Keywords Abstract
Taha, Dina, Samir Hosni, and Hisham Sueyllam. "A Case Based Architectural Design Application for Residential Units." In e-Design in Architecture: 1st ASCAAD International Conference. ASCAAD. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 2004. Case Based Reasoning (CBR) is an AI approach that is widely used in many fields. When itis applied in the design field, it is frequently called Case Based Design (CBD). Its main idea resides in drawing analogies between past cases and the new case to be solved so that the user can make use of past experiences when solving a new problem. The work presented here describes a prototype application under development that makes use of CBR in the field of architectural design. The application is to act as a helping tool for architects in the pre-design phase by supplying them with an adequate number of similar past architectural cases to the design problem they have at hand. The different modules of the application will be presented and discussed, as well as the tools used to develop them.  
Abdelmagid, Said, and Khaled Salah. "A Computer Program for Limiting the Suitable Color Range for Facades." In e-Design in Architecture: 1st ASCAAD International Conference. ASCAAD. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 2004. Limiting the suitable color range is considered as one of the important steps in the process of choosing color for facades. This paper aims at developing and presenting a rule based program that its main function is Limiting the Suitable Color Range (LSCR) for building facade. So, the paper presents the steps of color limitation process, its requirements and classification of different factors that influence color decision such as functional, climatic, environmental, social, commercial and political factorsetc. After this step, the paper presents a description of the supposed program, its components (the user interface, the knowledge base, the inference engine and the color palette) and the relationships in-between. Then the paper presents the running sequence of LSCR and a practical example for using it to limits suitable color range for a facade due to its circumstances.
Eldin, Neil, and K.A. Eldrandaly. "A Computer-Aided System for Site Selection of Major Capital Investments." In e-Design in Architecture: 1st ASCAAD International Conference. ASCAAD. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 2004. Site selection for capital investments is a crucial complex decision for owners and analysts. Difficulties are caused by the inclusion of the numerous possible sites that may qualify, multiple objectives that could also contradict each other, intangible objectives that are difficult to quantify, diversity of interest groups, uncertainties regarding external factors such as government legislations, uncertainties regarding the timing required for permitting the sites in question, and unknown construction challenges for the different sites. As such, these exercises are multi-facetted and necessitate the employment of analysts who possess in-depth knowledge in a number of fields. More importantly, a solution must satisfy a number of physical suitability criteria, as well as, meeting a number of social, economical, environmental and political requirements. Consequently, a number of specialized tools is frequently utilized to ensure reaching an optimal decision. This paper presents a new system that integrates Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) operations within a Geographic Information System (GIS) application to determine the optimum site for a specified facility. The system was validated through a facility for a selected metropolitan area. 
Abdelhameed, Wael. "A Java Program Model for Design-Idea Exploration in Three Dimensions." In e-Design in Architecture: 1st ASCAAD International Conference. ASCAAD. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 2004. Visual Perception of depictions is the basis of the act of imagining employed in visual design thinking of design process, and consequently in design-idea exploration. Digital-media use plays a significantly important role in these exploration processes. The underlying assumption of the research is that Visual Perception affects Design-Idea Exploration processes. The research investigates and sheds more light on the processes of Visual Perception, which architects use in mass exploration of design ideas. The research is a part of a series that presents a Java program based on creating 3d shapes, in order for architects to explore initial shapes related to design ideas. The initial version of the program, which is a part of another research, creates 3d shapes through controlling their dimensions and insertion point. Functions of painting, controlling the light position, and shading are added to the program that is presented in this research. The research discusses Design-Idea Exploration and Visual Perception and their correlation. The added features of the program that is used as a design medium are also presented and linked to the investigated areas. 
