Keywords Abstract
Caldas, Luisa, and Leslie Norford. "A Genetic Algorithm Tool for Design Optimization." In Media and Design Process: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 260-271. ACADIA. Snowbird, Utah: University of Utah, 1999. Much interest has been recently devoted to generative processes in design. Advances in computational tools for design applications, coupled with techniques from the field of artificial intelligence, have lead to new possibilities in the way computers can inform and actively interact with the design process.  In this paper we use the concepts of generative and goal-oriented design to propose a computer tool that can help the designer to generate and evaluate certain aspects of a solution towards an optimized behaviour of the final configuration. This work focuses mostly on those aspects related to the environmental performance of the building. Genetic Algorithms are applied as a generative and search procedure to look for optimized design solutions in terms of thermal and lighting performance in a building. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) is first used to generate possible design solutions, which are then evaluated in terms of lighting and thermal behaviour using a detailed thermal analysis program (DOE2.1E). The results from the simulations are subsequently used to further guide the GA search towards finding low-energy solutions to the problem under study. Solutions can be visualized using an AutoLisp routine. The specific problem addressed in this study is the placing and sizing of windows in an office building. The same method is applicable to a wide range of design problems like the choice of construction materials, design of shading elements, or sizing of lighting and mechanical systems for buildings.
Senagala, M.. "An Epistemological and Systems Approach to Digital Technology Integration in Architectural Curriculum." In Media and Design Process: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 16-26. ACADIA. Snowbird, Utah: University of Utah, 1999. Architectural institutions around the world have been faced with the question of digital technology integration for the last one decade. Numerous attempts have been made by those institutions to utilize and harness the new technology by trial and error methods. Although much has been said and done about the computer as a tool and a medium, there is a great paucity of well-considered and holistic theoretical frameworks that have been successfully applied in architectural curricula. The emergence of digital technology as an environment and as an overarching system has NOT been a much understood or acknowledged fact. This lack of systemic wisdom, in the digital technology integration process, is always punished by the system.  In this paper, I intend to  1.) Outline the epistemological, philosophical, pedagogical and operational issues of digital technology integration efforts undertaken at Kansas State University.  2.)  Meditate a systemic and holistic framework of principles, paradigms, proposals and strategies from a systems point of view that could be applied at other educational institutions. In contradistinction to the analytical, hierarchical and prosthetic approaches frequently adapted by the architectural institutions, I propose a systems approach and an ecological paradigm to understand and comprehensively integrate digital technology with architectural curricula. While many of the ideas brought under the framework may not be new, the framework itself is a new proposition. The framework draws heavily from Jean-François Lyotardis postmodern pedagogical work, Deleuze and Guattariis post-structural notions of “rhizomei,  and Gregory Batesonis expositions of ecological and systems approach. 
Song, Y, Mark Clayton, and R E. Johnson. "Anticipating Reuse: Documenting Buildings for Operations Using Web Technology." In Media and Design Process: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 54-65. ACADIA. Snowbird, Utah: University of Utah, 1999. This research explores the feasibility of Web technology as a means for delivering building information to better support facility operations. Our research proposes just-in-time (JIT) facility documentation as a pragmatic solution to the limitations of current as-built documents, allowing more effective reuse of building information. Our investigation addresses four issues: 1) what building information is needed for facility operations, 2) how the design and construction team can improve the format for delivering the building information to facility operators, 3) how current Web technology can store and deliver facility information in support of operations,  4) what is the mechanism of documenting building information using the Web technology. //   We surveyed literature, interviewed members of design and operations teams and reviewed current initiatives of industry and software vendors to identify problems with current practices. We also surveyed promising Web technologies and conducted experiments to determine how these technologies could help to solve the problems. We constructed a conceptual framework of JIT facility documentation as a solution to current information fragmentation problems.  We developed a prototype of the JIT document system to demonstrate a “proof of concept” by using current Web technologies such as Autodeskis DWF, Microsoftis Active Server Pages, VB and Java script, and Access database to develop the prototype system. By dynamically composing HTML pages in response to task-specific requests, our prototype enables easy access and integration of a variety of building information to support facility operations.
