Keywords Abstract
Hall, Theodore W.. "2001: an ACADIA Odyssey." ACADIA Quarterly 20 (2001): 669-679. ACADIA marked the dawn of its third decade last October, at its 21st annual conference, the 20th anniversary of its birth. If the numbers seem inconsistent at first, recall that the association was born at its 1st conference, its 0th anniversary, in 1981. Of the twenty-four founding members, only a few are still active. I joined at the third conference, in 1983, and Iive never met half the founders. Perhaps they never expected the association to last two years, let alone two decades. In the meantime, an entire generation has come of age and begun to take the reins. ACADIA is alive and well, thank you very much.
Pinet, Celine. "ACADIA's Browser: a Virtual Studio, and Much More." ACADIA Quarterly 17 (1998): 24-25.

Once upon a time, in a land far, far away... Oh come on, the Netherlands isnit that far away. Anyone familiar with the Internet knows how it can make distances become irrelevant. The site reviewed today did just that by projecting me into someone elseis classroom, across the ocean, through a virtual studio. What more - this is only one part of the site. It also contains many juicy digital drawings and explores a variety of architectural subjects.

Pinet, Celine. "ACADIA'S Browser: Crossing Centuries, Blurring Boundaries." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 24-25. New years are inspiring, they are times for new beginnings. As we are now starting a new century, I am inspired. and it looks like I am not the only one: Two graduates from Columbia University have recently launched a web- business and people are taking notice.  
Pinet, Celine. "ACADIA'S Browser: Venti Non-Fat Decaf Latte." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 24-25.

Summer is here, the weather is warm, and people are hanging out at sidewalk cafes. Some coffee shops, as you know, are better than others. It takes special skills to make great espresso drinks. It also takes special skills to generate great CAD drawings. 3D CAFE is here to help us enhance our CAD abilities, with its freebies, tutorials and products full of good taste ( It is one of those “coffee shopsi we should all know about.

Pinet, Celine. "Adding a Wow Factor to CAD Drawings." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 24-25. Why do so many CAD renderings look stiff? Where has our creativity gone? Are we going to let technology drive us away from our design roots? In a web site that overflows with creativity, Jeremy Sutton confronts unused opportunities in computer art and reminds us to explore and expand our artistic boundaries.  
James, Stephen. "An Allegorical Architecture: a Proposed Interpretive Center for the Bonneville Salt Flats." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 18-19. Architecture is the physical expression of man's relationship to the landscape- an emblem of our heritage. Such a noble statement sounds silly into today's context, because civilized society has largely disassociated itself from raw nature. We have tamed the elements with our environmental controls and turned the deserts into pasture. I find much of the built environment distracting. Current architecture is trite, compared to geologic form and order. I visited the Bonneville Salt Flats- (Utah's anti-landscape) in the summer of 1997. The experience of arriving at the flats exceeded my expectations. I was overpowered by a sense of personal insignificance - a small spot floating on a sea of salt. The horizon seemed to swallow up the sky. Off in the distance I noticed a dark fleck. It looked as foreign as I felt on this pure white plane. I drove across the sticky salt toward it, only to discover an old rusty oil barrel half submerged in salt. In my mind, the barrel has a history. It tells the story of a man's attempt at achieving a goal, or maybe it represents a broken dream left to corrode in the alkali flats. The barrel remains planted in the salt as a relic for those who venture into the white wilderness. This experience left me to ponder whether or not architecture can serve the same purpose - telling the story of a place through its relationship to a landscape, and connection to events.
Price, Nicholas, and Douglas Noble. "Animation and Multimedia: Interviews at Five Large Los Angeles Firms." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 3-Jan. Developments in digital media have created a myriad of tools to help architects communicate ideas. Three dimensional graphics software has revolutionized our ability to visualize our ideas. With the advent of animation and advanced methods of real time video presentation seem to have substantially upgraded the architects'tool chest. Significant advances have been made recently in bringing animation capabilities to the architectural desktop. To discover the level of integration of animation and multimedia in architectural firms, a series of interviews were conducted at five large Los Angeles firms. The interviews were structured with open-ended questions to allow the firms to emphasize their interests and capabilities. This document depicts the status of the current thinking at Gensler, Jerde, NBBJ, RTKL, and DMJM.  
