Keywords Abstract
Ryan, R., and M. Donn. "3 dimensional, digital, interactive, multilayered information models for enhancing decision making by two end-user groups within the Urban Planning industry: a Case Study to quantify the benefit or otherwise over alternative 2 dimensional systems." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 95-110. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. This research investigates the potential of 3 dimensional (3D), digital, interactive, multilayered information models, to enhance usersi understanding of sets of geographic and building information, allowing them to make quicker and more informed decisions, than when using alternative 2D methods. The research aims to quantify the benefit or otherwise of 3D methods of information interrogation over 2D methods by developing a test based around the decision making of two widely disparate user-groups within the Urban Planning industry. The underlying purpose of the research is to examine the human ability to interact with and understand datasets of information which are represented in the digital world. This paper specifically focuses on the methodology by which a robust test is developed to be carried out, thus proving or disproving the advantages of 3D display of information when compared to 2D. The ability to apply this same test to additional case studies in the future is a major consideration in the research design. There is a specific focus on integrating and testing a range of research instruments to best establish “language” of the industry and user groups within it, before conducting the major case study. The final research approach adopted is develop and present functional prototype models in a focus group scenario, involving hands-on interactive comparable 2D and 3D tasks, individual feedback surveys and group discussions. 
Tarabieh, K., and Ali M. Malkawi. "A Comparative Study to Benchmark Energy Performance Using Building Simulation Tools." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 183-198. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. Building performance assessment is a process of using a numerical model “simulation tool” to predict performance of both the building and system metrics. The decision to choose a suitable simulation tool is a continuous challenge. Issues such as model data availability, integrity and applicability add additional constraints to the modelling process. This paper discusses the process of using different building simulation tools to identify a credible building energy performance indicator. A typical building is modeled using different tools utilizing similar input data and weather conditions. A series of building performance experiments are conducted and the resulting trends are compared to real-time metered data. The paper presents a pilot project to create an energy benchmarking tool for facility managers and the challenges facing the development team. 
Dritsas, S., and E. Rafailaki. "A Computational Framework for Theater Design." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 165-182. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. This paper presents the results of an ongoing research on computational methods for the design of theatrical spaces. We demonstrate a systemic approach to design supported by a set of digital tools implemented for assisting the process. The primary purpose of the framework is to establish a formal basis for expressing and exploring explicit design criteria. At this stage the framework enables us to metrically access a range of design metrics that traditionally have been addressed through primarily architectural narrative. Moreover, our method strives in establishing a background where knowledge can be explicitly encoded and the results of analytical methods can be additively employed. In the future, the framework will assist as the platform for experimenting with generative or query-based design processes empowered by computation. We structured this paper / framework around three conceptual units: (a) a design intent toolkit assisting the processes of rapidly generating theater configurations, (b) an analytical system that evaluates a range of design metrics centered about aspects of visual comfort, and (c) a post-processing and visualization unit that binds the design metrics with existing data / studies and provide a range of representation methods. Overall, the methodology adopts existing knowledge in theatrical design, challenges traditional ideas of understanding the theater and proposes methods for evaluating its architectural performance. The conclusions focus on highlighting both the limitations and the potential of our system in the process of theater design. We also extend outside the boundaries of the current research into a brief discussion on the methodological impact of digital technology in architectural research. Finally we propose areas of future research and development. 
Gillispie, D., and C. Calderon. "A framework towards designing responsive public information systems." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 767-782. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. Evolving effective responsive systems, and creating a credible interface between the work and the user, requires an awareness of many different types of user, contexts and functions as well as the phenomenological aspects of social and environmental conditions.'(Bullivant, 2006). Responsive design and interactive architecture operates at the intersection of Architecture, Arts, Technology, Media Arts, HCI and Interaction Design in a physical context suggesting ways in which the existing physical environments can be augmented and extended adding a greater level of depth, meaning and engagement with the world around us. Through a series of case studies, this paper explores a number of principles which may be applied to the design of responsive environments of which public information systems form part. Divided into three main sections, the paper first explains how responsive environments have addressed the application of public information systems, secondly, through a series of case studies, precedents are highlighted which lead to development of principles for developing designs for responsive environments. The third section discusses and elaborates on these principles which have been developed based upon our own interpretations and grouping of precedents and approaches towards interaction design. This paper contributes towards the field of responsive environments and interactive architecture through an analysis of case studies to infer a framework from which responsive environments may be created and developed. 
Belkaid, A., and A. Ben Saci. "A multi-agent system for the formulation of architectural terms of references." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 261-272. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. This work aims to use the multi-agent systems, permitting to coordinate the behaviour of intelligent artificial agents, in order to help the architect at the first moments of the conception. We proceed by modelling the architectural terms of reference, using the concept of primary architectural system, to manage the initial information. This modelling process proposes a new formulation of this system based on the agent paradigm. 
Morsy, S.M.. "A Social Approach to Intelligent Buildings." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 229-242. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. Intelligent buildings were a hot topic since the 1980's. The vision was to share building telecommunication backbones with energy management systems, fire alarms, security systems and even office automation. The benefits were touted to include cost savings for cabling and long term maintenance, plus a future potential for interoperability between systems. The potential within these concepts and the surrounding technology is vast, and lives of users are changing from the effects of Intelligent Buildings developments on their living and working environments. In other words, the main aim of building intelligent building is merely a technological trend. But using intelligent buildings has wider effects on users than intended. Neglecting the human aspects of the users may be considered as a shortcoming. This paper considers the causes of this new trend in architecture in a larger social context, from which the rationalism of building intelligent buildings must arise. This will be done through exploring the concepts and applications of intelligent buildings, showing how all of them affect human life in such many ways. 
Speed, C.. "A Social Dimension to Digital Architectural Practice." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 291-304. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. In 1995 the first in a series of three books were published by Academy Editions, that have since become a vivid handbook that documents how designers responded to the development of architectural drawing applications and the growth of the internet, to establish a form of digital architecture. Offering dramatic images and emotive texts, many of the architects and designers featured in these books deeply affected the perception of digital architectureis mission by students and elements of the design community. Concentrating upon how to resolve the view that time and space are separate dimensions, and the immersive and dematerial potentials of cyberspace, the developments of this “cyberromanticism” (Coyne 1999) ultimately were not used to sustain digital architectural activity. This paper uses the Academy Editions series to understand how such a vivid aspect of digital architecture failed to fulfil its aspirations. The paper begins by establishing the premise for digital architecture through a link with mainstream architectures interest in the concept of shelter. Through a summary of the practical and theoretical methods outlined by the early designers within the series of publications, the paper demonstrates the critical potential of the field. However a summary of how the proliferation of early imagery fuelled a visual mannerism traces how the third Architects in Cyberspace publication represented a crisis in both identity and practice. The paper then identifies an opportunity for recovering the theoretical imperatives within digital architecture by reflecting upon the emergence of “interactive architecturesi use of a “sociali dimension that was previously hindered by the use of computer applications in early digital architecture. The paper closes with a reference to two of the authors practical projects that use social data to inform the generation of digital architecture. 
Sidawi, B.. "A Theoretical Framework for the Implementation of Building User s Lifestyle in nD CAD System." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 595-606. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. Peopleis lifestyle, traditions and culture affect the way they live, interact with the built environment and erect buildings. Lifestyle influences the physical characteristics of the space such as: organization of spaces, distances between spaces and location of spaces. Taking lifestyle aspects into account by architects would provide comfortable environment that is tailored to people needs and aspirations. On the other hand, rapid developments in computer modelling of buildings since 1960, led to the invention of 3D CAD systems that are capable of modelling the physical volume, shape and form of buildings and helping project team members to virtually visualize buildings. 4D CAD systems went beyond the mere 3D modelling of the physical building as they link the 3D virtual building model with other buildingis information such as construction process, cost estimation etc. The nD CAD research that emerged in the late 1990s proposed endless dimensions of CAD modelling that would include the building regulationsi requirements, basic user needs and client requirements. This paper argues that it would not be enough to model the client requirements and some of user/ occupantis physical and environmental aspects as it does not reflect the real utilization of the building by buildingis user and the way that he/ she likes to live. This research aims to define the lifestyle characteristics of the architectural space and its boundaries. It suggests that various aspects of the useris lifestyle such as degree of privacy, flexibility and adaptability required for each space, organization of internal spaces and style of spaces should be implemented in the future nD CAD models. Such implementation would enable designers to consider real life scenarios, model the real needs of people and provide the adequate end product for them. 