Gabriel, Gerard, and Mary Lou Maher. "Coding and Modelling Communication in Architectural Collaborative Design." In Media and Design Process: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 152-166. ACADIA. Snowbird, Utah: University of Utah, 1999. Although there has been some research done on collaborative face-to-face (FTF) and video-conferencing sessions involving architects, little is know about the effects these different mediums have on collaborative design in general and collaborative communication and design representation in particular. In this paper we argue that successful computer-mediated collaborative design (CMCD) does not necessarily mean emulating close proximity environments.  In order to investigate this view, we carried out experiments examining the effect and significance of different communication channels in collaborative sessions between architects. The experiments were conducted in different environments and classified into three categories. The first category is FTF. The second computer mediated collaborative design sessions with full communication channels CMCD-a. The third category was conducted also through computer mediated collaborative design sessions but with limited communication channels CMCD-b. A custom coding scheme is developed using data, external and theoretically derived coding categories as a base. Examples of how the proposed coding scheme works are given from all three categories of experiments. The coding scheme provides the basis for modelling and understanding communication in collaborative design.
Carrara, G., A. Fioravanti, G. Novembri, P.L. Brusasco, L. Caneparo, and Anna Maria Zorgno. "Computer Supported Design Studio." In Media and Design Process: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 82-95. ACADIA. Snowbird, Utah: University of Utah, 1999. The paper presents the ongoing experimentation of a Computer Supported Design Studio (CSDS). CSDS is part of our continuing effort to integrate computer systems in the design studio. We recognize three corner stones to CSDS: memory, process and collaboration. They offer a framework for the interpretation of the pedagogical aspects of the teaching of architectural design in relation to the innovations produced by information technologies. The theme of the ongoing CSDS is a railway station in Turin, Italy, to be incorporated in a reorganized rail transport system. The choice of this theme emphasizes the realistic simulation aspects of the studio, where technical problems at the intersection of multiple disciplines need to be interpreted from an architectural point of view.
Engeli, Maia, and Mueller Andre. "Digital Environments for Learning and Collaboration Architecture, Communication, Creativity, Media and Design Process." In Media and Design Process: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 40-52. ACADIA. Snowbird, Utah: University of Utah, 1999. Digital networks are gaining importance as environments for learning and creative collaboration. Technical achievements, software enhancements, and a growing number of applicable principles make it possible to compile complex environments that satisfy many aspects necessary for creative collaboration. This paper focuses on three issues: the architecture of collaborative environments, communication in these environments and the processes inherent to creative collaboration. The information architecture of digital environments looks different from physical architecture, mainly because the material that it is made out of is information and not stone, wood or metal and the goal is to pro-vide appropriate paths and views to information. Nonetheless, many analogies can be drawn between information architecture and physical architecture, including the need for useability, aesthetics, and consistency. To communicate is important for creative collaboration. Digital networks request and enable new strategies for communicating. Regarding the collaborative creative process we have been able to detect principles and features that enhance this process, but there are still many unanswered questions. For example, the environment can enable and improve the frequency of surprise and coincidence, two factors that often play decisive roles in the creative processes but cannot be planned for in advance. Freedom and transparency within the environment are other important factors that foster creative collaboration. The following findings are based on numerous courses, which we have taught using networked environments and some associated, research projects that helped to verify their applicability for architectural practice.
Neiman, Bennett, and Ellen Yi- Luen Do. "Digital Media and the Language of Vision." In Media and Design Process: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 70-80. ACADIA. Snowbird, Utah: University of Utah, 1999. Digital media are transforming the practice and teaching of design. Information technologies offer not only better production and rendering tools but also the ability to model, manipulate, and to understand designing in new ways. This paper outlines a thirteen-step methodology used in a seminar that teaches design students how to see, think, and form space using both digital and physical media. The paper describes a systematic approach that follows the tradition of the Bauhaus principles of craftsmanship and visual perception. Precedents are drawn from the use of light, color and texture in the visual arts such as the glass collage assemblages of Albers and Moholy-Nagy's camera-less photogram. References are also drawn from Kandinsky's diagrammatic analysis of still life drawings and Kepesis idea of the language of vision. The focus of the paper is how digital media and physical material can be used interchangeably as instruments in a design environment. The investigation centers on developing teaching methods for seeing, thinking and making of spatial design. A sequence of experimental exercises stimulates studentsi intuition and powers of analytical observation. This systematic approach helps students explore how space can be perceived and informed by using types of media that are significantly different in their nature. The methodology explores the concerns and techniques of making and exploring space through the use of light, shadow, motion, color and transparency. 