Radwan, Magdy, and Lobna Abdel Latif. "A Review of Advanced Computer Applications in Architectural Acoustics." In e-Design in Architecture: 1st ASCAAD International Conference. ASCAAD. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 2004. The paper is a review of the advanced computer applications in Architectural Acoustics in its different fields, one of these fields is the new measuring apparatus and how it has moved from basic measurement using transducers and analyzers to final documentation based an advanced software. Computers have been proved to be a very useful tool in acoustic studies and prediction of acoustics performance of halls in the design stage. Recent commercial models have been reviewed in both fields, room acoustics and noise control in the built - up areas. Controlling the acoustic performance of some halls by different means and recently by computer has been discussed. The role of computers in the field of learning acoustics by means of auralisation and visualization and in the active noise control has been studied.
Garba, Shaibu, and Mohammad Hassanain. "A Review of Object Oriented CAD Potential for Building Information Modeling and Life Cycle Management." In e-Design in Architecture: 1st ASCAAD International Conference. ASCAAD. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 2004. In many countries, the Architecture/Engineering/Consulting (AEC) industry is characterised by poor performance reflected in project delays and cost overruns. A contributor to the problem is the traditional approach to handling building information and its communication in life cycle management (LCM). Recent developments in Object Oriented Computer Aided Architectural Design (OO CAD) have provided the opportunity for improving building information modelling and its communication for more effective LCM. The aim of the paper is to review the potentials of OO CAD for building information modelling (BIM) and LCM. The paper reviews building information in the life cycle process, identifying the various actors and activities and the need for communication and information flow to support life cycle management. The paper also reviews the concept of OO CAD, highlighting its potential to improve building information and its flow and communication in life cycle management. The paper then goes on to review the potentials and limitations of OO CAD implementation in the AEC industry. The paper concludes by pointing out that the widespread adoption of OO CAD and the anticipated associated improvement in life cycle management will only be encouraged when the building industry is able to agree on a widely acceptable, interoperable standard for encoding building objects.
Bennadji, A., H. Ahriz, and P. Alastair. "Computer Aided Sustainable Design." In e-Design in Architecture: 1st ASCAAD International Conference. ASCAAD. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 2004. One of the most important aspects architects need to consider fairly early on is that of energy saving, cost, thermal comfort and the effect on the environment in terms of CO2 emissions. At present, during the early design stage of a building, different options are assessed using simple tools (tables, graphs and software) that contain a large number of assumptions the very nature of which can bias choice or possibly lead to an inappropriate solution. It can be argued that the only way to provide a rational assessment of options is to use calculation methods that represent in detail the physical processes involved, this usually involves the use of dynamic thermal models. Furthermore if this tool is also used during detailed design it would introduce a consistency that is normally absent from the analytical design process. Many designers are of the opinion that, because not all details are known, then such tools are not suitable for application at early stages in the design. This view can be challenged because, even at the concept stage, a great deal is known about a building. This paper aims to show that a general description of a building can be used to generate sufficient data to drive a valid analysis using a detailed thermal model at the early sketch stage of the design process. The paper describes the philosophy, methodology and the interface developed to achieve this aim. The interface guides the user through the input process using a series of screens giving options for keywords used to describe the building, comprehensive default data built into the software are then attached to these keywords. The resulting data file is a building description that is the best possible interpretation of the design intent. This can then be used to assess options and guide towards a final design. 
Hassan, R., and K. Jorgensen. "Computer Visualizations in Planning." In e-Design in Architecture: 1st ASCAAD International Conference. ASCAAD. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 2004. A wide range of visualizations have been developed and implemented as tools for urban simulations and visual impact assessment. These include: plans, diagrams, elevations, perspective sketches, renderings, modified photographs (photo renderings and photomontages), slide projections, scale models, movies, videotapes and computer graphics. In the last decade, graphical computer applications have proven to be an increasingly supportive tool in visualization and manipulation of graphical material. This study presents the state of the art of computer visualization in planning. More specifically, the use of web-based computerized visualizations for landscape visual simulation, with the aim to develop a system of visualization techniques as an aid to communicating planning and design scenarios for historically important landscapes and urban places, with particular attention to the city of Nablus in Palestine. This has led to the evaluation of possibilities and potentials of computer use in this field, and to the definition of the visual problems and challenges of the city of Nablus. This study will argue what extra one can draw from computerized visualizations, what is likely to be its impact on future planning and design research, and what this visualization experience really means for historical important locations as in Nablus. The study demonstrates that computerized visualizations can be a powerful tool in representing a cityscape in three-dimensions from different angels. Visualizations will allow better understanding of the components of the city, its landscapes, city features and the process of change. In this way it may provide new and better platforms for public participation in planning.