Ameireh, O.M.. "Abstract Thinking: an Introduction to Creative Thinking in Basic Design." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 527-542. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. This paper critically examines the nature of the dramatic increase in the number of students accepted in schools of architecture in Jordan, and the contradictory decrease in their artistic, creative, thought process, projects problem solving and other skills. The paper also reviews architectural curriculum and courses to identify weaknesses in handling the changes and ultimately within these constraints and in order to handle the students variable potentials, abilities and contradictions, certain exercises in the basic design course are devised in ways that, reduces its dependency on learnable manual skills and conceptual thinking, uses teaching techniques that correlates and incorporates Arts, Architecture and Sciences as complementary topics, approaches and reaches creativity as a procedure not a gift, transfers and travels easily between complexities and simplicities, between natural and artificial intelligence, between abstract and relative thinking, employ geometries and design tools as the main structure of any composition, makes self evaluations of choices, decisions and variables easier. Taking Abstraction as a framework in solving the problem of the exercises gave answers and solution to many problems that was not easy solving under the conventional ways of design. 
Afify, H.M.N., and Z. ElGhaffar. "Advanced Digital Manufacturing Techniques (CAM) in Architecture." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 67-80. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. Building projects today are not only born out digitally, but they are also realized digitally through “file-to-factory” processes of computer aided manufacturing (CAM) and computer numerically controlled (CNC) technologies. It was the challenge of constructability that brought into question, what new instruments of practice are needed to take advantage of the opportunities opened up by the digital modes of production, instead of whether a particular form is buildable. In this case of building construction, architects could design with attention to innovative details, afforded by unique shapes and sizes, knowing that whatever they created on their computer screen could be fabricated digitally for an affordable price. The aims of the research are to discuss and analyze the digital manufacturing techniques (CAM) in architecture and its fabrication, production process. To understand how these technologies fit within a broader context of architectural practice. The research begins with defining, what is digital manufacturing in architecture, its potentials, components and influences in the contemporary architecture. Further more it discusses the digital fabrication, Two- dimensional cutting, subtractive fabrication, additive fabrication and formative fabrication. The assembly technique, building skin, new materials and mass- customization in digital manufacturing techniques (CAM). That will be a hand in analyzing several case studies. 
Maldonado, E.P.. "Among the Fear of the Virtual and Radical Typologics." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 713-724. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. It might seem that architecture has been forced to choose, once again, between two worlds of existence. One of them might be the construction of the tangible, the other, a “formal fantasyi that will never reach a legitimate status among the “tectonic” or the “structural”. This vague spectrum has confirmed the fear of loosing typology as a proof, of loosing a foremost validation for architecture. But one could see the virtual as a possibility to generate a structure of discourses and interactive tactics to reformulate the typological. This meaning that the virtual could transcend the so called “graphici stigma and actually produce the discourses and spatial strategies to radicalize typologics.
Mallasi, Zaki. "Applying generative modeling procedure to explore architectural forms." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 697-712. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. Computer generated 3D forms using generative procedures have matured in the last decade and now considered as a tangible approach for realizing architectural design ideas. As fascinating as the approach might be, it is still lacking actual application in the early architectural design process. There are many reasons for this, among them: it has many implications over the architectural design process mainly the practicality of design during the conceptual design stage, it is cumbersome to develop construction drawings for complex architectural forms, and the necessity for producing conceptual designs quickly in less time as design requirements and decisions are constantly being changed. This paper initially reports on a practical development of a computer program which generates architectural massing designs based on integrating forms generation technique in a design scheme. The influence for this development was inspired by Spirolaterals technique used in generating complex 3D architectural forms that are based on parametric shape configuration. The development has three goals: to review the principles for constructing generative forms in the conceptual design stage using simple CAD tools, to assist in the production of design schemes based on a few basic shapes and rules, and to explore 3D forms finding and generation without the need to write a complicated computer program that are difficult to produce by hand. The development resulted in generating an interesting number of 3D compositions. The author applied this technique to experiment during the production of a design scheme. The paper hence describes the current development of ArchiGen tool to produces generative 3D forms utilizing ArchiCAD • © GDL programming language. The tool is embedded within ArchiCAD for generating 3D shapes. One of the main features of this implementation is that users are able to sketch 2D shapes and the tool will deform its three dimensional generation. Moreover, the user being able to abstract the architectural character from the resulting complex 3D shapes. This development extends current related work by allowing the designer to load shapes into ArchiGen which acts as vocabulary of shapes for a design scheme constraints. It is intended from this work to inspire future work focusing on using generative tools in the early conceptual design stages. 
Kwee, Verdy. "Architectural Presentation for Precedent-based Learning: Identifying opportunities and implications." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 415-430. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. This paper primarily deals with architectural information presentation intended to facilitate an understanding of an existing architectural work.  The paper highlights issues of concern through an analysis of current architectural publications and identifies opportunities that require addressing. It also demonstrates visualization options through an illustrative digital prototype of The Arthur and Yvonne Boyd Education Centre, a building by Glenn Murcutt, Wendy Lewin and Reg Lark located in New South Wales, Australia, outlining the concept or approach of this prototype, and briefly reporting on a general assessment of its use. The outcomes refresh the perspective of current publications of notable buildings and question the implications that may result with the improvement of architectural information presentation. Could we possibly be missing opportunities afforded by the available technologies more than we realise? Could better integration of media help improve the quality of precedent-based learning? What is at stake and what should we be prepared for? 
Satti, H.M.. "Automation of Building Code Analysis: Characteristics, Relationships, Generation of Properties and Structure of Various Models." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 607-622. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. This paper is considered as the second part of what has been presented in ASCAAD 2005, titled “Issues of Integrating Building Codes in CADi, that discussed the conceptual framework of automating the building code analysis process. The proposed framework was composed of three digital interrelated models, Building Code Model (BCM), Building Data Model (BDM) and Computer Aided Building Code Analysis of Design (CABCAD) Program. The International Building Code (IBC) has been selected to understand the characteristics of building codes and to develop the BCM. This paper aimed to discuss the concepts behind the building code requirements, characteristics of building code analysis process, hierarchical relationship between various objects in the BCM and BDM. 
Ambrose, Michael. "Body|Form|Space: Geometric translations of the body in motion." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 431-438. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. This paper presents a novel approach to digital investigation of body, space, form and motion to expose issues of spatial perception. The spatial experience as generated from, and translated by, the human body is the focus of this work. The work explores the representational value of the bodyis sense-image, the context and spatial/visual literacy of the learned sense of space-time generated from the study of the human body. Here the body is conceived not just in space but also in time, affording the ability to reinterpret the body and itis dynamic motion engaged not as a static condition, but as a set of event spaces. Motion here is defined as a multiplicity of continuities that can be subdivided by artificial boundaries that describe space, time and body. The study of a series of bodies and movements is described that explore the human condition as a series of differential lines (form + time) and framed structures (bodies + motion). The intention is to examine the relationship between human form and metaphysical simultaneity as generators of architectural form. The work is structured by a research approach that dissects and isolates the representational concept/image from the body in a way that might offer an alternative description to the traditional historic models. 