Anders, Peter. "Electronic Extension: Some implications of cyberspace for the practice of architecture." In Media and Design Process: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 276-289. ACADIA. Snowbird, Utah: University of Utah, 1999. This white-paper builds upon previous research to present hybrids of electronic and physical spaces as extensions of current design practice. It poses an hypothetical project - a hybrid of physical and cyberspaces - to be developed through an extrapolation of current architectural practice by fully exploiting new information technologies.  The hybrid's attributes not only affect the scope of development but the very activities of the design team and client during - and after - deployment.  The entire life cycle of the project is affected by its dual material and media presence. The paper concludes by discussing the effect the hybrid - here called a “cybrid” - on the occupant, and its local and global communities.  It reviews the economics, administration, marketing, operation, flexibility, and extension of the project to assess its effects on these scales.  The conclusions are provisional owing to the youth of the technologies.  However, in laying out these issues, the author hopes to begin a discussion on effects computation will have on our built environment.
Johnson, Brian, and Branko Kolarevic. "EVAL: a Web-based Design Review System." In Media and Design Process: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 30-39. ACADIA. Snowbird, Utah: University of Utah, 1999. The Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) recently conducted a design competition in which design projects were presented using web sites. As a consequence it was not necessary to co-locate reviewers in order to view submissions. Since the proposals took the form of web sites, it seemed appropriate to use the web as the medium for conducting the review. The review thus became an opportunity to explore online design studio review strategies as well as competition issues. As there were over 600 entries in the competition, each of which was to be reviewed by at least three reviewers, the review process presented certain logistical challenges that might not pertain to a “normal” design studio. Using a globally-distributed review panel and jury meant that synchronous review of projects would not be possible, and that face-to-face interaction between jurors would be lost.   This paper describes the review system which was developed to address this need.  It also profiles the conduct of the review itself, and offers some observations about performance, ergonomics and related design issues for future efforts.
Diprose, Peter, and Robert Hotten. "From Paris Texas to the Road Warrior: Computer Aided Landscapes and the Road Movie, AKA, Content, Form, and Film Media within Architectural Education." In Media and Design Process: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 290-300. ACADIA. Snowbird, Utah: University of Utah, 1999. In recent years the development of computer aided design technologies has offered designers greater opportunity for the thorough investigation of space. While a level of competence has been demonstrated by the architectural profession in the creation of static perspective presentations, a lack of knowledge has led to moving image presentations being treated in a relatively unsophisticated manner. To confront this problem there may be a pedagogical justification for the introduction of film studies and computer aided design as a hybrid design course.  In the computer aided design of landscape, the critique of film media may be considered useful both in terms of the form and in terms of the content that it offers the student designer. 
Peng, C., and Blundell P Jones. "Hypermedia Authoring and Contextual Modeling in Architecture and Urban Design: Collaborative Reconstructing Historical Sheffield." In Media and Design Process: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 114-124. ACADIA. Snowbird, Utah: University of Utah, 1999. Studies of historical architecture and urban contexts in preparation for contemporary design interventions are inherently rich in information, demanding versatile and efficient methods of documentation and retrieval. We report on a developing program to establish a hypermedia authoring approach to collaborative contextual modelling in architecture and urban design. The paper begins with a description of a large-scale urban history study project in which 95 students jointly built a physical model of the city center of Sheffield as it stood in 1900, at a scale of 1:500. Continuing work on the Sheffield urban study project, it appears to us desirable to adopt a digital approach to archiving the material and in making it both indexible and accessible via multiple routes. In our review of digital models of cities, some interesting yet unexplored issues were identified. Given the issues and tasks elicited, we investigated hypermedia authoring in HTML and VRML as a designer-centered modelling methodology. Conceptual clarity of the methodology was considered, intending that an individual or members of design groups with reasonable computing skills could learn to operate it quickly. The methodology shows that it is practicable to build a digital contextual databank by a group of architecture/urban designers rather than by specialized modelling teams. Contextual modelling with or without computers can be a research activity on its own. However, we intend to investigate further how hypermedia-based contextual models can be interrelated to design development and communication. We discuss three aspects that can be explored in a design education setting. 
Chase, Scott C.. "Issues for User Interaction Models: Grammar Based Design:." In Media and Design Process: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 198-210. ACADIA. Snowbird, Utah: University of Utah, 1999. Grammar based production systems are considered potentially powerful design tools by their ability to generate sets of designs adhering to user specified constraints. However, development of such tools has been slow, partly because of the lack of good interaction between user and system. This paper describes modes of user interaction and control possible with grammar based design systems and presents issues to be examined in the development of models that represent the locus of interactions possible with such systems. The examination of existing grammar based systems provides empirical evidence to support the validity of such models.
