Keywords Abstract
Chen, Shang. "A Collaborative Digital Design Workshop: an ANN-based paradigm approach." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. This paper relies on observation and analysis an internationally digital design exchange activity, “The FCU & Bartlett School of Architecture, university college London (UCL) digital architecture workshop” to propose an educational model based on the artificial neural network (ANN). We expect that the results of this work can lead to the establishment of a scoring mechanism that can “adapt” to the difficulty of assigned problems and assess students'progress. An international technological exchange workshop based on the theme of digital design is helpful to attain an accelerated heightening in the quality and experience of education. This is going to be an educational trend and increasingly prevalent in the future. A successful educational curriculum in digital design relies on a concerted effort amongst curriculum framework, learning activities, and course content. While, an internationally exchange digital design workshop is different from traditional “semester-based” units of curriculums. The short-term educational models are required high degrees interaction and collaboration. On the other hand, artificial neural network system that is context aware in ill-defined and complex environments is highly adaptive. It can extract, interpret and use the context information and adapt its functions to obtain an optimal correspondence between “context change” and “desired goal” efficiently. Therefore, an ANN-based pedagogical mechanism is able to encourage students to select relatively difficult design problems and promote more design originality, interaction and collaboration.
Rahman, Rashidah, and Alan Day. "A Comparative Study of Digital and Traditional Tools for Participative Design." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. Computer tools have been used by experts for a wide range of activities including design and planning, historical conservation, urban management, education, and marketing and promotion. However, the difficulty of using these tools has meant that they have only been used by experts and their benefits have not been available to the public when engaged in participative design exercises. This paper reviews the extent of computer tool usage within urban design and goes on to propose a new way of utilizing digital tools in order to involve non-experts. The work that is presented here takes the form of an experiment which compares the traditional participative design approach with one that employs a three-dimensional digital approach. The setting for the experiment is based on the design of student housing on the University of Bath campus in the United Kingdom. Findings from the experiment demonstrate that the digital toolkit that is proposed has considerable potential to aid the process of participatory design.
Ma, Yue, and Mohammed Zaheeruddin. "A Real-Time Simulation Tool for Fault Detection and Diagnosis of HVAC Systems." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. In this study, a real-time simulation tool was developed for online monitoring, control and diagnosis of HVAC systems. A twozone variable air volume terminal reheat (VAV-TRH) HVAC system is considered. The developed program can be used in offline and online environments. The offline environment allows the operators to examine optimal control strategies, and to investigate problems associated with improper size of components which could be the root cause of the fault. The online environment is useful for monitoring, control and diagnosis of HVAC systems. A set of expert rules were applied to identify the faults. Simulation results show that the developed tool is able to correctly identify the fault patterns and therefore can be used for improving operating performance of HVAC systems.  
Luesche, Andreas, and Salim Elwazani. "Adapting Digital Technologies to Architectural Education Need." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. Adapting digital technologies to architecture school settings is a topic of universal interest. Properly construed, adapting digital technologies to architectural education emanates from philosophical underpinnings. For architectural programs, the scientific-artistic attribute notion can be a powerful reference for mapping program mission, goals, and curriculum. A program plan developed with scientific-artistic attributes of performance in mind can tap on the use of digital media from the perspective that the media has scientific-artistic characteristics itself. Implementation of digital technologies adaptation can be challenged, among other things, by scarcity in resources. This paper focuses on the role of digital equipment resources in adaptation. A case in point is the use of digital technologies at the Architecture and Environmental Design Studies (Arch/EDS) Program of Bowling Green State University. The study considered the utilization by the third and fourth year design studio students of the digital resources at the Center for Applied Technology, a College based, but University wide serving unit. The objective of the study was to build up a theoretical understanding of the adaptation problem and come up with strategy guidelines for adapting digital media resources to architectural education. A survey of students and interviews with the Centeris personnel were methods used to collect data. The study has placed the adaptation problem in a philosophical context, turned out a set of theoretical generalizations about digital utilization, and suggested strategy adaptive guidelines. Beyond facilitating adaptation specific to the Arch/EDS Program, the results of the study are bound to affect digital adaptation in a general sense.
Artopoulos, Giorgos, Stanislav Roudavski, and François Penz. "Adaptive Generative Patterns: design and construction of Prague Biennale pavilion." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. This paper describes an experimental practice-based research project that considered design process, implementation and construction of a pavilion built to be part of the Performative Space section of the International Biennale of Contemporary Art, Prague 2005. The project was conceptualized as a time-bound performative situation with a parasite-like relationship to its host environment. Its design has emerged through an innovative iterative process that utilized digital simulative and procedural techniques and was formed in response to place-specific behavioural challenges. This paper presents the project as an in-depth case-study of digital methods in design, mass customization and unified methods of production. In particular, it considers the use of Voronoi patterns for production of structural elements providing detail on programming and construction techniques in relationship to design aspirations and practical constraints.