Hamza, Neveen, and Margaret Horne. "Building Information Modelling: Empowering Energy Conscious Design." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 661-670. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. The increasing awareness of climate change and carbon dioxide emissions from the built environment is resulting in the need to visualize the environmental performance of buildings. One of the recent drivers in the UK has been the tightening of building regulations relating to energy consumption in buildings, mandating all buildings to be performance evaluated by accredited environmental simulation tools to test their carbon dioxide emission against set targets. Currently there is major confusion on all levels from architects to building control officers and contractors on how to engrain energy consciousness principles in the design and construction of buildings. Within this context, “Building Information Modellingi that is linked to “Building Performance Modellingi is increasingly being looked upon as a tool to facilitate the communication between the design team and contractors and to provide a transparent information model on the specification and targeted energy consumption of all new/ refurbished buildings to all parties involved. In this paper, analysis of the benefits and drawbacks of current efforts to combine those two comprehensive databases will be investigated. A sample of main software development companies, architects and contractors, using semi-structured interviews is undertaken to find out how Building Integrated Modelling (BIM) and Building Performance Modelling (BPM) can support the design and construction teams to deliver energy conscious buildings. 
Mokbel, H., G. Salazar, M. Aboulezz, and J. Tocci. "Choosing Levels of Granularity in Building Information Modeling: Contractor s Perspective." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 623-634. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. Over the last two years, there has been an increased interest across the Architectural /Engineering/ Construction (A/E/C) professionals in the potential adoption of the Building Information Modelling. Professional Associations such as the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Associated General Contractors (AGC) and the Design-Build Institute of America (DBIA) are dedicating specific resources to better understand the implications of the use of this concept in their professional activities. However, not much ground has been gained yet in finding practical ways to choose the level of granularity (LOG) or detail that is needed to develop the digital model in a cost effective fashion. Choosing the Level of Granularity (LOG) of the digital model or level of detail development that goes into the model is a key decision that results from careful consideration of many factors. It is a very complex and iterative process that requires a critical assessment of the cost of adding details to the digital model versus the benefits derived from its intended purpose whether the model will be used to enhance the communication process or to support the construction management functions performed by the firm. This paper presents two case studies in which the authors have been directly involved in making the decision on the LOG of the digital model. The first case involves the Togar Suites, Union Station project in New Jersey while the second case refers to the Worcester Trail Courthouse in Worcester Massachusetts. In both cases, the 3D models were developed primarily for visualization of the construction sequence. However, in the case of the Togar Suites the contractor also needed the model for trade coordination and clash detection purposes. 
Fujita, H., J. Hakura, and M. Kurematsu. "Cognitive Modeling in Design Based on Human Emotional reasoning: Computer based Cognitive interaction based on mimesis of human emotional behavior." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 783-798. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. This paper presents a progress development results of Virtual intelligent interface based on human facial and voice recognition. We this is new challenge for sensing the user emotional space and interact with it. It is part of the cognitive spatial design needed to have the mentality of the designer been part of the system recognition. This is experimental built prototype. We think that the practices reported in this work contribute to integrate (corporate) the cognitive intention of the designer with the knowledge of the system, The architect can use these design practices to inhale the emotional practices into the design using such experiment. 
Sheta, S.A.. "Collaborative Design as an Experimental Multidisciplinary Approach to Develop Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) Courses." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 399-414. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. This study demonstrates an overview of the state of teaching Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) in the Department of Architecture, Misr Academy for Engineering and Technology (MET). This course is basically designed to enable students to explore new ways of design using Computer Aided Architectural Design software. In hypothetical valuation analysis, the study examines the necessity of combining ICT with architectural coursesi teaching in a collaborative design manner. In this sense, it tackles an experimental multidisciplinary approach to develop CAAD courses. It focuses on the innovation of the course by the introduction of ICT both in the contents of the course and as a means of education. To attain its goals stated above, the paper discusses the differences between teaching CAAD by using standard software and teaching the principles of CAAD. It distinguishes four-interdisciplinary system of application for collaborative design in education: social systems, professional systems, educational systems, and innovative systems. This exploration is seldom backed up from a design methodological viewpoint. The conclusion shows how the developed CAAD course, when taught in combination with ICT and collaborative design approaches may result in favorable learning outcomes. 
Hoog, J.;C., and P. Seifried. "Collaborative spaces as learning environments: How Schools of Architecture may find their Way into the Virtual World." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 357-364. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. 3D virtual environments provided by current information and communication technologies offer new opportunities for architecture, potentially opening a completely new domain for architectural practice. Within this paper we describe scenarios for the use of 3D virtual environments at schools of architecture based on experiences from an EC-funded research project for the establishment of 3D - virtual campus for VIPA (Virtual campus for virtual space design Provided for European Architects). The campus was conceived as an extension of the existing learning management system used at TU-Vienna, Moodle. Within VIPA three virtual environments were tested as collaborative labs, for teaching architecture, and as digital environmental design tools: Open Croquet, Blender and Second Life. 
Menges, A.. "Computational Morphogenesis: Integral Form Generation and Materialization Processes." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 725-744. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. Natural morphogenesis, the process of evolutionary development and growth, derives polymorphic systems that obtain their complex form, organisation and versatility from the interaction of system intrinsic material capacities and external environmental influences and forces. One striking aspect of natural morphogenesis is that formation and materialisation processes are always inherently and inseparably related. In stark contrast to these integral development processes of material form, architecture as a material practice is mainly based on design approaches that are characterised by a hierarchical relationship that prioritises the definition and generation of form over its subsequent materialisation. This paper will present an alternative approach to design that entails unfolding morphological complexity and performative capacity without differentiating between form generation and materialisation processes. Based on an understanding of material systems not as derivatives of standardized building systems and elements but rather as generative drivers in the design process this approach seeks to develop and employ computational techniques and digital fabrication technologies to unfold innate material capacity and specific latent gestalt. Extending the concept of material systems by embedding their material characteristics, geometric behaviour, manufacturing constraints and assembly logics within integral computational models promotes an understanding of form, material and structure not as separate elements, but rather as complex interrelations in polymorphic systems resulting from the response to varied input and environmental influences and derived through the logics and constraints of advanced manufacturing processes. These processes will be explained along 8 research projects. 
Alamgir, S., A. Khan, and K. Alamgir. "Computer Aided Environmental Solutions: Evaluation of Optimum Building Orientation in Lahore, Pakistan." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 213-214. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. One of the primary features of solar passive design is the orientation of a building on a particular latitude. The client of Information Technology demands testing, validity, practicality and sustainability of a building project before execution. The computer based simulations are the only practical way to predict the complex energy performance and analysis for a large number of passive design solutions. This paper investigates the optimum residential building orientation having various zones, located in Lahore, Pakistan, with the help of Energy Simulation program. It is concluded that with the help of software, it is possible to orient the residential plan with the minimum solar gain of the required living zones. 
Karandinou, A., and Aghlab Al-Attili. "Conscious Interaction with Immaterial Space: Augmented Reality of everyday life." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 243-252. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. This paper describes an on going research that uses design experimentation to provide an insight into different modes of space representation - in this case, physical, augmented or virtual space - and the type of experience triggered by their juxtaposition. We investigate, thus, how the simultaneous labyrinthic navigation and the moving or “shifting” “overview” enrich our experience of the city and “bring forthi the function of the bus-stop as an intermediate space of transition. We also question the way in which one perceives his/her own body spatiality and motility in physical, augmented and virtual environments, and how the particular kind of experience created by this juxtaposition, “brings forth” oneis awareness of his/her navigation in the city, or the instrumentality of the specific place. Our theoretical approach highlights issues pertaining to embodiment, spatiality, consciousness, intentionality, virtuality and immateriality. 
Schneider, S, Frank Petzold, Christian Tonn, and Dirk Donath. "Designing with images: Augmented reality supported on-site Trompe l oeil." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 275-290. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007.

Activities in the building industry in Germany concentrate increasingly on a combination of renovation and new-build. A look at current computer aided applications reveals a serious lack of IT support for the whole architectural design process with and within existing buildings (e.g. building surveying, designing on site and the preparation of information for further use in later planning stages). An ongoing interdisciplinary research project undertaken jointly by the faculty of media and the faculty of architecture is investigating methods and techniques for the computer-aided support of the design process with and within existing buildings. The goal is to develop a hardware and software concept for a “design-toolbox” based on SAR (spatial augmented reality) and to implement aspects of it as prototypes. The paper focuses on one aspect of the research project - designing with images in an AR-Environment. The paper presents an overview of the project, a description of the core model based on a client-server architecture, the historical / theoretical architectural background and first results of this research part. The project is funded by the “German Research Foundation (DFG)”.

