and metaphorical operations. In the use of digital modelling and animation, speculative design methods develop across a series of incremental investigations that are structured, rather than dictated, by the particular architectural issues of composition and concept of place. By accommodating the diversity of such inputs, and testing the variable layers of output, new discrete compositions in the form of digital assemblage recombine and translate a series of logical premises and processes that resolve in non-prescribed outcomes. This paper identifies, through the work of two students, experimentations with computer-aided design that suggest the potential for hybrid design methods relevant to the exploratory nature of a digitally-inclined architectural pedagogy.
Hnizda, Marek. "Systems-Thinking: Formalization of parametric process." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 215-223. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. This paper details a design process focused on explicit digital parametric modelling as an integral system-outcome design. This investigation isolates and alters a simple geometric form (cylinder) in a constructed architectural design method. Systems are defined as logical, sequential operations inherent to the resultant effects. These operations within each system are composed of various parameters, singular entities containing or referencing data. Given specific data, operations are preformed culminating with corresponding outcomes. The two main components of this research pertain to object extraction and transformation. A single grain silo (cylinder), as the architectural/geometric object under examination, is tested using a system of varied parameters inputted into the program Grasshopper, an “explicit historyi graphic plug-in for Rhinoceros. This application is utilized to digitally manipulate parameters as objects in a nodal arrangement. Throughout the operations execution, this isolated silo will be transformed into a multitude of versions, then regrouped into the original cluster of silos to expose the implications from patterning, adjacency, and repetition given the proximity of the each silo and its new parametric characteristics. As the various parameters in specific operations affect the system as a whole, so is each adjacent silo in proximity given the same or similar operation? This then is translated and reflected in the outcome. This research seeks to explore design process by applying constant digital 3-D reductive geometric, modular forms inviting systems thinking in parametric environments that can lead to architectural design implications. By focusing on the technical aspect of the parameterization and valuing functionality rather then style, the process becomes focused on formal qualities as the system-outcome relationships. This research tests the “aesthetic implicationsi of a varied mode of digital design, namely the investigation of an architectural process utilizing parametric design.
Lostritto, Carl. "Teaching Systems-Thinking with Algorithmic Process: Introduction to computation and programming with processing programming language." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 37-46. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. This research investigates how algorithm design and scripting as pedagogy can affect generalized design ability and understanding. Logical, systematic thinking is considered foundational in developing architectural design aptitude and is explicit when designing algorithms. The course work presented mandates the construction of process rather than product.  Scripting is implemented not as a means to an end but rather a medium for exploration. More valuable than formal generator or problem-solver, these scripted designs test direct aesthetic implications. Further tested is the role of animation in de-linearizing the design process. By isolating the algorithm as topic, technique, and concept, scripting skills and the produced artifact are extendable and are translatable to other media. Algorithm design is presented as a 2-dimensional but temporal endeavor: students script an animate, interactive vector-based image.  This facilitates the transition from algorithm to spatial experience while also readying students for form-based explorations. The 2-d temporal exercise is of a similar order of complexity to a 3-dimensional static condition. Pieces of the animation structure are provided as a canvas, specifically the ability of the viewer to manually control a single parametric variable that affects the visual output through a user-interface element.  The following and final project of the course expands upon the technique of scripting image in the design of an experience by collaging video, images and animation.
Sidawi, Bhzad. "The Consideration of Lifelong Owner and Property Characteristics in Nd CAD System: the case of affordable housing in kingdom of Saudi Arabia." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 191-204. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009.

Residential property value is affected by several factors during its useful time. These factors include peopleis lifestyles, traditions and culture, and the way they live and interact with the built environment. The property characteristics such as its location, building quality, adaptability, and energy efficiency would also have an impact on the property value. On the other hand, the nD CAD research that emerged in the late 1990s proposed endless dimensions of CAD modelling that would incorporate the building regulationsi requirements, basic user needs and client requirements. However, there is a need to implement lifelong parameters that would have significant effect on the property value in 3D models during the early stages of design. This can be done through a knowledge base integrated into a 3D model and links the lifelong propertyis and the useris characteristics with the propertyis value. A survey was carried out on banks and Real Estate Development Fund (REDF) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to find out the level of impact of lifelong users and property characteristics on the propertyis value. The results of the survey showed a number of lifelong property and user driven parameters that may have major impact on the propertyis value. The implementation of lifelong parameters in nD CAD models would have a number of benefits. It would provide the decision makers such as banks and investors with a tool to assess the level of impact of possible lifelong factors on the property value and consider alternative schemes. Designers would use it during the early stages of design to produce optimum design solutions that provide an adequate product that is evaluated regarding its lifelong value to the end users. Eventually it would provide a comfortable environment that is tailored to the useris needs and aspirations, while reserving the propertyis lifelong value.