Maver, Thomas W., and Jelena Petric. "Media in Mediation: Prospects for Computer Assisted Design Participation." In Media and Design Process: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 138-147. ACADIA. Snowbird, Utah: University of Utah, 1999. One of the most consistent, powerful and philosophical ideas which has run like a silk thread through the short and erratic history of the development of computer aided architectural design is that of user participation in the design decision-making process. It is not an idea with which the architectural profession is particularly comfortable but it is, the authors claim, one which is central to the professional ethic and, therefore, to its ultimate survival. Design decision-making is, if addressed properly, a hugely, complex multi-variety, multi-person process on which precious little serious research has been focused.  In the late 1960's the Design Methods Group in the USA and the Design Research Society in the UK formulated paper-based models of the design process and anticipated, in some regards with un-nerving accuracy, the way in which the application of information technologies would impinge beneficially on the process of design decision-making and, therefore, on the quality of the built environment. One concept expressed at that time was as follows: (*)  the application of computers to the modelling and prediction of the cost and performance behaviour of alternative design solutions allows subjective value judgements to be better informed and more explicitly audited, and that (*)  such subjective value judgements should be made by those most affected by them, i.e. the future owners and users of buildings. //  This paper is devoted to the critical re-examination of this concept, on the seminal research and development which has kept the notion alive over 30 years, and, most importantly in the context of the theme of ACADIA 1999, how the current advances in multimedia, virtual reality and internet access are not yet making its ubiquitous adoption inevitable:  in short, a plea for Media in Mediation.
Arvin, Scott, and Donald House. "Modeling Architectural Design Objectives in Physically Based Space Planning." In Media and Design Process: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 212-225. ACADIA. Snowbird, Utah: University of Utah, 1999. Physically based space planning is a means for automating the conceptual design process by applying the physics of motion to space plan elements. This methodology provides for a responsive design process, which allows a designer to easily make decisions whose consequences immediately propagate throughout the design. It combines the speed of automated design methods with the flexibility of manual design methods, while adding a highly interactive quality and a sense of collaboration with the design itself.  In our approach, the designer creates a space plan by specifying and modifying graphic design objectives rather than by directly manipulating primitive geometry. The plan adapts to the changing state of objectives by applying the physics of motion to its elements. For design objectives to have an effect on a physically based space plan, they need to be able to apply appropriate forces to space plan elements. Space planning can be separated into two problems, determining topological properties and determining geometric properties. Design objectives can then be categorized as topological or geometric objectives. Topological objectives influence the location of individual spaces, affecting how one space relates to another. Geometric objectives influence the size and shape of space boundaries, affecting the dimensions of individual walls.  This paper focuses on how to model a variety of design objectives for use in a physically based space planning system. We describe how topological objectives, such as adjacency and orientation, can be modeled to apply forces to space locations, and how geometric objectives, such as area, proportion, and alignment, can be modeled to apply forces to boundary edges.
Kolarevic, Branko, and Edward Ng. "Net-enabled Collective Design Authorship." In Media and Design Process: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 302-315. ACADIA. Snowbird, Utah: University of Utah, 1999. The paper describes an experiment in collective design authorship conducted within a semester-long virtual design studio. Students at two geographically distant institutions were asked to design a “Place2Meet on the Water,” a small floating pavilion to be assembled from hollow-section steel components. The first part of the studio was devoted to a study of precedents, done in teams of five students from both institutions, who worked both synchronously and asynchronously over the Internet. The students'work was continuously reviewed through virtual crits conducted using web pages and video conferencing. The second part of the virtual design studio, devoted to the actual design of the pavilion, was divided into five closely related phases. After each phase students had to place their designs into a common database. They then had to browse through submitted designs and choose one to develop further, they were not allowed to continue with their own designs. That way, students implicitly formed teams and engaged in collective design authorship that was enabled by the network and supported by the design database. The design-centered research project presented in this paper also examines the issues of teaching methods and whether the quality of design could be improved in a networked design environment based on collective authorship and how such an environment can affect the nature of the produced designs.