Bakr, A.F., I. Diab, and D. Saadallah. "Detecting Inefficient Lighting Solutions: Step-by-Step Geographic information system (GIS) Technique." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 491-504. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. Outdoor lighting is used to illuminate roadways, parking lots, yards, sidewalks, public meeting areas, signs, work sites, and buildings. It provides us with better visibility and a sense of security. When well designed and properly installed, outdoor lighting can be and is very useful in improving visibility and safety and a sense of security, while at the same time minimizing energy use and operating costs. But, because nobody thought at this, most street lights shine light not only on the nearby ground, where is needed, but also miles away and skywards. Thus a large fraction of the light is lost, at consumer expense and without his/her consent. In the other hand, shortage in street light may cause more crimes as well as accidents. Most of the wasted or short light comes from the poorly designed street lights. Billboards, decorative lights, poorly shielded security lights are part of the problem too, but the main culprit for the waste and ugly glow one sees above one's head at nights is from the streetlights. Thus, recent computer technology gives us tools to be employed for testing the quality of light. Geographic Information System (GIS) software could be utilized to achieve that mission through applying mapping technique. This technique could analyze digital photographs and define light polluted areas as well as bad lighted. This paper reveals that step by step technique, which employs hybrid technologies to solve such problem for better planning decisions. 
Abdelhameed, Wael, and Y. Kobayashi. "Developing a New Approach of Computer Use 'KISS Modeling for Design-Ideas Alternatives of Form Massing: a framework for three-Dimensional Shape Recognition in Initial Design Phases." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 745-756. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. This research aims at developing a new approach called “KISS Modellingi. KISS is generally a rule of “Keep It Simple, Stupid” that will be applied in modelling process investigated and presented by the research. The new approach is implemented in a computer program “KISS Modellingi that generates three dimensional forms based on simplifying the concept of shape recognition in design. The research, however, does not employ totally concepts of shape recognition or shape understanding in Artificial Intelligence and psychology. The research, in summary, investigates and describes: 1) a new approach of computer use contributing to generating design-ideas alternatives of form massing in initial design phases, within a simple way that any designer can understand at single glance, 2) implementation of shape recognition for generative three dimensional forms, 3) function to generate different outputs from different recognition, and 4) case studies introduced through applications and functions of the three dimensional modelling system presented by the research. The research concluded that the introduced processes help the user improve the management of conceptual designing through facilitating a discourse of his/her modelling of design-ideas massing. 
Biloria, Nimish. "Developing an Interactive Architectural Meta-System for Contemporary Corporate Environments: an investigation into aspects of creating responsive spatial systems for corporate offices incorporating rule based computation techniques." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 199-212. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. The research paper exemplifies upon an attempt to create a co-evolving (socio-cultural and technological) programmable spatiality with a strong underpinning in the domain of computation, interaction design and open system typologies for the generation of a constantly informed self-adaptive corporate office space (which addresses the behavioural patterns/preferences of its occupants). Architectural substantiations for such corporate bodies embodying dynamic business eco-systems usually tend to be rather inert in essence and deem to remain closed systemic entities, adhering to a rather static spatial program in accordance with which they were initially conceptualized. The research initiative, rather than creating conventional inert structural shells (hard components), thus focuses upon the development of a meta-system, or in other words the creation of a “soft” (informational) which interfaces with the “hard”, material component and the users of the architectural construct (corporate offices). This soft space/meta system serves as a platform for providing the users with a democratic framework, within which they can manifest their own programmatic (activity oriented) combinations in order to create self designed spatial alternatives. The otherwise static/inert hard architectural counterpart, enhanced with contemporary technology thus becomes a physical interface prone to real-time spatial/structural and ambient augmentation to optimally serve its users. 
Silva, N F., and E M. Lima. "Do Different CAAD Education Methods Really Produce Different Results?" In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 469-478. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. We compare four teaching experiences aiming to demonstrate that different CAAD education methods may produce different results: an undergrad software-oriented course, an undergrad project-based course, a post grad course with a hybrid teaching approach and a project-based CAAD post grad diploma program. 
Matsushima, S., D. Sasaki, and R. Takenaka. "Embodying Architectural Form and Space by Coupling Computer and Human Performance Using Motion Capture Technology: Study on Application of Motion Capture to Design Process for Generating New Geometry." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 757-766. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. This research aims to develop fundamental design methodologies for human space and product design by motion capture of human activity. It is intended to generate new geometry using a motion capture system as design input device and then to develop it to design interior space and products such as furniture from data extracted from human motion. In order to produce a ubiquitous and comfortable environment, performance modelling focusing on the relationships between space and physical motion is needed. Making an object of complex shape is thought to be a new application of motion capture technology. This research proves that the numeric data of body actions can be transferred and developed to object shapes. 
Reyes, De, and K. Terzidis. "Executive Summary: on the Digital Sublime." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 799-800. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. This paper describes research in progress on the digital sublime and architecture. Written in three parts, the paper surveys the history of the sublime, offers current examples of the digital sublime, and concludes with the next path of exploration: genetic algorithms created from and of the new numeric sublime. 
Pratini, E.F.. "Experimental Tools for the Teaching of Technical Graphics and Improving Visualization." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 457-468. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. This paper presents an updated evaluation of an experience of applying computer graphics, virtual reality and Internet resources in the teaching of technical graphics at the University of Brasilia, Brazil. It differs from a previous paper (Pratini, 2004) for the addition of an overview of the course, the context and the new teaching methodology. It is an extended, more detailed paper, which includes examples, and closes with some results of surveys on the didactic material and the methodology. Our motivation for this experiment is the fact that most of the students have a lack of previous knowledge on the basis of drawings, resulting difficulties in both understanding and visualizing technical drawings. In this experiment, we introduced VRML 3D modelling in addition to CAD and regular pencil-and-paper drawings study and practice. To support the learning of this broad knowledge not present in the technical graphics bibliography, we first provided a website with animations and virtual reality resources. Since 2003 we are providing a CD-ROM containing all the former website material which is updated each semester. At the present time, the CD-ROM contains almost all the needed didactic material and software for the one semester technical graphics course. This experience was intended to improve and to support learning in a way that motivates the students, young people who are used to play video and computer games. Classes, website and CD-ROM material were conceived to take advantage of computersi interactivity and animated resources. The use of computersi technology and new media to support the learning resulted a new methodology and several new unanswered questions. 
Zeile, P., F. Farnoudi, and B. Streich. "Fascination google earth - use in urban and landscape design." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 141-148. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. Virtual 3D-City-and Architecture models, Virtual Globe systems like NASA World Wind and Google Earth as well as new attempts of immersive technologies become more important, not only among experts in spatial planning, but also many private users are interested in these new tools. These developments cause powerful impacts in the general social, cultural and everyday life. Given the dynamic development of Google Earth, the discussion about the representation and the use of geodata for a wide user group - beyond the planning disciplines - reaches new heights. According to expert's opinion, Google Earth with its computer language KML (Keyhole Markup Language) becomes a 3D-GIS-Standard [Rush in 2006]. By the easy and quick representation of three-dimensional (city) structures and single buildings, Google Earth will significantly influence all groups of society. User groups which have not been acquainted with geodata or highly specified and complex GIS-Systems [Dworschak in 2006], discover that working with this data by using Google Earth is great fun. They recognize, that with the help of generally understandable and easily recognizable visualisation of these data, mediation of knowledge becomes very easy. In addition, it is acknowledged that geodata has great potential to add value, in disciplines such as the academics, the financial sector or personal use. 
