Keywords Abstract
Krause, Jeffrey. "Agent Generated Architecture ." In Design and Representation: ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings, 63-70. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1997. This paper will describe a behaviour based artificial intelligence experiment in computer generated architectural design and will explain the internal representations and procedures of an agent based autonomous system. This is a departure from traditional (AI and architectural) top-down approaches, allowing hundreds of agents to work simultaneously ? building, manipulating, and dismantling their environment. Individual agents work in collaboration, in disjunction or autonomously. Architectural design is perhaps most commonly described by the architect as consisting of the ability to see the whole picture, to organize, to collect, to juggle, to manage, and to maintain multiple conflicting goals and values. Architecture by the preceding definition is hierarchical and top-down in nature. The agent based experiment in this paper presents an alternative design process, involving multiple autonomous agents acting distributively. The agents (objects) move through the design landscape, simultaneously collaborating, building, degenerating, and transforming their world. 
Martini, Kirk. "Ancient Structures and Modern Analysis: Investigating Damage and Reconstruction at Pompeii ." In Design and Representation: ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings, 283-293. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1997. The paper describes the application of non-linear structural analysis methods to address archaeological questions concerning the reconstruction of the ancient city of Pompeii after a major earthquake that occurred seventeen years prior to the famous eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 AD. It presents preliminary findings in an effort to develop an approach to modelling the two-way out-of-plane behaviour of unreinforced masonry walls, including comparison studies with published analytic and experimental results for one-way loaded walls, plus a trial analysis for a two-way span condition. The approach requires the application of computationally intensive non-linear analysis techniques, since the linear analysis methods used in conventional design and education are inadequate to model the behaviour of unreinforced masonry. Developing an understanding of the two-way behaviour of unreinforced masonry has implications not only for archaeological investigation of ancient structures, but also for modern renovation of historic structures. 
Turner, James, and Norman Barnett. "Architectural Acoustic Teaching Software ." In Design and Representation: ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings, 155-171. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1997. This paper presents a working hypothesis for the development of Architectural Acoustics teaching software. The concepts and rationale underlying the development are discussed first and followed by a presentation of current first-phase two-dimensional work in progress. The paper includes mention of some of the strengths and weaknesses of this first-phase work as well as our initial thoughts and intentions about desirable features for a full three-dimensional implementation. 
Rivera, Antonieta, and Jerzy Wojtowicz. "Aspects of Tenochtitlan: Nature of CD-ROM Production in the Construction of Content ." In Design and Representation: ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings, 319-327. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1997. At the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, was one of the world's largest cities. By 1521, the Spaniards under Hernan Cortes had destroyed both the Empire and the city. Tenochtitlan was razed to its foundations and Mexico City was built on top of it (Matos, 1993). This paper discusses the process for developing digital interpretations of the Teocalli or Ceremonial Precinct of Tenochtitlan based on historical, iconographical, and archaeological materials. To this end, digital models were constructed by taking into consideration Aztec archaeoastronomical principles and measuring systems. The result is an interactive view of the Ceremonial Precinct, perhaps the most comprehensive since Tenochtitlan was destroyed more than 500 years ago. This project has been recently published on CD-ROM. 
Smulevich, Gerard. "Berlin-Crane City: Cardboard, Bits, and the Post-industrial Design Process ." In Design and Representation: ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings, 139-153. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1997. This paper explores the impact of information technology on the architectural design process as seen through different design studios from three schools of architecture in Southern California over a two year period. All three studios tested notions of representation, simulation and the design process in relation to a post-industrial world and its impact on how we design for it. The sites for two of these studios were in the city of Berlin, where the spearhead of the information age and a leftover of the industrial revolution overlap in an urban condition that is representative of our world after the cold war. The three studios describe a progressive shift in the use of information technology in the design process, from nearly pure image-driven simulation to a more low-tech, highly creative uses of everyday computing tools. Combined, all three cases describe an array of scenarios for content-supportive uses of digital media in a design studio. The first studio described here, from USC, utilized computer modelling and visualization to design a building for a site located within the former no-mans'land of the Berlin Wall. The second studio, from SCI-Arc, produced an urban design proposal for an area along the former Berlin Wall and included a pan-geographic design collaboration via Internet between SCI-Arc/Los Angeles and SCI-Arc/Switzerland. The third and last studio from Woodbury University participated in the 1997 ACSA/Dupont Laminated Glass Competition designing a consulate general for Germany and one for Hong Kong. They employed a hybrid digital/non-digital process extracting experiential representations from simple chipboard study models and then using that information to explore an “enhanced modeli through digital imaging processes. The end of the cold war was coincidental with the explosive popularization of information technology as a consumer product and is poised to have huge impact on how and what we design for our cities. Few places in world express this potential as does the city of Berlin. These three undergraduate design studios employed consumer-grade technology in an attempt to make a difference in how we design, incorporating discussions of historical change, ideological premise and what it means to be an architect in a world where image and content can become easily disconnected from one another. 