Sajid, A., R. Marasini, and M. Ahmad. "An Analysis of the Applications of Rapid Prototyping in Architecture." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. Rapid prototyping (RP) techniques are widely used within the design/manufacturing industry and are well established in manufacturing industry. These digital techniques offer quick and accurate prototypes with relatively low cost when we require exact likeness to a particular scale and detail. 3D modelling of buildings on CAD-systems in the AEC sector is now becoming more popular and becoming widely used practice as the higher efficiency of working with computers is being recognized. However the building of scaled physical representations is still performed manually, which generally requires a high amount of time. Complex post-modernist building forms are more faithfully and easily represented in a solid visualization form, than they could be using traditional model making methods. Using RP within the engineering community has given the users the possibility to communicate and visualize designs with greater ease with the clients and capture any error within the CAD design at an early stage of the project or product lifecycle. In this paper, the application of RP in architecture is reviewed and the possibilities of modelling architectural models are explored. A methodology of developing rapid prototypes with 3D CAD models using methods of solid freeform manufacturing in particular Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) is presented and compared against traditional model making methods. An economical analysis is presented and discussed using a case study and the potential of applying RP techniques to architectural models is discussed.
Huang, Chie-Chieh. "An Approach to 3D Conceptual Modelling." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. This article presents a 3D user interface required by the development of conceptual modelling. This 3D user interface provides a new structure for solving the problems of difficult interface operations and complicated commands due to the application of CAD 2D interface for controlling 3D environment. The 3D user interface integrates the controlling actions of “seeing - moving -seeingi while designers are operating CAD (Schin and Wiggins, 1992). Simple gestures are used to control the operations instead. The interface also provides a spatial positioning method which helps designers to eliminate the commands of converting a coordinate axis. The study aims to discuss the provision of more intuitively interactive control through CAD so as to fulfil the needs of designers. In our practices and experiments, a pair of LED gloves equipped with two CCD cameras for capturing is used to sense the motions of hands and positions in 3D. In addition, circuit design is applied to convert the motions of hands including selecting, browsing, zoom in / zoom out and rotating to LED switches in different colours so as to identify images.
Arjun, G., and J. Plume. "Collaborative Architectural Design as a reflective Conversation: an agent facilitated system to support collaborative conceptual design." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. In this paper, definitions of collaborative design are discussed and understood in terms of a designeris cognitive collaborations to explore his/her experiential memory for remote idea associations. Based on Schonis reflective practice theory, Valkenburg and Dorstis (1998) description of collaborative team designing is adopted as a model for a proposed design conversation system. The design conversation system is aimed at triggering the experiential memory of the designer by associating significant ideas from different design domains to provide different perspectives of a design situation. The paper describes a proposed framework for the design conversation system incorporating computational agents in a blackboard architecture environment.
Anz, Craig, and Akel Kahera. "Critical Environmentalism and the Practice of Re-Construction." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. This research focuses on the implications and applications of “critical environmentalism” as a quintessential epistemological framework for urban interventions while implementing digital applications that foster collective, round-table approaches to design. Essentially centering the environment (Umwelt) as an encompassing and interconnecting catalyst between multiple disciplines, philosophies, and modes of inquiry and technologies, the framework reciprocally fosters individual and critical identities associated with particular places, belief systems, and their participants as a primary concern. Critical environmentalism promotes a comprehensive, reciprocally unifying epistemological framework that can significantly inform architectural interventions and the tethered use of its technologies in order to foster increased vitality and a certain coinvested attention to the complexities of the greater domain. Grounding the theory in pedagogical practice, this paper documents an approach to urban design and architectural education, implemented as a case-study and design scenario, where divergent perspectives amalgamate into emergent urban configurations, critically rooted in the conditional partialities of place. Digital technologies are incorporated along with analogical methods as tools to integrate multiple perspectives into a single, working plane. Engaging the above framework, the approach fosters a critical (re)construction and on-going, co-vested regeneration of community and the context of place while attempting to dialogically converge multiple urban conditions and modes-of-thought through the co-application of various digital technologies. Critically understanding complex urban situations involves dialogically analyzing, mapping, and modelling a discursive, categorical structure through a common goal and rationale that seeks dialectic synthesis between divergent constructions while forming mutual, catalyzing impetuses between varying facets. In essence, the integration of varying technologies in conjunction, connected to real world scenarios and a guiding epistemic framework cultivates effective cross-pollination of ideas and modes through communicative and participatory interaction. As such it also provides greater ease in crosschecking between a multitude of divergent modes playing upon urban design and community development. Since current digital technologies aid in data collection and the synthesis of information, varying factors can be more easily and collectively identified, analyzed, and then simultaneously used in subsequent design configurations. It inherently fosters the not fully realized potential to collectively overlay or montage complex patterns and thoughts seamlessly and to thus subsequently merge a multitude of corresponding design configurations simultaneously within an ongoing, usable database. As a result, the pedagogical process reveals richly textured sociocultural fabrics and thus produces distinct amplifications in complexity and attentive management of diverse issues, while also generating significant narratives and themes for fostering creative and integrative solutions. As a model for urban community and social development, critical environmentalism is further supported the integrative use of digital technologies as an effective means and management for essential, communicative interchange of knowledge and thus rapprochement between divergent modes-of-thought, promoting critical, productive interaction with others in the (co)constructive processes of our life-space.