Lau, Kok, and Mary Lou Maher. "Architectural Design and Virtual Worlds." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 6-Ar. The combination of architectural design and virtual world design has lead to a rapidly expanding area of study and possibly the birth of a new profession. The potential as well as the uncertainty in the area of virtual architectural design are challenging to anyone who is concerned with our living environment, whether it is physical or virtual. Living in the virtual realm has raised the attention not only of architects, but also philosophers, social scientists and the wider academic and professional community. The discussion and debate on cyberspace will certainly remain an important branch of virtual architecture. In this paper we explore the potential and implications of architectural design in virtual worlds.
Anders, Peter. "Beyond Y2k: a Look at ACADIA's Present and Future." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 10.

The sky may not be falling, but it sure is getting closer. Where will you when the last three zeros of our millennial odometer click into place? Computer scientists tell us that Y2K will bring the worldis computer infrastructure to its knees. Maybe, maybe not. But it is interesting that Y2K is an issue at all. Speculating on the future is simultaneously a magnifying glass for examining our technologies and a looking glass for what we become through them. “The future” is nothing new. Orwell's vision of totalitarian mass media did come true, if only as Madison Avenue rather than Big Brother. Futureboosters of the'50s were convinced that each garage would house a private airplane by the year 2000. But world citizens of the 60's and 70's feared a nuclear catastrophe that would replace the earth with a smoking crater. Others - perhaps more optimistically -predicted that computers were going to drive all our activities by the year 2000. And, in fact, theymay not be far off... The year 2000 is symbolic marker, a point of reflection and assessment. And - as this date is approaching rapidly - this may be a good time to come to grips with who we are and where we want to be.

Johnson, Scott, and Glenn Goldman. "Binary Oppositions: Should an Introduction to Computing in Architecture Be Taught as Separate Course?" ACADIA Quarterly 20 (2001): 5-Mar. For quite some time, the traditional teaching approach by most architecture schools has been to separate design studios from other courses. New courses have occasionally added, to cover subjects not previously included in the curriculum. However, as technologies change and new, computer- based design tools are developed, it is worthwhile consider whether these new technologies should be introduced into the curriculum in the same way. Should courses be added to the curriculum, to supplement replace courses covering traditional tools and media? Or unnecessary or even inappropriate for the new technologies? This Binary Oppositions debate addresses this issue. question is, “Should an introduction to computing in architecture be taught as a separate course?i I argue to the affirmative. Glenn Goldman of NJIT argues to the negative. These arguments and our respective rebuttals are presented below.  
Paranandi, Murali. "CAD in Education." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 20-21. Acknowledging the integral role of computers in education, to assure effective access to computing resources, universities across the US have been requiring that their students purchase a personal computer to serve them throughout the program. While this trend was initiated by exclusive private universities some 10-15 years ago, even mainstream public universities seem to be catching up with it. There is evidence that many Architecture schools are now contemplating this option. This column features two distinct views on this topic by Henderson and Johnson.