Ahmad, Sumbul, and Scott C. Chase. "Design Generation of the Central Asian Caravanserai." In e-Design in Architecture: 1st ASCAAD International Conference. ASCAAD. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 2004. Challenges for the study of Islamic architecture include its abundance and diversity in expression and its classification based on distinct functional or stylistic types. We address these issues by presenting shape grammars as a methodology for the analysis and design generation of Islamic architecture, with a specific example in the form of a parametric shape grammar for central Asian caravanserais. The grammar is developed by identifying distinct design types. Shape rules are created based on a study of the spatial elements and their organisation in the designs. We illustrate the utility of the grammar by deriving an extant design and as well as, previously unknown designs. We conclude by discussing possible extensions to the current grammar and future work involving the development of a grammar based framework for the comparative analysis of medieval Islamic courtyard buildings. 
Petzold, Frank, and Dirk Donath. "Digital Building Surveying and Planning in Existing Building." In e-Design in Architecture: 1st ASCAAD International Conference. ASCAAD. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 2004. For planning in existing built contexts, the building survey is the starting point for initial planning proposals, for the diagnosis and documentation of building damages, for the creation of objectives catalogues, for the detailed design of renovation and conversion measures and for ensuring fulfilment of building legislation, particularly by change of use and refitting. An examination of currently available IT-tools shows insufficient support for planning within existing contexts, most notably a deficit with regard to information capture and administration. In ongoing research at the Bauhaus-Universitát Weimar (SFB524- Collaborative research center 524 “Materials and Structure in Revitalization of Buildings”) methods and techniques of revitalisation are being investigated (SFB 524, 2004). A special branch of SFB524- D2 entitled “Planning-Relevant Digital Building Surveying and Information Systems” is investigating possibilities of computer-aided building survey and communication platforms for architects and civil engineers. This paper discusses the concept for a modular surveying system (basic concept, structuring of collected data, separation of geometry from semantic data, and separation into sub-systems) and the prototypical realisation of a system for the complete support of the entire building surveying process for existing buildings. The project aims to contribute to the development of a planning system for existing buildings.
Al-Attili, Aghlab, and Richard Coyne. "Embodiment and Illusion: the Implications of Scale as a Cue for Immersion in Virtual Environments." In e-Design in Architecture: 1st ASCAAD International Conference. ASCAAD. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 2004. This paper examines the extent to which the issue of scale impinges on our sense of immersion in virtual environments. We consider perception from the point of view of Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology, and describe a study involving extended interviews of a small number of subjects who were presented with static, moving and interactive images of spaces. We test a series of propositions about scale cues, and speculate on the wider phenomenological issues of expectation, metaphor and play.  
Mandour, Mohamed. "From “Hard Architecture” to “Soft Architecture”: Architecture Form in the 21st Century." In e-Design in Architecture: 1st ASCAAD International Conference. ASCAAD. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 2004. The digital revolution is affecting not only the way we produce drawings, but also the way we think about architecture. Such expressionistic, neo-baroque forms would have been unthinkable without higher technology, which allows for customization at a massive scale. Three dimensional computation extends the architect's range, permitting a wealth of experimentation, any form seems possible, the architecture language, the vocabulary changed, and the way design thinking has various dimensions. Within a short space of time the computer has become a widely accepted feature of architecture, both in the design process and in the everyday operation of buildings, and we are constantly aware that the computer's introductions into architecture will eventually have farreaching consequences. After all, the current revolution is not just about the computer as a tool but about its role and effect on the form of architecture and thinking This paper will discuss what form will architecture take in the next years? Will every future problem be anticipated, developing more efficient solutions? Will projects reflect meaningful architecture, for dynamic and contemplative environments and for aesthetic quality? And, how we will stand this unavoidable futurism? 