Biloria, Nimish, Kas Oosterhus, and Cas Aalbers. "Design Informatics: a case based investigation into parametric design scripting and CNC based manufacturing techniques." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. The research paper exemplifies a novel information integrated design technique developed at ONL (Oosterhuis and Lenard), Netherlands, specifically appropriated for manifesting complex geometric forms. The “informed design technique”, apart from being highly instrumental in conceptualizing and generating the geometric component constituting architectural form in a parametric manner, is also efficiently utilized for precise computer aided manufacturing and construction of the speculated form. Geometric complexities inherent in contemporary architectural constructs and the time spent in appropriation of such topologies, fueled the “informed design” approach, which caters to issues of timely construction, precision oriented design and production (visual and material) and parametric modeling attuned to budgetary fluctuations. This designresearch approach has been tested and deployed by ONL, for conceiving “the Acoustic Barrier” project, Utrecht Leidsche Rijn in the Netherlands and is treated as a generic case for exemplifying the “informed design” technique in this research paper. The design methodology encourages visualizing architectural substantiations from a systems perspective and envisages upon a rule based adaptive systems approach involving extrapolation of contextual dynamics/ground data in terms of logical “rules”. These rules/conditionalities form the basis for spawning parametric logistics to be mapped upon geometric counterparts exemplifying the conception. The simulated parametric relations bind dimensional aspects (length, width, height etc.) of the geometric construct in a relational manner, eventually culminating in a 3D spatial envelope. This evolved envelope is subsequently intersected with a parametric spatio-constructive grid”, creating specific intersecting points between the two. A pattern of points attained from this intersection: “the point cloud” serves as a generic information field concerning highly specific coordinates, parameters and values for each individual point/constructive node it embodies. The relations between these points are directly linked with precise displacements of structural profiles and related scaling factors of cladding materials. Parallel to this object oriented modeling approach, a detailed database (soft/information component) is also maintained to administer the relations between the obtained points. To be able to derive constructible structural and cladding components from the point cloud configuration customized Scripts (combination of Lisp and Max scripts) process the point cloud database. The programmed scriptroutines, iteratively run calculations to generate steel-wire frames, steel lattice-structure and cladding panels along with their dimensions and execution drawing data. Optimization-routines are also programmed to make rectifications and small adjustments in the calculated data. This precise information is further communicated with CNC milling machines to manifest complex sectional profiles formulating the construct thus enabling timely and effective construction of the conceptualized form.