Laiserin, Jerry. "CAD in Practice Profile: Polshek Partnership Architects LLP." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 14-Oct. Since the advent of computers for architecture, James Stewart Polshek, FAIA, founding partner of Polshek Partnership Architects LLP, has insisted that his firm's technology standards match the same high level they maintain for their awardwinning designs. As explained by Senior Associate Don Weinreich, AIA, this objective translates into computing priorities that differ significantly from those of the average firm. Weinreich observes that many “typicali firms use computer technology for profitability first, consistency of documentation second, and enhancement of the design process last. At Polshek Partnership these priorities are reversed. Supporting and enriching the design process is the overriding objective of all computing activity at the firm. Consistency of documentation, as a second-level priority, is pursued not just for routine coordination and quality control, but in a proactive effort to maintain control over every detail in the process of communicating design intent ? in other words, to further support design. The potential to increase profitability through computerization (e.g., by doing the same work in less time) ranks low among the computing priorities at Polshek Partnership. According to Weinreich, “the guiding principle is to do no harm,” that is, to exploit the maximum potential of computers to support the design process without incurring additional net costs. In effect, the firm is taking the time and effort that computerization can save on many routine, procedural tasks and reinvesting those savings in additional design studies and details. This approach to computers for design is consistent with that of other AIA Firm Award-winning practices profiled in this series. (1)(2)
Laiserin, Jerry. "CAD in Practice Profile: R.M. Kliment and Frances Halsband Architects." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 15-18. R.M. Kliment and Frances Halsband Architects (KHA) is a firm recognized ? among many outstanding achievements ?  for designing award-winning computer science centers at major universities (e.g., Columbia, Dartmouth, Princeton). With that design experience, it is no surprise that the firm has adopted an aggressive stance towards its own use of information technology (IT). One indication of this proactive approach to technology is that KHA, with a total staff of 33, carries a full-time CAD/systems manager position, as contrasted with the A/E-firm industry-wide average of one such full-time equivalent staff position for every 40 total employees. In effect, the firm has set its investment in and commitment to the role of IT at a rate twenty percent higher than the industry average. Such above-average investment in IT is consistent with other high-profile design firms that have won the prestigious Firm Award of the American Institute of Architects. (1)
Kolarevic, Branko. "[email protected]." ACADIA Quarterly 17 (1998): 16-17. Since 1993, we have experimented with Virtual Design Studios (VDS) as an on-going research project that investigates the combination of current computer-aided design (CAD), computer networks (Internet), and computer supported collaborative work (CSCW) techniques to bring together studentsat geographically distributed locations to work in a virtual atelier. In 1993 the theme of the first joint VDS project was in-fill housing for the traditional Chinese walled village of Kat Hing Wai in the New Territories north of Hong Kong, and our partners included MIT and Harvard in Boston (USA), UBC in Vancouver (Canada), and Washington University in St. Louis (USA). In 1994 we were joined by Cornell (USA) and Escola Tecnica Superior diArquitectura de Barcelona (Spain) to re-design Li Long housing in Shanghai, and 1995 added the Warsaw Institute of Technology (Poland) for the ACSA/Dupont competition to design a Center for Cultural and Religious Studies in Japan. The 1996 topic was an international competition to design a monument located in Hong Kong to commemorate the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty in 1997. Communication was via e-mail, the WorldWide Web with limited attempts at VRML, and network video. Several teaching and research experiments conducted through these projects have demonstrated the viability and potential of using electronic, telecommunications, and videoconferencing technologies in collaborative design processes. Results of these VDS have been presented at conferences worldwide, explained in journal papers and published in Virtual Design Studio, edited by J. Wojtowicz, published by HKU Press.
Bonta, Pedro. "CAO - Centro Asistido Por Ordenador." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 12-Dec. The formal education of future professionals requires training in four basic skills: abstraction, systemical thought, experimentation and collaboration. The capacity of abstraction allows to understand and manage realty in different ways in order to create opportunities to reinterpret and reorganize the information. The systemical thought promotes the distinction and the interpretation, teaching how they should be interpreted and how they can be refuted. They should learn how to analyze the reality from different points of view, under different conditions, which allows imagining new alternatives and possibilities. Through the experimentation we look for different possibilities and results and verify analogies and relevant differences, comparing with previous ideas. Another relevant aspect is the capacity of collaborating, sharing troubles and solutions, building new knowledge.