Reichrath, M., and P. Zeile. "Illumination of urban space using digital simulation methods: Exemplified on the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Bamberg." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 127-140. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. The photorealistic visualisation of lighting-scenarios with the help of virtual 3d city models is gaining importance as a tool, helping to make decisions in the process of planning. This form of presentation makes sense to every spectator very quickly and in a definite way, thus it makes collaboration easy especially in interdisciplinary planning teams. Moreover the light-planner has the possibility to check his design in a virtual surrounding and therefore gain additional reliability for his planning. The displayed, exemplary, workflow and the techniques belonging to it, allow to show situations during the course of planning and to present the current state of planning realistically. Hence the quality of planning can be enduringly improved, through experimental use of new materials and ideas. Moreover alternative planning that does not show the right results can be eliminated very early in planning process, with not need for special investments to do so. 
Loh, E., N. Dawood, and J. Dean. "Integration of 3D Tool with Environmental Impact Assessment (3D EIA)." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 51-66. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) tools have been available for some years now and their function is predominantly to predict and identify the environmental impact of building projects. However EIA analysis is often done after the completion of the project or building and when it is too late to influence the design, materials or components to be used. Also, more than 80% of the design decisions that influence the whole life cycle of a building are made at the initial design phase. EIA does not receive the required attention. A new approach is suggested in this research to ensure that designers, clients and stakeholders have all of the relevant information needed at the outline design stage for the assessment of cost and environmental impact. The idea is that building owners and users will have the opportunity to minimise their operating costs from “cradle to cradle”. As energy resources reduce over the next few decades, the value of this research will increase and it is possible to foresee government legislation which drives building construction in this direction. By making environmental impact analysis readily linked to 3D products at the very early stage of the design process, the value of 3D technology will be enhanced significantly resulting in more use of the technology in the construction process. In this context, the objective of this paper is to introduce and explore approaches for developing integrated 3D- EIA, LCA (Life Cycle Analysis) and LCCA (Life Cycle Cost Analysis) and VR (Virtual Reality) tools and develop trade-off analysis to assist in the decision making process. To demonstrate initial results, a pilot case study in the UK is being developed. 
Celento, D.. "Jump box: [Dwellings for the Digital Nomad]." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 365-380. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. Due to the rapid adoption of cellular and web-based communication, modern cultures are less reliant on fixed environments - moving more frequently for work and play. The Jump Box is an investigation into the confluence of these phenomena - the exploration of a technologically sophisticated, customizable environment that enables those engaged in increasingly dynamic lifestyles.
Loemker, T.M.. "Location Based Services in Revitalization: the Use of Commonly Available Techniques for a Client-Participation Model." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 505-516. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. This research concentrates on the combination of remote sensing devices, georeferenced data, web-based optimization techniques and Location Based Services in revitalization. Its aim is to enhance the delivery of information about the development potentialities of existing buildings. The present and idle stock of buildings is extensive. Nonetheless, significant data and information about existing buildings is hardly available. The real estate owners are usually not known by prospective clients and they can be elicited only with substantial effort. But even if data about a building is available it is difficult to valuate it precisely, because of missing standard classification techniques. The question whether or not a building is suitable for a certain subsequent use is therefore hard to answer. It involves an extensive expenditure of time and manpower. Recent publications however, demonstrate that requests for the re-use of buildings can be solved through the use of combinatorial optimization techniques (Loemker 2006a, 2006b, 2007). Within these approaches researchers mainly concentrate on the architect dealing with inquiries from clients. These inquiries typically address the question if specific buildings are suitable for particular future uses. With the aid of optimization engines the architect can solve these requests through a description of the existing buildings and the corresponding enquiries in terms of specific criteria such as number and size of rooms or adjacency between rooms. According to an unambiguous syntax these approaches can be applied to any building type. The building data is stored in databases which can be inquired through optimization engines which thereupon calculate suitable solutions to the demands made by the client. But even if these approaches demonstrate high potential, their bottleneck lies in the exclusive use through the architect. Neither can they be addressed to buildings that are not listed in the architects own inventory listings nor can they be used by the clients themselves. Furthermore, no reliable statement about a prospective reuse of a building can be made directly on site by prospective clients, i.e. buyers or renters. In our research we examined if ad-hoc analyses of existing buildings can be accomplished through the clients themselves with the aid of Location Based Services that can be accessed by common remote sensing devices. The aim is to give prospective clients the possibility to visit a building and run in-situ usability simulations. To accomplish this, building data will be transferred between the building and the client through the use of ordinary communication devices. These devices automatically connect to server-based applications, which compare the requirements of the client with the existing building and run remote simulations on concrete further utilization. The newly generated information will then be passed back to the clientis device. In the paper we address a scenario of a prospective client who visits a city where he hits on an unused building he might be interest in. The client wishes to gain immediate and accurate information if the building is able to meet his demands regarding the space needed for his company. Different techniques investigated, their assets and drawbacks will be described that could accomplish suchlike tasks. 
Silva, N F., and E M. Lima. "Low cost real time collaboration environments in distant architectural education: an effectiveness study." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 43-50. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. We describe here an experiment comparing teaching, supervising and discussing design projects through two different real time collaboration systems setups with developing the same activities on site. A group of students taught on site was compared with another taught through a low cost real time collaboration system. 
Villalon, R., and J. Lobel. "Materializing Design: contemporary issues in the use of cad/cam technology in the architectural design and fabrication process." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 317-326. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. While the ability to produce and quantify design and fabrication information has been greatly enhanced by advances in CAD/CAM technology over the last several decades, a practical link between what can be modelled virtually and what can be built physically has yet to be realized. The process of parsing complex design information and translating it into a format that can be utilized by those responsible for its fabrication is a many-stepped process, in some cases made increasingly difficult by the same technology intended to simplify the process. The use of CAD/CAM technology in the architectural design process requires ongoing consideration as its use becomes increasingly pervasive in the design process. Within the context of contemporary architectural practice and discourse, what is the degree of fidelity between design information and fabrication information? How are advances in accessibility to, and the capability of CAD/CAM technologies affecting the role of the architect in the overall building process? Does CAD/CAM offer unique and undiscovered possibilities to re-associate the designer with the builder, or simply a process of more efficiently automating the design and construction process? Our work builds upon issues of the fundamental differences that CAD/CAM technologies introduce to design practices, issues that were raised at the very outset of CAD/CAMis introduction to architectural design. Employing parametric design software, we design and construct a speculative façade system for a high-rise tower which is then fabricated at a reduced-scale with various two-axis CAM technology. We use relational and constraint-based logics in order to create models of parametric assemblies of discrete components which are translated into machine-ready formats, fabricated and re-assembled, in a process modelled on that typically followed in the construction of a real building project. 
Bazlamit, R., and M. Verma. "Nature Replay: an immersive installation." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 571-586. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. This project aims at addressing playgrounds and their utilization in current urban scenarios, in developing and under-developed countries. It experiments with digital technology to re-create a play space wherein children can actively engage with each other and the space utilizing upon a unique medium of play. As playgrounds have traditionally always been situated within a natural habitat or environment, this further reinforces the concept of developing the idea- based on something closely related to nature. Working around notions related to nature, music and how can children play around them, conceptualized “Nature rePlay”, an immersive environment making use of interactive digital media in both real urban settings and performing arts. 
Lee, S., and K. de Bodt. "Plan_B: the architectonics of sonic information." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 587-594. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. The paper addresses the influence of digital technology on architectural design and production, particularly considering the possibilities of sound for the design and conception of architecture based on the dynamic condition, which is present in the “everyday” and its permutations. The day-to-day condition is regarded as a highly dynamic flux of economic, social and political aspects and conceptually linked to sound and musical variation as guiding design principles, to actually retain and reflect the vitality of every dayis measure. We have traced precedents and cases in sound reproduction and its implications on the codification of architecture and have created a digital design tool in Max/MSP. The primary objective of the tool is to produce the corollary between sound reproduction and the conception and production of an architectonic codification, and ultimately to propose a strategy of architectural construct that has given way from the clarity of static geometry to the complexity in dynamic variability, that of dissonance. Virtual architecture and its techniques are considered to express and implement such permutations and induce a measure of change in every step and direction of the design process. The application of digital technology is regarded as the intervening of “apparatusi and to represent a different approach in relation to the prevailing regime. 