Lömker, Thorsten. "Designing with Machines: solving architectural layout planning problems by the use of a constraint programming language and scheduling algorithms." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. In 1845 Edgar Allan Poe wrote the poem “The Raven”,  an act full of poetry, love, passion, mourning, melancholia and death. In his essay “The Theory of Composition” which was published in 1846 Poe proved that the poem is based on an accurate mathematical description. Not only in literature are structures present that are based on mathematics. In the work of famous musicians, artists or architects like Bach, Escher or Palladio it is evident that the beauty and clarity of their work as well as its traceability has often been reached through the use of intrinsic mathematic coherences. If suchlike structures could be described within architecture, their mathematical abstraction could supplement “The Theory of Composition” of a building. This research focuses on an approach to describe principles in architectural layout planning in the form of mathematical rules that will be executed by the use of a computer. Provided that “designi is in principle a combinatorial problem, i.e. a constraint-based search for an overall optimal solution of a design problem, an exemplary method will be described to solve problems in architectural layout planning. Two problem domains will be examined: the design of new buildings, as well as the revitalization of existing buildings. Mathematical and syntactical difficulties that arise from the attempt to extract rules that relate to the process of building design will be pointed out. To avoid conflicts relating to theoretical subtleness a customary approach has been chosen in this work which is adopted from Operations Research. In this approach design is a synonym for planning, which could be described as a systematic and methodical course of action for the analysis and solution of current or future problems. The planning task is defined as an analysis of a problem with the aim to prepare optimal decisions by the use of mathematical methods. The decision problem of a planning task is represented by an optimization model and the application of an efficient algorithm to aid finding one or more solutions to the problem. The basic principle underlying the approach presented herein is the understanding of design in terms of searching for solutions that fulfill specific criteria. This search will be executed by the use of a constraint programming language, which refers to mathematical as well as to integer and mixed integer programming. Examples of architectural layout problems will be presented that can be solved by the use of this programming paradigm. In addition to this, a second programming approach resulting from the domain of resource-allocation has been followed in this research. It will be demonstrated that it is as well possible, to aid architectural layout planning by the use of scheduling algorithms.
Lerma, José, and Salim Elwazani. "Digital Rectified Imagery: a survey method for design and conservation projects." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. Faced with the need for understanding the physical context of the projects that come under their jurisdiction, architects, urban designers, and conservationists strive to secure congruent information. Practicing professionals are not set to carry out the collecting of information themselves. As information “users,” they reach out to information “providers,” including surveyors, photogrammetrists, and GIS specialists, to secure needed information. Information providers employ a gamut of methods to survey and document design project contexts, including land surveying techniques, stereophotogrammetry, rectified imagery, laser scanning, and GIS. This study deals with digital rectified imagery (DRI) only and is aimed at creating an awareness of the method characteristics in the minds of the information users toward taking advantage of available DRI documentation opportunities offered by the information providers. As part of the methodology for this study, the authors have selected a subject building, captured a number of images through a digital camera, and processed the images using image processing software. The significance of this study resides in enabling the information users to understand RDI and to tap on its potential for consummating design, planning, and conservation projects.
Bennadji, A., and A. Bellakha. "Evaluation of a Higher Education Self-learning Interface." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. This paper is a follow-up to a previous paper published in ASCAAD 2004 (A. Bennadji et al 2005). The latter reported on CASD (Computer Aided Sustainable Design) a self-learning educational interface which assists the various buildingis actors in their design with a particular attention to the aspect of energy saving. This paper focuses on the importance of software evaluation and how the testing is done to achieve a better human-machine interaction. The paper will go through the summative evaluation of CASD, presents the output of this evaluation and addresses the challenge facing software developers: how to make an interface accessible to all users and specifically students in higher education.
Kouider, Tahar. "Evolution or Revolution: is digital conceptual design the way forward for Architects?" In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. This research investigates architectural conceptual design and discusses its recent historical, philosophical and theoretical development within the overall architectural design process and attempts to establish an objective definition more tuned to current thinking and advancement in technology. It also evaluates the various traditional and information technology (IT) tools available to the designer and establishes their relationship to the conceptual design process in order to identify if any of these tools, in particular the IT tools, have a role to play in the practice and the enhancement of the conceptual design process. A survey of Scottish practicing architects (small to medium size practices) was undertaken to validate the results of the investigation. The results seem to suggest that IT tools are not essential to the conceptual design process but that they are very well capable of enhancing the creativity and speed of some aspects of it. They also suggest the existence of an inherent resistance amongst Architects / designers to utilising these tools in conceptual design. It is, furthermore, identified that if practitioners were to encompass new working practices and acquire new skills, IT tools could also provide powerful new modes of communication with the client. A correlation between the size of the practice and the degree of exposure and experience of IT tools was also established. To test some of the above findings, a design studio experiment was undertaken where half of the students adopted digital tools, utilising SketchUp software and digital sketchpads, whilst the others adopted traditional tools for the conceptual design part of their projects. No attempt was made to gauge the quality of the actual designs produced. The results indicate that the SketchUp group rated their conceptual design experience higher in terms of efficiency, flexibility and communication. The control group, who had dominantly adopted traditional freehand sketching, were impressed by the outcome from the SketchUp group. All student who answered the questionnaire, both SketchUp and control groups, said they would consider adopting some form of 3D sketching in the future.