Cheng, Nancy. "Playing with Digital Media: Enlivening Computer Graphics Teaching." In Media and Design Process: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 96-109. ACADIA. Snowbird, Utah: University of Utah, 1999. Are there better ways of getting a student to learn? Getting students to play at learning can encourage comprehension by engaging their attention. Rather than having students'fascination with video games and entertainment limited to competing against learning, we can direct this interest towards learning computer graphics. We hypothesize that topics having a recreational component increase the learning curve for digital media instruction. To test this, we have offered design media projects with a playful element as a counterpart to more step-by-step descriptive exercises. Four kinds of problems, increasing in difficulty, are discussed in the context of computer aided architectural design education: 1) geometry play, 2) kit of parts, 3) dreams from childhood and 4) transformations. The problems engage the students in different ways:  through playing with form, by capturing their imagination and by encouraging interaction.  Each type of problem exercises specific design skills while providing practice with geometric modelling and rendering. The problems are sequenced from most constrained to most free, providing achievable milestones with focused objectives. Compared to descriptive assignments and more serious architectural problems, these design-oriented exercises invite experimentation by lowering risk, and neutralize stylistic questions by taking design out of the traditional architectural context. Used in conjunction with the modelling of case studies, they engage a wide range of students by addressing different kinds of issues. From examining the results of the student work, we conclude that play as a theme encourages greater degree of participation and comprehension.
Craig, David, and Craig Zimring. "Practical Support for Collaborative Design Involving Divided Interests." In Media and Design Process: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 126-137. ACADIA. Snowbird, Utah: University of Utah, 1999. Collaboration is common in design, yet relatively little is known about the cognitive reasoning processes that occur during collaboration. This paper discusses collaborative design, emphasizing the elaboration and transformations of the problem search space, and the roles that unstructured verbal communication and graphic communication can play in these processes. The paper discusses a prototype system called the Immersive Discussion Tool (IDT) that supports asynchronous design. IDT allows collaborators to mark-up 3-D models over the Internet using a variety of tools, including diagrammatic marks, dynamic simulations and text annotations. IDT relies on VRML to view the models, with an extensive Java-based interface on the backend powering the interactive construction and playback of graphical annotations, the management of threaded discussions, and the management of file input/output. The development of this tool has revealed the difficulty of constructing complex marks in a virtual 3-D space, and the initial implementation of IDT suggests several strategies for solving these problems.
Garcia, Renato. "PUSH: Generating Structural Form with Haptic Feedback ." In Media and Design Process: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 252-259. ACADIA. Snowbird, Utah: University of Utah, 1999. This paper looks into the use of haptic feedback (also known as force feedback) in helping generate and evolve structural forms, a process that is important to students of architecture and engineering. Force feedback provides these students with opportunities to “feel and manipulatei virtual 3D structures in a very natural and intuitive way. It also makes it possible to have real time holistic evaluation of structures in a qualitative rather than quantitative manner, something of particular importance to introductory-level students. Furthermore, the incorporation of force feedback into a highly interactive multimodal structural behaviour application furnishes students not only with a means to observe virtual structures but also a tool to help generate and develop efficient, innovative and alternative ones. This also is of vital importance to students of architecture as they are often challenged to explore non-conventional forms.    Implementing force feedback systems for these purposes need not necessarily require sophisticated and expensive VR hardware. This paper describes a structural behaviour application called PUSH which utilizes a simple force feedback joystick connected a reasonably fast desktop computer. 
Morozumi, Mitsuo, Y. Shimokawa, and Riken Homma. "Schematic design system for flexible and multi-aspect design thinking." In Media and Design Process: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 238-251. ACADIA. Snowbird, Utah: University of Utah, 1999. A designer friendly CAD for a schematic design is one of the important topics of CAD studies. There were attractive preceding studies aiming to develop a CAD that intended to enable designers to have flexible design thinking and interactively manipulate representation models. This paper has the same goals of study, but focuses on the needs to support flexible and multi-aspect design thinking. Though designers normally hope to elaborate on their ideas using separate sets of representation models suitable for respective studies, a present CAD that is designed to build a single set 3D model, has limited its ability as a tool for a schematic design.  Assuming this as the base concept, authors have studied to develop a prototype of a schematic design system, customizing AutoCAD R14J: Schematic Design System 98 (SDS98). It has convenient utilities both for building separate sets of representation models and for integrating and reconciling those models to build a single consolidate model. This paper discusses, the common procedures of schematic design studies, necessary functional features for SDS, a case study of the system use, and finally, the advantages and the disadvantages of the proposed system.