Sarji, E.A., Ahmad Rafi Moham Eshaq, and Mat Rani. "Preparing a multimedia-based gallery for institute of higher learning: a case study of Malaysian experience." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 305-316. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. While the majority of medium and small sized institutions still rely on their physical or traditional content, it has been observed a pre-disposition usually by major, recently founded or contemporary art institutions to display net-based projects (Buiani, 2001) and to some extent established as a permanent display. This changing of exhibitions has penetrated in many Asian galleries and as a result many schools trying to re-position and present in such a way that it can be easily changed and adapted to host multimedia, Internet, interactive and computer-based content. This funded research project investigates the functions of gallery in IHL in Malaysia. A triangulated study was conducted to understand the potentials and issues faced by galleries in public and private universities focusing on design schools that include art and design, and architecture. This research starts with the understanding of gallery design theories. It is then followed by a qualitative method survey to all galleries in the IHL. This research continues with an in depth study and a survey on Electronic Gallery (e-Gallery), Faculty of Creative Multimedia (FCM), Multimedia University (MMU) to understand between the theories and design ideas. A set of questionnaires was developed based on Mathews (1991) and Stewartis (2002) principles and guidelines on research methods and distributed to visitors throughout a period of time consisting of open-ended, close-ended, Likert Summated Rating Scale and Multiple-choice. This involved a controlled group of visitors comprises students and staff of the faculty. The results of these studies will be used as a reference to further conduct a wider scope of galleries worldwide towards designing a multimedia-based gallery framework for Institute of Higher Learning. 
Jaskiewicz, T.. "Process-driven architecture: Design techniques and methods." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 683-696. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. This paper explores the notion of process-driven architecture and, as a consequence, application of complex systems in the newly defined area of digital process-driven architectural design in order to formulate a suitable design method. Protospace software environment and SwarmCAD software application are introduced and physical, real scale prototypes of architectural installations illustrate the new approach to creating architecture. 
Leite, J.V., and S.M. Zancheti. "Public Cyberspace: the virtualization of public space in digital city projects." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 111-126. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. Digital cities are characterized by the gathering of people and institutions connected to each other through a computer network, which has a real city as a reference. In this context, it is important to comprehend processes and factors of socialization in communication networks which are routinely present in the dynamics of a city. The aim of this paper is to characterize a concept of Public Cyberspace within the virtualization of public space in selected digital city projects. 
Othman, A., and Aghlab Al-Attili. "Re-Placing Embodied Interaction: Palestinian Architects Virtual Community." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 381-398. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. Our ongoing project Palestine Architects Platform (PAP) -and PAP VE is a project intended to re-bond Palestinian architects and facilitate communication between them in Virtual Environments “virtual land” using virtual means. We used it as an example to argue that its inherently embedded spatial metaphor could compensate for the physical disconnectedness, and allow interaction on many different levels. Our paper proposes an interactive archiving and networking location where discourse is not only stored but categorised, analysed, retrieved and used to start new topics, or can be used to improve new debates. The focus is on the social values of PAP network and its empowering nature. The design and the structure is not simply a system for online socialisation rather it is a result of thoroughly studying available networks and their principles. It is a result of deep analysis of reality behind this community. We finally propose a set of principles that can secure a real innovative and creative knowledge exchange. 
Al-Ali, A.I.. "Readiness for the Use of Technology for effective learning via the vds: Case of the United Arab Emirates." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 439-456. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. Review of the literature indicated that todayis knowledge-driven economy demands a workforce equipped with complex skills and attitudes such as problem solving, meta-cognitive skills, critical thinking and lifelong learning. Such skills can be acquired if learning and teaching are guided by the constructivist and cognitive learning theories. In particular, the constructivist approach emphasises effective learning processes based on learning by doing and collaboration. This approach is congruent with use of technologies, such as Virtual Design Studio (VDS), for the purpose of architecture education in design courses, but such use is lacking in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). It is thus important to assess the extent to which the constructivist and cognitive theories are implemented in teaching design courses in the Architecture schools of the UAE. It is also important to assess the effectiveness of employing technology in general and VDS in particular in implementing these theories. The author intends to study the relationship between effective learning on one hand and using VDS in implementing the constructivist and cognitive approaches on the other hand. Thus, the author conducted a preliminary study to gain a basic understanding of the difficulties, approaches, attitudes, perceptions, and motivation related to the learning of design in architecture schools in the UAE. Second, the investigation was designed to assess the extent to which the students would be interested in the use of sophisticated technology in the teaching and learning environment in the UAE architecture education schools in order to achieve effective learning. The study has been conducted in the United Arab Emirates University (UAEU). Methodology used for this was the focus group method. In addition to the focus group interviews with the UAEU students, unstructured individual interviews with lecturers from UAEU and the American University of Sharjah (AUS) have been carried out. Data analysis showed that students were not satisfied with the current teaching methods based on traditional lectures. It was concluded that students were ready to practice effective learning of design via the intermarriage of VDS and the constructivist and cognitive approaches. An ambiguity that remained was whether students were ready for assessment methods which are consistent with the constructivist approach. 
AlRawi, O.. "Regenerating Architectural Elements Using AI: the Case of Muqarnas." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 273-274. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007.
Abdellatif, R., and C. Calderon. "SecondLife: a Computer-Mediated Tool for Distance-Learning in Architecture Education?" In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 17-34. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. Despite the importance of distance learning for its ability to reach a wide audience, easiness to access materials, and its lower cost compared to traditional learning, architecture education has not been well served by distance education. This is because it has a higher level of learning objectives, it is taught by coaching methodologies, and involves nonverbal forms of communication. One of the most common learning methods used in the design studio is the Criticism/Critique, which is a graphic and oral type of communication between the tutor and the students. In this investigation, Second Life, a massive multi-user online virtual environment that offers three-dimensional spatial capabilities via Avatars impersonation, is used as a computer-mediated tool for text and graphic-based communication in a distance learning situation. The study describes a demonstration experiment where students had to communicate with their tutor, display and describe their projects at a distance, in a purposely designed criticism space in SecondLife. The main objective of this paper is to observe and document the effects and the use of SecondLife virtual environment as an online 3D graphical-based tool of computer-mediated communication in distance learning in architecture education. The study also answers some questions: How well did the students use the tools of the medium provide? Was there a sense of personal communication and realism gained through using Avatars in the virtual environment? Did SecondLife provide a successful means of communication for a graphic-based context? And what are the studentsi opinions about the learning environment? Using multiple methods of data collection, mainly based on an electronic observation of the experiment, questioning the participants before and after the experiment, and the analysis of the chat transcripts, the study presents descriptive results of the experiment, and discusses its main features. Proposals for modifications are made for future replications. 
Grasl, T., and C. Kühn. "Situated spatial awareness: Experimenting with spatial concepts for agents." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 253-260. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. The target of the project is to explore spatial awareness in situated agents. The concepts are tested with exhibition layout as use case and subsumption architecture as cognitive model. The agents in the implementation control the location and orientation of exhibits in a collaborative environment. The paper describes the implementation details and discusses the outcome. 
Bakr, A.F., and D. Saadallah. "Strategic planning through Mapping of Water pollution in Lack of information system utilizing geographic information system (GIS): Lake Maryout, Alexandria, Egypt." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 479-490. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. Strategic planning always requests supporting tools to defeat lack of data problems, which is a common drawback in our planning system as a result of several reasons. This paper is an extensive overview of the recent application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in the domain of water contamination in lakes. The authors try to establish a GIS mapping technique, which is customized for Lake of Maryout in Alexandria city, Egypt demonstrating various GIS analysis techniques/approaches applied to a diversity of real-life engineering endeavors in the water contamination control management sector in a lack of data system. First, the reader is concisely acquainted with the major steps of utilized mapping technique and how they are conducted. Second, the technique would be applied to define degree of water pollution distribution in Lake of Maryout. Finally, the output maps would be analyzed to delineate a quick and long term strategy of solution. 