Techel, Florian. "Future of Communicating Digital Design in Architecture: overcoming the divisive power of Computer Aided Design." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. A few decades ago architects, engineers and the building industry relied on a set of self-developed tools for drawing and standards for communication within the profession and beyond. Everyone involved in the process of building understood these standards that were developed, controlled and updated by the profession. Today the situation appears more ambiguous. The introduction of Digital Media, and specifically Computer Aided Design, has greatly enhanced the potential for productivity gains. On the other hand, the lack of standardized open file exchange formats in CAD has created communication barriers by making data exchange more confusing and ambiguous. Frequently this has consumed the very productivity gains that were originally envisioned by industry. Problems with proper and fluent data exchange between software applications to no small extent are due to fundamental disagreements between software designers on the proper digital description of a building, leading to nearly insurmountable communication obstacles, designed to potentially divide the profession, practitioners and the educational environment. Consequently construction has not partaken in the productivity gains that other industries have enjoyed. Proprietary file formats and closed software systems have fostered the development of design camps that rally behind one software. Others reluctantly buy into certain “solutions” for they are perceived to be standards. Innovation is hampered as development of industry design tools is no longer controlled by architects, engineers and the construction sector but instead by private software companies frequently pursuing their Based on 20 years of experience with CAD in the profession and academia this paper critically investigates the status quo of CAD in the building industry. It points towards strategies of overcoming the current problematic situation and putting the profession back in control of its own communication process.
Wittkopf, Stephen, Sze Teo, and Zhou ZhiYing. "I3-Eye-Cube: interactive intuitive mixed reality interface for virtual architecture." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. This paper introduces a new tangible interface for navigating through immersive virtual Architecture. It replaces the common mouse or glove with a set of tangible cubes. It includes physical architectural floor plans as contextual haptic constraints for the cubes to ensure better object manipulation compared to free space. The position and orientation of the cubes relative to the floor plan is tracked by web cameras and a newly developed program translates this into the 6-dof of the virtual camera generating a 3D view for the immersive projection of virtual architecture. This easy to use tangible interface mixes common 2D dimensional (real) with 3D immersive representation (virtual) of Architecture to overcome the problem of “Getting lost in Cyberspace”.  
Huang, Joseph Chuen- Huei, Robert Krawczyk, and George Schipporeit. "Integrating Mass Customization with Prefabricated Housing." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. The paper will give an overview of mass customization concepts and how they can be applied to prefabricated modular housing. By collecting and evaluating clientis requirements with web technology, a methodology can be developed that can generate design options based on the clientis needs and available modular components in the market, and simulate the final design before beginning manufacturing. In this proposed model, a process of providing masscustomized prefab housing based on computer-aided design and a web-based product configuration system will be presented.
Ali, Rasha. "Islamic Architecture and Digital Databases." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. Epigraphy in Islamic architecture represented an indispensable element in its conceptual design and structure. Our research investigates this unique role, which epigraphy played in Islamic architecture as a tool singularizing this architecture and the sensuality it inspires inside a building while bestowing on it its particular identity. This how SADEPIG came to being: it is a virtual database regrouping all the information about the monumental epigraphy which date from the Saidian period in Morocco (1527- 1660). The digital corpus of monumental Saidian inscriptions provides also buildings plans, virtual tour within the monument, construction details, information about the identity of patron and builders.
Davey, Jon. "Musing Heideggerian Cyberspace." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. Where we do we make our “being?i Since our existence [being-there = Dasein] is the original place of intelligibility, fundamental ontology must clarify the conditions of having any understanding which itself belongs to the entity called Dasein. Today Dasein in increasing becoming more and more digital, in fact all activity is digital or becoming digital in one mode or another, itis ubiquitous! On the pragmatic side corporate architecture as well as its daily interaction and transaction are all digital. With the advent of games as well as webmasters using VRML or some equivalent of it posses the questions and concerns as who will design the digital domains, graphic artists, IT personnel, game developers and where will we make our being? As architects and designers where will our “digital gesamtkunstwerki be? Making places for human inhabitation in a nonphysical space raises interesting questions concerning presence, authenticity, adaptability, orientation, and suspension of disbelief. What kind of activities can be supported by nonphysical spaces? What will it take to support them in a socially and psychologically appropriate manner? And WHO will design them? On the applied side this ontological view is demonstrated in an Interior Design Corporate Office Design Studio that has been taught for a decade wherein students are required to develop an ECommerce, a business deemed to succeed including the Corporate Office, facility program, space planning, corporate image, interiors, graphics, webpage, and logo. The semester project has one unique design stipulation: The one major design requirement is that the “feel” of the reception has the same “feel” as the website. A phenomenological samenessall work is accomplished with a plethora of digital media. This design process is still in its infancy.