Chastain, Th., Yehuda Kalay, and Ch. Peri. "Square Peg in a Round Hole or Horseless Carriage? Reflections on the Use of Computing in Architecture." In Media and Design Process: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 15-Ar. ACADIA. Snowbird, Utah: University of Utah, 1999. We start with two paradigms that have been used to describe the relationship of computation methods and tools to the production of architecture. The first is that of forcing a square peg into a round hole  -  implying that the use of a tool is mis-directed, or at least poorly fits the processes that have traditionally been part of an architectural design practice. In doing so, the design practice suffers from the use of new technology. The other paradigm describes a state of transformation in relation-ship to new technology as a horseless carriage in which the process is described in obsolete and “backward” terms.  The implication is that there is a lack of appreciation for the emerging potentials of technology to change our relationship with the task. The paper demonstrates these two paradigms through the invention of drawings in the 14th century, which helped to define the profession of Architecture. It then goes on to argue that modern computational tools follow the same paradigms, and like drawings, stand to bring profound changes to the profession of architecture as we know it. 
Wong, Wilson, and Thomas Kvan. "Textual support of collaborative design." In Media and Design Process: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 168-176. ACADIA. Snowbird, Utah: University of Utah, 1999. Discussions of media in architectural design typically revolve around graphical forms, be they digital or analog. For example, much current research addresses the relationship between design sketching and cognitive process affecting the products of individual designers. This emphasis on graphics overshadows the role of text in design. While most CAD tools pursue increasingly realistic computer graphics, the interactions of designing require broader support. In this paper, we consider the importance of text in collaborative architectural design. Text is a common medium to record information in computer technology and has a role to play in an architectural design process. In the collaborative environment, a shared understanding and preserved history are important for communication. In this way, just as graphics can be seen as a cognitive aid, so too can text. Any singular design medium is insufficient to present the design idea thoroughly. Several design media should coexist. This paper outlines the cognitive background graphics in design, then reviews the role of text in design collaboration, drawing upon experimental results from cognitive science and architectural settings. As a conclusion, the paper sets out a direction for future research and development of tools to support collaborative design communication.
Dijkstra, Jan, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "Towards a Multi-Agent Model for Visualizing Simulated User Behavior to Support the Assessment of Design Performance." In Media and Design Process: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 226-237. ACADIA. Snowbird, Utah: University of Utah, 1999. We introduce the outline of a multi-agent model that can be used for visualizing simulated user behaviour to support the assessment of design performance. We will consider various performance indicators of building environments, which are related to user reaction to design decisions. This system may serve as a media tool in the design process for a better understanding of what the design will look like, especially for those cases where design or planning decisions will affect the behaviour of individuals. The system is based on cellular automata and multi-agent simulation technology. The system simulates how agents move around in a particular 3D (or 2D) environment, in which space is represented as a lattice of cells. Agents represent objects or people with their own behaviour, moving over the network. Each agent will be located in a simulated space, based on the cellular automata grid. Each iteration of the simulation is based on a parallel update of the agents conforming local rules. Agents positioned within an environment will need sensors to perceive their local neighborhood and some means with which to affect the environment. In this way, autonomous individuals and the interaction between them can be simulated by the system. As a result, designers can use the system to assess the likely consequences of their design decisions on user behaviour. We think that the system provides a potentially valuable tool to support design and decision-making processes, related to user behaviour in architecture and urban planning.
Clayton, Mark, Robert Warden, and Th.W. Parker. "Virtual Construction of Architecture Using 3D CAD and Simulation." In Media and Design Process: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, 316-324. ACADIA. Snowbird, Utah: University of Utah, 1999. 3D modelling and computer simulations provide new ways for architecture students to study the relationship between the design and construction of buildings.  Digital media help to integrate and expand the content of courses in drafting, construction and design.  This paper describes computer-based exercises that intensify the studentsi experience of construction in several courses from sophomore to senior level.  The courses integrate content from drafting and design communication, construction, CAD, and design. Several techniques are used to strengthen studentsi awareness and ability in construction.  These include: • · Virtual design - build projects in which students construct 3D CAD models that include all elements that are used in construction.   • · Virtual office in which several students must collaborate under the supervision of a student acting as project architect to create a 3D CAD model and design development documents. • · Virtual sub-contracting in which each student builds a trade specific 3D CAD model of a building and all of the trade specific models must be combined into a single model. • · Construction simulations (4D CAD) in which students build 3D CAD models showing all components and then animate them to illustrate the assembly process. • · Cost estimating using spreadsheets. These techniques are applied and reapplied at several points in the curriculum in both technical laboratory courses and design studios.   This paper compares virtual construction methods to physical design - build projects and provides our pedagogical arguments for the use of digital media for understanding construction.