Neiman, Bennett, and Julio Bermudez. "Between Digital and Analog Civilizations: the Spatial Manipulation Media Workshop ." In Design and Representation: ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings, 131-137. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1997. As the power shift from material culture to media culture accelerates, architecture finds itself in the midst of a clash between centuries-old analog design methods (such as tracing paper, vellum, graphite, ink, chipboard, clay, balsa wood, plastic, metal, etc.) and the new digital systems of production (such as scanning, video capture, image manipulation, visualization, solid modelling, computer aided drafting, animation, rendering, etc.). Moving forward requires a realization that a material interpretation of architecture proves limiting at a time when information and media environments are the major drivers of culture. It means to pro-actively incorporate the emerging digital world into our traditional analog work. It means to change. This paper presents the results of an intense design workshop that looks, probes, and builds at the very interface that is provoking the cultural and professional shifts. Media space is presented and used as an interpretive playground for design experimentation in which the poetics of representation (and not its technicalities) are the driving force to generate architectural ideas. The work discussed was originally developed as a starting exercise for a digital design course. The exercise was later conducted as a workshop at two schools of architecture by different faculty working in collaboration with it's inventor. The workshop is an effective sketch problem that gives students an immediate start into a non-traditional, hands-on, and integrated use of contemporary media in the design process. In doing so, it establishes a procedural foundation for a design studio dealing with digital media. 
Anders, Peter. "Cybrids: Integrating Cognitive and Physical Space in Architecture ." In Design and Representation: ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings, 17-34. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1997. People regularly use non-physical, cognitive spaces to navigate and think. These spaces are important to architects in the design and planning of physical buildings. Cognitive spaces inform design - often underlying principles of architectural composition. They include zones of privacy, territory and the space of memory and visual thought. They let us to map our environment, model or plan projects, even imagine places like Heaven or Hell. Cyberspace is an electronic extension of this cognitive space. Designers of virtual environments already know the power these spaces have on the imagination. Computers are no longer just tools for projecting buildings. They change the very substance of design. Cyberspace is itself a subject for design. With computers architects can design space both for physical and non-physical media. A conscious integration of cognitive and physical space in architecture can affect construction and maintenance costs, and the impact on natural and urban environments. This paper is about the convergence of physical and electronic space and its potential effects on architecture. The first part of the paper will define cognitive space and its relationship to cyberspace. The second part will relate cyberspace to the production of architecture. Finally, a recent project done at the University of Michigan Graduate School of Architecture will illustrate the integration of physical and cyberspaces. 
Pinet, Celine. "Design Evaluation Based on Virtual Representation of Spaces ." In Design and Representation: ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings, 111-120. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1997. When spaces are evaluated, clients and architects often discuss design proposals by looking down at scale models. This overhead perspective forces viewers to imagine themselves looking and moving about within the model. Misperceptions may well result from such a point of view. With the advancement in virtual reality (VR) technology, and with its rising popularity in architecture, it is becoming plausible to consider using VR to evaluate design projects. The projects presented here are of three types: (1.) The first project compares people's evaluation of several slightly modified virtual models of a space. (2.) The second project compares how people evaluate a foam core model of a space to how they evaluate a virtual representation of the same space (3.) The third project compares people's evaluation of a real space to that of a virtual representation of this space. //  The wide range of results presented provides one argument in support of using VR simulations to study spaces and how they are perceived. For example, results shows that a virtual window serves to alleviate perceived crowding and that added furniture serves to make a virtual room feel slightly larger and less constraining. However, problems did emerge with using virtual reality simulations to gain information about peoples'behavioural reactions to a space. Thus, not all circumstances under which VR representations are used creates valid results. Differences appear to be in the type of evaluations measured (e.g. dimensional versus behavioural). More research is needed to clarify this issue. 