Ambrose, Michael. "Plan is Dead: to BIM or not to BIM, that is the question." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. Drawing, modelling and the explicit abstraction embedded in the traditions and conventions of visual communication through composition and representation are fundamental to the how, why and what of architectural design. BIM presents simulation as an antiabstract means of visual communication that seeks to displace the discreet representation of plan, section and elevation with the intelligent object model. If plan is dead, the implication is that the value of abstraction is dead or dying as well. How can architectural education prepare students for digital practice with such an assault on the underlying role of abstract representation of formal and spatial constructs that constitute architecture? This paper explores a possible path for engaging digital media in education that explores the gap between design theory and digital practice. The investigation centers on ways of exploring architecture by developing teaching methods that reprioritize ways of seeing, thinking and making spatial design. Digital architectural education has great opportunity and risk in how it comes to terms with reconceptualizing design education as the profession struggles to redefine the media and methods of architectural deliverables in the age of BIM.
Stanton, Michael. "Redemptive Technologies II: the sequel (A Decade Later)." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. Nearly ten years ago I published an article in the Dutch journal ARCHIS called “Redemptive Technologies.i It derived from comments I made during a conference held in New Orleans in 1994. At that point the machine aesthetic associated with the “new technologiesi generated by the computer had not established a precise formal vocabulary but were generating great excitement among the architectural avant-garde. It addressed the limits of the imagery and data produced by this machine and the simple but very political problem of cost and obsolescence. Now the millennium is well past and the somewhat apostolic fervor that accompanied the interaction of a very expensive consumer device with architecture has cooled. Discussion has generally moved from the titillating possibilities opened up by the device, many of which have so far not come to pass, to the sorts of hard and software available. An architectural language closely associated with the imagistic potential of new programs, biomorphism, has now come and gone on the runways of architectural taste. And yet, in recent articles rejecting the direct political effect of architectural work, the potential of new programs and virtual environments are proposed as alternative directions that our perpetually troubled profession may pursue. This paper will assess the last decade regarding the critical climate that surrounds cyber/technology. In the economic context of architectural education in which computers are still a central issue, the political issues that evolve will form a backdrop to any discussion. Furthermore, the problem of the “newi language of biomorphism will be reiterated as an architectural grammar with a 100-year history - from Catalan Modernismo and Art Nouveau, through Hermann Finsterlin and Eric Mendelsohn's projects of the 1920s, to Giovanni Michelucci and Italian work of the post-war, to Frederick Kiesler's Endless House of the late'50s, continuing through moments of Deconstructivism and Architectural Association salients, etc. These forms continue to be semantically simplistic and hard to make. Really the difference is the neo-avant-garde imagery and rhetoric involved in their continuing resurrection. Computer images, but also the ubiquitous machine itself, are omnipresent and often their value is assumed without question or proposed as a remedy for issues they cannot possibly address. This paper will underline the problem of the computer, of screens and the insistent imagistic formulas encourage by their use, and the ennui that is beginning to pervade the discipline after initial uncritical enthusiasm for this very powerful and expensive medium. But it will also propose other very valuable directions, those relating to reassessing the processes rather than the images that architecture engages, that this now aging “newi technology can much more resolutely and successfully address.
Babsail, Mohammad, and Andy Dong. "Sensor-based Aware Environment." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. This paper provides an overview of the requirements for a computational model of a Sensor-Based Aware Environment (SBAE) that integrates sensor technologies with the Building Information Modelling (BIM) in order to sense ambient and physical aspects of the built environment. Wireless sensors sense ambient data of a built environment, process, and communicate these data through an ad-hoc wireless network. The BIM, on the other hand, is based on International Foundation Classes (IFCs) and contains data about the physical infrastructure (i.e. Walls, Windows, doors) and abstract entities (i.e. Spaces, Relationships) and relationships between those entities. Therefore, the proposed computational model could sense real time data that are related to the as-built information model allowing for holistic building state information.  
Lonnman, Bruce. "Structural Performance Modelling in Architectural Design Education." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. In architectural education the process of design has evolved with the development of CAD technology. In many design schools throughout the world, the computer has extended its role beyond that of a drafting machine to become a tool for performance modelling. Applications currently used by students test lighting, thermal conditions, and structural validity, to name a few. However the goals in education are not identical to those in practice, and digital modelling can support learning in many ways that are not particularly useful or appropriate in professional practice. In the design of structures there are three fundamental levels of understanding: behaviour, form, and performance. Each has its place in design education and uses digital modelling in different forms. This paper describes various pedagogical models that incorporate computer aided drawing and performance modelling in the teaching of structures. Examples of student exercises and projects are discussed.  