Clayton, Mark. "Computing in Civil Engineering 1998." ACADIA Quarterly 17 (1998): 7. Just before our ACADIA 98 conference, a conference was held in Boston addressing similar issues in the related profession of civil engineering. Sponsored by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), the conference was titled the International Computing Congress in Civil Engineering and was the fifteenth in the Computing in Civil Engineering series. Although the interests of civil engineers include non architectural subjects such as traffic engineering, bridge building, and sanitation engineering, a large number of participants at the conference identify their area of interest as building engineering. Consequently, the conference addressed many issues of interest to architects. Sessions and presentations at the Congress paralleled those at ACADIA conferences. The World Wide Web was a topic of much discussion, just as it has been at ACADIA conferences. Civil engineering researchers are also exploring how to put courses on the Web, how to use the Internet to support collaboration, and how to distribute product data across the Web.Other papers addressed case-based reasoning, applications of object-oriented programming, expert systems, design education, automated building code checking, and product modelling. Not only did the Congress include a wide range of architecturally relevant topics, it was truly international, including participants from Asia, Europe, Australia, Africa and the Americas.
Berk, Michael. "CYBERjack." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 10. Using a limited “kit of parts” [two 8 ft. 2x4's and one sheet of 1/2 birch plywood] students in teams of two are to design and construct an “interface” which joins the physical world to the virtual world of the web. The location for this piece of furniture [the CYBERjack] will be a local library in Okolona, Mississippi, where existing web computers are to be housed. The students modelled the design using form Z, then plotted full-size templates to be used in cutting the actual parts out of wood in the shop. The device was supposed to join the Body to the Machine. The project lasted 2 weeks and was part of a 4th year studio which participated in the ACADIA Library Competition last year.
Levy, R.. "Data or Image: the Influence of Professional Culture on Computing in Design." ACADIA Quarterly 16 (1997): 22-23. Contributed by Susan Pietsch ([email protected])
Stacey, Michael. "Digital Design and the Architecture of Brookes Stacey Randall." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 9-Jan. I am an architect who has the experience of using computers. A user and not an expert in digital design, therefore what follows is a foot soldier's report from my practice over the past 10 to 11 years, including the role of computers in our approach to creating architecture. I began my working life tending IBM mainframes for the British Shoe Corporation. The two IBM mainframe computers were state of the art computer technology of the mid 1970's. There were two as one was used, and the other we needed for backup. The developments in computing in terms of size, increase in storage capacity and faster processing speed over the past 30 years, is a technological acceleration which is difficult to visualize. The IBM historian in the UK suggested “that if cars had developed in the same way they would be given away free with corn flakes”. A frightening thought as our cities grind under the pressure of increased car ownership. British Shoe Corporation also had a reserve system some sixty miles away and a halon extinguishing system in case of fire - such was the capital and commercial value of the system. We carried out transitional computing for a number of European countries. The CAD was limited - pen potters drawing shoes, drawing them less well than an average A level or high school student! My interest was primarily in art and not computers, my aim to earn enough to tour Europe to see key work'in the flesh'not just in reproduction.
Cheng, Nancy. "Digital Design at UO." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 18. University of Oregon Architecture Department has developed a spectrum of digital design from introductory methods courses to advanced design studios. With a computing curriculum that stresses a variety of tools, architectural issues such as form-making, communication, collaboration,theory-driven design, and presentation are explored. During the first year, all entering students are required to learn 3D modelling, rendering, image-processing and web-authoring in our Introduction to Architectural ComputerGraphics course. Through the use of cross-platform software, the two hundred beginning students are able to choose to work in either MacOS or Windows. Students begin learning the software by “playingi with geometric elements and further develop their control by describing assigned architectural monuments. In describing the monuments, they begin with 2D diagrams and work up to complete 3D compositions, refining their modelswith symbol libraries. By visualizing back and forth between the drafting and modelling modes, the students quickly connect orthogonal plans and sections with their spatial counterparts. Such connections are an essential foundation for further learning.