Islami, S.Y.. "Surface-driven architecture: Moving Beyond the Ornament/Structure Opposition." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 671-682. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. Contemporary architecture has been influenced by a shift of interest from the dialectic Derridean theories of language to those of Deleuze and Guattari who put more emphasis on transitions, experimentation and material presence. New digital design tools as well as new construction materials have opened up more possibilities for architects. E-paper, digital screens, printed concrete, composite polymers and dynamic cladding systems, have allowed designers to relish architecture at the surface level. Moreover, the process of architectural design is shifting from the desktop to the virtual world of the computer. NURBS, Blobs, Metaforms, Isomorphic Surfaces and other complex geometries are now possible using surface-driven computer modelling software. Because of this, the resultant architecture display a much more distinct appreciation and mastery of surface-effects. The following article argues that contemporary architecture is becoming increasingly a process of surfacing, both as a process of revealing and as a process of concealing. Surface, in common parlance, is generally understood as the exterior boundary of things, the outer skin of any object. In this sense, surfaces are actual, material, textural entities that we often encounter first. The surface is also taken to be something that conceals: “it was not what it appeared to be on the surface.” However, it is when things surface that they become evident or apparent, they appear out of a previously concealed existence or latency. Thus, surfacing is a process of becoming explicit, of becoming experientially apparent in a movement from virtuality to actuality. This article argues that the use of emerging computer technologies in architecture, have resulted in a renewed prioritization of surface and surface-effects. It shall be concluded that the surface-driven nature of most contemporary modelling software has resulted in a new approach to architectural design, one that has the potential of subverting the traditional hierarchy between ornament and structure. As a result, this design strategy has allowed for a much more spirited and creative approach to architecture. 
Chen, G.. "Tagging Your Body Virtually: Represent a place making process with social network." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 543-558. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. This research focuses on the virtual environment of place making. In this paper we would like to emphasize that the place making should be stressed collective views in order to obtain the design application of possibilities. However, in past researches there has been no study that tried to collect the collective views by digital ways. Accordingly, this paper proposes a response thought the Spatial Intention. It could be used to represent the human of body experience. The “moving” and “standing” are appropriate to two main considerations. Both of these could be connected to the action of “focus” and “choice.” these leads to a sequential relationship of place production. The positive significance of the spatial intention lies in the convertibility of physical experience could be implied with a specific understanding. It also could be used to mold the place of knowledge structure. Thereby in order to verify the reliability of the above, we made a social network of virtual environment and used the rapid prototyping method to develop a prototype system. Implementing on the Chinese garden of the actual case, we found that the tag could concentrate as an entire sense in somewhere of place. These tags also could be shared remotely through the social network. Different tags in the sharing mechanism could collage out a place of collective views. This perspective would be used to assist designers to understand the sense of place. It also would be applied to find out the environmental design of possibilities in the future studies. 
Ibrahim, M.M.. "Teaching BIM, what is missing? the challenge of integrating BIM based CAD in today s architectural curricula." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 651-660. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. Building Information Modelling is the technology converting the workplace in design firms around the world. Now, professionals as well as academia see the feasibility and benefits of converting to such a new technology. Therefore, it seems inevitable to start teaching BIM to architecture students. And as we keep using and depending on computers the way we are, it also seems inevitable that programming will soon become one of the core curriculum classes for architecture students. However, the same problems facing professionals in design firms are those facing academic educators in schools of architecture, but with some different aspects. The misconceptions about the reality of BIM and the lack of understanding the full potential of the applications are the common issues. Few schools have started looking at the problem of preparing their students for a career in a BIM enabled work environment. The difficulty is due partly to the novelty of the technology and partly to the dilemma of teaching one application versus teaching the technology behind it. Besides the steep learning curve there should be the early introduction to how to interact deeply with the application to edit its content. The training required for BIM based CAD should focus on the core concepts rather than the application interface and functionalities. Therefore, building a course for teaching these systems should follow a different path than with conventional CAD. The training should be tied closely to the design curriculum in the design schools. A special version with different interface might empower the user. Hence, enhancing the experience and relieving some of the concerns attached with introducing BIM in the architecture curriculum. 
Techel, F., and K. Nassar. "Teaching Building Information Modeling (BIM) from a Sustainabilty Design Perspective." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 635-650. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. Building Information Modelling has recently gained significant attention both in academia and practice. BIM presents immense opportunities for increased efficiencies, coordination and quality of architectural design. One of the reasons that BIM offers a more comprehensive design approach is the fact that all aspect of the building are considered during the modelling phase. Rather than drawing the building using lines and circles actual object are used to model the building, which results in a more comprehensive underlying database model of the entire edifice being designed. The approach obviously has tremendous benefits in terms of coordination and systems integration, as well as, project control and management during the design and construction phases. Nevertheless BIM offers its own unique challenges vis--vis its introduction to students of architecture. The students in Architecture programs are usually introduced to BIM in two ways, either through a specialized course in CAD or via a shadow introduction in design studios and related courses. Careful positioning of the course within the architecture curriculum is crucial in order to gain maximum benefit in the synthesis of other course content. The reason being that students of architecture in earlier years of the design curriculum may not yet have developed the ability to synthesize and coordinate multiple systems required for complete BIM. This is an important consideration the design and pedagogy of introducing BIM to Architecture students. This paper argues for a new approach in teaching BIM for Architecture students. Instead of designing a course specifically for BIM/CAAD we present a paradigm whereas BIM can be presented within a larger more rigorous context. The experience of teaching BIM within a sustainable design framework is presented in this paper. Issues relating to the design of basic residential buildings were integrated into the course presenting BIM. A simplified set of design rules and guidelines under banner of sustainability were taught to the students in pre-defined doses and sequence throughout the course. The careful placement of these concepts permitted for BIM to be introduced in a more interesting and comprehensive manner than in the traditional CAD-course setting. Samples of student work are presented and critiqued in order to come up with recommendations and guidelines for incorporating BIM into a comprehensive and comprehensible course. The pedagogical advantages of and disadvantages of the approach are discussed within the paper, as well as, a detailed description of the course content and structure. Results from and outcome-based assessment of the objectives of the course are also illuminated which provided suggestions for future offerings of the course. 
Prichard-Schmitzberger, A.. "Team-Working and Reverse Engineering: Teaching Methods for Complex Architecture." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 343-356. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. This paper contains research and details of a work in progress on the implementation of advanced 3D precision modelling in an undergraduate curriculum. Core to the investigation is the undergraduate course Digitally Enhanced Construction and Fabrication (D.E.C.A.F.) at the Department of Architecture, California State Polytechnic University Pomona. The course tests the application of Reverse Engineering (RE) in a team configuration, Hot-Swapping (HS), and precision modelling of complex geometries with minimal programming/scripting input, taking in consideration the limited resources common to small-scale architectural practices. Reverse Engineering particularly enables students to extract information building assembly and executed details with precision, based on existing documentation. It is conducted in teams not only to emphasize and investigate efficiency of protocols but also to observe problems in developing threads in digital modelling. Hot-Swapping identifies the principle of replacing components of a building during active design processes without altering its general appearance. As a teaching methodology, it allows the investigation of required modelling accuracy, creation of prototypes and various versions of assembly alternatives. The current paper focuses mainly on 1) engaged procedures in Reverse Engineering, 2) the educational aspects of such an approach, and 3) the advantages and disadvantages of conventional tools in a collaborative modelling exercise. 
Lee, S., and Ömer Akin. "The development of an augmented reality-based user interface to support maintenance fieldwork." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 35-42. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. This paper discusses computational support for the maintenance of Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing (MEP) systems to more effectively use maintenance information. A common cause of inefficient and ineffective maintenance has been the difficulty in getting reliable, just-in-time information for in-situ maintenance work. To reduce this inefficiency in the maintenance environment, accessibility and accuracy of maintenance information must be improved. Our approach, therefore, is the development of a user interface that will produce superimposed computer graphics of equipment/facility-specific maintenance information onto a live video stream on portable computing devices, such as laptops and PDAs. This paper concentrates on elicitation of primary functions needed to support various maintenance activities as well as a prototype application being developed for the approach. 