Wojtowicz, J., J. Houwen, and A. Shakarchi. "Making of OBELISK: Multimedia Archiving System ." In Design and Representation: ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings, 307-317. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1997. This paper gives an account of the development of a multimedia archiving system for architectural design education, reveals its framework, and sets the agenda for future versions of the project. The OBELISK is now released on CD-ROM for both Windows and Macintosh. The Shockwave version and more information can be found at http://www.architecture.ubc.ca/obelisk. 
DeLaura, Louis. "Old Wine in New Wine Skins: Architecture, Representation and Electronic Media ." In Design and Representation: ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings, 73-82. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1997. Architectural computing too often is disengaged from the central culture of architectural discourse and traditional means of making. This paper proposes that one way to bridge this gap is to introduce electronic media in the context of a process-oriented theory of architectural representation - one that is principally concerned with issues of conception, intention, and perception. This approach to the use of computers in the design process requires the introduction of a morphology of representational modes that are intrinsic to the Architect and his musings, and proposes a pedagogical emphasis on electronic media's ability to perform in conjunction with the design intentions of these various representational forms. 
Kalay, Yehuda. "P3: an Integrated Environment to Support Design Collaboration ." In Design and Representation: ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings, 191-205. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1997. Buildings are the combined product of the efforts of many participants interacting in complex ways over a prolonged period of time. Currently, sequential communication among the participants is the standard means of collaboration. This method, which is well suited to current legal and professional practices, is inefficient, fraught with loss of information and prone to errors, cost and schedule overruns, and promotes optimization of individual parts at the expense of the overall project. This paper describes an integrated design environment that will facilitate collaborative decision making among the various participants, not merely communicate the results of decisions made by one participant to the other participants in the design team. It is based on the convergence of computing and telecommunication technologies, coupled with the emergence of new design paradigms, which together can overcome the technical difficulties associate with current collaborative design practices. It comprises three different modules: a product model, a performance model, and a process model (hence it is called P3). The paper presents each of these models and their integration into a unified framework. 
Krawczyk, Robert. "Programs as Pencils: Investigating Form Generation ." In Design and Representation: ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings, 95-109. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1997. This paper reviews two projects undertaken in a CAD programming course that demonstrate to the students how programs could be developed to investigate possible architectural forms. The projects highlight a very sequential approach to form investigation in using both common geometries and the introduction of randomness to control design rules. This approach stressed the development of rules and evaluating their results as a method to determine the next step to investigate. Equal importance was placed on the anticipated, as well as, the unexpected. 
Park, Taeyeol, and Valerian Miranda. "Representation of Architectural Concepts in the Study of Precedents: a Concept-Learning System ." In Design and Representation: ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings, 123-129. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1997. Learning architectural concepts through the study of precedents is a common activity in design studio. Traditionally, an instructor presents a design concept by showing selected examples using slides, photographs, drawings, texts and verbal analyses. This method relies on a linear mode of conveying design knowledge and is time bound. It emphasizes information retention and recall of facts rather than an understanding of information. However, if information on architectural precedents are represented digitally in a system designed to promote understanding of the material rather than just present facts, then some disadvantages of the traditional method may be overcome and additional advantages may be achieved. This paper describes a computer-assisted lesson system designed to represent architectural concepts related to spatial composition in design by using graphic images and text and reports on its development, implementation and testing. The system relies on many characteristics, such as accessibility, interactivity, flexibility, rapid feedback, etc., which are known to foster effective concept learning. The paper also evaluates the viability and effectiveness of this system from a technological and logistical viewpoint as well as from a concept learning viewpoint, and concludes with a discussion on other potential applications. 
Mahalingam, Ganapathy. "Representing Architectural Design Using Virtual Computers ." In Design and Representation: ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings, 51-61. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1997. The concept of the virtual computer is one of the most significant ideas to emerge in the field of computing. Computational models of architectural design, including state models and process models, have been based in the past on the von Neumann model of computer systems. Von Neumann systems are characterized by stored programs and data, and sequential processing on a single processor. The concept of the virtual computer enables us to break away from the von Neumann model in the representation of architectural design. Virtual computers can now be used to represent architectural design using concepts of parallel or networked systems. One of the limitations of modelling architectural design processes on the computer has been the representation of the processes as serial processes. Virtual computers can eliminate that bottleneck. This paper introduces the concept of representing architectural design using virtual computers. The application of the concept in an auditorium design system developed by the author is briefly examined. 