Kolarevic, Branko. "Digital Fabrication Manufacturing Architecture in the Information Age." ACADIA Quarterly 20 (2001): 12-Oct. The basic premise of this graduate-level elective course, offered for the first time in the spring of 2001, is that the Information Age, like the Industrial Age before it, is challenging not only how we design buildings, but also how we manufacture and construct them. The guiding notion was that the generative and creative potential of digital media, together with manufacturing advances already attained in automotive, aerospace and shipbuilding industries, is opening up new dimensions in architectural design by allowing production and construction of very complex forms that were until recently very difficult and expensive to design, produce, and assemble using traditional construction technologies. The proposition was that the consequences of these changes are likely to be profound, as new digitally driven processes of design, fabrication and construction are increasingly challenging the historic relationship between architecture and its means of production.
Kensek, Karen, and Douglas Noble. "Digital Reconstruction: the Architecture of Raphael Soriano." ACADIA Quarterly 17 (1998): 12-Nov. With the research help of Wolfgang Wagener, the students in our computer graphics class are using formiZ, 3D Studio, and Premiere to document and interpret the work of Raphael Soriano. These images are from a class currently underway in fall semester, 1998, at USC. The students are responsible for modelling, rendering, and animating (with the help of GIFBuilder), their buildings in formiZ, with an emphasis on exterior form. Then they model, render, and animate their projects in 3D Studio concentrating on the interior and interpreting how the building might have been furnished. Other studies covered the use of QuickTime VR and Web page development. Additional work will be done to make the work more “realistic” in response to critiques by Wagener. The next stage of the project is to explain the important features of the building through the use of Premiere. Students may choose to use a purely documentary style or MTV approach or other presentation “style” as long as they clearly define the intent of the presentation and then execute it.
Cheng, Nancy. "Evolution of Digital Design Teaching: a Course as Microcosm for Educational Issues." ACADIA Quarterly 20 (2001): 13-17. Despite widespread use of computers in the architectural profession, computer use in architectural education remains uneven. The challenge to educators becomes apparent in examining the evolution of an introductory course. In four years, the teaching initiatives illuminate the crucial issues:* Content focus (what): computer techniques supporting design concepts, selection of design and communication applications / * Delivery techniques (how): - Organizing framework: staffing, course format - Teaching tools: web resources, online bulletin boards, online quizzes and gradebook. These efforts have produced gradual progress. Major successes include development of successful assignments and resources, balance of exercise types, and skill improvement through competency exams. On the other hand, addressing different skill levels, providing personal attention in an efficient way and overcoming equipment impediments remain a challenge. Outside the course, the overall curricular framework needs to be adjusted to prepare for and reinforce learning within the course. Results from initiatives inside and outside of the classroom are discussed.
Terzidis, Kostas. "Experiments on Visual Systems." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 5-Feb. A series of experiments that investigate and demonstrate the visual logic of three-dimensional representation in animated form through the use of computers is presented. Perspective systems are designed to construct pictures that, when viewed, produce in the culturally trained viewer the experience of depicted objects that match perceivable objects. Panofsky wrote about how our capacities to see are constrained by the perspective system that we use, that is, by our way of depicting what we see. The kind of pictorial spaces are expressed through geometrical models. Each model is expressed as a geometrical transformation applied to Euclidean/Cartesian shapes of the physical environment. These transformations show how shapes are projected in pictorial space.
Pinet, Celine. "Facing the Millennium: Where Will CAD Lead Us?" ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 24-25. Itis 1999: Yes! We are at the eve of the new century. As I plan my Quarterly Review, I am compelled to search for a site that peers into the future. Of course, the perfect site also contains fascinating graphics and mind grabbing information. Though the Internet as gained galactic proportions since its inception, sites containing both excellent graphics and cutting-edge discussions are an oasis in a desert of triviality.   