Mohsen, Abdel, and M Ashraf. "Future Space [email protected] (Digi-City Vision)." In e-Design in Architecture: 1st ASCAAD International Conference. ASCAAD. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 2004. A template for the future city has been carved into the heavens. Ever since the beginning of humankind, we have looked to the sky for the opportunity to make a new start in our imperfect world. Between the stars and the darkness we have imagined utopias beyond the reach of our travel technologies, colonizing space with our fantasies. Now we are in the first stages of an electronic revolution, but in the future 50 years later we will be in a mega-digital era which we have to predict, work and search for the reality of that future. Our planet is recently over loaded with different problems, such as pollution, population, nature disasters. Our vast speed of technology and the curiosity of discovering the invisible, leads to study and find out the nearest Future Space Architecture. With the vast acceleration of technology and digital life, we should start to predict the future architecture on, into or behind the Earth. This paper is one of many perceptions of life and architecture behind the Earth in the digital era, Digi-City Vision.  
Mallasi, Zaki. "Identification and Visualisation of Construction Activities Workspace Conflicts Utilising 4D CAD/VR Tools." In e-Design in Architecture: 1st ASCAAD International Conference. ASCAAD. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 2004. This work addresses the problem arising on all construction sites: the occurrence of workspace interference between construction activities. From a site space planning context, this problem can lead to an inevitable roadblock to the progress of the scheduled construction operations. In real situations, when the spatial congestions occur, they could reduce productivity of workers sharing the same workspace and may cause health and safety hazard issues. The aim of this paper is on presenting a computer-based method and developed tool to assist site managers in the assignment and identification of workspace conflicts. The author focuses on the concept of “visualising space competition” between the construction activities. The concept is based on a unique representation of the dynamic behaviour of activity workspace in 3D space and time. An innovative computer-based tool dubbed PECASO (Patterns Execution and Critical Analysis of Site-space Organisation) has been developed. The emerging technique of 4D (3D + time) visualisation has been chosen to yield an interesting 4D space planning and visualisation tool. A multi-criteria function for measuring the severity of the workspace congestions is designed, embedding the spatial and schedule related criteria. The paper evaluates the PECASO approach in order to minimise the workspace congestions, using a real case study. The paper concludes that the PECASO approach reduces the number of competing workspaces and the conflicting volumes between occupied workspace, which in turn produces better assessment to the execution strategy for a given project schedule. The system proves to be a promising tool for 4D space planning, in that it introduces a new way of communicating the programme of work.
Satti, Hassan, and Robert Krawczyk. "Issues of Integrating Building Codes in CAD." In e-Design in Architecture: 1st ASCAAD International Conference. ASCAAD. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 2004. In this age of information revolution, design professionals are looking forward to exploring new methods and tools that could help them in delivering better designs and particularly understanding and incorporating of code-compliant design provisions in their projects. Automation of building code analysis is a vital factor in leveraging building codes from what is as a textual legal document to more graphical interactive source of building criteria. The argument of the paper will be based on the International Building Code (IBC) which is issued by the International Code Council (ICC) and considered as the most comprehensive and coordinated national model code in the US and is currently commonly used and enforced in 44 states. The paper will also examine and report on the purpose, types, interpretation, understanding and use of building codes applied in the United States, evaluation of recent research activities on automation of building code analysis, evaluation of current building code analysis tools, and a conceptual framework of a Computer-Aided Analysis of Design (CAAnD) program for building codes that could assist design professionals during project design development. 