Ozel, Filiz. "Representing Design Decisions: an Object Oriented Approach ." In Design and Representation: ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings, 37-49. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1997. During the course of a design project numerous design decisions are made, usually with little attention paid to documenting them or keeping track of them. Systematic documentation and representation of design decisions can not only be invaluable in learning from past design experiences, but can also be good tools in teaching architectural design. By using abstraction and analogy to analyze a design precedent, a problem/sub-problem hierarchy can be built where similarities and differences between the precedent problem and the target problem, goals, constraints and solutions are identified for each level of the hierarchy. Each one of these can be represented as objects in an object oriented programming environment, allowing the construction of a hierarchic structure. This model was incorporated into a computer assisted learning system called “DesignRepi which was created by using Toolbook (Asymetrix Co.) object oriented development environment. 
Seebohm, Thomas, and William Wallace. "Rule - Based Representation of Design in Architectural Practice." In Design and Representation: ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings, 251-264. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1997. It is suggested that expert systems storing the design knowledge of particular offices in terms of stylistic and construction practice provide a means to take considerably more advantage of information technology than currently. The form of the knowledge stored by such expert systems is a building representation in the form of rules stating how components are placed in three-dimensional space relative to each other. By describing how Frank Lloyd Wright designed his Usonian houses it is demonstrated that the proposed approach is very much in the spirit of distinguished architectural practice. To illustrate this idea, a system for assembling three-dimensional architectural details is presented with particular emphasis on the nature of the rules and the form of the building components created by the rules to assemble typical details. The nature of the rules, which are a three-dimensional adaptation of Stiny's shape grammars, is described. In particular, it is shown how the rules themselves are structured into different classes, what the nature of these classes is and how specific rules can be obtained from more general rules. The rules embody a firm's collective design experience in detailing. As a conclusion, an overview is given of architectural practice using rule-based representations. 
Lachmi, K., B. Beatrice, A. Timerman, and Yehuda Kalay. "Semantically Rich Building Representation ." In Design and Representation: ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings, 207-227. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1997. At the core of any computational system that can support design development, analysis, and evaluation is a building representation which should be able to represent all the different components that make up a building, along with the manner in which they come together. In other words, the representation must be informationally complete and semantically rich. The paper discusses these two criteria in detail, and briefly reviews other research efforts aimed at developing building representations for CAAD that attempt to meet them. Our solution to this problem is then presented. It is aimed primarily at the schematic design phase, the rationale for which is also stated. Taking the view that buildings are unique assemblies of discrete, mostly standardized components, our representation is clearly divided into two components: the Object Database (ODB) which stores detailed information about various building elements, and the Project Database (PDB) which holds information about how these elements are assembled to make up a particular building. An ODB may be shared by many building projects, while the PDB must necessarily be unique to each. The data schemas of both the PDB and the ODB are described in detail and their computational implementation, to the extent that it has been completed, is illustrated. 
Herbert, Daniel. "Taking Turns: Strained Metaphors as Generators of Form in Computer Aided Design ." In Design and Representation: ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings, 267-280. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1997. This paper examines the role of certain graphic metaphors as generators of form in computer aided design. An introduction establishes that representation in architectural design is largely metaphorical, that metaphor is only one among several types of rhetorical turns, and that such turns can be of value in the design process. The paper then describes a case study a residential design project in which the author used a 3D computer-based modelling program to produce a type of strained rhetorical turn called catachresis. Through a series of catachrestic moves, conventional representations were made to yield unconventional architectural meanings. Next the paper discusses inferences from the case study regarding the play of rhetorical turns in computer aided design. The paper concludes with suggestions for catachrestic “wild cardi and indeterminate functions in CAD systems to keep design processes and products open to uncertainty. 
Cheng, Nancy. "Teaching CAD with Language Learning Methods ." In Design and Representation: ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings, 173-188. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1997. By looking at computer aided design as design communication we can use pedagogical methods from the well-developed discipline of language learning. Language learning breaks down a complex field into attainable steps, showing how learning strategies and attitudes can enhance mastery. Balancing the linguistic emphases of organizational analysis, communicative intent and contextual application can address different learning styles. Guiding students in learning approaches from language study will equip them to deal with constantly changing technology.   From overall curriculum planning to specific exercises, language study provides a model for building a learner-centered education. Educating students about the learning process, such as the variety of metacognitive, cognitive and social/affective strategies can improve learning. At an introductory level, providing a conceptual framework and enhancing resource-finding, brainstorming and coping abilities can lead to threshold competence. Using kit-of-parts problems helps students to focus on technique and content in successive steps, with mimetic and generative work appealing to different learning styles. Practicing learning strategies on realistic projects hones the ability to connect concepts to actual situations, drawing on resource-usage, task management, and problem management skills. Including collaborative aspects in these projects provides the motivation of a real audience and while linking academic study to practical concerns. Examples from architectural education illustrate how the approach can be implemented.  