Tokman, Leyla, and Rusen Yamacli. "Imagining the Ideal Design Studio: Technology, People and Environment in Architectural Education." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 60-70. Architectural education is strongly related to technology and people-environment. While architecture has its own history and traditions, new knowledge is incorporated from other fields such as the basic sciences and engineering, behavioural sciences and the humanities. This paper refers to an ideal study which aims to integrate a range of computer-based multimedia technologies. This ideal study has the overall goal of enhancing the processes of architectural education in the design studio. In case of the design process, the development of advanced design systems has a twofold role, to provide for design students, with experience and understanding of the role of advanced design systems in the architectural education. Architectural design must meet a wide range of design objectives. Each objective has its own technological, people-environmental, social, economic and other requirements, and each has been the subject of intensive study, and even specialization. These individual objectives, however, are not independent of each other. Our paper asserts that they are combined in an ideal design studio imagination of the built environment and design decisions that are intended to meet one objective in an interactive design studio of the future. As we approach the 21st century, the need for creativity in the design studio becomes more important. The model motivates students achieves results and can also be applied at an individual personal and professional level.
Jaeger, Stephanie. "Lotus Pond Bridge: a Case Study in Collaboration Using Parametric Modeling." ACADIA Quarterly 20 (2001): 9-Aug. One of my tasks while working for Arup in Los Angeles was to teach engineers how to design and communicate using the same tools as architects. As increasing numbers of clients provided us with virtual massing and conceptual models to work from, my colleagues began to acknowledge the need to develop engineering solutions within these same virtual environments. So, my challenge was to not only utilize 3D modelling for visualization but also for design, analysis and production.
Pratini, Edison. "Modeling with Gestures: the 3D Sketchmaker." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 11-Oct. The 3D SketchMaker Project has developed two prototypes for a gestural 3D sketching system to be used in the earliest phases of the design process. The goal of this ongoing research is to provide architects, and other designers involved in object conception, with a 3D gestural instrument that takes advantage of new virtual reality resources and is more naturalthan using the mouse, less difficult than learning complex software and less abstract than manipulating 2D entities on orthogonal projections. The focus of this project is on the input interface, taking into consideration two factors: First, for many architects and designers, one of the main reasons for not using 3D modelling from the very beginning of the design process is that both current hardware and software are hardly appropriate to do the spontaneous and quick drawings that are used to assist in conceptualizing their objects.
Huang, Jeffrey. "Project Extranets and Distributed Design: the Value of Internet-Based Media for Design Collaboration." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 16-18. Internet-based project extranets represent a new generation of CAD tools that has been much talked about in the design professions recently. Many believe they hold considerable promise to change dramatically how design participants collaborate in the AEC industry. Yet we are only beginning to understand the real value that such project extranets provide. Clearly, empirical studies of project extranet usage are needed to illuminate the situation. This paper summarizes the results of an explorative study into the implications of such project extranets on design collaboration.
Cóté, Pierre. "Québec City Churches." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 13-14. The following pictures come from a work in progress at the School of Architecture of Laval University, done in collaboration with the “Centre de développement économique et urbain de la Ville Québeci (CDEU). The 3D models from which the pictures were generated, have been created by students at the School of architecture (part of this work is illustrated). The project started at the beginning of the summer 97 by the modelling competition of Notre-Dame-de-GrÁce Church, located in Québec City Saint-Sauveur neighborhood. The works continued during the summers of 1997 and 1998 and will resume this summer. To date, this ongoing project has given to nine students the opportunity to model 19 churches to a level of details useful to professionals.
Gorczyca, Adam. "Reinventing the Design Process. Digital Sketching - Planar or Allplan? ." ACADIA Quarterly 20 (2001): 17-19. The question whether the design process has changed because of CAAD appears to be very urgent and important today. If it is true, then the next question arises - what is the range of these changes and at which phase of design do they appear? These methodological questions led to a research project on the process of design. In particular the process of forming emergent ideas, transforming them into pictures, and through documentation, to reality. The paper is part of a doctoral thesis, which investigates more thoroughly the influence of CAAD on design methods.
Swartz, Andrea, and Kristofer Savial. "Science and Space Education Center." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 11. A Science and Space Education Center is proposed by Ronald Kaitchuck due to the rising need for more adequate planetarium and observatory space for Ball State University. Rising enrollment in the Astronomy program and an increasing interest in astronomy by the Muncie community warrants a larger instructional and exhibition facility. The proposed facility includes three classrooms, exhibit space, a planetarium, observatory, faculty offices, and exterior gardens designed to interact with the exhibit space. This program for the Space Education Center meets both the needs of the Community and the needs of Ball State University students.  