Katodrytis, George. "The Autopoiesis and Mimesis of Architecture." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. The use of digital technology in architecture has proven to be more assertive than originally thought: it has reconditioned the nature of the design process, and established new practices and techniques of fabrication. The 21st century began with the technology of art. There is a new responsiveness to the reading and understanding of digital space, which is characterized by complexity and the uncanny. Recent applications in digital technology show inquisitiveness in the contentious subject Genetic Algorithms. This new architectural process is characterized by two main shifts: from poiesis (or poetry) to autopoiesis, and from authenticity to mimesis. Since evolutionary simulations give rise to new forms rather than design them, architects should now be artists and operators of both Inventive and Systematic design. Inventive design: The digital media should bring about poiesis (poetry). Digital spaces reveal and visualize the unconscious desires of urban spaces and bring forth new dreamscapes, mysterious and surreal. This implies a Freudian spatial unconscious, which can be subjected to analysis and interpretation. Space may be the projection or the extension of the physical apparatus, Freud noted1. Space is never universal, but subjective. A space would be a result of introjection or projection which is to say, a product of the thinking and sensing subject as opposed to the universal and stable entity envisaged since the Enlighten. There is a spatial unconscious, susceptible to analysis and interpretation. Systematic Design: Digital media should bring about an autopoiesis. This approach calls into question traditional methods of architectural design – which replace the hierarchical processes of production known as “cause and effect” - and proposes a design process where the architect becomes a constructor of formal systems. Will the evolutionary simulation replace design? Is metric space dead? Is it replaced by the new definition of space, that of topology? The new algorithmic evolutionary conditions give architecture an autopoiesis, similar to biological dynamics. The use of algorithms in design and fabrication has shifted the role of the architect from design to programming. Parametric design has introduced another dimension: that of variation and topological evolution, breaking the authentic into the reused. Architecture now is about topology than typology, variation than authenticity, it is mimetic than original, uncanny and subconscious than merely generic. In a parallel universe, which is both algorithmic and metaphysical, the modeling machine creates a new abstraction, the morphogenesis of the “new hybrid condition”. The emphasis of the exploration is on morphological complexity. Architecture may become - paradoxically - rigorous yet more uncanny and introverted.
Chougui, Ali. "The Digital Design Process: reflections on architectural design positions on complexity and CAAD." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. These instructions are intended to guide contributors to the Second Architecture is presently engaged in an impatient search for solutions to critical questions about the nature and the identity of the discipline, and digital technology is a key agent for prevailing innovations in architectural design. The problem of complexity underlies all design problems. With the advent of CAD however, Architectis ability to truly represent complexity has increased considerably. Another source that provides information about dealing with complexity is architectural theory. As Rowe (1987) states, architectural theory constitutes “a corpus of principles that are agreed upon and therefore worthy of emulation”. Architectural theory often is a mixed reflection on the nature of architectural design, design processes, made in descriptive and prescriptive terms (see Kruft 1985). Complexity is obviously not a new issue in architectural theory. Since it is an inherent characteristic of design problems, it has been dealt with in many different ways throughout history. Contemporary architects incorporate the computer in their design process. They produce architecture that is generated by the use of particle systems, simulation software, animation software, but also the more standard modelling tools. The architects reflect on the impact of the computer in their theories, and display changes in style by using information modelling techniques that have become versatile enough to encompass the complexity of information in the architectural design process. In this way, architectural style and theory can provide directions to further develop CAD. Most notable is the acceptance of complexity as a given fact, not as a phenomenon to oppose in systems of organization, but as a structuring principle to begin with. No matter what information modelling paradigm is used, complex and huge amounts of information need to be processed by designers. A key aspect in the combination of CAD, complexity, and architectural design is the role of the design representation. The way the design is presented and perceived during the design process is instrumental to understanding the design task. More architects are trying to reformulate this working of the representation. The intention of this paper is to present and discuss the current state of the art in architectural design positions on complexity and CAAD, and to reflect in particular on the role of digital design representations in this discussion. We also try to investigate how complexity can be dealt with, by looking at architects, in particular their styles and theories. The way architects use digital media and graphic representations can be informative how units of information can be formed and used in the design process. A case study is a concrete architectis design processes such as Peter Eisenman Rem Koolhaas, van Berkel, Lynn, and Franke gehry, who embrace complexity and make it a focus point in their design, Rather than viewing it as problematic issue, by using computer as an indispensable instrument in their approaches.  