Mai, M A.. "The Use of the Smart Geometry through Various Design Processes: Using the programming platform (parametric features) and generative components." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 297-304. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. The emergence of parametric generative design tools and prototyping manufacturing technology led to radical changes in architectural morphologies. This change increased the opportunity to develop innovative smart geometries. Integrating these algorithms in the parametric softwares led to variations in building design concepts increasing alternatives and decreasing the repetitive work previously needed in conventional CAD software. The chosen software in this research is Generative Components (GC). It is a software design tool for an associative and parametric design platform. It is tested for using Global Variables with associative functions during the concept creation and form GC comprises features. The results presented in this research may be considered an introduction to the smart geometry revolution. It deals with the generative design which applied in the design process from conceptual design phase, defining the problem, exploring design solutions, then how to develop the design phases. Office building is a building type which encourages new forms that needs computational processes to deal with repetitive functions and modular spaces and enclosed in a flexible creative structural skin. Generative design helps the office buildings to be arranged, analysed, and optimized using parameters in early stages in design process. By the end of the research, the use of the smart geometry in a high rise office building is defined and explained. The research is divided into three parts, first a summary of the basic theories of office buildings design and the sustainable requirements that affect it, and should be integrated. Secondly, the previous experiences in generating office buildings by Norman foster and Sergio Araya. At last, a case study is proposed to test and evaluate the use of the parametric generative methodology in designing an office building with specific emphasis on the function, environmental aspects and form generation using Generative Components (GC) Software.
Foura, Samir, and Samira Debache. "Thermal Simulation in Residential Building Within Computer Aided Architectural Design: Integrated model." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 235-243. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. Nowadays, the architectural profession is seeking a better energy saving in the design of buildings. The fear of energy shortage in the very near future, together with the rapid rise in energy prices, put pressure on researchers on this field to develop buildings with more efficient heating systems and energy systems. This work is concerned mainly with the development of a software program analyzing comfort in buildings integrated in CAD architectural systems. The problem of presenting the computer with information concerning the building itself has been overcome through integration of thermal analysis with the building capabilities of CAD system. Mainly, such experience concerns the rules for calculating heat loss and heat gain of buildings in Algeria. The program has been developed in order to demonstrate the importance of the innovation of the computer aided-architectural-design field (CAAD) in the technology of buildings such as the three dimensional modelling offering environmental thermal analysis. CAAD is an integrated architectural design system which can be used to carry out many tasks such as working drawings, perspectives and thermal studies, etc., all from the same data. Results are obtained in tabular form or in graphical output on the visual display. The principle of this program is that all input data should be readily available to the designer at the early stages of the design before the user starts to run the integrated model. Particular attention is given to the analysis of thermal aspects including solar radiation gains. Average monthly energy requirement predictions have been estimated depending on the building design aspect. So, this integrated model (CAAD and simulation comfort) is supposed to help architects to decide on the best options for improving the design of buildings. Some of these options may be included at the early design stages analysis. Indications may also be given on how to improve the design. The model stored on CAAD system provides a valuable data base for all sort analytical programs to be integrated into the system. The amount of time and expertise required to use complex analytical methods in architectural practice can be successfully overcome by integration with CAAD system.
Zaleha, Mimi, Abdul Ghani, and Sambit Datta. "Virtual Ampang Jaya: an interactive visualization environment for modeling urban growth and spatio-temporal transformation." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 379-394. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. Virtual Ampang Jaya is an interactive visualization environment for modelling urban growth and spatio-temporal transformation to expose and evaluate the different layers of Ampang Jaya, consisting of social, economic, built and natural environments. The research will investigate the techniques of data acquisition, data reconstruction from physical to digital, urban analysis and visualization in constructing a digital model which may include low geometric content such as 2D digital maps and digital orthographics to high geometric content such as full volumetric parametric modelling. The process will integrate the state of the art GIS system to explore GIS powerful analytical and querying capabilities with interactive visualization environment as well as test the model as a predictive tool. The model will set as an experimental test pad in providing a new platform to support decision making about the spatial growth of Ampang Jaya by the various stakeholders in the planning processes. Such an environment will improve the subsequent digital models and research in the area of urban design and planning where visual communication is central.
Kobayashi, Y., C. Grasso, M. Mcdearmon, and R. Baker. "Virtual Driving: VR city modeling and drive simulation in real time." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 335-347. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. This paper introduces a VR city model developed for driving simulation. The project is a part of interdisciplinary multi-year academic research grant. First, the outline of the research is explained. The process of VR city modelling is then introduced. The modelling process of creating road and intersection networks and traffic flow is explained. The system integration with a PC, modelling and VR software, and a Drive Simulator is illustrated. A case study of driving through the city with different traffic amounts using the simulator is analyzed. Computational tools to extract driving behaviour data and future endeavors are discussed.
Rashed, Haitham, and Heba Elsharkawy. "Virtual Museum: Towards a new typology of the museum in the future." In Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content: 4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 269-279. ASCAAD. Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2009. Architecture is affected by the information technology, one must consider two conditions: that the physical spaces of architecture as we have always known it (enclosure, form and permanence) will without a doubt persevere, and that it will exist alongside the virtual architecture, surfacing in the digital domain of the internet. Museums are now being constructed, navigated, experienced, comprehended, and altered in their virtual states by countless people across global networks. This new architecture of liquidity, flux and mutability is predicated on technological advances and fuelled by basic human desire to probe the unknown. The path that both types of architecture, the real and the virtual, take will be one of convergence. VR seems to be the next logical step in the path laid by CAD, but it will have a more extensive impact, since it not only transforms the way architects design and visualize, but can also be integrated into the final product of architecture itself: such as museums. The main goal of this paper is to emphasize the new typology of museums of the future in which digital technologies support all kinds of museum activities such as gathering, preserving, researching, exhibiting, and educating. Also, to introduce digital technologies for the digital museum such as media and new human interface technologies for novel exhibition styles and data processing technologies for digital archiving of cultural or historical artifacts. The paper highlights the technology used in this new typology of museums, the virtual museum. It also discusses the advantages and the disadvantages of the virtual museum.