Vassigh, Shahin. "Structures E-Book." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 15. Although understanding structures is central to the education of the architect, the engineering-based instructional materials currently in use are fundamentally inappropriate for the vast majority of architecture students. The teaching of structures is constrained by content, teaching methods and texts, which are increasingly ineffective in the classroom. Nonengineering (especially architecture) faculty and their studentis struggle with an aging, engineering-based approach to instruction, which is inappropriately quantitative, abstract and unrelated to the practical and creative aspects of design. The consequences of using this pedagogy are that many architecture students fail to master basic structural concepts, much less the more demanding aspects of practical application.
Gibson, Kathleen. "STUDIO @ CORNELL." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 18-21. Unique to the interior design program at Cornell University is a planned pedagogical approach requiring equal emphasis toward manual and digital graphic communication at the freshman level. Prior to 1998, computer-based instruction only occurred at the junior year of study. Recognizing that cultural and symbolic biases against digital media were formally being instituted by curriculum policy, faculty searched for a new perspective. Central to success was the removal of illogically placed boundaries, both mental and physical. In response, students are now encouraged to cultivate a fluid dexterity between traditional and digital methods, at times using various skills concurrently for design analysis and representation (Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). Course content for DEA115 ranges from basic orthographic drafting, paraline projection, and perspective drawing to color rendering and composition. Students utilize a full range of media: pencil, ink, marker, pastel, AutoCAD, 3DS/ MAX, and Photoshop in this graphics studio. Course meetings total six contact hours per week, constituting a three credit hour class. Assignments are purposefully created to shatter digital myths. For example, instead of a standard, rote drafting exercise, AutoCAD is used to explore design ideas through systemic object manipulation (Figures 8, 9).
Jabi, Wassim. "[email protected]." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 1. Design can be thought of as a process of interpolation. In the face of incomplete and distorted conditions, the designer interjects solutions that interpolate and mediate the given situation. The Upper level Electronic Studio in the Spring term 1999 investigated the nature of interpolation and its relationship to process, space, and program. In particular, it investigated how virtual space can interpolate and augment physical space. The students also researched the multiplicity of meanings of interpolation such as: Insertion/interjection, estimation, linkage, mediation, transformation, and augmentation. The process of interpolation was then mapped into a real architectural problem: The re-design of Hayes and Crosby Halls as an integrated School of Architecture and Planning for the 21st century. Some students took advantage of the option to choose other sites and building programs.
Smith, Timothy. "Suisse Telekom Headquarters Norton, Virginia." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 6. The design problem called for a mixed-use facility housing a bookstore, a secure telecommunications relay facility with training and conference areas, and a private employee fitness center. The site is at the end of the main street in Norton just off the main highway, and is where a four-story hotel project was abandoned twenty years prior. The structural steel frame for the hotel was erected and construction halted at this stage, leaving the skeletal frame and an empty lot at the end of the axis of the main street in Norton. Norton began as a coalmining town but has recently gained attention as a telecommunications hub after a national telecommunications firm located their TDD headquarters in Norton, making use of the fiber optic lines available in the area.
Kvan, Thomas. "The Sasada Lab." ACADIA Quarterly 17 (1998).

Interview with Tsuyoshi Tee Sasada, Osaka University. In common with several other universities in Japan, Osaka University is organized in research and teaching units, rather than classes or courses. The Sasada Lab is one of these units. The paper describes how they work, a little of the history to explain this somewhat unusual academic entity and some of results of their efforts.

Sasada, Tsuyoshi. "The Sasada Lab Department of Environmental Engineering Graduate School of Engineering." ACADIA Quarterly 17 (1998): 55-68. In common with several other universities in Japan, Osaka University is organized in research and teaching units, rather than classes or courses. The Sasada Lab is one of these units. I will describe how we work, a little of our history to explain this somewhat unusual academic entity and some of results of our efforts. The lab setting In our university, a unit has teaching faculty consisting of one professor, one associate professor, and one assistant professor. The number of students in a lab varies from unit to unit, but in our case we have around twenty students in a mix of undergraduate, graduate, and part time students. The numbers change from year to year as does the ratio.