Kellett, R., G.Z. Brown, K. Dietrich, C. Girling, J. Duncan, K. Larsen, and E. Hendrickson. "The elements of design information for partecipation in neighborhood-scale planning." In Design and Representation: ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings, 295-304. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1997. Neighborhood scale planning and design in many communities has been evolving from a rule-based process of prescriptive codes and regulation toward a principle- and performance-based process of negotiated priorities and agreements. Much of this negotiation takes place in highly focused and interactive workshop or'charrette'settings, the best of which are characterized by a fluid and lively exchange of ideas, images and agendas among a diverse mix of citizens, land owners, developers, consultants and public officials. Crucial to the quality and effectiveness of the exchange are techniques and tools that facilitate a greater degree of understanding, communication and collaboration among these participants.  Digital media have a significant and strategic role to play toward this end. Of particular value are representational strategies that help disentangle issues, clarify alternatives and evaluate consequences of very complex and often emotional issues of land use, planning and design. This paper reports on the ELEMENTS OF NEIGHBORHOOD, a prototype'electronic notebook'(relational database) tool developed to bring design information and example'to the table'of a public workshop. Elements are examples of the building blocks of neighborhood (open spaces, housing, commercial, industrial, civic and network land uses) derived from built examples, and illustrated with graphic, narrative and numeric representations relevant to planning, design, energy, environmental and economic performance. Quantitative data associated with the elements can be linked to Geographic Information based maps and spreadsheet based-evaluation models. 
Johnson, Robert, and Mark Clayton. "The Impact of Information Technology in Design and Construction: the Owner's Perspective ." In Design and Representation: ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings, 229-241. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1997. This paper reports on findings of a November 1996 exploratory survey of architecture-engineering clients (Fortune 500 corporate facility managers). This research investigated how the practices of corporate facility managers are being influenced by rapid changes in information technology. The conceptual model that served as a guide for this research hypothesized that information technology acts as both an enabler (that is, information technology provides an effective mechanism for managers to implement desired changes) as well as a source of innovation (that is, new information technology innovations create new facility management opportunities). The underlying assumption of this research is that information technology is evolving from a tool that incrementally improves “back-officei productivity to an essential component of strategic positioning that may alter the basic economics, organizational structure and operational practices of facility management organizations and their interactions with service providers (architects, engineers and constructors). The paper concludes with a discussion of researchable issues. 
Brady, Darlene. "The Mind's Eye: Movement and Time in Architecture ." In Design and Representation: ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings, 85-93. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1997. Le Corbusier notes in Vers Une Architecture that, because we look at the creation of architecture with eyes which are 5'-6'from the ground, it is imperative to “deal with aims which the eye can appreciate, and intentions which take into account architectural elements.” (Le Corbusier 1927) Architecture is a three-dimensional entity that we experience as much through movement as repose. Therefore, it is essential that the computer technology used to design architecture enables the consideration of both aspects of this experience. This paper presents several ways in which animation is used to enhance the design process. 
Johnson, Scott. "What's in a Representation, Why do We Care, and What Does It Mean? Examining Evidence from Psychology ." In Design and Representation: ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings, 15-May. ACADIA. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: University of Laval, 1997. This paper examines psychological evidence on the nature and role of representations in cognition. Both internal (mental) and external (physical or digital) representations are considered. It is discovered that both types of representation are deeply linked to thought processes. They are linked to learning, the ability to use existing knowledge, and problem solving strategies. The links between representations, thought processes, and behaviour are so deep that even eye movements are partly governed by representations. Choice of representations can affect limited cognitive resources like attention and short-term memory by forcing a person to try to utilize poorly organized information or perform “translationsi from one representation to another. The implications of this evidence are discussed. Based on these findings, a set of guidelines is presented, for digital representations which minimize drain of cognitive resources. These guidelines describe what sorts of characteristics and behaviours a representation should exhibit, and what sorts of information it should contain in order to accommodate and facilitate design. Current attempts to implement such representations are discussed.