Kaka, A.P., Y. Ibrahim, and T. Lukins. "The Development of an Automated Progress Measurement System for Construction Work Packages." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 81-86. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. The challenges associated with collecting accurate data on the progress of construction have long been recognised. Traditional methods often involve human judgment, high costs, and are too infrequent to provide managers with timely and accurate control data. The aim of this study is to propose a prototype system that employs Computer Vision (CV) techniques to report on progress for components supplied from an integrated Building Information Model (BIM). This model stores and relates this feedback to a representation of the work breakdown structure (WBS) that assigns components to work packages. In this paper we present an overview of the actual system - from the theoretical and technical challenges encountered. 
Taha, D, S. Hosni, H. Sueyllam, and B. Streich. "The Role of Cases in Architectural Practice and Education Moneo: an Architectural Assistant System." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 215-228. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. The work presented here describes a prototype application, called MONEO that makes use of case based reasoning (CBR) in the field of architectural design. MONEO is a tool that aids architectural students as well as practicing architects in the pre-design phase by supplying them with an adequate number of similar past architectural cases to the design problem they have at hand. The different modules of MONEO will be presented and discussed, as well as the tools used to develop them. 
Tolba, O.. "The Role of GIS in Documenting Bahrain s Historic Cities." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 517-526. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. Geographic information systems have long been established as useful tools for urban planning. The aim of this study is to put forward applications of GIS (Geographic Information Systems) to urban conservation in cities with architectural heritage. The study presents a specific database design to be integrated within a GIS, and the methodology of gathering data for such a database. This study concerns Bahrainis architectural heritage, which includes many significant historic buildings as well as an overall traditional character of Bahrainis old towns. This heritage is endangered due to extensive new urban development and the general neglect over the past decades. The study also describes an experimental database that is implemented for documenting the urban character of the old towns of Manama and Muharraq. This database was tested during a partial visual survey of Manama. It is hoped that this database will be the nucleus of a long-term process of urban conservation in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The work described here is part of a larger study conducted by the UNDP (United Nations Development Program) and the municipal government in Bahrain. A group of international experts in urban planning, urban design, and historic preservation also presented their own specific recommendations. The author of this paper was responsible for designing the GIS that helps in documenting the historic cities of Bahrain. This report proposes the development of a geographic information system for urban conservation planning. The system supports planning specialists and decision makers in their areas of work, such as the creation of urban conservation zones and redevelopment strategies. The system documents existing structures and their present conditions in order to assist in decisions regarding their preservation, restoration, and possible reuse. Such a system will also help the municipalities in regular heritage management tasks. 
Elmasry, M.H., and E.M. Farid. "User Participation and Mass Customization as Key Factors in the Future Residential Building." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 327-342. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. The adoption of mass customization concepts, new manufacturing technologies together with the user participation, can open up an opportunity to the future residential buildings to achieve both a status of art and commodity, breaking the typical dichotonomy in architecture and meeting the individual needs and values of the future clients. The paper emphasizes on the concept of introducing the design as critical selling point where the customers can make their choices and changes through an interactive Web site exploring how mass customization and co-design will affect the architectural design / construction process of the residential multi-storey buildings. 
Germen, M.. "Virtual Architecture: Reconstructing Architecture Through Photography." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 16-Jan. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. The concept of construction in architectural design process is a temporary action that exists for a while and transforms itself into another product, i.e. the final building to be inhabited. Construction site can be taken as a podium where a play-to-remain-incomplete is being staged. The incompleteness causes us to dream, due to the fact that a complete building loses its narrative potential as it informs us about all the necessary pieces that constitute the whole: There is no puzzle to solve... Construction in this sense is like a historical ruin, Paul Zucker asserts that “ruins have held for a long time a unique position in the visual, emotional, and literary imagery of man. They have fascinated artists, poets, scholars, and sightseers alike. Devastated by time or willful destruction, incomplete as they are, they represent a combination of man-made forms and of organic nature.i Architectural photography has the potential of re-creating this puzzle back again in order to bring an alternative representation to architecture. The architectural photographer is sometimes offered the freedom of reinterpreting, reconstructing architecture in order to be able to present a novel virtual perception to the audience. The idea here is to get some spatial clues that can later be used in other architectural projects. I was personally invited to two different concept exhibits in which I was given the freedom of inventing a virtual architecture through photography. The concept text written for one of these exhibits goes as follows: “I went, saw, stopped, attempted to grasp and enter it, looked at construction process and workers with respect, tried to internalize, wanted to claim it for a while, dreamed of creating a microcosm out of the macrocosm I was in, shot and shot and shot and finally selected: The created world, though intended for all, was probably quite a personal illusion...” Virtual architecture is a term used for architecture specifically created in the computer environment and never used in the realm of architectural photography. People like Piranesi, Lebbeus Woods, M.C. Escher, Marcos Novak, etc. previously dreamed about architectures that could exist virtually on paper, screen, digital environments. This paper will try to prove that this practice of (re)designing architecture virtually can be transferred to one of the most important realms of visuality: Photography. Various digital processes like stitching multiple photos together and mirroring images in image editing software like Photoshop, allow this virtual architecture to take place in the computer environment. Following this, I propose to raise the term “snap architecturei to connect it to the frequently referred concept of “paper architecture.”
Razaz, Z.M.. "Virtual Heritage in the Digital Era." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 149-164. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. These instructions are intended to guide contributors to the Second International Conference of the Arab Society of Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2007) when preparing papers. The abstract is in 10 pt Times with 11 pt leading. In the last years we have witnessed an enormous interest in the idea of the virtual, triggered by the increasing availability of advanced information technology. The capacity of this technology to model and simulate the behaviour and the perception of environments have raised enormous expectations about the possibilities of producing synthetic, virtual environments that will eventually replace reality in the forms we know it. But if this virtual trend is a very recent phenomenon associated to the development of information technology, the idea of the virtual is not new. Virtual reality takes place, also, in architecture. Virtual architecture is not a design problem to which architecture and architects can offer any answer that they please. It is the condition, under which we have come to live in the 21st century through the physical and sensual encounter with the computer. It is only as a violence of this nature that virtual architecture can become a virtual thing and have the power to change the architectural thought of the era. Virtual reality could be used in different fields but essentially, the goal of this piece of work is the development of a generic set of tools that provide users with the means to recall represent and document the heritage in a new way, in order to preserve and make it accessible to as many people as possible. 
Eshaq, Ahmad Rafi Moham, and Mat Rani. "Visual impact assessment (VIA): a review on theoretical frameworks for urban streetscape." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 87-94. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. This paper reviews several theoretical frameworks of visual analysis used in computer-based Visual Impact Assessment (VIA) for design decisions in architecture, urban landscape and urban planning. The discussion will focus on the underlying issues of preferences and predictions between designer and lay-public, methodologies of visual analysis, and computing media technologies due to fact that these components primarily contribute towards the result of VIA. Two different sets of visual analysis (i.e. designeris and laymanis points of view) are presented based on Sanoffis (1991) arguments that lay-public preferences are always become a second opinion compared to the judgments by designers. These theories will then be developed and used in the VIA experiments to understand the impact of the visuals in different media for viewersi understanding. This paper concludes with a discussion and suggestion of analysis framework to be used for the visual experiments. 
Huang, C.-H., and Robert Krawczyk. "Web Based BIM for Modular House Development: Query Approach in Consumer Participatory Design." In Em'body'ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 559-570. ASCAAD. Alexandria, Egypt: The Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design, 2007. The paper describes the relationship of clientis requirements and available design options of the proposed system by examples of its current prototype. By integrating the nature of modularity in prefabricated housing design, a proposed web-based design system will provide information filtering questionnaires to assist customers in selecting appropriate design components. A methodology has been developed that can generate design options based on the clientis needs and available modular components from selected product suppliers making it possible to simulate the final design before processing orders for assembling and manufacturing. Overall, the research demonstrates the power of internet that acts as a feedback loop to receive the information from clients, streamline the communication in between design teams, and integrate all products and materials together.