Do, Ellen Yi- Luen, and Mark Gross. "The Sundance Lab- "Design Systems of the Future"." ACADIA Quarterly 17 (1998): 79-95. The last thirty years have seen the development of powerful new tools for architects and planners: CAD, 3D modelling, digital imaging, geographic information systems, and real time animated walkthroughs. That is just the beginning. Based on our experience with CAD tools, analysis of design practice, and an understanding of computer hardware and software, weire out to invent the next generation of tools. We think architects should be shakers and makers, not just consumers, of computer aided design. We started the Sundance Lab (for Computing in Design and Planning) in 1993 with a few people and machines. Weive grown to more than a dozen people (mostly undergraduate students) and a diverse interdisciplinary array of projects. Weive worked with architects and planners, anthropologists, civil engineers, geographers, computer scientists, and electrical engineers. Our work is about the built environment: its physical form and various information involved in making and inhabiting places. We cover a wide range of topics - from design information management to virtual space, from sketch recognition to design rationale capture, to communication between designer and computer. All start from the position that design is a knowledge based and information rich activity. Explicit representations of design information (knowledge, rationale, and rules) enables us to engage in more intelligent dialogues about design. The following describes some of our projects under various rubrics.
Jabi, Wassim. "The Vista System: a Virtual Slide Tray Archive." ACADIA Quarterly 20 (2001): 2. ViSTA is a digital asset management and display system designed for education. The system enables instructors to search a database of digital assets, select the ones they want and save them in sortable virtual slide trays. They can then use those trays for in-class presentations as well as allowing registered students to view them at will from any internet-connected computer. Students register for courses in the ViSTA system through a special code issued by the instructor. Once registered, their ViSTA homepage automatically displays the courses they are registered for and the associated trays for that particular course. Students can also create and modify their own personal trays organized in any fashion they want. These trays can be used for reference, studying for an exam, or for presentation purposes. The ViSTA system helps administrators and faculty manage the digital collection, the courses, the trays, and the user accounts. 
Krawczyk, Robert. "Virtual Ornaments." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 19. A few years ago I began to investigate the concepts of art-to-part and single part custom manufacturing. The original designs had to created on a CAD system either manually or by algorithm and then machine produced without any manual intervention. Rapid prototyping and laser cutting technology were both reviewed and the later selected for possible use. I also had a long time interest in geometric design. At that time one of my CAD classes took some of there window designs, created from a complex series of overlapping circles, arcs, and splines, and had them laser cut. The results were astonishing.
Alvarado, Rodrigo García, and Thomas W. Maver. "Virtual Reality in Architectural Education: Defining Possibilities." ACADIA Quarterly 18 (1999): 7-9.

Introduction: virtual reality in architecture Virtual Reality (VR) is an emergent computer technology for full 3D-simulations, which has a natural application in the architectural work, due that activity involves the complete definition of buildings prior to its construction. Although the profession has a long tradition and expertise in the use of 2D-plans for the design of buildings, the increasing complexity of projects and social participation requires better media of representation. However, the technological promise of Virtual Reality involves many sophisticated software and hardware developments. It is based on techniques of 3D-modelling currently incorporated in the majority of drawing software used in architecture, and also there are several tools for rendering, animation and panoramic views, which provide visual realism. But other capabilities like interactivity and sense of immersion are still complex, expensive and under research. These require stereoscopic helmets, 3D pointers and trackers with complicated configurations and uncomfortable use. Most advanced installations of Virtual-Reality like CAVEs involve much hardware, building space and restrictions for users. Nevertheless, diverse developers are working in Virtual-Reality user-friendly techniques and there are many initial experiences of architectural walk-throughs showing advantages in the communication and development of designs. Then we may expect an increasing use of Virtual Reality in architecture.