Abdelhameed, Wael. "The Relations Between Design Idea Emergence and Design Solution Direction: digital media use in mass exploration of architectural design." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. The unfolding of research is that design is a creative activity of problem-solving, directed to achieve what architecture should provide man with. The first part of the research investigates Design-Idea Exploration in the initial phases of design process, in terms of exploring the links between Design-Idea Emergence and Design-Solution Direction. The second part of the research presents a use of digital media in Design-Idea Exploration of three dimensional shapes throughout the initial phases of design process. The research has concluded the links between Design Ideas Emergence and Design Solution Directions, and presented the features of the program, which distinguish it from other standard modelling software.
Sharji, Amir, and A. Eshaq. "The Significant Role of an Electronic Gallery to the Education Experience and Learning Environment." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. Multimedia has brought new paradigms to education where users are able to use the technology to create compelling content that truly represents a new archetype in media experience. According to Burger (1995), the synergy of digital media is becoming a way of life where new paradigms for interactive audio-visual experiences of all communicative arts to date are mandatory. It potentially mixes technology and disciplines of architecture and art. Students can learn on their own pace and they can be tested in a non-linear way while interactivity allows the curious to easily explore related topics and concepts. Fundamental assumptions, theories and practices of conventional design paradigm are constantly being challenged by digital technology and this is the current scenario in architecture and art and design schools globally. Thus schools are enhancing the methods and improvising the technology of imparting knowledge to be in consistent with recent findings and knowledge. To be able to cater the use of digital media and information technology on architectural and art design education, four criteria are required, which are, the SPACE and place to accommodate the educational activities, the TOOLS that assist imparting of knowledge, the CONTENT of syllabus and information and the acceptance and culture of the receiving end users and HUMAN PERCEPTION. There is a need for the research of realization and activating the architectural space that has been equipped with multimedia tools and upgraded with recent technology to facilitate and support the community of learners and users. Spaces are now more interactive, multi functional, flexible and intelligent to suit the trend of computing in normal everyday life of the education sector, business and management, art and leisure, corporate and technological area. While the new concept of computing in education is still in the earlier phase, the conventional analogue paradigm still dominates the architectural design discourse which acts as a barrier to the development of digital designs and architectural education. A suitable approach is in need to bridge the gap between what theory has been explored and the practice of knowledge. A digital support environment with intelligent design and planning tools is envisioned to bridge the gap and to cater for the current scenario.
Nubani, Linda. "Using Space Syntax Software in Explaining Crime." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. Space syntax provides methods for analyzing spaces using recent developments in computer programs. This paper reports a study that was undertaken to investigate the role of space syntax in identifying geographical patterns of crime in Ypsilanti, Michigan. All the spaces in the city were analyzed using the Spatialist, a computer program developed by Georgia Tech. The Spatialist computes the accessibility level of all the spaces in a spatial system. Sociodemographic variables such as median income, racial composition, youth concentration and level of education were available from the U.S. Census. The crime report was obtained from the Ypsilanti Police Department and Eastern Michigan University. It includes data on four types of crime at an address level with the exact date and time. Both sociodemographic variables and crime data were merged with the Spatialist map using ArcGIS. The data was analyzed using SAS, an advanced statistical package. Findings showed strong relationships between attributes of space and crime locations.
Shih, Naai-Jung, and Pin-Hung Wang. "Visualization Management and Inspection for Plumbing Construction Quality Control." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. This research compares the working process at a construction site with the shop drawings made by a plumbing inspector for installed pipes. This study compared the 2D plumbing shop drawings with the 3D point cloud of the toilet in a campus building. A long-range 3D scanner was used to retrieve the point cloud records of pipes to build a visualization management system. The visual comparison was used to locate pipes at the construction site. We found the differences could be identified easily between the point cloud and shop drawings. The presence of point clouds created a new method to inspect plumbing locations, as a way to verify construction quality.
Petzold, Frank, and Jan Frohburg. "“Not Every new Monday”: on using computer-games technology in architectural design education." In Computing in Architecture/Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design. ASCAAD. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: American University of Sharjah, 2006. The application of new media is common practice in architectural offices and complements traditional forms of presentation such as drawings and physical “haptic” models. Other interactive forms of presentation are also already available, for example in the realm of computer gaming, however the transfer and application of game engines to an architectural environment has not yet been explored in any depth. This paper looks at how “new media” can be used as a means of communicating architectonic information without simply emulating an already available traditional means of representation. We discuss the process of learning how “new media” (the computer as a multi media) can be used as a tool for the analysis and reconstruction of architecture. Using Mies van der Roheis unrealised project for a brick country house as a basis, a project was devised which communicates valuable design and analysis skills and also allowed us to explore the use of “new media” and to draw conclusions for teaching and research as well as to critically assess the opportunities, limitations and risks involved.