Pratini, Edison. "Modeling with Gestures: Sketching 3D Virtual Surfaces and Objects Using Hands Formation and Movements." In e-Design in Architecture: 1st ASCAAD International Conference. ASCAAD. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 2004. The 3D SketchMaker project has developed two prototypes for a gestural 3D sketching system to be used in the earliest phases of the design process. The goal of this ongoing research is to provide architects, and other designers involved in object conception, with a 3D gestural instrument that takes advantage of new virtual reality resources and is more natural than using the mouse, less difficult than learning complex software and less abstract than manipulating 2D entities on orthogonal projections. The system was conceived to assist or replace the first 2D drawing steps in the design process, generating rough 3D sketches that can be refined later using any 3D package. It is, in essence, a 3D modelling system directed to do sketching with hand movements and gestures in a virtual reality environment. 
Abdelfattah, Hesham, and Ali Raouf. "No More Fear or Doubt: Electronic Architecture in Architectural Education." In e-Design in Architecture: 1st ASCAAD International Conference. ASCAAD. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 2004. Operating electronic and Internet worked tools for Architectural education is an important, and merely a prerequisite step toward creating powerful tele-collabortion and tele-research in our Architectural studios. The design studio, as physical place and pedagogical method, is the core of architectural education. The Carnegie Endowment report on architectural education, published in 1996, identified a comparably central role for studios in schools today. Advances in CAD and visualization, combined with technologies to communicate images, data, and “livei action, now enable virtual dimensions of studio experience. Students no longer need to gather at the same time and place to tackle the same design problem. Critics can comment over the network or by e-mail, and distinguished jurors can make virtual visits without being in the same room as the pin-up “ if there is a pin-up (or a room). Virtual design studios (VDS) have the potential to support collaboration over competition, diversify student experiences, and redistribute the intellectual resources of architectural education across geographic and socioeconomic divisions. The challenge is to predict whether VDS will isolate students from a sense of place and materiality, or if it will provide future architects the tools to reconcile communication environments and physical space.
Khaled, Sherbini, and Robert Krawczyk. "Overview of Intelligent Architecture." In e-Design in Architecture: 1st ASCAAD International Conference. ASCAAD. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 2004. The concept of intelligent architecture started as an interest in the latest integrated building systems operating a single building or facility, so that systems can communicate and exchange information. The communication among these systems allows the right responses and decisions to operate buildings in a productive, economical and convenient way. Communication and information sharing prevents decisions from interfering with other systems responses or operation. Systemsi decisions and responses form the responsive architecture that is represented by systems outputs. If intelligent buildings need to receive, analyze, and react according to such processes, responsive ones are required only to receive and react to only one input parameter. Technology and communication systems make it possible to combine several parameters by using system integration and computerization. Technology and computerized systems have enhanced and changed the manner of responses and provided a variety of decisions according to different sources of information. Receiving, analyzing, and reacting are the key criteria of intelligent building that this paper will explore. The input (reception) category covers information detection devices such as temperature sensors. The second category will be the category of analysing devices. The third category, decisions and outputs, will cover both output of sensory devices and forms of reaction and response that emanate from these systems. As a result of the third category, this paper will survey the forms of responses to determine whether or not the kinetic response is a viable choice. The paper will discuss if these three criteria are the only criteria creating intelligent building or if there are others. The paper will give an overview on intelligent architecture and explore in the main criteria determining intelligent building. The paper will then discuss when “responsive” and “kinetic” architecture becomes “intelligent”. The paper will also redefine the intelligent architecture in the light of available technology. 
Donath, Dirk, and Christian Tonn. "Plausibility in Architectural Design: Software Support for the Architect-Oriented Design of Colour Schemes for Interiors and Buildings." In e-Design in Architecture: 1st ASCAAD International Conference. ASCAAD. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 2004. The approach discussed here is part of research into an overall concept for digital instruments which support the entire planning process and help in enabling planning decisions to be based upon clear reasoning and plausible arguments. The paper describes a plausibility instrument for the formulation of colour scheme proposals for building interiors and elevations. With the help of intuitively usable light simulations, colour, material and spatial concepts can be assessed realistically. The software prototype “Coloured Architecture” is conceived as a professional extension to conventional design tools for the modelling of buildings. As such it can be used by the architect in the earliest design phases of the planning process as well as for colour implementation on location.
Al-Qawasmi, Jamal. "Reflections on e-Design: the e-Studio Experience." In e-Design in Architecture: 1st ASCAAD International Conference. ASCAAD. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 2004. The influence of digital media and information technology on architectural design education and practice is increasingly evident. The practice and learning of architecture is increasingly aided by and dependant on digital media. Digital technologies not only provide new production methods, but also expand our abilities to create, explore, manipulate and compose space. In contemporary design education, there is a continuous demand to deliver new skills in digital media and to rethink architectural design education in the light of the new developments in digital technology. During the academic years 2001-2003, I had the chance to lead the efforts to promote an effective use of digital media for design education at Department of Architecture, Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST). Architectural curriculum at JUST dedicated much time for teaching computing skills. However, in this curriculum, digital media was taught in the form of “software use” education. In this context, digital media is perceived and used mainly as a presentation tool. Furthermore, Computer Aided Architectural Design and architectural design are taught in separate courses without interactions between the two.  
Barrionuevo, Luis, Roberto López, and Roberto Serrentino. "Spirospaces in Architectural Design." In e-Design in Architecture: 1st ASCAAD International Conference. ASCAAD. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 2004. The proposal of this paper is to present “Spirospaces” and their utility in Architectural Design, exploring their relation with other geometrical disciplines such as knot theory, tiling and patterns generation. A spirospace is a geometrical entity generated from the spatial interpretation of a “Spirolateral”, a well known bidimentional entity. A computer program to generate spirospaces configurations is presented and demonstrated with several examples. This is complemented with the exposition of the mathematical framework that supports closed spirospaces generation. 
Leifer, David, and John Leifer. "Towards Computer Aided Life-Cycle Costing." In e-Design in Architecture: 1st ASCAAD International Conference. ASCAAD. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 2004. Sustainability is recognised as a necessary public good. Building sustainable buildings requires architectural methods, specifically CAD systems, that include suitable predictions of long term performance. Unfortunately the predominant view in the Building Industries of the Developed world is essentially short term, this is because building developers - not being the end users - are essentially interested in short term profit. Until they can see the “value-added” by sustainability impacting on the selling price of their buildings, they will not be motivated to build “sustainably”. This paper describes the issues that have led to this situation. It discussed how the advent of computers has allowed life-cycle data to be gathered over time, and may be included intro CAD system databases to enable sustainability performance predictions to be made. Once made we are now able to reap the benefits by performance benchmarking. The availability of this building performance information on-line is making life-cycle costing more readily available, and more accurate, allowing building developers, owners and users to make rapid and timely feasibility studies well in advance of design. This also allows owners to test various capital to operating cost options in order to get the best economic performance over time, as well as map future capital replacement cycles. These emerging possibilities are discussed in this paper.
Garba, Shaibu. "Virtual Reality Implementation in the Architecture Curriculum." In e-Design in Architecture: 1st ASCAAD International Conference. ASCAAD. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 2004. Following a recent curriculum revision, the Department of Architecture at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) established a Virtual Reality (VR) laboratory to service its information technology courses and research. Two years after the establishment of the laboratory, utilization has not reached the level anticipated and the facility is yet to be fully integrated into teaching and research activities. The paper reviews the implementation of the laboratory with a view to identifying and examining the factors that account for its current utilization. Factors identified in the paper included inability to fully implement the proposal for the laboratory, inadequate implementation preparation, complicated procedure for producing visualization content, and computing resource compatibility problems. The paper concludes with general suggestions for schools trying to implement virtual reality in their curriculum and specific suggestions to improve the utilization of the KFUPM VR laboratory.